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Landing Gear Design Analysis

David Sandells
Lecturer in Aerospace Engineering
Mission Statement 2010-2015

We aspire to be a dynamic, global, enterprising university. We will


work in partnership with external organisations through our research
and engage our students as partners in a community of learning.
David Sandells (MEng, CEng (MIET)

Lecturer in aircraft system design (undergraduate & postgraduate).


Landing gear, hydraulics, electrical systems, structural design and
industrial project management & sustainable aviation.

Industry experience (Chief, Principal & Systems Engineer).


787 Landing Gear valves and uplocks
Merlin Electrical primary flight actuation system
Fuel systems, hydro-mechanical & electro-mechanical actuation
systems
Patents in electrical thrust reverser design and actuator design.

Aviation enthusiast BGA gliding instructor, NPPL (SLMG), MGIR


University Profile
The Guardian League Table
Key Facts

Origins rooted in industry - Founded 1843, well-known and highly respected as


Lanchester Poly from 1970s, became Coventry University 1992 as one of the modern
universities
Modern City Centre campus on single 33-acre site
London campus opened 2010
International Offices in China, Nigeria, Pakistan and Kenya
Over 17,000 students (15% International)
Approximately 2,500 staff
New 55m Engineering & Computing building opened September 2012
World-leading and internationally excellent research in every Faculty - 7 out of 16
areas receiving the highest rating in overall quality profile in the RAE 2008
A Top 25 UK Higher Education Institution (Working with business and supporting the
economy). 11.4m HEIF5 Investment 2011-2015.
Entrepreneurial University of the Year (Times Higher
Education Awards, November 2011)
Coventry University risen to 46th overall
(Sunday Times University Guide 2014, September 2013)
Key Facts

Modern City Centre campus on single 33-acre site


Over 17,000 students (15% International)
Approx. 2,500 staff
World-leading and internationally excellent research in every
Faculty - 7 out of 16 areas receiving the highest rating in
overall quality profile in the RAE 2008
A Top 25 UK Higher Education Institution (Working with
business and supporting the economy). 11.4m HEIF5
Investment 2011-2015.
World Class Facilities

55m Engineering and Computing building (2012)


32m Students Hub (2011)
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(2002), sports complex (2004)
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Aerospace Systems Engineering
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Aerospace Technology
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Overall Satisfaction 89%

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Aerospace Engineering
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Engineering
Key Research Activities

COGENT Research centre


World-leading applied research centre
Dedicated to analysis and development of sensing-based
sociotechnical systems.
Dual focus: robust, deployable pervasive sensing systems for
real-life applications at scale; and effective packages for
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Todays talk

Explaination of typical landing gear calculations.


Demonstration using SMath software tool
Preliminary aircraft design stage

Focus on
Kinematic Analysis
Landing loads
SMath Software

Maths software problems:


Cannot read equations easily
Unit conversions
Results rather than method displayed
Hard to add comments
Printing in a reviewable format

SMath
Freely available www.smathstudio.com
Paper interface
Handles Units
No affiliation with Coventry
University Use at own risk
KINEMATICS
Kinematics

Analysis of Mechanism Movement


Finding Mechanism Position

Vary until =

We need a function: ()

Find where: =0
Finding positions of joints

Y How do we find the position of J2


relative to the origin.
Given that the mechanism rotates.
Whilst avoiding trigonometry!

J2
Vector Representation of Positions

Y Frame 1 1 0 0 6 3 9 Coordinates
0 1 0 4 2 2
of point
Pt F 1 = = relative to
0 0 1 0 0 0
Frame 1

0 0 0 1 1 1

X Y
Frame 2 3
2
3
0
Rotations
2
1
1 0 0 6
0 1 0 4 Translation
T12 = 6 X
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1
4
Vector Representation of Positions

cos( ) sin ( ) 0 6 3 x
Y Frame 1 sin ( ) cos( )
0 4 2 y
=
0 0 1 0 0 0


0 0 0 1 1 1

Rotation about Z
cos( ) sin ( ) 0 6
sin ( ) cos( ) 0 4
T12 = 12
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1
Vector Representation of Positions

1 0 0 6 cos( ) sin ( ) 0 0 3 x
Y Frame 1 0
1 0 4 sin ( ) cos( ) 0 0 2 y
=
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 0 0


0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
Translate Rotate Pt
Order is important
X

12
Vector Representation of Positions

Can translate in x, y and z directions


Can rotate around x, y and z axis
We can use a 4x4 matrix to define these transforms

Y
3
2
Z

0

1

X
Transformation Matrices

Homogeneous 1 0 0 0
0 cos( ) sin ( ) 0
Matrices RX ( ) =
representation 0 sin ( ) cos( ) 0

0 0 0 1

cos( ) 0 sin ( ) 0
1 0 0 x 0
0 0
0 y
1 0
1 RY ( ) =
Trl ( x , y, z ) = sin ( ) 0 cos( ) 0
0 0 1 z
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 1
cos( ) sin ( ) 0 0
sin ( ) cos( ) 0 0
RZ ( ) =
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1
Transform inversions

We can go the other way by inverting the matrix (M-1) :-

cos( ) sin ( ) 0 6
sin ( ) cos( ) 0 4
T12 = Goes from frame 1 to frame 2
0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

1
T21 =
cos( ) sin ( ) 0 6
sin ( ) cos( ) 0 4
Inverted - Goes from frame 2 to frame 1

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1
F1
F2
F0 F4
F3
02 = ( , , 0)
F1
F2
F0 F4 23 () = ()
F3
34 = (,0,0)

01 () = ()

Position of F4 relative to F7 17 = (0, ,0)

x74 0
y 0
T02 T23 ( ) T34 = f ( , )
74 = 1 1

z74 T17 T01 ( ) 0

F7
1 1 F 4
Walkthrough

KINEMATIC CALCULATIONS IN
SMATH SEE EXAMPLE FILE
LANDING LOADS
m : Mass
of aircraft

V : Vertical
Decent
Velocity

1
KE = m v 2
2
PE = m g ( S S + ST )

Ss : Shock Compression

ST : Tyre Compression
Shock Absorber Modelling

Given component characteristics we can predict landing


gear response.

Most gear have a static and dynamic response


Spring ()
Damper ()
Shock Absorber Modelling

Air Springs polytrophic process


: = 1.35
= (typical)
: = 1.1

Dampers Fluid flow through an orifice


1
= 2
22

Leaf spring Cantilever bending


2 () () ()
= = =
2 () () 2

Springs, Bungees, Tyres


Linear approximation or Lookup table
LANDING LOAD SIMULATIONS
Modelling the response

An approximation fixed time step model:-

Start at the point of touchdown


Position = 0
Vertical Speed = Vertical Sink Speed

Deceleration =

Calculate force from position & vertical speed

Calculate deceleration from the force

Move forward a time-step

Calculate new vertical speed (deceleration over time-step)

Calculate position (velocity over time-step)


Walkthrough

LANDING LOAD SIMULATIONS


IN SMATH SEE EXAMPLE FILE
Coventry University Courses

Next Courses 7-17th April 2014


Look out for booking on LAA website (under training)
business.ec@coventry.ac.uk

Design Courses:
Design for Manufacture
Aerodynamics theory and practice (wind-tunnel)
Aerodynamic Simulation (CFD)
Flight Simulation and Performance (Simulators)
Landing Gear & System Design Focus on free/open
source or inexpensive
software
Stress Courses:
Fundamental Stress Analysis
Introduction to the Finite Element Method
Composite Material Stress Analysis