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Garry Kasparov

Garry Kasparov

Garry Kimovich Kasparov

pronunciation:[ˈɡarʲɪ ˈkʲiməvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsparəf]; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, [2] 13

April 1963) is a Russian (since 1991) and Croatian (since 2014) chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, whom many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time. [3] From 1986 until his retirement in 2005, Kasparov was ranked world No. 1 for 225 out of 228 months. His peak rating of 2851, [4] achieved in 1999, was the highest recorded until being surpassed by Magnus Carlsen in 2013. Kasparov also holds records for consecutive professional tournament victories (15) andChess Oscars (11).

Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,

Russian

Garry Kasparov Kasparov in 2007 Full name Garry Kimovich Kasparov Country Soviet Union Russia (since
Garry Kasparov
Kasparov in 2007
Full name
Garry Kimovich
Kasparov
Country
Soviet Union
Russia (since 1992)
Croatia (since 2014) [1]
Born
13 April 1963
Baku, Azerbaijan SSR,
Soviet Union
Title
Grandmaster (1980)
World
Champion
1985–93 (undisputed)
1993–2000 (classical)
FIDE
2812
(October 2017)
rating
[inactive]
Peak
2851
(July 1999,
rating
January 2000)
Peak
No. 1 (January 1984)
ranking

Kasparov became the youngest ever undisputed World Chess Champion in 1985 at age 22 by defeating then-champion Anatoly Karpov. [5] He held the official FIDE world title until 1993, when a dispute with FIDE led him to set up a rival organization, the Professional Chess Association. [6] In 1997 he became the first world champion to lose a match to a computer under standard time controls, when he lost to the IBM supercomputer Deep Blue in a highly publicized match. He continued to hold the "Classical" World Chess Championship until his defeat by Vladimir Kramnik in 2000. In spite of losing the title, he continued winning tournaments and was the world's highest-rated player when he retired from professional chess in 2005.

After Kasparov retired, he devoted his time to politics and writing. He formed the United Civil Front movement, and joined as a member of The Other Russia, a coalition opposing the administration and policies of Vladimir Putin. In 2008, he

announced an intention to run as a candidate in that year's Russian presidential race, but failure to find a sufficiently large rental space to assemble the number of supporters that is legally required to endorse such a candidacy led him to withdraw. Kasparov blamed "official obstruction" for the lack of available space. [7] Although he is widely regarded in the West as a symbol of opposition to Putin, [8] he was

barred from the presidential ballot, [7]

as the political climate in Russia makes it

difficult for opposition candidates to organize. [9][10]

its

International Council. Kasparov is a frequent critic of American professor emeritus of Russian studies Stephen F. Cohen, whom he describes as a Soviet and Russian apologist. Kasparov and Cohen participated in aMunk Debate in 2015 over the issue of reengaging or isolating Russia, with 58% of the audience siding with Kasparov's

He

is

currently chairman

for

the

chairs

argument of isolating Russia, compared to 48% before the debate. [11][12] In 2014, he obtained Croatian citizenship. [1] He lives in New York City and

travels often. [13]

Kasparov’s voice (in Russian) 0:00 from Kasparov's interview for Ekho Moskvy, 13 September 2011 Problems playing
0:00
0:00

from Kasparov's interview for Ekho Moskvy, 13 September 2011

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Contents

1 Early career

2 Toward the top

3

1984 World Championship

4 World Champion

5 Break with and ejection from FIDE

6 Losing the title and aftermath

7 Retirement from chess

8 Politics

9 Playing style

10 Olympiads and other major team events

11 Records and achievements

12 Books and other writings

13 Chess against computers

14 See also

15 Notes

16 Further reading

17 External links

Early career

Kasparov was born Garik Kimovich Weinstein (Russian: Гарик Вайнштейн) in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR (now Azerbaijan), Soviet Union. His father, Kim Moiseyevich Weinstein, was Russian Jewish, and his mother, Klara Shagenovna Gasparian, was Armenian. [14][15][16][17] Kasparov has described himself as a "self- appointed Christian", although "very indifferent". [18]

Kasparov first began the serious study of chess after he came across a chess problem set up by his parents and proposed a solution. [19] His father died of leukemia when Garry was seven years old. [20] At the age of twelve, Garry adopted his mother's Armenian surname, Gasparian, russified as Kasparov. [21]

From age 7, Kasparov attended the Young Pioneer Palace in Baku and, at 10 began

at

Kasparov at age 11, Vilnius, 1974
Kasparov at age 11, Vilnius, 1974

In 1978, Kasparov participated in the Sokolsky Memorial tournament in Minsk. He had been invited as an exception but took first place and became a chess master. Kasparov has repeatedly said that this event was a turning point in his life, and that it convinced him to choose chess as his career. "I will remember the Sokolsky Memorial as long as I live", he wrote. He has also said that after the victory, he thought he had a very good shot at the World Championship. [23]

He first qualified for the Soviet Chess Championshipat age 15 in 1978, the youngest ever player at that level. He won the 64-player Swiss system tournament atDaugavpils on tiebreak overIgor V. Ivanov to capture the sole qualifying place.

Kasparov rose quickly through the World Chess Federationrankings. Starting with an oversight by the Russian Chess Federation, he participated in a grandmaster tournament in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina (then part of Yugoslavia), in 1979 while still unrated (he was a replacement for Viktor Korchnoi who was originally invited but withdrew due to threat of boycott from the

Soviets). Kasparov won this high-class tournament, emerging with a provisional rating of 2595, enough to catapult him to the top

group of chess players (at the time, number 15 in the world) [24] ). The next year, 1980, he won the World Junior Chess Championship

in Dortmund, West Germany. Later that year, he made his debut as second reserve for the Soviet Union at the Chess Olympiad at

Valletta, Malta, and became a Grandmaster.

Toward the top

Kasparov becomes World Junior Champion at Dortmund in 1980
Kasparov becomes World
Junior Champion at
Dortmund in 1980

As a teenager, Kasparov tied for first place in the USSR Chess Championshipin 1981–82. His

first win in a superclass-level international tournament was scored at Bugojno, Bosnia and

Herzegovina in 1982. He earned a place in the 1982 Moscow Interzonal tournament, which he

won, to qualify for the Candidates Tournament. [25] At age 19, he was the youngest Candidate

since Bobby Fischer, who was 15 when he qualified in 1958. At this stage, he was already the

No. 2-rated player in the world, trailing only World Chess Champion Anatoly Karpov on the

January 1983 list.

Kasparov's first (quarter-final) Candidates match was against Alexander Beliavsky, whom he

defeated 6–3 (four wins, one loss). [26] Politics threatened Kasparov's semi-final against Viktor

Korchnoi, which was scheduled to be played in Pasadena, California. Korchnoi had defected

from the Soviet Union in 1976, and was at that time the strongest active non-Soviet player.

Various political maneuvers prevented Kasparov from playing Korchnoi, and Kasparov

forfeited the match. This was resolved by Korchnoi allowing the match to be replayed in

London, along with the previously scheduled match betweenVasily Smyslov and Zoltán Ribli.

The Kasparov-Korchnoi match was put together on short notice by Raymond Keene.

Kasparov lost the first game but won the match 7–4 (four wins, one loss).

In January 1984, Kasparov became the No. 1 ranked player in the world, with a FIDE rating

of 2710. He became the youngest ever world No. 1, a record that lasted 12 years until being

Later in 1984, he won the Candidates' final 8½–4½ (four wins, no losses) against the resurgent former world champion Vasily

1984 World Championship

The World Chess Championship 1984 match between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov had many ups and downs, and a very

controversial finish. Karpov started in very good form, and after nine games Kasparov was down 4–0 in a "first to six wins" match.

[27]

Fellow players predicted he would be whitewashed 6–0 within 18 games.

In an unexpected turn of events, there followed a series of 17 successive draws, some relatively short, and others drawn in unsettled

positions. Kasparov lost game 27, then fought back with another series of draws until game 32, his first-ever win against the World

Champion. Another 14 successive draws followed, through game 46; the previous record length for a world title match had been 34

games, the match ofJosé Raúl Capablancavs. Alexander Alekhinein 1927.

later. The termination was controversial, as both players stated that they preferred the match to continue. Announcing his decision at

a press conference, Campomanes cited the health of the players, which had been strained by the length of the match.

The match became the first, and so far only, world championship match to be abandoned without result. Kasparov's relations with

Campomanes and FIDE were greatly strained, and the feud between them finally came to a head in 1993 with Kasparov's complete

break-away from FIDE.

World Champion

Kasparov after winning the FIDE World Championship title in 1985
Kasparov after winning the
FIDE World Championship
title in 1985

The second Karpov-Kasparov match in 1985 was organized in Moscow as the best of 24

games where the first player to win 12½ points would claim the World Champion title. The

scores from the terminated match would not carry over; however, in the event of a 12–12

draw, the title would remain with Karpov. On 9 November 1985, Kasparov secured the title by

a score of 13–11, winning the 24th game with Black, using a Sicilian defense. He was 22

years old at the time, making him the youngest ever World Champion, [28] and breaking the

record held by Mikhail Tal for over 20 years. [29] Kasparov's win as Black in the 16th game

has been recognized as one of the all-time masterpieces in chess history.

As part of the arrangements following the aborted 1984 match, Karpov had been granted (in

the event of his defeat) a right to rematch. Another match took place in 1986, hosted jointly in

London and Leningrad, with each city hosting 12 games. At one point in the match, Kasparov

opened a three-point lead and looked well on his way to a decisive match victory. But Karpov

fought back by winning three consecutive games to level the score late in the match. At this

point, Kasparov dismissed one of his seconds, grandmaster Evgeny Vladimirov, accusing him

of

Kasparov's

autobiography Unlimited Challenge, chapter Stab in the Back). Kasparov scored one more

win and kept his title by a final score of 12½–11½.

selling his

opening preparation to

the

Karpov team (as

described in

A fourth match for the world title took place in 1987 in Seville, as Karpov had qualified through the Candidates' Matches to again

become the official challenger. This match was very close, with neither player holding more than a one-point lead at any time during

the contest. Kasparov was down one full point at the time of the final game, and needed a win to draw the match and retain his title.

A long tense game ensued in which Karpov blundered away a pawn just before the first time control, and Kasparov eventually won a

long ending. Kasparov retained his title as the match was drawn by a score of 12–12. (All this meant that Kasparov had played

Karpov four times in the period 1984–87, a statistic unprecedented in chess. Matches organized by FIDE had taken place every three

years since 1948, and only Botvinnik had a right to a rematch before Karpov.)

A fifth match between Kasparov and Karpov was held in New York and Lyon in 1990, with each city hosting 12 games. Again, the

result was a close one with Kasparov winning by a margin of 12½–11½. In their five world championship matches, Kasparov had 21

wins, 19 losses, and 104 draws in 144 games.

Break with and ejection from FIDE

With the World Champion title in hand, Kasparov began opposing FIDE. Beginning

in 1986, he created the Grandmasters Association (GMA), an organization to

represent professional chess players and give them more say in FIDE's activities.

Kasparov assumed a leadership role. GMA's major achievement was in organizing a

series of six World Cup tournaments for the world's top players. A somewhat uneasy

relationship developed with FIDE, and a sort of truce was brokered by Bessel Kok, a

Dutch businessman.

This stand-off lasted until 1993, by which time a new challenger had qualified

through the Candidates cycle for Kasparov's next World Championship defense:

Nigel Short, a British grandmaster who had defeated Anatoly Karpov in a qualifying

match, and then Jan Timman in the finals held in early 1993. After a confusing and

Kasparov and Viswanathan Anandin a publicity photo on top of theWorld Trade Center in New
Kasparov and Viswanathan Anandin
a publicity photo on top of theWorld
Trade Center in New York

compressed bidding process produced lower financial estimates than expected, [30] the world champion and his challenger decided to

play outside FIDE's jurisdiction, under another organization created by Kasparov called the Professional Chess Association (PCA).

This is where a great fracture occurred in the lineage of the FIDE version of the World Champions tradition. In an interview in 2007,

Kasparov called the break with FIDE the worst mistake of his career, as it hurt the game in the longrun. [31]

Kasparov and Short were ejected from FIDE, and played their well-sponsored match in London. Kasparov won convincingly by a

World Champion Karpov (a defeated Candidates semifinalist), which Karpov won.

Kasparov and Sting in 2000
Kasparov and Sting in 2000

FIDE removed Kasparov and Short from the FIDE rating lists. Thus, till this was in effect,

there was a parallel rating list presented by PCA which featured all world top players,

regardless of their relation to FIDE. There were now two World Champions: PCA champion

Kasparov, and FIDE champion Karpov. The title remained split for 13 years.

was the last World Championship to be held under the auspices of the PCA, which collapsed

when Intel, one of its major backers, withdrew its sponsorship.

Kasparov tried to organize another World Championship match, under another organization,

the World Chess Association (WCA) with Linares organizer Luis Rentero. Alexei Shirov and

Vladimir Kramnik played a candidates match to decide the challenger, which Shirov won in a

surprising upset. But when Rentero admitted that the funds required and promised had never materialized, the WCA collapsed. This

left Kasparov stranded, and yet another organization stepped in—BrainGames.com, headed by Raymond Keene. No match against

Shirov was arranged, and talks with Anand collapsed, so a match was instead arranged against Kramnik.

During this period, Kasparov was approached by Oakham School in the United Kingdom, at the time the only school in the country

with a full-time chess coach, [32] and developed an interest in the use of chess in education. In 1997, Kasparov supported a

scholarship programme at the school. [33] Kasparov also won theMarca Leyenda trophy that year.

Losing the title and aftermath

The Kasparov-Kramnik match took place in London during the latter half of 2000.

Kramnik had been a student of Kasparov's at the famous Botvinnik/Kasparov chess

school in Russia, and had served on Kasparov's team for the 1995 match against

The better-prepared Kramnik won game 2 against Kasparov's Grünfeld Defence and

achieved winning positions in Games 4 and 6, although Kasparov held the draw in

not crack the passive but solid Berlin Defence in the Ruy Lopez, and Kramnik

successfully drew all his games as Black. Kramnik won the match 8½–6½. Kasparov

became the first player to lose a world championship match without winning a game

since Emanuel Laskerlost to José Raúl Capablancain 1921.

Kasparov playing againstVladimir Kramnik in the Botvinnik Memorial match in Moscow, 2001
Kasparov playing againstVladimir
Kramnik in the Botvinnik Memorial
match in Moscow, 2001

After losing the title, Kasparov won a series of major tournaments, and remained the top rated player in the world, ahead of both

Kramnik and the FIDE World Champions. In 2001 he refused an invitation to the 2002 Dortmund Candidates Tournament for the

[34]

Classical title, claiming his results had earned him a rematch with Kramnik.

Kasparov and Karpov played a four-game match with rapid time controls over two days in December 2002 in New orkY surprised the experts and emerged victoriously, winning two games and drawing one. [35]

City. Karpov

Due to Kasparov's continuing strong results, and status as world No. 1 in much of the public eye, he was included in the so-called "Prague Agreement", masterminded byYasser Seirawan and intended to reunite the two World Championships.Kasparov was to play a match against the FIDE World Champion Ruslan Ponomariov in September 2003. But this match was called off after Ponomariov refused to sign his contract for it without reservation. In its place, there were plans for a match against Rustam Kasimdzhanov, winner of the FIDE World Chess Championship 2004, to be held in January 2005 in the United Arab Emirates. These also fell through due to lack of funding. Plans to hold the match in Turkey instead came too late. Kasparov announced in January 2005 that he was tired of waiting for FIDE to organize a match and so had decided to stop all efforts to regain the World Championship title.

Retirement from chess

After winning the prestigious Linares tournament for the ninth time, Kasparov announced on 10 March 2005 that he would retire from serious competitive chess. He cited as the reason a lack of personal goals in the chess world (he commented when winning the Russian championshipin 2004 that it had been the last major title he had never won outright) and expressed frustration at the failure to reunify the world championship.

Kasparov said he may play in some rapid chess events for fun, but intends to spend more time on his books, including both the My Great Predecessors series (see below) and a work on the links between decision-making in chess and in other areas of life, and will continue to involve himself inRussian politics, which he views as "headed down the wrong path".

Kasparov has been married three times: to Masha, with whom he had a daughter before divorcing; to Yulia, with whom he had a son

before their 2005 divorce; and to Daria (Dasha), with whom he has two children.

[36][37]

Post-retirement chess

On 22 August 2006, in his first public chess games since his retirement, Kasparov played in the Lichthof Chess Champions Tournament, a blitz event played at the time control of 5 minutes per side and 3 second increments per move. Kasparov tied for first with Anatoly Karpov, scoring 4½/6. [38]

Garry Kasparov and Anatoly Karpov played a 12-game match from 21–24 September 2009, in Valencia, Spain. It consisted of four

rapid (or semi rapid) games, in which Kasparov won 3–1, and eight blitz games, in which Kasparov won 6–2, winning the match wit total result 9–3. The event took place exactly 25 years after the two players' legendary encounter at World Chess Championship

1984. [39]

Kasparov actively coached Magnus Carlsen for approximately one year beginning in February 2009. The collaboration remained secret until September 2009. [40] Under Kasparov's tutelage, Carlsen in October 2009 became the youngest ever to achieve a FIDE rating higher than 2800, and rose from world number four to world number one. While the pair initially planned to work together throughout 2010, [41] in March of that year it was announced that Carlsen had split from Kasparov and would no longer be using him as a trainer. [42] According to an interview with the German magazine Der Spiegel, Carlsen indicated that he would remain in contact and that he would continue to attend training sessions with Kasparov, [43] but in fact no further training sessions were held and the cooperation gradually fizzled over the course of the spring. [44]

In May 2010 it was revealed that Kasparov had aided Viswanathan Anand in preparation for the World Chess Championship 2010 against challengerVeselin Topalov. Anand won the match 6½–5½ to retain the title. [45]

Also in May 2010 he played 30 games simultaneously, winning each one, against players atTel-Aviv University in Israel. [46]

In January 2011, Kasparov began training the American grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. The first of several training sessions was held in New York just prior to Nakamura's participation in the Tata Steel Chess tournament in Wijk aan Zee, the Netherlands. [47] In December 2011, it was announced that the cooperation had come to an end. [48]

Kasparov delivering a speech in Arizona in October 2017
Kasparov delivering a speech in
Arizona in October 2017

Kasparov played two blitz exhibition matches in the autumn of 2011. The first, in

September against French grandmaster Maxime Vachier-Lagrave, in Clichy

(France), which Kasparov won 1½–½. The second was a longer match consisting of

eight blitz games played on 9 October, against English grandmaster Nigel Short.

Kasparov won again by a score of 4½–3½.

A little after that, in October 2011, Kasparov played and defeated fourteen

opponents in a simultaneous exhibition that took place inBratislava. [49]

On April 25 and 26, 2015, Kasparov played a mini-match against Nigel Short. The

match consisted of two rapid games and eight blitz games. Kasparov won the match

decisively with a score of 8½–1½, winning all five games on the second day. [50]

On Wednesday August 19, 2015 he played and won the 19 games of a simultaneous exhibition inPula, Croatia. [51]

On Thursday 28 April and Friday 29 April 2016 at the Chess Club and Scholastic Center of Saint Louis, Kasparov played a 6-round

exhibition blitz round-robin tournament with Fabiano Caruana, Wesley So, and Hikaru Nakamura in an event called the Ultimate

Blitz Challenge. [52] He finished the tournament third with 9.5/18, behind Hikaru Nakamura (11/18) and Wesley So (10/18). At the

post-tournament interview, he considered the possibility of playing future top-level blitz exhibition matches.

On June 2, 2016, Kasparov played against fifteen chess players in a simultaneous exhibition in the Kaiser-Friedrich-Halle of

Mönchengladbach. He won all games. [53]

In 2017, Kasparov came out of retirement to participate in the inaugural St. Louis Rapid and Blitz tournament from August 14–19,

scoring 3.5/9 in the rapid and 9/18 in the blitz, finishing 8th out of 10 participants, which included Nakamura, Caruana, former world

champion Anand, and the eventual winner, Aronian. [54][55] Any

tournament money that he earned would go towards charities to

promote chess in Africa.

Candidate for FIDE presidency

On 7 October 2013 Kasparov announced his candidacy for World Chess Federation president during a reception in Tallinn, Estonia,

presidential election to incumbent FIDE presidentKirsan Ilyumzhinov, with a vote of 110-61. [58]

A few days before the election took place, the New York Times Magazine had published a lengthy report on the viciously fought

campaign. Included was information about a leaked contract between Kasparov and former FIDE Secretary General Ignatius Leong

from Singapore, in which the Kasparov campaign reportedly "offered to pay Leong $500,000 and to pay $250,000 a year for four

years to the Asean Chess Academy, an organization Leong helped create to teach the game, specifying that Leong would be

responsible for delivering 11 votes from his region [

Leong guilty of violating its Code of Ethics [60] and later suspended them for two years from all FIDE functions and meetings. [61]

[59] In September 2015 the FIDE Ethics Commission found Kasparov and

]".

Politics

Central committee member of Komsomol

Kasparov joined the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) in 1984, and in 1987 was elected to the Central Committee of

Komsomol. But in 1990 he left the party and together with his family fled from Baku to Moscow on a chartered plane [62] when

[63]

pogroms against Armenians in Bakutook place forcing thousands of ethnic Armenians to flee Azerbaijan.

Keeper of the Flame award

In 1991, Kasparov received the Keeper of the Flame award from the Center for Security Policy for "propagation of democracy and

the respect for individual rights throughout the world". In his acceptance speech Kasparov lauded the defeat of communism while

also urging the United States to give no financialassistance to central Soviet leaders. [37][64][65][66][67]

Democratic Party of Russia and Choice of Russia bloc

In May 1990, Kasparov took part in the creation of the Democratic Party of Russia, which at first was a liberal anti-communist party,

later shifting to centrism. Kasparov was in June 1993 involved with the creation of the "Choice of Russia" bloc of parties and in 1996

took part in the election campaign ofBoris Yeltsin. In 2001 he voiced his support for the Russian television channelNTV. [16]

Unwitting board member of award organization

policies, actions, and resource needs that are vital to American security". [65] Kasparov confirmed this and added that he was removed

shortly after he became aware of it. He noted that he did not know about the membership and suggested he was included in the board

by accident because he received the 1991 Keeper of the Flame award from this organization. [66][67] But Kasparov maintained his

association with the leadership by giving speeches at think tanks such as theHoover Institution. [37]

United Civil Front

After his retirement from chess in 2005, Kasparov turned to politics and created the United Civil Front, a social movement whose

main goal is to "work to preserveelectoral democracy in Russia". [69] He has vowed to "restore democracy" to Russia by restoring the

rule of law. [70][71][72]

The Other Russia

Kasparov was instrumental in setting up The Other Russia, a coalition which opposes Putin's government. The Other Russia has been

boycotted by the leaders of Russia's mainstream opposition parties, Yabloko and Union of Rightist Forces due to its inclusion of

nationalist and radical groups. Kasparov has criticized these groups as being secretly under the auspices of theKremlin. [73]

Attacked

On 10 April 2005, Kasparov was in Moscow at a promotional event when he was struck over the head with a chessboard he had just

signed. The assailant was reported to have said "I admired you as a chess player, but you gave that up for politics" immediately

before the attack. [74] Kasparov has been the subject of a number of other episodes since, including police brutality and allegedly

harassment from the Russian secret service. [75][76]

Saint Petersburg Dissenters' March

Kasparov helped organize the Saint Petersburg Dissenters' March on 3 March 2007

and The March of the Dissenterson 24 March 2007, both involving several thousand

people rallying against Putin and Saint Petersburg Governor Valentina Matviyenko's

policies. [77][78]

Arrest in Moscow and questioning by FSB

On 14 April 2007, Kasparov led a pro-democracy demonstration in Moscow. Soon

after the demonstration's start, however, over 9,000 police descended on the group

and seized almost everyone. Kasparov, who was briefly arrested by the Moscow

Kasparov at the thirdDissenters March in Saint Petersburgon 9 June 2007
Kasparov at the thirdDissenters
March in Saint Petersburgon 9 June
2007

police, was warned by the prosecution office on the eve of the march that anyone participating risked being detained. He was held for some 10 hours and then fined and released. [79] He was later summoned by theFSB for violations of Russian anti-extremism laws. [80]

KGB general says Kasparov's life in danger

Speaking about Kasparov, former KGB general Oleg Kalugin in 2007 remarked, "I do not talk in details—people who knew them are all dead now because they were vocal, they were open. I am quiet. There is only one man who is vocal and he may be in trouble:

[former] world chess champion [Garry] Kasparov. He has been very outspoken in his attacks on Putin and I believe that he is probably next on the list." [81]

2007 presidential bid

On 30 September 2007, Kasparov entered the Russian Presidential race, receiving 379 of 498 votes at a congress held in Moscow by The Other Russia. [82]

In October 2007, Kasparov announced his intention of standing for the Russian presidency as the candidate of the "Other Russia" coalition and vowed to fight for a "democratic and just Russia". Later that month he traveled to the United States, where he appeared on several popular television programs, which were hosted byStephen Colbert, Wolf Blitzer, Bill Maher, and Chris Matthews.

Detention at rally

On 24 November 2007, Kasparov and other protesters were detained by police at an Other Russia rally in Moscow. 3,000 demonstrators arrived to allege the rigging of upcoming elections. Following an attempt by about 100 protesters to march through police lines to the electoral commission, which had barred Other Russia candidates from parliamentary elections, arrests were made.

The Russian authorities stated a rally had been approved but not any marches, resulting in several detained demonstrators. [83] He was subsequently charged with resisting arrest and organizing an unauthorized protest and given a jail sentence of five days. Kasparov appealed the charges, citing that he had been following orders given by the police, although it was denied. He was released from jail

on 29 November. [84] Putin criticized Kasparov at the rally for his use of English when speaking rather than Russian.

[85]

Forced to quit campaign

On 12 December 2007, Kasparov announced that he had to withdraw his presidential candidacy due to inability to rent a meeting hall where at least 500 of his supporters could assemble. With the deadline expiring on that date, he explained it was impossible for him to run. Russian election laws required sufficient meeting hall space for assembling supporters. Kasparov's spokeswoman accused the government of using pressure to deter anyone from renting a hall for the gathering and said that the electoral commission had rejecte a proposal that would have allowed for smaller gathering sizes rather than one large gathering at a meeting hall. [86]

"Putin must go"

Kasparov was among the 34 first signatories and a key organizer of the online anti-Putin campaign "Putin must go", started on 10 March 2010. The campaign was begun by a coalition of opposition to Putin who regard his rule as lacking any rule of law. Within the text is a call to Russian law enforcement to ignore Putin's orders. By June 2011 there were 90,000 signatures. While the identity of the petition author remained anonymous, there was wide speculation that it was indeed Kasparov. [87][88][89][90]

Human Rights Foundation

Arrest and beating at Pussy Riot trial

On 17 August 2012 Kasparov was arrested and beaten outside of the Moscow court while attending the verdict reading in the case involving the all-female punk band Pussy Riot. [93] On 24 August he was cleared of charges that he took part in an unauthorized protest against the conviction of three members of Pussy Riot. Judge Yekaterina Veklich said there were "no grounds to believe the testimony of the police." He could still face criminal charges over a police officer's claims that the opposition leader bit his finger while he was being detained. [94] He later thanked all the bloggers and reporters who provided video evidence that contradicted the testimony of the police.

Miscellaneous

Kasparov wrote in February 2013 that "fascism has come to

a conspiracy by the ruling elite. Fascist rule was never the result of the free will of the people. It was always the fruit of a conspiracy by the ruling elites!" [95]

Project Putin, just like the old Project Hitler, is but the fruit of

In April 2013, Kasparov joined in an HRF condemnation of Kanye West for having performed for the leader of Kazakhstan in exchange for a $3 million paycheck, saying that West "has entertained a brutal killer and his entourage" and that his fee "came from the loot stolen from the Kazakhstan treasury." [96]

Kasparov denied rumors in April 2013 that he planned to leave Russia for good. "I found these rumors to be deeply saddening and, moreover, surprising," he wrote. "I was unable to respond immediately because I was in such a state of shock that such an incredibly

inaccurate statement, the likes of which is constantly distributed by the Kremlin’s propagandists, came this time from Ilya Yashin, a

[97]

fellow member of the Opposition Coordination Council (KSO) and my former colleague from the Solidarity movement."

In an April 2013 op-ed piece, Kasparov accused prominent Russian journalist Vladimir Posner of failing to stand up to Putin and to earlier Russian and Soviet leaders. [98]

Kasparov was presented with the Morris B. Abram Human Rights Award, UN Watch's annual human-rights prize, in 2013. The organization praised him as "not only one of the world’s smartest men" but "also among its bravest." [99]

At the 2013 Women in the World conference, Kasparov told The Daily Beast's Michael Moynihan that democracy no longer existed in what he called Russia's "dictatorship." [100]

Kasparov said at a press conference in June 2013 that if he returned to Russia he doubted he would be allowed to leave again, given Putin's ongoing crackdown against dissenters. "So for the time being," he said, "I refrain from returning to Russia." He explained shortly thereafter in an article for The Daily Beast that this had not been intended as "a declaration of leaving my home country, permanently or otherwise," but merely an expression of "the dark reality of the situation in Russia today, where nearly half the members of the opposition’s Coordinating Council are under criminal investigation on concocted charges." He noted that the Moscow prosecutor’s office was "opening an investigation that would limit my ability to travel," making it impossible for him to fulfill "professional speaking engagements" and hindering his "work for the nonprofit Kasparov Chess Foundation, which has centers in New York City, Brussels, and Johannesburg to promote chess in education." [100]

Kasparov further wrote in his June 2013 Daily Beast article that the mass protests in Moscow 18 months earlier against fraudulent Russian elections had been "a proud moment for me." He recalled that after joining the opposition movement in March 2005, he had been criticized for seeking to unite "every anti-Putin element in the country to march together regardless of ideology." Therefore, the

sight of "hundreds of flags representing every group from liberals to nationalists all marching together for 'Russia Without Putin' was the fulfillment of a dream." Yet most Russians, he lamented, had continued to "slumber" even as Putin had "taken off the flimsy mask

[101]

of democracy to reveal himself in full as the would-be KGB dictator he has always been."

Kasparov responded with several sardonic Twitter postings to a September 2013 New York Times op-ed by Putin. "I hope Putin has taken adequate protections," he tweeted. "Now that he is a Russian journalist his life may be in grave danger!" Also: "Now we can expect NY Times op-eds by Mugabe on fair elections, Castro on free speech, & Kim Jong-un on prison reform. The Axis of Hypocrisy." [102]

Allegation of FSB non-disclosure of Boston marathon bombing suspects

In a 12 May 2013 op-ed forThe Wall Street Journal, Kasparov questioned reports that the Russian security agency, the FSB, had fully cooperated with theFBI in the matter of the Boston bombers. He noted that the elder bomber, Tamerlan Tsarnaev, had reportedly met in Russia with two known jihadists who "were killed in Dagestan by the Russian military just days before Tamerlan left Russia for the U.S." Kasparov argued, "If no intelligence was sent from Moscow to Washington" about this meeting, "all this talk of FSB cooperation cannot be taken seriously." He further observed, "This would not be the first time Russian security forces seemed strangely impotent in the face of an impending terror attack," pointing out that in both the 2002 Moscow theater siege and the 2004 Beslan school attack, "there were FSB informants in both terror groups—yet the attacks went ahead unimpeded." Given this history, he wrote, "it is impossible to overlook that the Boston bombing took place just days after the U.S. Magnitsky List was published, creating the first serious external threat to the Putin power structure by penalizing Russian officials complicit in human-rights crimes." In sum, Putin's "dubious record on counterterrorism and its continued support of terror sponsors Iran and Syria mean only one thing: common ground zero." [103]

On the Navalny trial

Kasparov wrote in July 2013 about the trial in Kirov of fellow opposition leader Alexei Navalny, who had been convicted "on concocted embezzlement charges," only to see the prosecutor, surprisingly, ask for his release the next day pending appeal. "The judicial process and the democratic process in Russia," wrote Kasparov, "are both elaborate mockeries created to distract the citizenry at home and to help Western leaders avoid confronting the awkward fact that Russia has returned to a police state." Still, Kasparov felt that whatever had caused the Kirov prosecutor's about-face, "my optimism tells me it was a positive sign. After more than 13 years of predictable repression under Putin, anything different is good." [104]

On the Syrian Civil War

Kasparov wrote inTime on 18 September 2013 that he considered the "chess metaphors thrown around during the world’s response to the civil war in Syria" to be "trite" and rejected what he called "all the nonsense about 'Putin is playing chess and Obama is playing checkers,' or tic-tac-toe or whatever." Putin, argued Kasparov, "did not have to outplay or outthink anyone. He and Bashar Assad won by forfeit when President Obama, Prime Minister Cameron and the rest of the so-called leaders of the free world walked away from the table." There is, he lamented, "a new game at the negotiating table where Putin and Assad set the rules and will run the show under the protection of the U.N." [105] Kasparov said in September 2013 that Russia was now a dictatorship. [106] In the same month he told an interviewer that "Obama going to Russia now is dead wrong, morally and politically," because Putin's regime "is behind Assad." [107]

Croatia connections

Kasparov maintains a summer home in the Croatian city of Makarska. In early February 2014, Kasparov applied for citizenship by naturalisation in Croatia, adding that he was finding it increasingly difficult to live in Russia. According to an article in The Guardian, Kasparov is "widely perceived" as having been a vocal supporter of Croatian independence during the early 1990s. On 28 February 2014, his application for naturalisation was approved, and he is now a Croatian passport holder. [108]

Sochi Olympics

Kasparov spoke out several times about Putin's antigay lawsand the proposed Sochi Olympics boycott. He explained in August 2013 that he had opposed Russia’s bid from the outset, since hosting the Olympics would "allow Vladimir Putin’s cronies to embezzle hundreds of millions of dollars" and "lend prestige to Putin’s authoritarian regime." Kasparov added that Putin's anti-gay law was "only the most recent encroachment on the freedom of speech and association of Russia’s citizens," which the international community had largely ignored. Instead of supporting a games boycott, which would "unfairly punish athletes," Kasparov called for athletes and others to "transform Putin’s self-congratulatory pet project into a spotlight that exposes his authoritarian rule for the entire world to see." [109] In September, Kasparov expanded on his remarks, saying that "forcing athletes to play a political role

against their will is not fair" and that politicians should not "hide behind athletes." Instead of boycotting Sochi, he suggested, politicians should refuse to attend the games and the public should "put pressure on the sponsors and the media." Coca-Cola, for example, could put "a rainbow flag on each Coca-Cola can" and NBC could "do interviews with Russian gay activists or with Russian political activists." Kasparov also emphasized that although he was "still a Russian citizen," he had "good reason to be concerned about my ability to leave Russia if I returned to Moscow." [110]

Annexation of Crimea

Kasparov has spoken out against the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea and has stated that control of Crimea should be returned to

Ukraine after the overthrow of Vladimir Putin without additional conditions.

[111]

Access to website blocked

Kasparov's website was blocked by the Russian federative regulator, Roskomnadzor, at the behest of the public prosecutor, allegedly due to Kasparov's opinions of the Crimean crisis. Kasparov's block was made in unison with several other notable Russian sites that were accused of inciting public outrage. Reportedly, several of the blocked sites received an affidavit noting their violations. However, Kasparov stated that his site had received no such notice of violations after its block. [112]

Winter Is Coming

In October 2015, Kasparov published a book titled Winter Is Coming: Why Vladimir Putin and the Enemies of the Free World Must Be Stopped. In the book, Kasparov likens Putin to Hitler, and explains the need for the west to oppose Putin sooner, rather than appeasing him and postponing the eventual confrontation. According to his publisher, "Kasparov wants this book out fast, in a way that has potential to influence the discussion during theprimary season." [113][114]

2016 United States presidential election

In the United States presidential election, 2016, Kasparov described Republican front-runner Donald Trump as "a celebrity showman

with racist leanings and authoritarian tendencies," [115] and criticised Trump for calling for closer ties with Vladimir Putin, [116] and responded to Trump's running mate, Mike Pence, calling Putin a strong leader, that Putin is a strong leader "in the same way arsenic is a strong drink". [117] He also criticised the economic policies of Democratic primary candidate Bernie Sanders, but showed respect

for Sanders as "a charismatic speaker and a passionate believer in his cause."

[118]

Playing style

Kasparov's style of play has been compared by many to Alekhine's. [119][120] Kasparov has described his style as being influenced chiefly by Alekhine, Tal and Fischer. [121] Kramnik has opined that "[Kasparov's] capacity for study is second to none", and said "There is nothing in chess he has been unable to deal with." [122] Carlsen, whom Kasparov coached from 2009 to 2010, said of Kasparov, "I've never seen someone with such a feel for dynamics in complex positions." [123] Kasparov was known for his extensive opening preparation and aggressive play in the opening. [124][125]

Olympiads and other major team events

Kasparov played in a total of eight Chess Olympiads. He represented the Soviet Union four times and Russia four times, following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. In his 1980 Olympiad debut, he became, at age 17, the youngest player to represent the Soviet Union or Russia at that level, a record which was broken by Vladimir Kramnik in 1992. In 82 games, he has scored (+50−3=29), for 78.7% and won a total of 19 medals, including team gold medals all eight times he competed. For the 1994 Moscow Olympiad, he had a significant organizational role, in helping to put together the event on short notice, after Thessaloniki canceled its offer to host, a few weeks before the scheduled dates. Kasparov's detailed Olympiad record [126] follows:

detailed Olympiad record [ 1 2 6 ] follows: Valletta 1980 , USSR 2nd reserve, 9½/12

Valletta 1980, USSR 2nd reserve, 9½/12 (+8−1=3), team gold, board bronze;

Lucerne 1982 , USSR 2nd board, 8½/11 (+6−0=5), team gold, board bronze; Lucerne 1982, USSR 2nd board, 8½/11 (+6−0=5), team gold, board bronze;

Dubai 1986 , USSR 1st board, 8½/11 (+7−1=3), team gold, board gold, performance gold; Dubai 1986, USSR 1st board, 8½/11 (+7−1=3), team gold, board gold, performance gold;

Thessaloniki 1988 , USSR 1st board, 8½/10 (+7−0=3), team gold, board gold, performance gold; Thessaloniki 1988, USSR 1st board, 8½/10 (+7−0=3), team gold, board gold, performance gold;

Manila 1992 , Russia board 1, 8½/10 (+7−0=3), team gold, board gold, performance silver; Manila 1992, Russia board 1, 8½/10 (+7−0=3), team gold, board gold, performance silver;

Moscow 1994 , Russia board 1, 6½/10 (+4−1=5), team gold; Moscow 1994, Russia board 1, 6½/10 (+4−1=5), team gold;

Yerevan 1996 , Russia board 1, 7/9 (+5−0=4), team gold, board gold, performance silver; Yerevan 1996, Russia board 1, 7/9 (+5−0=4), team gold, board gold, performance silver;

Bled 2002 , Russia board 1, 7½/9 (+6−0=3), team gold, board gold. Bled 2002, Russia board 1, 7½/9 (+6−0=3), team gold, board gold.

Kasparov made his international teams debut for the USSR at age 16 in the 1980

European Team Championship and played for Russia in the 1992 edition of that

championship. He won a total of five medals. His detailed Euroteams record,

from, [127] follows.

Kasparov at Valletta in 1980
Kasparov at Valletta in 1980

Skara 1980, USSR 2nd reserve, 5½/6 (+5−0=1), team gold, board gold; Skara 1980, USSR 2nd reserve, 5½/6 (+5−0=1), team gold, board gold;

Debrecen 1992, Russia board 1, 6/8 (+4−0=4), team gold, board gold, performance silver. Debrecen 1992, Russia board 1, 6/8 (+4−0=4), team gold, board gold, performance silver.

Kasparov also represented the USSR once in Youth Olympiad competition, but the detailed data at Olimpbase is incomplete; the

Chessmetrics Garry Kasparov player filehas his individual score from that event.

Graz 1981, USSR board 1, 9/10 (+8−0=2), team gold. Graz 1981, USSR board 1, 9/10 (+8−0=2), team gold.

Records and achievements

Chess ratings achievements

Kasparov holds the record for the longest time as the No. 1 rated player in the world—from 1986 to 2005 (Vladimir Kramnik shared

the No. 1 ranking with him once, in the January 1996 FIDE rating list). [128] He was also briefly ejected from the list following his

split from FIDE in 1993, but during that time he headed the rating list of the rival PCA. At the time of his retirement, he was still

[129]

ranked No. 1 in the world, with a rating of 2812. His rating has fallen inactive since the January 2006 rating list.

In January 1990 Kasparov achieved the (then) highest FIDE rating ever, passing 2800 and breaking Bobby Fischer's old record of

2785. By the July 1999 and January 2000 FIDE rating lists, Kasparov had reached a 2851 Elo rating, at that time the highest rating

ever achieved. [130] He held that record for the highest rating ever achieved until Magnus Carlsenattained a new record high rating of

2861 in January 2013. According to the unofficial Chessmetrics calculations, Kasparov was the highest rated player in the world

continuously from February 1985 until October 2004. [131] He also holds the highest all-time average rating over a 2 (2877) to 20

(2856) year period and is second to onlyBobby Fischer's (2881 vs 2879) over a one-year period.

Other records

Kasparov holds the record for most consecutive professional tournament victories, placing first or equal first in 15 individual

tournaments from 1981 to 1990.The streak was broken by Vasily Ivanchuk at Linares 1991, where Kasparov placed 2nd, half a point

behind him. The details of this record winning streak follow: [25]

Frunze 1981, USSR Championship, 12½/17, tie for 1st; Frunze 1981, USSR Championship, 12½/17, tie for 1st;

Bugojno 1982, 9½/13, 1st; Bugojno 1982, 9½/13, 1st;

Moscow 1982, Interzonal, 10/13, 1st;12½/17, tie for 1st; Bugojno 1982, 9½/13, 1st; Nikšić 1983, 11/14, 1st; Brussels OHRA 1986, 7½/10,

Nikšić 1983, 11/14, 1st; Nikšić 1983, 11/14, 1st;

Brussels OHRA 1986, 7½/10, 1st; Brussels OHRA 1986, 7½/10, 1st;

Brussels SWIFT 1987, 8½/11, tie for 1st; Brussels SWIFT 1987, 8½/11, tie for 1st;

Amsterdam Optiebeurs 1988, 9/12, 1st; Amsterdam Optiebeurs 1988, 9/12, 1st;

Belfort (World Cup) 1988, 11½/15, 1st; Belfort (World Cup) 1988, 11½/15, 1st;

Moscow 1988, USSR Championship, 11½/17, tie for 1st;Belfort (World Cup) 1988, 11½/15, 1st; Reykjavík (World Cup) 1988, 11/17, 1st; Barcelona (World Cup) 1989,

Reykjavík (World Cup) 1988, 11/17, 1st; Reykjavík (World Cup) 1988, 11/17, 1st;

Barcelona (World Cup) 1989, 11/16, tie for 1st; Barcelona (World Cup) 1989, 11/16, tie for 1st;

Skellefteå (World Cup) 1989, 9½/15, tie for 1st; Skellefteå (World Cup) 1989, 9½/15, tie for 1st;

Tilburg 1989, 12/14, 1st; Tilburg 1989, 12/14, 1st;

Belgrade (Investbank) 1989, 9½/11, 1st; Belgrade (Investbank) 1989, 9½/11, 1st;

Linares 1990, 8/11, 1st. Linares 1990, 8/11, 1st.

Kasparov won theChess Oscar a record eleven times.

Books and other writings

Early writings

Kasparov has written books on chess. He published a controversial [132] autobiography when still in his early 20s, originally titled

Child of Change, later retitled Unlimited Challenge. This book was subsequently updated several times after he became World

Champion. Its content is mainly literary, with a small chess component of key unannotated games. He published an annotated games

collection in 1985:Fighting Chess: My Games and Career [133] and this book has also been updated several times in further editions.

He also wrote a book annotating the games from his World Chess Championship 1985 victory, World Chess Championship Match:

Moscow, 1985.

He has annotated his own games extensively for the Yugoslav Chess Informant series and for other chess publications. In 1982, he

co-authored Batsford Chess Openings with British grandmaster Raymond Keene and this book was an enormous seller. It was

updated into a second edition in 1989. He also co-authored two opening books with his trainer Alexander Nikitin in the 1980s for

In 2000, Kasparov co-authored Kasparov Against the World: The Story of the Greatest Online Challenge [134] with grandmaster

Daniel King. The 202-page book analyzes the 1999 Kasparov versus the World game, and holds the record for the longest analysis

devoted to a single chess game. [135]

My Great Predecessorsseries

In 2003, the first volume of his five-volume work Garry Kasparov on My Great Predecessors was published. This volume, which

deals with the world chess champions Wilhelm Steinitz, Emanuel Lasker, José Raúl Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, and some of

their strong contemporaries, has received lavish praise from some reviewers (including Nigel Short), while attracting criticism from

others for historical inaccuracies and analysis of games directly copied from unattributed sources. Through suggestions on the book's

website, most of these shortcomings were corrected in following editions and translations. Despite this, the first volume won the

British Chess Federation's Book of the Year award in 2003. Volume two, covering Max Euwe, Mikhail Botvinnik, Vasily Smyslov

and Mikhail Tal appeared later in 2003. Volume three, covering Tigran Petrosian and Boris Spassky appeared in early 2004. In

December 2004, Kasparov released volume four, which covers Samuel Reshevsky, Miguel Najdorf, and Bent Larsen (none of these

three were World Champions), but focuses primarily on Bobby Fischer. The fifth volume, devoted to the chess careers of World

Champion Anatoly Karpov and challenger Viktor Korchnoi, was published in March 2006.

Modern Chess series

His book Revolution in the 70s (published in March 2007) covers "the openings revolution of the 1970s–1980s" and is the first book

in a new series called "Modern Chess Series", which intends to cover his matches with Karpov and selected games. The book

"Revolution in the 70s" concerns the revolution in opening theory that was witnessed in that decade. Such systems as the

controversial (at the time) "Hedgehog" opening plan of passively developing the pieces no further than the first three ranks are

examined in great detail. Kasparov also analyzes some of the most notable games played in that period. In a section at the end of the

book, top opening theoreticians provide their own "take" on the progress made in opening theory in the 1980s.

Garry Kasparov on Garry Kasparovseries

Kasparov is publishing three volumes of his games.

Historical revision

Kasparov believes that the conventional history of civilization is radically incorrect.

Specifically, he believes that the history of ancient civilizations is based on

misdatings of events and achievements that actually occurred in themedieval period.

He has cited several aspects of ancient history that he says are likely to be

anachronisms. [136][137]

New Chronology (Fomenko)uses statistical analysis to identify anachronisms in historical records, such as this claimed
New Chronology (Fomenko)uses
statistical analysis to identify
anachronisms in historical records,
such as this claimed parallelism
between reign-lengths in dynasties of
the Kingdom of Judah (10th-6th
centuries BC) and the Eastern
Roman Empire (4th - 7th centuries
AD).

Kasparov has written in support of New Chronology (Fomenko), although with

some reservations. [138] In 2001, Kasparov expressed a desire to devote his time to

this research after his chess career. "New Chronology is a great area for investing my

intellect

what was wrong." [139] "When I stop playing chess, it may well be that I concentrate

on promoting these ideas

My analytical abilities are well placed to figure out what was right and

I believe they can improve our lives." [139]

Later, Kasparov renounced his support of Fomenko theories but reaffirmed his belief

that mainstream historical knowledge is highly inconsistent. [140][141]

Other post-retirement writing

In 2007 he wrote How Life Imitates Chess, an examination of the parallels between

decision-making in chess and in the business world.

In 2008 Kasparov published a sympathetic obituary for Bobby Fischer, writing: "I

am often asked if I ever met or played Bobby Fischer. The answer is no, I never had

that opportunity. But even though he saw me as a member of the evil chess establishment that he felt had robbed and cheated him, I

[142]

am sorry I never had a chance to thank him personally for what he did for our sport."

He is the chief advisor for the book publisherEveryman Chess.

Kasparov works closely withMig Greengard and his comments can often be found on Greengard's blog (apparently no longer active).

Kasparov collaborated withMax Levchin and Peter Thiel on The Blueprint, a book calling for a revival of world innovation, planned

to release in March 2013 from W. W. Norton & Company. The book was never released, as the authors disagreed on its contents. [143]

In October 2015, Kasparov published a book titled Winter Is Coming: Why Vladimir Putin and the Enemies of the Free World Must

Be Stopped. The title is a reference to theHBO television seriesGame of Thrones. [113]

Bibliography

Kasparov Teaches Chess (1984–85, Sport in the USSR Magazine; 1986, First Collier Books) (1984–85, Sport in the USSR Magazine; 1986, First Collier Books)

The Test of Time (Russian Chess)(1986, Pergamon Pr) (1986, Pergamon Pr)

World Chess Championship Match: Moscow, 1985 (1986, Everyman Chess) (1986, Everyman Chess)

Child of Change: An Autobiography(1987, Hutchinson) (1987, Hutchinson)

London–Leningrad Championship Games(1987, Everyman Chess) (1987, Everyman Chess)

Unlimited Challenge(1990, Grove Pr) (1990, Grove Pr)

The Sicilian Scheveningen(1991, B.T. Batsford Ltd) (1991, B.T. Batsford Ltd)

The Queen's Indian Defence: Kasparov System(1991, B.T. Batsford Ltd) (1991, B.T. Batsford Ltd)

Kasparov Versus Karpov, 1990 (1991, Everyman Chess) (1991, Everyman Chess)

Kasparov on the King's Indian(1993, B.T. Batsford Ltd) (1993, B.T. Batsford Ltd)

Garry Kasparov's Chess Challenge(1996, Everyman Chess) (1996, Everyman Chess)

Lessons in Chess(1997, Everyman Chess) (1997, Everyman Chess)

Kasparov Against the World: The Story of the Greatest Online Challenge(2000, Kasparov Chess Online) (2000, Kasparov Chess Online)

My Great Predecessors Part I(2003, Everyman Chess) (2003, Everyman Chess)

My Great Predecessors Part II(2003, Everyman Chess) (2003, Everyman Chess)

Checkmate!: My First Chess Book(2004, Everyman Mindsports) (2004, Everyman Mindsports)

My Great Predecessors Part III(2004, Everyman Chess) (2004, Everyman Chess)

My Great Predecessors Part IV(2004, Everyman Chess) (2004, Everyman Chess)

My Great Predecessors Part V(2006, Everyman Chess) (2006, Everyman Chess)

How Life Imitates Chess(2007, William Heinemann Ltd.) (2007, William Heinemann Ltd.)

Garry Kasparov on Modern Chess, Part I: Revolution in the 70s(2007, Everyman Chess) (2007, Everyman Chess)

Garry Kasparov on Modern Chess, Part II: Kasparov vs Karpov 1975–1985(2008, Everyman Chess) (2008, Everyman Chess)

Garry Kasparov on Modern Chess, Part III: Kasparov vs Karpov 1986–1987(2009, Everyman Chess) (2009, Everyman Chess)

Garry Kasparov on Modern Chess, Part IV: Kasparov vs Karpov 1988–2009(2010, Everyman Chess) (2010, Everyman Chess)

Garry Kasparov on Garry Kasparov, part I (2011, Everyman Chess) (2011, Everyman Chess)

Garry Kasparov on Garry Kasparov, part II (2013, Everyman Chess) (2013, Everyman Chess)

Garry Kasparov on Garry Kasparov, part III (2014, Everyman Chess) (2014, Everyman Chess)

Winter Is Coming: Why Vladimir Putin and the Enemies of the Free World Must Be Stopped (2015, Public Affairs) (2015, Public Affairs)

Chess against computers

32 simultaneous computers, 1985

Kasparov played against thirty-two different chess computers in Hamburg, winning all games, but with some difficulty. [144]

Deep Thought, 1989

Kasparov defeated the chess computerDeep Thought in both games of a two-game match in 1989. [145]

Deep Blue, 1996

2.

Deep Blue, 1997

In May 1997, an updated version of Deep Blue defeated Kasparov 3½–2½ in a highly publicized six-game match. The match was

even after five games but Kasparov lost quickly inGame 6. This was the first time a computer had ever defeated a world champion in

match play. A documentary film was made about this famous matchup entitledGame Over: Kasparov and the Machine.

Kasparov claimed that several factors weighed against him in this match. In particular, he was denied access to Deep Blue's recent

games, in contrast to the computer's team, which could study hundreds of Kasparov's.

After the loss Kasparov said that he sometimes saw deep intelligence and creativity in the machine's moves, suggesting that during

the second game, human chess players, in contravention of the rules, intervened. IBM denied that it cheated, saying the only human

intervention occurred between games. The rules provided for the developers to modify the program between games, an opportunity

they said they used to shore up weaknesses in the computer's play revealed during the course of the match. Kasparov requested

printouts of the machine's log files but IBM refused, although the company later published the logs on the Internet. [146] Much later, it

was suggested that the behavior Kasparov noted may have resulted from a glitch in the computer program. [147] Although Kasparov

wanted another rematch,IBM declined and ended their Deep Blue program.

Kasparov's loss to Deep Blue inspired the creation of the gameArimaa. [148]

Deep Junior, 2003

In January 2003, he engaged in a six-game classical time control match with a

$1 million prize fund which was billed as the FIDE "Man vs. Machine" World

Championship, against Deep Junior. [149] The engine evaluated three million

positions per second. [150] After one win each and three draws, it was all up to the

final game. After reaching a decent position Kasparov offered a draw, which was

soon accepted by the Deep Junior team. Asked why he offered the draw, Kasparov

said he feared making a blunder. [151] Originally planned as an annual event, the

match was not repeated.

Deep Junior was the first machine to beat Kasparov with black and at a standard

time control. [152]

Kasparov wore 3D glasses in his match against the programX3D Fritz.
Kasparov wore 3D glasses in his
match against the programX3D
Fritz.

X3D Fritz, 2003

In November 2003, he engaged in a four-game match against the computer program X3D Fritz, using a virtual board, 3D glasses and

a speech recognitionsystem. After two draws and one win apiece, the X3D Man–Machine match ended in a draw. Kasparov received

$175,000 for the result and took home the golden trophy. Kasparov continued to criticize the blunder in the second game that cost

him a crucial point. He felt that he had outplayed the machine overall and played well. "I only made one mistake but unfortunately

that one mistake lost the game." [153]

See also

Notes

2. Garry Kasparov on Garry Kasparov, part I, 2011, ISBN 978-1-85744-672-2, pp. 16–17

5. Ruslan Ponomariovwon the disputedFIDE title, at the age of 18, when the world title was split

9.

Gessen, Masha (2012).The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin. New York: Riverhead Books. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-1-59448-842-9. Gessen describes some of the obstacles Kasparov encountered during the attempt to build his campaign: his chartered plane was refused airport access; hotels were advised not to house him event attendees and organizers were threatened; secret police were a constant presence; a "total television blackout" was enforced. These measures, Gessen concludes, kept the Kasparov movement from growing.

10.

c-4ef8-8592-bc1f8d674e46_story.html). The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-09-28."Independent opposition candidates faced many obstacles. In February, Putin signed a law requiring all independent candidates to collect signatures from 3 percent of their constituents. The city didn’t finalize the boundaries of the districts — which expanded from 35 to 45 — until April. Then in May, two of the original 'For Moscow' members were slapped with fraud charges, effectively ending their campaigns.[paragraph break] The remaining would-be candidates had a few weeks in the summer to collect approximately 5,000 signatures. It proved an elusive goal for most coalition members."

11.

12.

13.

Biography (http://www.kasparov.com/biography/), official website of Garry Kasparov.

14.

15.

became fascinated by chess

16.

17.

White King and Red Queenby Daniel Johnson,ISBN 1-84354-609-4

18.

19.

Unlimited Challenge, an autobiography by Garry Kasparov with Donald Trelford, ISBN 0-00-637358-5

20.

21.

22.

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