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MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
V{tÑàxÜ D
Concept of Stress & Strain
Materials for this chapter are taken from :
1. Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston,Jr, John T. Dewolf, David F. Mazurek “ Mechanics of Materials” 5 th Edition in SI units
2. R.C.Hibbeler “ Mechanics of Materials “ Seventh Edition
Ch 1
-
1
MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Introduction

Mechanics of materials is a study of the relationship between the

external loads on a body and the intensity of the internal loads within

the body.

This subject also involves the deformations and stability of a body when

subjected to external forces or in other words; the behavior of materials

and structures under load The wa in which the react to a

lied forces

,

.

y

y

pp

the deflections resulting and the stresses and strains set up in the bodies

will be the main concern in this scope of study.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
External Forces
External Forces
Surface Forces
caused by direct contact of
other body’s surface
Body Forces
other body exerts a force
without contact
MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Reactions

Surface forces developed at the supports/points of contact between bodies.

Constraints
Type and direction of
forces produced
Description
The connection point on the bar can
not move downward.
joint can not move in vertical and
horizontal directions.
The support prevents translation in
vertical and horizontal directions
and also rotation, Hence a couple
moment is developed on the body in
that direction as well.
MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Equation of Equilibrium

The condition of statics are:

the algebraic sum of all forces (or components of forces) in any direction must equal to zero or ∑ F = 0

the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces about any axis or point must equal to zero or ∑ M = 0.

These two conditions can be expressed mathematically as:

F

x

=

0

F

y

=

0

M

(at anypoint)

=

0

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Equilibrium of a Deformable Body

Objective of FBD is to determine the resultant force and moment acting within a body.

Normal force, N

Shear force, V

Torsional moment or torque, T

Bending moment, M

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.1

Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section at C of the beam.

540 N

A
C
2 m
1 m
3 m

B

Solution

540 N
M A
N
A
A
C
2 m
1 m
3 m
V A

B

Solve support reactions at A

F

y

F

x

M

 = 0; V = 540 N = 0; N = 0

A

=

0;

540(2)

M

A

=

0

M

A = − 1080 Nm

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.1

Apply Method of Section at point C

540 N

M C
1 m
V C

540 N

1080 Nm
F
= 0;
y
F
= 0;
x

M

C

=

A

C

2 m

N

C

 V = 540 − 540 N = 0 Ans .

+

540(1)

 = 0 Ans . − 540(3)

0; 1080

+ M

C

=

0;

M

A

=

0 Nm

Ans

.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.2

acting on the cross section at C of the beam.

270 N/m
A
C
3 m
6 m

B

Solution

540 N
180 N/m
M C
N C
C
B
2 m
4 m
V C
proportion,
w 270
=
⇒ w = 180N m
6
9

Magnitude of the resultant of the distributed load,

F =

which acts

1

3

1

2

(180)(6)

(6)

=

2m

= 540N

from C

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.2

Free Body Diagram

N C

540 N
180 N/m
M C
C
2 m
4 m
V C

B

Applying the equations of equilibrium we have

M = 0; 540(2) M

F

x

C

 = 540 0; V − = 0; = 0 0; N = Ans .

c

V

y

F

= 0;

M = −1080 Nm Ans.

c

= 540 N

Ans

.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
What is Stress ?

We will consider the material to be continuous.

This intensity of internal force at a point is called stress.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Stress (Cont.)

Normal Stress , σ

Force per unit area acting normal to A

σ

z

=

lim

A

0

F

z

A

;

 

σ

=

F

A

 

Shear Stress ,ττττ

Force per unit area acting tangent to A

τ

zx

τ zy

=

lim

A

0

= lim

A

0

F

x

A

F

y

A

τ

=

V

A

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.3

Each of the four vertical links has an 8 x 36 mm uniform rectangular cross section and each of the four pins has a 16 mm diameter. Determine the maximum value of the average normal stress in the links connecting (a) points B and D, (b) points C and E.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.3

Use bar ABC as a free body diagram.

Solve for F BD and F CE

 ∑ M C ∑ M B

= 0;

=

0;

0.04 F

BD

(0.025

F

BD

=

0.04)(20*10 )

3

×

+

32.5

= 0

3

10 N [Tension]

(

3

)

0.04

F

CE

F

0.025 20*10

12.5

×

3

0

CE

= −

=

10 N [Compression]

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.3

Calculation of net area

for one link (tension) = 0.008(0.036 0.016)

tension

)

=

=

160

×

10

6

320

×

10

6

m

2

m

2

compression

)

compression

=

=

0.008 0.036

288

(

10

6

×

m

)

2

)

=

576

×

10

6

m

2

σ

BD

σ CE

Calculation of stress

=

=

F BD

A

net

32.5*10

3

320*10

6

101 56

10

6

=

=

=

3

×

.

101.6 MPa [ans]

F

12.5*10

6

CE

21.7

10

6

=

= −

×

A 576*10

= − 21.7 MPa [ans]

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Average Shear Stress

The average shear stress distributed over each sectioned area that develops a shear force.

τ

avg

=

A

τ = average shear stress
V = internal resultant shear force
A = area at that section

2 different types of shear:

a) Single Shear

b) Double Shear

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.4

The inclined member is subjected to a compressive force of 3000 N. Determine the average compressive stress along the smooth areas of contact defined by AB and BC, and the average shear stress along the horizontal plane defined by EDB.

The compressive forces acting on the areas of contact are

F

x

F

y

+ →

+ ↑

=

0;

=

0;

F

F

3000

3000(

AB

BC

(

4

5

3

5

)

)

=

0

=

0

F

AB

F

BC

 = 1800 N = 2400 N
MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.4

o

o

o

The shear force acting on the sectioned horizontal plane EDB is

+ →

F

x

= 0;

V

= 1800 N

Average compressive stresses along the AB and BC planes are

σ AB

σ BC

1800

= = 1.80 N/mm

(

25

)(

40

)

2400

= = 1.20 N/mm

(

50

)(

40

)

2

2

Ans .

Ans .

Average shear stress acting on the BD plane is

τ

avg

=

1800

(

75

)(

40

)

=

0.60 N/mm

2

Ans .

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
What is Strain ?

Normal Strain

The elongation / contraction of a line segment per unit of length is referred to as normal strain.

Average normal strain is defined as;

ε avg

=

s

'

−∆

s

s

If the normal strain is known, then the approximate final length is:

s' (1+ε )s

+ε line elongate -ε line contracts

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Strain (Cont.)

Units

Normal strain is a dimensionless quantity since it is a ratio of two lengths.

Shear Strain

Change in angle between 2 line segments that were perpendicular to one another

refers to shear strain.
π
γ
=
lim
θ
'
nt
2
B
→ A
along
n
C→ A along t

Θ’ <90 + shear strain Θ’ >90 - shear strain

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.5

The plate is deformed into the dashed

shape. If, in this deformed shape,

horizontal lines on the plate remain

horizontal and do not change their

length, determine (a) the average

normal strain along the side AB, and (b)

late

the avera e shear strain

in the

g

p

relative to the x and y axes.

y
3 mm
B
D
2 mm
x
250 mm
A
C
300 mm
MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.5

the average normal strain along the side AB

Line AB, coincident with the y axis, becomes line after deformation, thus the length of this line is

AB ' =

2
(
2
250 − 2
)
+ 3

= 248.018 mm

The average normal strain for AB is therefore

(

ε

AB

)

avg

=

AB

'

AB

AB = − 7.93 10

(

=

3

)

248.018

250

250

mm/mm (Ans)

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.4

the average shear strain in the plate relative to the x and y axes.

As noted, the once 90°angle BAC between the sides of the plate, referenced from the x, y axes, changes to θ’ due to the displacement of B to B’.

γ xy

=

tan

1

 

3

250

2

 

=

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Deformation due to Stress & Strain

After

When a force is applied to a body, it will change the body’s shape and size.

These changes are deformation.

Before

Schematics arrangement for tensile test

P

P

P

Change

of

length on

horizontal and vertical lines as well as change of angle for inclined line proves that deformation occurs.

P

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Stress – strain Curve (from tensile test)

Ductile Materials

Brittle Materials

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Factor of Safety

Many unknown factors that influence the actual stress in a member.

A factor of safety is needed to obtained allowable load.

The factor of safety (F.S.) is a ratio of the failure load divided by the allowable load .

σ
τ
F fail
fail
fail
F . S
=
;
F . S
=
;
F . S
=
σ
τ
F allow
allow
allow
MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.6

The two wooden members shown, which support a 20 kN load, are joined by plywood splices fully glued on the surfaces in contact. The ultimate shearing stress in the glue is 2.8 MPa and the clearance between the members is 8 mm. Determine the factor of safety, knowing that the length of each splice is L = 200 mm.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Example 1.6

There are 4 separate areas of glue. Each glue area must transmit 10 kN of shear load.

P =

10

×

10

3

N

Length of splice
L
=
2 +
l
c
l
=
1 L
(
c
)
=
0.008)
2
1 (0.2
2
l = length of glue ; c = clearance.
Area of glue

= 0.096 m

A

=

lw

=

(

0.096 0.120

)

=

11.52 10

×

3

m

2

Allowable shear stress

τ all

 V P / 2 = = = A A

10

×

10

3

11.52 10

×

3

= 0.87MPa

Factor of safety

F S

.

=

τ

U

τ

all

=

2.8

×

10

6

0.87 10

×

6

=

3.22

Ans

.

MEC411
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering Mechanics Centre of Studies
Stress-strain Relation
τ = Gγ
σ
=
ε
y
ν =
ε lateral
=
ε
ε
x
longitudinal
E ε
Linear Elastic
Material
Behavior

E = modulus of elasticity , G = modulus of rigidity or shear modulus, and v = Poisson’s ratio

Supplementary Problem 1

1) Determine the resultant internal loadings acting on the cross section through point D of member AB.

[M D = 8.75 Nm (ccw); N D = 131.25 N ();V D = 175 N ()]

2)

The beam AB is pin supported at A and supported by a cable BC. Calculate the resultant internal loading at

point D. [M D = 0; N D = 2235.5 N ;V D = 0]

B
1200 N
1.6 m
D
0.6 m
A
C
1.2 m
0.8 m

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

ChChCh111---303030

Supplementary Problem 1

3) The two-member frame is subjected to the distributed load w = 8 kN/m. The cross-section of member CB is 35 x 35 mm. Determine the average normal stress and average shear stress acting at section a-a and b-b.

[ F BC = 15 kN, a-a: σ = 12.24 MPa, τ = 0 ; b-b: σ = 4.41 MPa, τ = 5.88 MPa ]

4) Beam is subjected to the uniform distributed load. The pin at A is double shear and has an ultimate shearing stress of 25 MPa. Find the diameter of the pin A. Given the factor of safety is 2.0.[0.0177 m]

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

4 m

C
a
b
a
A
b
3 m
w

2 kN/m

B

A
B
1.5 m
C
2 m
1 m

ChChCh111---313131

Supplementary Problem 1

4)

Part of a control linkage for an airplane consists of a rigid member CBD and a flexible cable AB. If a force is applied to the end D of the member and causes it to rotate by θ = 0.3 , determine the normal strain in the cable. Originally the cable is unstretched. [0.00251]

5) The square deforms into the position shown by the dashed lines. Determine the shear strain at each of its corners, A, B, C, and D. Side D'B‘ remains horizontal.

[-26.18 x 10 -3 rad; -205.2 x 10 -3 rad; 204.7 x 10 -3 ; 26.18 x 10 -3 rad]

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

ChChCh111---323232

Previous Exam Questions

OCT2009/MEC411/KJM454

In the hanger shown in Figure Q3(b) the upper portion of link ABC is 10 mm thick and the lower portions are each 6 mm thick. Epoxy resin is used to bond the upper and lower portions together at B.The pins at A and C are 10 mm and 6 mm diameter respectively. Determine:

a) the shearing stress in pin A and C. [42.5 MPa; 59.02 MPa]

b) the shearing stress on the epoxy bonded area B. [1.24 MPa]

c) the largest normal stress in link ABC. [16.69 MPa]

2225 N
Figure Q3(b)

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

ChChCh111---333333

Previous Exam Questions

APR2010/MEC411/KJM454

A steel rod, 10 mm diameter is 2.2 m long elongates 1.2 mm under a 8.5 kN load applied to it.

Determine the Young’s modulus of this steel rod and the corresponding diametral contraction. Use

Poisson’s ratio, ν = 1/3. [a) 198.4 GPa; b) 0.00182 mm]

APR2011/MEC411/KJM454

The steel truss shown in Figure Q1(b) is subjected to load P = 50

 kN at joint C. Determine; i. the support reactions at joints A and E [75 kN 75 kN 50 kN] , , , ii. the stress in member AD if the area of its cross section is 220 mm 2 , and [284.1 MPa] iii. factor of safety of member AD if the failure stress of this member is 400 MPa. [1.41] Figure Q1(b)

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

ChChCh111---343434

Previous Exam Questions

JUN2011/MEC411/KJM454 (Intersession) A brass tube 50 mm outside diameter and 40 mm bore, 0.3 m long is compressed between two ends by a load of 25kN. The reduction in length measured is 0.2 mm. Assuming Hooke’s law to apply, determine the Young’s Modulus of the hollow tube. [53.05 GPa]

JAN2012/MEC411/KJM454

The hanger assembly is used to support a distributed loading of w = 15 kN/m. Determine the average shear stress in the 10-mm diameter bolt at A and the average tensile stress in rod AB, which has a diameter of 12 mm. If the yield shear stress of the bolt is τ y = 175 MPa and the yield stress for the rod is σ y = 260 MPa, determine the factor of safety with respect to yielding in each case. Assume double shear at the pinned joint A and B.

0.9 m

[bolt : 0.814, rod AB: 0.871 ]

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

B

C

A

w

1.2 m
0.6 m
ChChCh111---353535

Previous Exam Questions

JUN2012/MEC411

A vertical load P = 20 kN is applied at B for the assembly of the strut BC and rod AB as shown in Figure Q1 (b). The diameter of rod AB is 14 mm and 20 mm for strut BC. For the assembly shown, determine;

i. The normal stress σ AB and σ BC in the rod and strut, [118.05 MPa; 54.7 MPa]

ii. The normal strain ε AB , if the rod elongates 1.3 mm, and [6.5e-4]

iii. The final length of strut BC if the normal strain in the

A
rod
1.2 m
B
1 m
strut
P
C
1.6 m

strut is -3.175 x 10 -4 .[1.88 mm]

Figure Q1 (b)

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

ChChCh111---363636

Previous Exam Questions

SEP 2012/MEC411 (Intersession) Figure Q1 (a) below shows two wooden members, A and B that are joined together vertically to support a 24 kN load, by plywood splices, C and D. The surface of contact between the wooden members and plywood splices are glued together, where the ultimate shearing stress in the glue used is 800 kPa. The clearance between the members is 8 mm. Determine the smallest allowable length, L of each splice and the factor of safety of the design. [308 mm; 1.0]

MEC411 – MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

8 mm

24 kN
A
C
D
B
1 00 mm

24 kN

L

Figure Q1 (a)

ChChCh111---373737