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Example 3.

Using the Mayer and Dunne equations, find the daily evaporation rate for a lake given
that the mean value for air temperature was 87o F, the mean value for water temperature
was 63oF, the average wind speed was 10 mph, and the relative humidity was 20%.
Refer to Table 3.1 for vapor pressure values.

Solution:

1. Interpolating from Table 3.1, we find that;

eo = 0.58 in. Hg
ea = 1.29 x 0.20 = 0.26 in. Hg = 8.75 mb

2. Assume C = 0.36 , we obtain using this equation:

W
E C (e0 ea ) 1 0.26 in.Hg x 25.4mm/in. x 1 mb/0.75 mmHg = 8.8 mb
10

E = 0.36 (0.58 -0.26) [1+(10/10)]

E = 0.36 x 0.32 x 2

= 0.23 in/day

3. After converting wind speed to metric units, use Dunne equation:

E (0.013 0.00016u2 )ea (100 Rh ) /100

E = [ 0.013 + (0.00016 x 386)] x 8.75 x [(100 20)/100]

= 0.075 x 8.75 x 0.8 10 mile x 24 hr/day x 1.6093 km/mile = 386 km/day

= 0.527 cm/day or 0.21 in/day

1 mb = 0.75 mm.Hg
1 in = 25.4 mm
1 mile = 1.6093 km
www.conversion.com
Example 3.3

Determine the monthly consumptive use of an alfalfa crop grown in southern California
for the month of July if the average monthly temperature is 72oF, the average value of
daytime hours in percentage of the year is 9.88, and the mean montly consumptive use
coefficient for alfalfa is 0.85.

Solution:

Using equation:
ktp
u
100
= 0.85 x 72 x 9.88/100
= 6.05 in of water.
Example 3.4

Determine the seasonal consumptive use of a tomato crop grown in New Jersey if the
mean monthly temperature for May, June, July and August are 61.6, 70.3, 75.1 and 73.4
o F, respectively and the percent daylight hours for the given months are 10.02, 10.8,10.22

and 9.54 as percent of the year, respectively.


Solution:

From Table 3.2 the growing season tomatoes is 4 months and the range of the
consumptive use coefficient is 0.65 to 0.70. Since New Jersey is a humid area, choose
the lower value of Ks = 0.65.
In terms of B calculation:
tp
B
100
B = (61.6 x 10.02/100) +(70.3 x 10.08/100)+(75.1 x 10.22/100)+(73.4 x
9.54/100)
B = 27.9

Seasonal consumptive use :

U Ks B
U = 0.65 x 27.9
U = 18.1 in of water for the 4 month growing season.
Example 3.5

Using the Penman method, estimate ET, given the following data : temperature at water
surface = 22oC, temperature of air = 33oC, relative humidity = 45%, wind velocity = 1.5
mph (36 mi/day). The month is June at latitude 33o north, r is given as 0.07 and n/D is to
be found 0.70.

Solution:

1. Given the data for temperature ,the values of ea and ed can be determined. Using figure
3.7 or Table 3.1, the saturated vapor pressures are found to be 20.02 and 38.04 mm
Hg, respectively. Thus ea = 38.04. For a relative humidity of 45%, ea = 38.04 x 0.45 =
17.12. Then,

E = 0.35 ( 38.04 17.12)[ 1 + ( 0.0098 x 36)]


E = 9.88 mm/day

2. The value of is found using figure 3.8 for the given latitude and month, and R is
obtained from Table 3.6. The value of B is obtained from Table 3.5 for a temperature of
33oC.

The values found are = 1.2, R @ RA= 16.56 and B = 17.69.

Using equation (3-20a) or (3-20b);

H = R (1-r)(0.18 + 0.55 n/D) - B (0.56 0.092ea0.5)(0.10 + 0.9n/D)

H = 16.56 (1- 0.07)[0.18 + (0.55 x 0.70)] 17.69 [0.56 (0.092 x


17.120.5 )][0.10 + (0.90 x 0.70)]

H = 6.38 mm/day

Using equation (3-18);

H 0.27 E0
ET
0.27
ET = [(1.2 x 6.38)+(0.27 x 9.88)]/(1.2 + 0.27)

ET = 7.02 mm/day
Figure 3.7 : Relation between temperature and saturated vapor pressure

Figure 3.8 : Temperature versus relation for use with the Penman equation
Example 3.6

Estimate the monthly potential evapotranspiration for June. The mean monthly
temperatures are shown in the Table below. The average relative humidity is 50%. The
wind speed is 130 mi/day. Assume that n/D = 70%, = 0.27, and r = 25% at 50O latitude.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June


Tm(0F) -1.5 5.2 30.2 40.2 58.1 75.5
Tm(0C) -18.6 -14.9 -1.0 4.6 14.5 24.2

Month July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Tm(0F) 70.3 67.5 51.0 40.2 31.2 15.2
Tm(0C) 21.3 19.7 10.6 4.6 -0.4 -9.3

Solution:
25%
From Table 3.6
RA = 16.7
RI = RA (1 r) (0.18 0.55 n/D)
RI = 16.7 (1 0.25) [0.18 0.55(0.70)] = 7.08 mm/day

From Table 3.5 75.5oF


Ta4 = B = 15.7 mm/day (by interpolation calculation)

From Figure 3.7,


es = 22 mm Hg (by interpolation calculation)
h = ea/es ea = 0.5 22 = 11 mm Hg.

Using equation
RB Ta 4 0.56 0.092 ea 0.10 0.90 n
D
RB = 15.7 [0.56 (0.09211)] [0.10 + (0.900.70)]
RB = 2.92 mm/day

Using equation (3-20a);


H = RI - RB = 7.08 2.92 = 4.16 mm/day

So, evaporation can be calculated by using equation (3-24);


E0 = 0.35 (es ea) (1 + 0.0098 u2)
E0 = 0.35 (22 11) [1 + (0.0098130)] = 8.75 mm/day
7. From Figure 3.8;
= 0.75
H E0 0.75 4.16 0.27 8.75
Et
0.75 0.27
Et = 5.38 mm/day
Example 3.7 :

A catchment soil has Horton infiltration parameters: f o = 100 mm/h, fc = 20 mm/h and k =
2 min-1. What rainfall rate would result in ponding from beginning of the storm? Is this
rainfall rate is maintained for 40 minutes, describe the infiltration as a function of time
during the storm.

Solution:

According to Horton model of infiltration, the potential infiltration rate varies between a
maximum of 100 mm/h (fo) and minimum of 20 mm/h (fc). Any storm in which the rainfall
rate exceeds 100 mm/h during the entire storm will cause ponding from the beginning of
the storm. Under these circumstance, the infiltration rate, f as a function of time is given
as equation as

f f c ( f o f c )e ( kt )
f 20 (100 20)e 2 t
f 20 80e 2 t 0 t 40 min

Example 3.8:

An initial infiltration was recorded as 5.5 cm/hr during 10 hours of rainfall. Given that f c
and k is 0.4 cm/hr and 0.32 respectively, determine;
(a) Infiltration at 5 hours.
(b) Total infiltration within first 8 hours.
(c) Total infiltration between 5 and 10 hours from rainfall begin.

Solution:

fo = 5.5 cm/hr, fc = 0.4 cm/hr dan k = 0.32 h-1


(a) Infiltration at 5 hours.
f f c ( f o f c )e( kt )

f5 0.4 (5.5 0.4 )e0.32(5) 1.43cm / h


(b) Total infiltration within the first 8 hours.
F f (t )dt
( fo fc )
F [ f ct (1 e ( kt ) )]80
K
5.1
F (0.4)(8) (1 e 0.32 x 8 ) 0 = 17.91 cm
0.32

(c) Total infiltration between 5 and 10 hours from rainfall begin.


F f (t )dt
( fo fc )
F [ f ct (1 e ( kt ) )]10
5
K

F (0.4)(10)
5.1
(1 e 0.32 x10 ) 0.4(5)
5.1

1 e 0.32 x 5
0.32 0.32
F 4.56cm
Example 3.9 :

A storm with 10 cm rainfall produced a direct runoff of 5.8 cm. Table below show the time
distribution of the storm, estimate the index.
Time
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(hour)
Rainfall
0.4 0.9 1.5 2.3 1.8 1.6 1.0 0.5
(cm/h)

Solution:

Total rainfall, P = 0.4 (1) + 0.9 (1) + 1.5 (1) + 2.3 (1) + 1.8 (1) + 1.6 (1) + 1(1) + 0.5
(1) = 10 cm
Total runoff, R = 5.8 cm

Assume te is 8 hours.

Then,
P - R 10 5.8
Index 0.525cm/h
te 8
But this value of makes the rainfall of the first hour and eight hour ineffective as their
magnitude is less than 0.525 cm/h. The value of te is need to modified.

Then assume te is 6 hours.

Total rainfall, P = 10 - 0.4 0.5 = 9.1 cm

Then,
P - R 9.1 5.8
Index 0.55cm/h
te 6

This value of is satisfactory and by calculating the rainfall excess.

Time
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
(hour)
Rainfall
excess 0 0.35 0.95 1.75 1.25 1.05 0.45 0
(cm)
Total rainfall excess = 5.8 cm = total runoff

Example 3.10:

The rainfall intensity in the 50 hectar of catchment area is given table below. If volume of
surface runoff is 30000 m3, estimate index for the catchment area and sketch the
circumstances in form of hyetograph.

Time Rainfall intensity


(hour) (mm/hour)
1 5
2 10
3 38
4 25
5 13
6 5
7 0

Solution:

Runoff, R = (3x104)/(0.5 x 1000 x 1000) = 0.06 m = 60 mm

Total rainfall = (5 + 10 + 38 + 25 + 13 + 5) (1) = 96 mm

Then,
P - R 96 60
Index 6mm/h
te 6

But this value of makes the rainfall of the first hour and six hour ineffective as their
magnitude is less than 6 mm/h.

Then, te = 4 hours
P - R 96 (5 5) 60
Index 6.5mm/h
te 4
Sketch in form of hyetograph:
Rainfall Intensity versus Time
Rainfall Intensity (mm/h)
34
32
30
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10 = 6.5 mm/hj
8
6 = 6 mm/h
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Hours (h)