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NONLINEAR PROBLEM

The Redlich-Kwong equation of state is given by

p

RT
a
v  b
v(v
 b)
T

where R = the universal gas constant [= 0.518 kJ/(kg K)], T = absolute temperature (K), p =

absolute pressure (kPa), and v = the volume of a kg of gas (m3/kg). The parameters a and b are

calculated by

a 0.427

2

R T

C

2.5

p

C

T

C

b 0.0866R p

C

where pc = 4600 kPa and Tc = 191 K. As a chemical engineer, you are asked to determine the

amount of methane fuel that can be held in a 3-m3 tank at a temperature of 40 C with a pressure

of 65,000 kPa.

Use a root-locating method of your choice to calculate v and then determine the mass of methane

contained in the tank.

GIVEN:

T 40C 273 233K

  65000kPa 0.518kJ / (kgK)

R

p

p

C

T

v

v

C

L

U

  191K 4600kPa   0.0026 0.003

REQUIREMENTS:

A. the specific volume v and the mass using the exact solution of finding the roots

B. the specific volume v and the mass using the bisection method with 3 iterations with the

absolute relative approximate error in percent

C. the specific volume v and the mass using the newton-raphson method with 3 iterations with the

absolute relative approximate error in percent

D. the specific volume v and the mass using the secant method with 3 iterations with the absolute

relative approximate error in percent

E. the specific volume v and the mass using the regula-falsi method with 3 iterations with the

absolute relative approximate error in percent

SOLUTION:

f(v)

f(v)

f(v)

RT
a
p
v  b
v(v
 b)
T
R T
2
2.5
a
0.427
C
Where

0.427

2

(0.518) (191)

2.5

p

C 4600

12.5577832

And

b

0.0866R

(0.518)(233)

T

C

p

191

0.0866(0.518)

C 4600

12.5577832

v 0.001862615

v(v

0.001862615)

233

0.001862615

65000

0.001862615 120.694

v

0.822687731 0.001862615)

v(v

65000

A. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the exact solution of finding the roots,

With the aid of MATLAB application, the roots are:

0.002807378m 3 /kg

 -0.000475273m 3 /kg -0.000475273m 3 /kg

Since the true value ranges from 0 to 3m 3 ,

Therefore, the true value for the specific volume is

0.002807378m 3 /kg

.

The mass can be calculated using this formula:

m V

m

v

where V = 3m 3 and v = 0.002807378m 3 /kg

3

0.002807378

m 1068.612776762kg

B. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the bisection method with 3 iterations

with the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

For the 1 st iteration,

To check,

f(v

U

) * f(v

L

) 0

f(0.003) * f(0.0026) 0

1528.082313056* 424391400.311505500 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

 v  v U  v L  0.003  0.0026 M 2 2 v M 3  0.0028m / kg

Therefore the approximated mass is,

V

3

 m M  v M  0.0028 m M  1071.428571429kg

For the 2 nd iteration,

To check,

f(v

M

) * f(v

L

) 0

f(0.0028) * f(0.0026) 0

740.554048453* 20568264.174918566 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is not bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

 v  v U  v M  0.003  0.0028 M  1 2 2 v M  1  3 0.0029m / kg

Therefore the approximated mass is,

V

3

 m M  1  v M  1  0.0029 m M  1  1034.482758621kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

|

|



A

| present

past |

present

*100%

|

|

 A

3.448275862%

| 0.0029

0.0028 |

0.0029

*100%

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

|

|

|

 A

|

 A

| present

past |

present

*100%

|1034.482758621

1071.428571429 |

1034.482758621

|

|

 A

3.571428571%

For the 3 rd iteration,

To check,

f(v

M 1

) * f(v

M

) 0

*100%

f(0.0029) * f(0.0028) 0

6087793.225534353 8820.592728173* 740.554048453 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

 v  v M  1  v M  0.0029  0 .0028 M  2 2 2 v M  2  3 0.00285m / kg

Therefore the approximated mass is,

V 3

 m M  2  v M  2  0. 00285 m M  2  1052.631578947kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

pres ent
 pa
st
A
present

A

1.754385965%

0.002 85  0.002 9
*
100 
* 100
0.00285

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 pa
st
A
pr esent

*

100

A

1.724137931%

 1052.63  1034.482758 621 1052.63 47

*

100

C. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the newton-raphson method with 3

iterations with the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

f '



v

120.694

(v 0.001862615)

2

For the 1 st iteration,

12.5577832(2v

0.001862615)

233(v v

0.001862615 )

2

The approximated specific volume is,

3

v I 0.003m / kg

 v I  1  v I  f f '  v I  v I    0.003  v I  1  3 0.002757079m / kg

15280.082313056

62901414.37026 3815

Therefore the approximated mass is,

m

m

I

I

V

v

I

3

0 .003

m I 1000.000000000kg

m

I

1

V 3

v

I

1

0.002

757079

m

I 1

1088.108102815kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

8.810810281%

0.002757079

0.003

0.002757079

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present

*

A

8.097366667%

For the 2 nd iteration,

100

The approximated specific volume is,

v

I

1

3

0.002757079m / kg

1088.108102815

1000.000000000

1088.108102815

*

100

 v I  2  v I  1  f f '  v I  v  1 I  1    v I  2  3 0.002804179m / kg

0.002757079

Therefore the approximated mass is,

m

I

2

V 3

v I 804179

2

0.002

m

I 2

1069.831697331kg

5343.353111776

113446040.0966 20220

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

1.679636000%

0.002804179

0.002757079

0.002804179

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present

A

1.708343988%

For the 3 rd iteration,

*

100

 1069.83  1088.108102815 1069.83 97331

The approximated specific volume is,

 v I  2  3 0.002804179m / kg v I  3  v I  2  f f '  v I  v 2  I  2    0.002804179 v I  3  3 0.002807364m / kg

Therefore the approximated mass is,

m

I

3

V 3

 

v

I

3

0.002

807364

319.343532363

100250902.714 0985 90

*

100

m

I

3

1068.617937198kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

A

0.113451622%

 0.002807364  0.002804179 0.0028 07 364

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

0.113582235%

 1068.62  1069.831697331 1068.62 37198

*

100

D. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the secant method with 3 iterations with

the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

v I 0.003m / kg

v

3

I

1

3

0.0026m / kg

For the 1 st iteration,

The approximated specific volume is,

v

v

I

I

1

1

v

I

f

v

I

[v

I

v

I

1

]

f

v

I

f(v

I 1

)

fvI f 0.0031528.082313056

fvI

1

f0.0026

27774.156684279

0.003

f 0.003 [0.003

0.0026]

f 0.003

f(0.002 )

6

1528.082313056[0.003

0.0026]

 v  0.003   I  1   1528.082313056  27774.156684279 v I  1  3 0.002858039m / kg

The approximated mass is,

 m  I 1  V  3 0.002 858039 v I  1 m  I 1  1049.670856945kg

For the 2 nd iteration,

The approximated specific volume is,

 f  v I  1  [v I  1  v ] I v I 2   v I  1  f  f(v ) v  I  1  I fvI   f0.002858039  4727.975225643  1 fvI f 0.0026 27774.156684279 v  0.002858039  f 0.002858039 [0.002858039    0.0026] v I 2   0.002858039   f 0.002858039   f(0.0026) 1528.082313056[0.002858039  0.0026] I 2    1528.082313056  27774 .156684279 3 0.002820503m / kg v I 2  

The approximated mass is,

 m I 2   V  3 0.002 820503 v I  2 m I 2   1063.640089963kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

A

1.330828636%

 0.002820503  0.002858039 0.0028 20 503

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present

A

1.313342093%

For the 3 rd iteration,

*

100

The approximated specific volume is,

 1063.64  1049.670856945 1063.64 89963

*

100

 v  v  f  v I  2  [v I  2  v I  1 ] I  3 I  2 f  v I  2   ( f v I  1 ) fvI  f0.002820503   1283.432429450 v  fvI 1 2    f0.002858039   4727.975225643 0.002820503  f 0.002820503 [0.002820503    0.002858039] I  3 f(0.002820503)  f(0.00285803 9) v   0.002820503 3   1283.432429450[0.002820503  0.002858039] I 1283.432429450 ( 4727.97 5225643)   v I 3  0.002806517m / kg 3 

The approximated mass is,

 V 3 m   I  3 v I  3 0.002 806517 m I  1068.940561746kg 3 

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

A

0.498335374%

 0.002806517  0.002820503 0.0028 06 517

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

0.495862162%

 1068.94  1063.640089963 1068.94 61746

*

100

E. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the regula-falsi method with 3 iterations

with the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

For the 1 st iteration,

To check,

f(v

U

) * f(v

L

) 0

f(0.003) * f(0.0026) 0

1528.082313056* 424391400.311505500 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

 f  v U  v L  v U  v R  v U  f  v L   f  v U  v  0.003  ( 1528.082313056)(0.0026   0.003) R 27774.156684279 ( 1528.0823 13056)  v R 3  0.002858039m / kg

Therefore the approximated mass is,

 V 3 m   R v R 0.00285 8039 m R  1049.670856945kg

For the 2 nd iteration,

To check,

f(v

R

) * f(v

L

) 0

f 0.002858039* f(0.0026) 0

4727.975225643* 424391400.311505500 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

v

v

R

R

1

1

f

v

 

R

L

v

L

v

R

v

R

f

v

f

v

R

( 27774.156684279 4727.975225643)(0.0026  ( 4727.9 0.002858039) 75225643)

0.002858039

v R

3

0.002820503m / kg

1

Therefore the approximated mass is,

 V 3 m   R  1 v R  1 0.002 820503 m R  1  1063.640089963kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
prese t
n
 1.330826452%
A

*

100

 0.002820503  0.002858039 0.0028 20 503

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present
 1.313342093%
A

For the 3 rd iteration,

To check,

f(v

R

1

) * f(v

L

)

0

*

100

 1063.64  1049.670856945 1063.64 89963

f 0.002820503* f(0.0026) 0

-42441197.589292817 1528.082313056* 27774.156684279 0 0

*

100

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

 v  v  f  v R  1  v L  v R  1  R  2 R  1 f  v L   f  v R  1  v  0.002820503  ( 1283.432429450)(0.0026   0.002820503) R  2 27774.156684279 ( 1283.4 32429450)  v R  2  3 0.002810764m / kg

Therefore the approximated mass is,

 V 3 m   R  2 v R  2 0.002 810764 m R  2  1067.325582912kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

 0.002810764  0.002820503 0.0028 10 764

*

100

A

0.346489424%

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present
 past
A
present
 0.345301659%
A

*

100

 1067.33  1063.640089963 1067.33 82912

*

100

SUMMARY:

 NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION APPROXIMATE |∈ A | (%) METHOD REQUIREMENT ITERATION VALUE SPECIFIC 1 0.0028 --- VOLUME 2 0.0029 3.448275862 BISECTION (m 3 /kg) 3 0.00285 1.754385965 METHOD 1 1071.428571429 --- MASS (kg) 2 1034.482758621 3.571428571 3 1052.631578947 1.724137931 SPECIFIC 1 0.002757079 8.810810281 VOLUME 2 0.002804179 1.679639000 NEWTON- (m 3 /kg) 3 0.002807364 0.113451622 RAPHSON METHOD MASS 1 1088.108102815 8.097366667 2 1069.831697331 1.708343988 (kg) 3 1068.617937198 0.113582235 SPECIFIC 1 0.002858039 --- VOLUME 2 0.002820503 1.330828636 SECANT (m 3 /kg) 3 0.002806517 0.498335374 METHOD 1 1049.670856945 --- MASS (kg) 2 1063.640089963 1.313342093 3 1068.940561746 0.495862162 SPECIFIC 1 0.002858039 --- VOLUME 2 0.002820503 1.330826452 REGULA-FALSI (m 3 /kg) 3 0.002810764 0.346489424 METHOD 1 1049.670856945 --- MASS (kg) 2 1063.640089963 1.313342093 3 1067.325582912 0.345301659