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NONLINEAR PROBLEM

The Redlich-Kwong equation of state is given by

p

RT a  v  b v(v  b) T
RT
a
v  b
v(v
 b)
T

where R = the universal gas constant [= 0.518 kJ/(kg K)], T = absolute temperature (K), p =

absolute pressure (kPa), and v = the volume of a kg of gas (m3/kg). The parameters a and b are

calculated by

a 0.427

2

R T

C

2.5

p

C

T

C

b 0.0866R p

C

where pc = 4600 kPa and Tc = 191 K. As a chemical engineer, you are asked to determine the

amount of methane fuel that can be held in a 3-m3 tank at a temperature of 40 C with a pressure

of 65,000 kPa.

amount of methane fuel that can be held in a 3-m3 tank at a temperature of

Use a root-locating method of your choice to calculate v and then determine the mass of methane

contained in the tank.

GIVEN:

T 40C 273 233K

  65000kPa 0.518kJ / (kgK)

R

p

p

C

T

v

v

C

L

U

  191K 4600kPa   0.0026 0.003

REQUIREMENTS:

A. the specific volume v and the mass using the exact solution of finding the roots

B. the specific volume v and the mass using the bisection method with 3 iterations with the

absolute relative approximate error in percent

C. the specific volume v and the mass using the newton-raphson method with 3 iterations with the

absolute relative approximate error in percent

D. the specific volume v and the mass using the secant method with 3 iterations with the absolute

relative approximate error in percent

E. the specific volume v and the mass using the regula-falsi method with 3 iterations with the

absolute relative approximate error in percent

SOLUTION:

f(v)

f(v)

f(v)

RT a   p v  b v(v  b) T R T 2
RT
a
p
v  b
v(v
 b)
T
R T
2
2.5
a
0.427
C
Where

0.427

2

(0.518) (191)

2.5

p

C 4600

12.5577832

And

b

0.0866R

(0.518)(233)

T

C

p

191

0.0866(0.518)

C 4600

12.5577832

v 0.001862615

v(v

0.001862615)

233
233

0.001862615

65000

0.001862615 120.694

v

0.822687731 0.001862615)

v(v

65000

A. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the exact solution of finding the roots,

With the aid of MATLAB application, the roots are:

0.002807378m 3 /kg

-0.000475273m 3

/kg

-0.000475273m 3

/kg

Since the true value ranges from 0 to 3m 3 ,

Therefore, the true value for the specific volume is

0.002807378m 3 /kg

.

The mass can be calculated using this formula:

m V

m

v

where V = 3m 3 and v = 0.002807378m 3 /kg

3

0.002807378

m 1068.612776762kg

B. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the bisection method with 3 iterations

with the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

For the 1 st iteration,

To check,

f(v

U

) * f(v

L

) 0

f(0.003) * f(0.0026) 0

1528.082313056* 424391400.311505500 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

v

v

U

v

L

0.003

0.0026

 

M

2

 

2

v

M

3

0.0028m / kg

 

Therefore the approximated mass is,

V

3

m

M

v

M

0.0028

m

M

1071.428571429kg

For the 2 nd iteration,

To check,

f(v

M

) * f(v

L

) 0

f(0.0028) * f(0.0026) 0

740.554048453* 20568264.174918566 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is not bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

v

v

U

v

M

0.003

0.0028

 

M 1

2

2

v

M 1

3

0.0029m / kg

 

Therefore the approximated mass is,

V

3

m

M 1

v

M 1

0.0029

m

M 1

1034.482758621kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

|

|



A

| present

past |

present

*100%

|

|

 A

3.448275862%

| 0.0029

0.0028 |

0.0029

*100%

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

|

|

|

 A

|

 A

| present

past |

present

*100%

|1034.482758621

1071.428571429 |

1034.482758621

|

|

 A

3.571428571%

For the 3 rd iteration,

To check,

f(v

M 1

) * f(v

M

) 0

*100%

f(0.0029) * f(0.0028) 0

6087793.225534353 8820.592728173* 740.554048453 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

v

v

M 1

v

M

0.0029

0

.0028

 

M 2

2

 

2

v

M 2

3

0.00285m / kg

 

Therefore the approximated mass is,

V 3

m

M 2

v

M 2

0.

00285

m

M 2

1052.631578947kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

pres ent  pa st   A present
pres ent
 pa
st
A
present

A

1.754385965%

0.002 85  0.002 9 * 100  * 100 0.00285
0.002 85  0.002 9
*
100 
* 100
0.00285

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  pa st   A pr esent
present
 pa
st
A
pr esent

*

100

A

1.724137931%

1052.631578947

1034.482758 621

1052.6315789

47

*

100

C. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the newton-raphson method with 3

iterations with the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

f '



v

120.694

(v 0.001862615)

2

For the 1 st iteration,

12.5577832(2v

0.001862615)

233(v v 
233(v v

0.001862615 )

2

The approximated specific volume is,

3

v I 0.003m / kg

v

I

1

v

I

f

f '

v

I

v

I

0.003

v

I

1

3

0.002757079m / kg

15280.082313056

62901414.37026 3815

Therefore the approximated mass is,

m

m

I

I

V

v

I

3

0 .003

m I 1000.000000000kg

m

I

1

V 3

v

I

1

0.002

757079

m

I 1

1088.108102815kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

8.810810281%

0.002757079

0.003

0.002757079

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

*

A

8.097366667%

For the 2 nd iteration,

100

The approximated specific volume is,

v

I

1

3

0.002757079m / kg

1088.108102815

1000.000000000

1088.108102815

1088.108102815
1088.108102815

*

100

v

I

2

v

I 1

f

f

'

v

I

v

1

I

1

v

I 2

3

0.002804179m / kg

0.002757079

Therefore the approximated mass is,

m

I

2

V 3

v I 804179

2

0.002

m

I 2

1069.831697331kg

5343.353111776

113446040.0966 20220

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

1.679636000%

0.002804179

0.002757079

0.002804179

0.002804179
0.002804179

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

A

1.708343988%

For the 3 rd iteration,

*

100

1069.831697331

1088.108102815

1069.8316

97331

The approximated specific volume is,

v

I

2

3

0.002804179m / kg

 

v

I

3

v

I

2

f

f

'

v

I

v

2

I

2

0.002804179

v

I

3

3

0.002807364m / kg

 

Therefore the approximated mass is,

m

I

3

V 3

 

v

I

3

0.002

807364

319.343532363

100250902.714 0985 90

*

100

m

I

3

1068.617937198kg

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A prese t n
present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

A

0.113451622%

0.002807364

0.002804179

0.0028

07 364

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

0.113582235%

1068.617937198

1069.831697331

1068.6179

37198

*

100

D. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the secant method with 3 iterations with

the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

v I 0.003m / kg

v

3

I

1

3

0.0026m / kg

For the 1 st iteration,

The approximated specific volume is,

v

v

I

I

1

1

v

I

f

v

I

[v

I

v

I

1

]

f

v

I

f(v

I 1

)

fvI f 0.0031528.082313056

fvI

1

f0.0026

27774.156684279

0.003

f 0.003 [0.003

0.0026]

f 0.003

f(0.002 )

6

1528.082313056[0.003

0.0026]

v

0.003

 

I

1

1528.082313056

27774.156684279

v

I

1

3

0.002858039m / kg

 

The approximated mass is,

m

I 1

V

 

3

 

0.002

858039

 

v

I

1

m

I 1

1049.670856945kg

For the 2 nd iteration,

The approximated specific volume is,

 

f

v

I

1

[v

I

1

v ]

I

v

I 2

v

I

1

f

 

f(v )

 

v

 

 

I

1

I

 

fvI

 

f0.002858039



4727.975225643

 

1

fvI f 0.0026 27774.156684279

v

0.002858039

f 0.002858039 [0.002858039

0.0026]

 

v

I 2

0.002858039

f 0.002858039

f(0.0026)

1528.082313056[0.002858039

0.0026]

I 2

1528.082313056

27774 .156684279

 
 
 

3

0.002820503m / kg

 

v

I 2

The approximated mass is,

m

I 2

V

 

3

 

0.002

820503

 

v

I

2

m

I 2

1063.640089963kg

 

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A prese t n
present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

A

1.330828636%

0.002820503

0.002858039

0.0028

20 503

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

A

1.313342093%

For the 3 rd iteration,

*

100

The approximated specific volume is,

1063.640089963

1049.670856945

1063.6400

89963

*

100

v

 

v

 

f

v

I

2

[v

I

2

v

I

1

]

I

3

I

2

f

v

I

2

(

f v

I

1

)

 

fvI

f0.002820503



1283.432429450

 

v

fvI

1 2  

f0.002858039



4727.975225643

0.002820503

f 0.002820503 [0.002820503

0.002858039]

 
 

I

3

 

f(0.002820503)

f(0.00285803 9)

v

0.002820503

3

1283.432429450[0.002820503

0.002858039]

I

 

1283.432429450

( 4727.97 5225643)



 
 

v

I

3

0.002806517m / kg

3

 

The approximated mass is,

 

V

 

3

m

 

I

3

v

I

3

0.002

806517

m

I

1068.940561746kg

3

 

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A prese t n
present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

A

0.498335374%

0.002806517

0.002820503

0.0028

06 517

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present
present
 past
A
present

*

100

A

0.495862162%

1068.940561746

1063.640089963

1068.9405

61746

*

100

E. To determine the specific volume v and the mass using the regula-falsi method with 3 iterations

with the absolute relative approximate error in percent,

For the 1 st iteration,

To check,

f(v

U

) * f(v

L

) 0

f(0.003) * f(0.0026) 0

1528.082313056* 424391400.311505500 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

 

f

v

U



v

L

v

U

v

R

v

U

f

v

L

f

v

U

v

0.003

( 1528.082313056)(0.0026

0.003)

 

R

27774.156684279

( 1528.0823 13056)



v

R

3

0.002858039m / kg

   

Therefore the approximated mass is,

 

V

 

3

m

 

 

R

 
 

v

R

0.00285

8039

m

R

1049.670856945kg

For the 2 nd iteration,

To check,

f(v

R

) * f(v

L

) 0

f 0.002858039* f(0.0026) 0

4727.975225643* 424391400.311505500 27774.156684279 0 0

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

v

v

R

R

1

1

f

v

 

R

L

v

L

v

R

v

R

f

v

f

v

R

( 27774.156684279 4727.975225643)(0.0026  ( 4727.9 0.002858039) 75225643)

0.002858039

v R

3

0.002820503m / kg

1

Therefore the approximated mass is,

 

V

3

m

 

 

R 1

 
   

v

R 1

0.002

820503

m

R

1

1063.640089963kg

 

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A prese t n   1.330826452% A
present
 past
A
prese t
n
 1.330826452%
A

*

100

0.002820503

0.002858039

0.0028

20 503

*

100

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present   1.313342093% A
present
 past
A
present
 1.313342093%
A

For the 3 rd iteration,

To check,

f(v

R

1

) * f(v

L

)

0

*

100

1063.640089963

1049.670856945

1063.6400

89963

f 0.002820503* f(0.0026) 0

-42441197.589292817 1528.082313056* 27774.156684279 0 0

*

100

Then the root is bounded and the approximated specific volume is,

v

v

f

v

R

1



v

L

v

R

1

 

R

2

R

1

f

v

L

f

v

R

1

 

v

0.002820503

 

( 1283.432429450)(0.0026

0.002820503)

 

R

2

 

27774.156684279

( 1283.4 32429450)



v

R

2

3

0.002810764m / kg

   

Therefore the approximated mass is,

 

V

3

m

 

 

R 2

 
   

v

R 2

0.002

810764

m

R

2

1067.325582912kg

 

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in specific volume,

present  past   A prese t n
present
 past
A
prese t
n

*

100

0.002810764

0.002820503

0.0028

10 764

*

100

 A  0.346489424% For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass, present

A

0.346489424%

For the absolute relative approximate error in percent in mass,

present  past   A present   0.345301659% A
present
 past
A
present
 0.345301659%
A

*

100

1067.325582912

1063.640089963

1067.3255

82912

*

100

SUMMARY:

 

NONLINEAR APPROXIMATION

 
     

APPROXIMATE

 
 

|A | (%)

METHOD

REQUIREMENT

ITERATION

VALUE

   
 

SPECIFIC

1

0.0028

---

VOLUME

2

0.0029

3.448275862

BISECTION

(m

3 /kg)

3

0.00285

1.754385965

METHOD

 

1

1071.428571429

---

 

MASS

     
 

(kg)

2

1034.482758621

3.571428571

3

1052.631578947

1.724137931

 

SPECIFIC

1

0.002757079

8.810810281

VOLUME

2

0.002804179

1.679639000

NEWTON-

(m

3 /kg)

3

0.002807364

0.113451622

RAPHSON

       

METHOD

MASS

1

1088.108102815

8.097366667

2

1069.831697331

1.708343988

   

(kg)

3

1068.617937198

0.113582235

 

SPECIFIC

1

0.002858039

---

VOLUME

2

0.002820503

1.330828636

SECANT

(m

3 /kg)

3

0.002806517

0.498335374

METHOD

 

1

1049.670856945

---

 

MASS

     
 

(kg)

2

1063.640089963

1.313342093

3

1068.940561746

0.495862162

 

SPECIFIC

1

0.002858039

---

VOLUME

2

0.002820503

1.330826452

REGULA-FALSI

(m

3 /kg)

3

0.002810764

0.346489424

METHOD

 

1

1049.670856945

---

 

MASS

     
 

(kg)

2

1063.640089963

1.313342093

3

1067.325582912

0.345301659