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LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture LTE/EPS Network Architecture GSM, UMTS & LTE Fundamentals 1 © Nokia
LTE/EPS Network Architecture GSM, UMTS & LTE Fundamentals 1 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0
LTE/EPS Network Architecture
GSM, UMTS & LTE Fundamentals
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LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Nokia Siemens Networks Academy Legal notice Intellectual Property Rights All

Nokia Siemens Networks Academy

Legal notice

Intellectual Property Rights

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LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Module Objectives After completing this module, the participant should be able

Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

Briefly explain the Network Architecture evolution from HSPA to LTE.

Identify the major subsystems on an LTE/EPS network

Name the defined Network Elements in an LTE network.

List the key functionalities for every LTE Network Element.

Name the standardised interfaces for LTE and understand the protocol stack implemented in each of them.

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for LTE and understand the protocol stack implemented in each of them. 3 © Nokia Siemens

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Module Contents • Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network

Module Contents

Network Architecture Evolution

LTE/EPS Network Subsystems

LTE/EPS Networks Elements

LTE/EPS Network Interfaces

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Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network Interfaces 4 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture System Architecture Evolution (SAE) in 3GPP Targets for System Ar chitecture

System Architecture Evolution (SAE) in 3GPP

Targets for System Architecture Evolution:

Optimization for PS services, No longer CS Core network

Support for higher throughput (more capacity, higher data rates)

Decrease the response time for activation and bearer set-up (Control plane latency)

Decrease packet delivery delay (User plane latency)

Architecture simplification when comparing with existing cellular networks

Inter-working with 3GPP access networks

Inter-working with other wireless access networks

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Some of these targets can be achieved by implementing a Flat Network Architecture, with less involved nodes.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Network Architecture Evolution User plane Control Plane HSPA Direct tunnel

Network Architecture Evolution

User plane

Control Plane

HSPA

Direct tunnel

I-HSPA

LTE

HSPA R6 GGSN GGSN SGSN SGSN RNC RNC Node B Node B (NB) (NB)
HSPA R6
GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
SGSN
RNC
RNC
Node B
Node B
(NB)
(NB)
GGSN GGSN SGSN SGSN RNC RNC Node B Node B (NB) (NB) CT8148CEN01GLA0 HSPA R7 HSPA
GGSN GGSN SGSN SGSN RNC RNC Node B Node B (NB) (NB) CT8148CEN01GLA0 HSPA R7 HSPA

CT8148CEN01GLA0

HSPA R7 HSPA R7
HSPA R7
HSPA R7
GGSN
GGSN
SGSN
SGSN
Node B + RNC Functionality
Node B +
RNC
Functionality

LTE R8HSPA R7 HSPA R7 GGSN SGSN Node B + RNC Functionality SAE GW MME/SGSN Evolved Node

SAE GW
SAE GW
MME/SGSN
MME/SGSN
Evolved Node B (eNB)
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
HSPA R7 GGSN SGSN Node B + RNC Functionality LTE R8 SAE GW MME/SGSN Evolved Node

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LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Module Contents • Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network

Module Contents

Network Architecture Evolution

LTE/EPS Network Subsystems

LTE/EPS Networks Elements

LTE/EPS Network Interfaces

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Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network Interfaces 7 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture LTE/EPS Network Architecture Subsystems • LTE/EPS architecture is driven by the

LTE/EPS Network Architecture Subsystems

• LTE/EPS architecture is driven by the goal to optimize the system for packet data
• LTE/EPS architecture is driven by the goal to optimize the system for
packet data transfer.
• No circuit switched components
• New approach in the inter-connection between radio access network and
core network (S1 interface)

The EPS architecture is made up of an

EPC (Packet Core Network, also referred as SAE) and an eUTRAN Radio Access

Network (also referred as LTE)

The EPC provides access to external

packet IP networks and performs a number of CN related functions (e.g. QoS, security, mobility and terminal context management) for idle (camped) and active terminals

The eUTRAN performs all radio interface related functions

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IMS/PDN EPC eUTRAN
IMS/PDN
EPC
eUTRAN

EPS

LTE-UE

all radio interface related functions 8 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0 IMS/PDN EPC eUTRAN EPS LTE-UE

•The basic task of the EPS network is to provide IP connectivity and it is highly optimized for this purpose only.

•All services in LTE will be offered on top of IP

•IP is also used for transport.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture - Subsystems LTE or EUTRAN S

Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture - Subsystems

LTE or EUTRAN

SAE or EPC

(EPS) Architecture - Subsystems LTE or EUTRAN S A E o r E P C 9

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(EPS) Architecture - Subsystems LTE or EUTRAN S A E o r E P C 9

EUTRAN •Only one node, the Evolved Node B (eNodeB or eNB) •All radio protocols (MAC, RLC, RRC) are terminated in the eNodeB •EUTRAN is a web on eNB interconnected with the X2 interface EPC SAE Gateway = Serving GW + Packet Data Network (PDN) GW MME: Mobility Management entity

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Module Contents • Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network

Module Contents

Network Architecture Evolution

LTE/EPS Network Subsystems

LTE/EPS Networks Elements

LTE/EPS Network Interfaces

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Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network Interfaces 10 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture LTE/EPS Network Elements Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.:

LTE/EPS Network Elements

Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.:

TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

Evolved Node B LTE-UE (eNB) cell LTE-Uu SAE Gateway
Evolved
Node B
LTE-UE
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu
SAE
Gateway
HSS MME: Mobility Management Entity S6a MME S10 X2 Gx or S7 S1-MME PCRF S11
HSS
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S6a
MME
S10
X2
Gx or S7
S1-MME
PCRF
S11
S1-U
S5/S8
SGi
Serving
PDN
Gateway
Gateway

Rx

PCRF:Policy & Charging Rule Function
PCRF:Policy & Charging Rule Function
IMS/PDN
IMS/PDN

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PDN Gateway Gateway Rx PCRF:Policy & Charging Rule Function IMS/PDN 11 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Evolved Node B (eNB) LTE-UE LTE-Uu cell eNB Functions Radio Resource

Evolved Node B (eNB)

LTE-UE

LTE-Uu cell
LTE-Uu
cell
eNB Functions Radio Resource Management (RRM) Radio Bearer Control: setup, modifications and release of Radio
eNB Functions
Radio Resource Management (RRM)
Radio Bearer Control: setup, modifications and
release of Radio Resources
Connection Mgt. Control: UE State Mgmt. MME-UE
Connection
Radio Admission Control
eNode B Measurements
Collection and evaluation
Dynamic Resource
Allocation (Scheduler)
IP Header Compression/ de-compression
Access Layer Security: ciphering and integrity
protection on the radio interface
MME Selection at Attach of the UE
User Data Routing to the SAE GW.
Transmission of Paging Message coming from MME
Transmission of Broadcast Info (System info, MBMS)
Evolved Node B (eNB) • It is the only network element defined as part of
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
• It is the only network element defined as
part of EUTRAN.
• It replaces the old Node B / RNC
combination from 3G.
• It terminates the complete radio interface
including physical layer.
• It provides all radio management functions
• An eNB can handle several cells.
• To enable efficient inter-cell radio
management for cells not attached to the
same eNB, there is a inter-eNB interface X2
specified. It will allow to coordinate inter-eNB
handovers without direct involvement of EPC
during this process.

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IP Header Compression/De-compression: the purpose of this technique is to avoid sending repetitively the same or sequential data in the IP header.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Mobility Management Entity (MME) Evolved HSS MME S1-MME Node B S6a

Mobility Management Entity (MME)

Evolved HSS MME S1-MME Node B S6a (eNB) S11 S1-U Serving Gateway
Evolved
HSS
MME
S1-MME
Node B
S6a
(eNB)
S11
S1-U
Serving
Gateway
• It is a pure signaling entity inside the EPC. • SAE uses tracking areas
• It is a pure signaling entity inside the EPC.
• SAE uses tracking areas to track the position of idle
UEs. The basic principle is identical to 2G/3G LA or RA.
• MME handles attaches and detaches to the SAE
system, as well as tracking area updates.
• Therefore it possesses an interface towards the HSS
(home subscriber server) which stores the subscription
relevant information and the currently assigned MME in
its permanent data base.
• A second functionality of the MME is the signaling
coordination to setup transport bearers (SAE bearers)
through the EPC for a UE.
• MMEs can be interconnected via the S10 interface.
• It generates and allocates temporary ids for UEs.
• VLR-like functionality

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MME Functions Control plane NE in EPC Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) Signalling Idle State Mobility Handling Tracking
MME Functions
Control plane NE in EPC
Non-Access-Stratum (NAS)
Signalling
Idle State Mobility Handling
Tracking Area updates
Subscriber attach/detach
Signalling coordination for
SAE Bearer Setup/Release & HO
Security (Authentication,
Ciphering, Integrity protection)
Trigger and distribution of
Paging Messages to eNB
Roaming Control (S6a interface
to HSS)
Inter-CN Node Signaling
(S10 interface), allows efficient
inter-MME tracking area updates
and handovers

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Serving SAE Gateway PCRF MME Gxc S1-MME (PMIP S5/S8) S6a S11

Serving SAE Gateway

Serving SAE Gateway PCRF MME Gxc S1-MME (PMIP S5/S8) S6a S11 S1-U S5/S8 PDN Serving SAE
PCRF MME Gxc S1-MME (PMIP S5/S8) S6a S11 S1-U S5/S8 PDN Serving SAE Gateway Gateway
PCRF
MME
Gxc
S1-MME
(PMIP S5/S8)
S6a
S11
S1-U
S5/S8
PDN
Serving SAE
Gateway
Gateway

Evolved

Node B

(eNB)

• The serving gateway is a network element that manages the user data path (SAE
• The serving gateway is a network element that
manages the user data path (SAE bearers) within EPC.
• It therefore connects via the S1-U interface towards
eNB and receives uplink packet data from here and
transmits downlink packet data on it.
• Thus the serving gateway is some kind of distribution
and packet data anchoring function within EPC.
• It relays the packet data within EPC via the S5/S8
interface to or from the PDN gateway.
• A serving gateway is controlled by one or more MMEs
via S11 interface.
• At a given time, the UE is connected to the EPC via a
single Serving-GW

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Serving Gateway Functions Local Mobility Anchor Point: Switching the User plane to a new eNB
Serving Gateway Functions
Local Mobility Anchor Point:
Switching the User plane to a new
eNB in case of Handover
Mobility anchoring for inter-3GPP
mobility. This is sometimes referred
to as the 3GPP Anchor function
Packet Buffering and notification to
MME for UEs in Idle Mode
Packet Routing/Forwarding
between eNB, PDN GW and SGSN
It support Lawful Interception and
Charging functionalities

•When the S5/S8 interface is based on GTP tunnel (3GPP recommendation) the Serving Gateway ( or S-GW) does not need to be connected to the PCRF (the mapping between IP service flows and GTP tunnels is done by the PDN-Gateway (or P-GW)

•When the S5/S8 interface is based on PMIP (IETF recommendation) the mapping between the IP service flow in the S5/S8 and the GTP tunnel son S1-U interface is done by the S-GW and thus it will be connected to the PCRF to receive the mapping information (Gxc interface)

•Lawful interception functionality: capability to deliver monitored user's data to authorities for further inspection.

•S-GW to serve a certain geographical region in the network, while the P-GW serves the whole networks for aaccess to specific services/PDN networks. Therefore every single S-GW should be connected to all P-GW in the network.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Packet Data Network (PDN) SAE Gateway Gx MME PCRF S6a S11

Packet Data Network (PDN) SAE Gateway

Gx MME PCRF S6a S11 S5/S8 SGi Serving PDN SAE Gateway Gateway
Gx
MME
PCRF
S6a
S11
S5/S8
SGi
Serving
PDN SAE
Gateway
Gateway

Rx

IMS/PDN • The PDN gateway (or P-GW or PDN-GW) provides the connection between EPC and
IMS/PDN
• The PDN gateway (or P-GW or PDN-GW) provides
the connection between EPC and a number of
external data networks.
• It is comparable to GGSN in 2G/3G networks.
• A major functionality provided by a PDN gateway is
the QoS coordination between the external PDN and
EPC.
• Therefore the PDN gateway has to be connected
via S7 to a PCRF (Policy & Charging Rule Function).
• If a UE is connected simultaneously to several
PDNs this may involved connections to more than
one PDN-GW

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PDN Gateway Functions Mobility anchor for mobility between 3GPP access systems and non-3GPP access systems.
PDN Gateway Functions
Mobility anchor for mobility between
3GPP access systems and non-3GPP
access systems. This is sometimes
referred to as the SAE Anchor function
Policy & Charging Enforcement (PCEF)
Per User based Packet Filtering (i.e.
deep packet inspection)
Charging Support
Lawful Interception support
IP Address Allocation for UE
Packet Routing/Forwarding between
Serving GW and external Data Network
Packet screening (firewall functionality)

•IP address allocation is done when the UE attaches the network and later on , every time the UE requests a connection to a new PDN network. Therefore the P-GW has the DHCP functionality or is able to query and external DHCP server.

•A request for a bearer set-up may arrive to the P-GW either via the PCRF (external data network originated) or via the S-GW (MME or UE originated)

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Policy and Charging Rule Function (PCRF) MME PCRF Gxc S6a Gx

Policy and Charging Rule Function (PCRF)

MME PCRF Gxc S6a Gx (PMIP S5/S8) S11 S5/S8 SGi Serving PDN SAE Gateway Gateway
MME
PCRF
Gxc
S6a
Gx
(PMIP S5/S8)
S11
S5/S8
SGi
Serving
PDN SAE
Gateway
Gateway

Rx

IMS/PDN • The PCRF major functionality is the Quality of Service (QoS) coordination between the
IMS/PDN
• The PCRF major functionality is the Quality of
Service (QoS) coordination between the external
PDN and EPC.
• Therefore the PCRF is connected via Rx+ interface
to the external Data network (PDN)
• This function can be used to check and modify the
QoS associated with a SAE bearer setup from SAE
or to request the setup of a SAE bearer from the
PDN.
• This QoS management resembles the policy and
charging control framework introduced for IMS with
UMTS release 6.

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PCRF: Policy & Charging Rule Function QoS policy negotiation with PDN Charging Policy: determines how
PCRF: Policy & Charging
Rule Function
QoS policy negotiation with PDN
Charging Policy: determines how
packets should be accounted
PCRF to provide Policy & Charging
Control (PCC) rules every time a
new bearer has to be set up.

More about the PCRF on 3GPP TS 23.203: “Policy & Charging Control Architecture (Release 8)”.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Home Subscriber Server (HSS) HSS MME S6a • The HSS is

Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

HSS MME
HSS
MME

S6a

• The HSS is already introduced by UMTS release 5. • With LTE/EPS the HSS
• The HSS is already introduced by UMTS
release 5.
• With LTE/EPS the HSS will get additionally
data per subscriber for mobility and service
handling.
• Some changes in the database as well as in
the HSS protocol (DIAMETER) will be necessary
to enable HSS for LTE/EPS.
• The HSS can be accessed by the MME via
S6a interface.

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HSS Functions Permanent and central subscriber database Stores mobility and service data for every subscriber
HSS Functions
Permanent and central subscriber
database
Stores mobility and service data for
every subscriber
Contains the Authentication Center
(AuC) functionality.

•For each EU which is attached to the network, the HSS records are pointing to only one serving MME at a time. If the UE moves to a new MME, the HSS will automatically cancel the information on the prevous MME.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Module Contents • Network Architecture Evolution • LTE/EPS Network

Module Contents

Network Architecture Evolution

LTE/EPS Network Subsystems

LTE/EPS Networks Elements

LTE/EPS Network Interfaces

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Subsystems • LTE/EPS Networks Elements • LTE/EPS Network Interfaces 18 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture LTE/EPS Network Interfaces User plane Control Plane Control Plane + User

LTE/EPS Network Interfaces

User plane

Control Plane

Control Plane + User plane

Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)

Evolved Node B (eNB) cell LTE-Uu
Evolved
Node B
(eNB)
cell
LTE-Uu
HSS MME: Mobility Management Entity S6a S10 MME Gx X2 S1-MME PCRF Gxc S11 S1-U
HSS
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S6a
S10
MME
Gx
X2
S1-MME
PCRF
Gxc
S11
S1-U
S5/S8
SGi
SAE
Serving
PDN
Gateway
Gateway
Gateway
Rx
Rx

LTE-UE

S1-U S5/S8 SGi SAE Serving PDN Gateway Gateway Gateway Rx LTE-UE PDN 19 © Nokia Siemens
PDN
PDN

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S1-U S5/S8 SGi SAE Serving PDN Gateway Gateway Gateway Rx LTE-UE PDN 19 © Nokia Siemens

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface Control Plane User Plane

LTE Radio Interface and the X2 Interface

Control Plane User Plane TS 24.301 NAS NAS Protocols Protocols TS 36.331 (E)-RRC (E)-RRC TS
Control Plane
User Plane
TS 24.301
NAS NAS Protocols Protocols
TS 36.331
(E)-RRC
(E)-RRC
TS 36.323
TS 36.322
TS 36.300
TS 36.321
LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA)
LTE-Uu
Protocols TS 36.331 (E)-RRC (E)-RRC TS 36.323 TS 36.322 TS 36.300 TS 36.321 LTE-L1 (FDD/TDD-OFDMA/SC-FDMA) LTE-Uu
• •
 

eNB

 

X2-CP

X2-UP

TS 36.423

(Control Plane)

X2-AP X2-AP SCTP SCTP IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2
X2-AP X2-AP
SCTP SCTP
IP IP
L1/L2 L1/L2

(User Plane)

User User PDUs PDUs GTP-U GTP-U UDP UDP IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2
User User PDUs PDUs
GTP-U GTP-U
UDP UDP
IP IP
L1/L2 L1/L2

TS 29.281

TS 36.422

TS 36.421

TS 36.424

TS 36.421

X2

TS 36.420 [X2 general aspects & principles)
TS 36.420
[X2 general aspects & principles)
36.421 X2 TS 36.420 [X2 general aspects & principles) 20 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0 eNB

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eNB

• LTE-Uu • Air interface of EUTRAN • Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-FDMA
• LTE-Uu
• Air interface of EUTRAN
• Based on OFDMA in downlink and SC-FDMA
in uplink
• FDD and TDD duplex methods
• Scalable bandwidth: from 1.4 up to 20 MHz
Data rates up to 100 Mbps(DL), 50Mbps (UL)
MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) is a
major component although optional.
X2 • Inter eNB interface • Handover coordination without involving the EPC • X2AP: special
X2
• Inter eNB interface
• Handover coordination without involving the
EPC
• X2AP: special signalling protocol
• During HO, Source eNB can use the X2
interface to forward downlink packets still
buffered or arriving from the serving gateway to
the target eNB.
• This will avoid loss of a huge amount of
packets during inter-eNB handover.

LTE –Uu •NAS stands for Non-Access Stratum (3GPP TS 24.301) •This signalling messages handled on this layer are transparent for the eNB •The NAS Protocol is further split into 2 sub-protocols:

- EPS Mobility management (EMM)

- EPS Session management (ESM)

•RRC: Radio Resource Control: manages UE signalling and data connection. Includes handover functions •PDCP, Packet data convergence Protocol: responsible for IP header compression (User plane, UP), encryption and integrity protection (Control Plane, CP)

•RLC, radio Link Control: responsible for segmentation and concatenation of the PDCP-PDUs for radio interface transmission. It also performs error correction with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)MAC: Medium Access Control:

- Scheduling of data according to priorities.

- Multiplexes the data to Layer 1 transport blocks.

- Error correction with Hybrid ARQ. •LTE-Uu physical Layer: OFDMA/SC-FDMA

X2 Interface •X2AP is the Control Plane (CP) application Protocol. •It includes functions for handover preparation and maintenance of the relationship between neighbor eNBs. •SCTP/IP signalling transport: the Stream contol Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and Internet Protocol (IP) represent standard IP transport suitable for signalling messages. SCTP provides the reliable transport and sequenced delivery functions. IP itself can be run on a variety of data link (L2) and physical (L1) technologies. •The UP in the X2 interface allows to move DL packets from the source eNB to the target eNB when the S1-U bearer section has not been reallocated yet.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces TS 36.410 [S1 general aspects & principles]

S1-MME & S1-U Interfaces

TS 36.410

[S1 general aspects & principles]

S1-MME

Control interface between eNB and MME

MME and UE will exchange non-access stratum signaling via eNB through this interface.

E.g.: if a UE performs a tracking area update the TRACKING AREA UPDATE REQUEST message will be sent from UE to eNB and the eNB will forward the message via S1-MME to the MME.

S1AP:S1 Application Protocol

S1flex 1 eNB to connect to several MME

S1-U • User plane interface between eNB and serving gateway. • It is a pure
S1-U
• User plane interface between eNB and serving
gateway.
• It is a pure user data interface (U=User plane).
• S1flex-U also supported: a single eNB can
connect to several Serving GWs.
• Which Serving GW a user’s SAE bearer will
have to use is signaled from the MME of this
user.
will have to use is signaled from the MME of this user. S1-MME (Control Plane) TS

S1-MME

(Control Plane)

TS 24.301

NAS NAS Protocols Protocols MME
NAS NAS Protocols Protocols
MME

Serving

TS 36.413 S1-AP S1-AP SCTP SCTP TS 36.412 IP IP TS 36.411 L1/L2 L1/L2 S1-U
TS 36.413
S1-AP S1-AP
SCTP SCTP
TS 36.412
IP IP
TS 36.411
L1/L2 L1/L2
S1-U

eNB

(User Plane) User User PDUs PDUs TS 29.281 GTP-U GTP-U UDP UDP TS 36.414
(User Plane)
User User PDUs PDUs
TS 29.281
GTP-U GTP-U
UDP UDP
TS 36.414

TS 36.411

IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2
IP IP
L1/L2 L1/L2
GTP-U GTP-U UDP UDP TS 36.414 TS 36.411 IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.410 [S1 general
GTP-U GTP-U UDP UDP TS 36.414 TS 36.411 IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.410 [S1 general

TS 36.410

[S1 general aspects & principles]

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TS 36.411 IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2 TS 36.410 [S1 general aspects & principles] 21 © Nokia
Gateway
Gateway

Gateway

Gateway

3GPP TS 36.410: S1 general aspects and principles

S1-MME

•NAS protocol messages are transparent to the eNB and are intended for direct communication to the LTE UE

•S1AP: is the S1-MME interface application protocol. It handles the CP & UP between the e-UTRAN and the EPC, including handover related messages when the EPC is involved

•SCTP/IP signalling transport: the Stream control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and Internet Protocol (IP) represent standard IP transport suitable for signalling messages. SCTP provides the reliable transport and sequenced delivery functions. IP itself can be run on a variety of data link (L2) and physical (L1) technologies.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture EUTRAN & EPC connected with S1-flex Several cases 1 eNB 1

EUTRAN & EPC connected with S1-flex

Several cases 1 eNB 1 Single S1-MME Single S1-U eNB 2 Single S1-MME Multiple S1-US1Flex-U
Several cases
1
eNB 1 Single S1-MME
Single S1-U
eNB 2 Single S1-MME
Multiple S1-US1Flex-U
2
eNB 3 Multiple S1-MMES1Flex
Single S1-U
3
eNB 4 (Not shown in picture)
-
Multiple S1-MMES1Flex
-
Multiple S1-US1Flex-U

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shown in picture) - Multiple S1-MMES1Flex - Multiple S1-US1Flex-U 22 © Nokia Siemens Networks CT8148CEN01GLA0

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture S10 & S6a Interfaces S6a (Control Plane)   (Control Plane) S6a

S10 & S6a Interfaces

S6a

(Control Plane)

 

(Control Plane)

S6a Appl.

S6a Appl.

  (Control Plane) S6a Appl. S6a Appl.  
 
MME
MME

TS 29.274

MME TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-C MME DIAMETER DIAMETER TS 29.272

GTP-C GTP-C

MME
MME

DIAMETER DIAMETER

TS 29.272

 

UDP UDP

SCTP SCTP

 
HSS
HSS
 

IP IP

IP IP
IP IP
 

L1/L2 L1/L2

L1/L2 L1/L2
L1/L2 L1/L2

S10

S10 • Interface between different MMEs • Used during inter-MME tracking area updates (TAU) and
S10
• Interface between different MMEs
• Used during inter-MME tracking area updates
(TAU) and handovers
• Inter-MME TAU: The new MME can contact
the old MME the user had been registered
before to retrieve data about identity (IMSI),
security information (security context,
authentication vectors) and active SAE bearers
(PDN gateways to contact, QoS, etc.)
• Obviously S10 is a pure signaling interface, no
user data runs on it.

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S6a • Interface between the MME and the HSS • The MME uses it to
S6a
• Interface between the MME and the HSS
• The MME uses it to retrieve subscription
information from HSS (handover/tracking area
restrictions, external PDN allowed, QoS, etc.)
during attaches and updates
• The HSS can during these procedures also
store the user’s current MME address in its
database.

S10

•GTP-C, GPRS Tunneling Protocol – Control Plane: in this case it handles mobility related functions (Inter-MME TAU and handover)

S6a

•SCTP/IP signalling transport: the Stream control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) and Internet Protocol (IP) represent standard IP transport suitable for signalling messages. SCTP provides the reliable transport and sequenced delivery functions. IP itself can be run on a variety of data link (L2) and physical (L1) technologies.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture S11 Interface TS 29.274 MME S11 (Control Plane) GTP-C GTP-C UDP

S11 Interface

TS 29.274

MME
MME

S11

(Control Plane)

GTP-C GTP-C

UDP UDP

IP IP

L1/L2 L1/L2

Plane) GTP-C GTP-C UDP UDP IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2 Serving Gateway 24 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Serving Gateway
Serving
Gateway

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S11 • Interface between MME and a Serving GW • A single MME can handle
S11
• Interface between MME and a
Serving GW
• A single MME can handle
multiple Serving GW each one
with its own S11 interface
• Used to coordinate the
establishment of SAE bearers
within the EPC
• SAE bearer setup can be started
by the MME (default SAE bearer)
or by the PDN Gateway.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture S5/S8 Interface (3GPP Candidate based on GTP) S5/S8 3GPP Alternative  

S5/S8 Interface (3GPP Candidate based on GTP)

S5/S8 3GPP Alternative

 

Control

User

Plane

Plane

 

User User PDUs PDUs

 

Serving

TS 29.274

Serving TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-C   GTP-U GTP-U TS 29.281 PDN

GTP-C GTP-C

 
GTP-U GTP-U
GTP-U GTP-U
Serving TS 29.274 GTP-C GTP-C   GTP-U GTP-U TS 29.281 PDN

TS 29.281

PDN

Gateway

 

UDP UDP

Gateway

Gateway

SGi

   
   
   

IP IP

   
 

L1/L2 L1/L2

 
PDN
PDN
S5/S8 (3GPP candidate) • Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW • S5: If Serving
S5/S8 (3GPP candidate)
• Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW
• S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)
• S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)
• S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions
• Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW
• Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources
• S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using
Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

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GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements. 25 © Nokia

S5/S8 Interface (GTP candidate)

Control Plane

•GTP-C, GPRS Tunneling Protocol, Control Plane: It manages the UP connection in the EPC: including the QoS parameters and the set up, maintenance and release of the CTP-U tunnel.

•GTP-C also performs the mobility management functions within the EPC (i.e: UE moves from one S-GW to another during a handover, but the connection remains anchored in the same P-GW)

•UDP/IP: The Unit Datagram, Protocol (UDP) and IP are used as the basic transport layer.

•UDP is used instead of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) because the higher layers already provide reliable transport with error recovery and retransmission.

•IP packets in EPC may be transported on a variety of L2 and L1 technologies (i.e ATM, Ethernet,…)

User Plane

•GTP-U, GPRS Tunneling Protocol, User Plane: it forms the GTP-U tunnel that will be used to send the IP packets belonging to one EPS bearer.

•The same user may request different EPS bearer, each one will use its own GTP-U tunnel

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture S5/S8 Interface (IETF Candidate based on PMIPv6) S5/S8 IETF Alternative Control

S5/S8 Interface (IETF Candidate based on PMIPv6)

S5/S8 IETF Alternative

Control User Plane Plane User User PDUs PDUs Serving MIPv6 MIPv6 PDN TS 29.275 Gateway
Control
User
Plane
Plane
User User PDUs PDUs
Serving
MIPv6 MIPv6
PDN
TS 29.275
Gateway
TS 29.275
PMIPv6 PMIPv6
Tunneling Tunneling
Gateway
SGi
Layer (GRE)
Layer (GRE)
PDN
IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6
IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6
L1/L2 L1/L2
S5/S8 (IETF candidate) • Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW • S5: If Serving
S5/S8 (IETF candidate)
• Interface between Serving GW and PDN GW
• S5: If Serving GW and PDN GW belong to the same network (non-roaming case)
• S8:If this is not the case (roaming case)
• S8 = S5 + inter-operator security functions
• Mainly used to transfer user packet data between PDN GW and Serving GW
• Signaling on S5/S8 is used to setup the associated bearer resources
• S5/S8 can be implemented either by reuse of the GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using
Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements.

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GTP protocol from 2G/3G or by using Mobile IPv6 with some IETF enhancements. 26 © Nokia

S5/S8 Interface (IETF candidate)

Control Plane

•PMIP, Proxy Mobile IP is the alternative from IETF. (3GPP TS 29.275,PMIP Based Mobility and Tunneling Protocols (Release 8)

•It takes care of Mobility Management, but does not include bearer management as such.

•All traffic belonging to a UE connection to a particular PDN is handled together

•PMIP runs directly on top of IP, which is used as the transport layer.

User Plane

•GRE, Generic Routing Encapsulation: is used in the S5/S8 interface in conjuntion with PMIP (3GPP TS 29.275,PMIP Based Mobility and Tunneling Protocols (Release

8)

•It forms and IP tunnel for transportation of all data belonging to one UE connection to a particular PDN.

•GRE is directly on top of IP and UDP is not used.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Gx (or S7) & Gxc Intefaces Gxc (Control Plane) Gx (Control

Gx (or S7) & Gxc Intefaces

Gxc (Control Plane)

Gx (Control Plane)

TS 29.212

TS 29.212 Gx Application Gx Application DIAMETER DIAMETER SCTP SCTP PCRF Gx Application Gx Application

Gx Application

Gx Application

DIAMETER

DIAMETER

SCTP SCTP

PCRF
PCRF

Gx Application

Gx Application

DIAMETER

DIAMETER

SCTP SCTP

DIAMETER DIAMETER SCTP SCTP PCRF Gx Application Gx Application DIAMETER DIAMETER SCTP SCTP TS 29.212

TS 29.212

   

IP IP

IP IP

   

L1/L2 L1/L2

L1/L2 L1/L2

 

SGi

    L1/L2 L1/L2 L1/L2 L1/L2   SGi Serving Gateway S5/S8 PDN Gateway IMS/PDN Gxc •

Serving

Gateway

S5/S8

L1/L2 L1/L2 L1/L2   SGi Serving Gateway S5/S8 PDN Gateway IMS/PDN Gxc • Interface between Serving

PDN

Gateway

IMS/PDN
IMS/PDN
Gxc • Interface between Serving GW (S-GW) and PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function) •
Gxc
• Interface between Serving GW (S-GW) and
PCRF (Policy and Charging Rule Function)
• This interface is only needed in case the S5/S8
interface is based on PMIP (IETF candidate)
• The reason is that only in this case the S-GW
will perform the mapping between IP service
flows in S5/S8 and GTP tunnels in the S1-U
interface. The information to do the mapping
comes from directly from the PCRF

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Gx (Also referred as S7) • Interface between PDN GW and PCRF (Policy and Charging
Gx (Also referred as S7)
• Interface between PDN GW and PCRF (Policy
and Charging Rule Function)
It allows:
• The PCRF to request the setup of a SAE
bearer with appropriate QoS
• The PDN GW to ask for the QoS of an SAE
bearer to setup
• To indicate EPC status changes to the PCRF
to apply a new policy rule.

Both Gx and Gxc are standardized in 33Gpp Ts 29.212: “ Policy and Charging Control over the Gx reference point 8Release 8)2.

LTE LTE/EPS Network Architecture

LTE – LTE/EPS Network Architecture Rx & SGi Interfaces Rx (Control Plane) RX Application RX Application

Rx & SGi Interfaces

Rx

(Control Plane)

RX Application

RX Application

DIAMETER DIAMETER

SCTP

SCTP

IP IP

L1/L2 L1/L2

SGi

(User Plane)

SCTP SCTP IP IP L1/L2 L1/L2 SGi (User Plane) TS 29.214 PCRF Application Application UDP UDP

TS 29.214

PCRF
PCRF
Application Application UDP UDP or or TCP TCP PDN IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6 Gateway L1/L2 L1/L2
Application
Application
UDP UDP or or TCP TCP
PDN
IPv4/IPv6 IPv4/IPv6
Gateway
L1/L2 L1/L2
PDN
PDN

TS 29.061

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Rx • Interface between PCRF (Policy & Charging Rules Function) and the external PDN network/operators
Rx
• Interface between PCRF (Policy & Charging
Rules Function) and the external PDN
network/operators IMS (in general, towards the
Service Domain)
•Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.214: “ Policy and
Charging Control over the Rx reference point
(release 8)”
SGi • Interface used by the PDN GW to send and receive data to and
SGi
• Interface used by the PDN GW to send and
receive data to and from the external data network
or Service Platform
• It is either IPv4 or IPv6 based
• Downlink data coming from the external PDN
must be assigned to the right SAE bearer of the
right user by analysis of the incoming packet’s IP
addresses, port numbers, etc.
• This interface corresponds to the Gi interface in
2G/3G networks
• Standardized in 3GPP TS 29.061: “Interworking
between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN)
supporting packet based services and Packet
Data Networks (PDN)