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Generally, frequency and voltage are totally unrelated things. They are only related in
alternating current applications where the frequency is related to how often the voltage
changes polarity.
Voltage will either be Alternative or Direct. An alternating sinusoidal voltage will be in
simple terms be considered as one which is from zero to its maximum positive value
then drops down though zero to negative maximum value. The occurrence of this
positive-zero-negative action is observed in a seconds which is the Frequency. So when
they say the frequency is 50 Hz, it means this particular voltage supply will undergo +ve,
zero,- ve zero 50 time in a second. Your bulb will brink off 50 time but you cannot notice
until you use an oscilloscope. In Direct voltage as from a battery, we usually say the
frequency is Zero but it can be in positive maximum or negative maximum. Basically,
Voltage Frequency relation will give you a clue of the kind of supply devise to use.

In the variable frequency drive field you can find that motor terminal voltage is a
function of the frequency as V = (Vp/fsys) x f1

V= Motor terminal starting voltage
Vp= Rated Phase Voltage at Motor Terminal
fsys = 50 or 60 HZ
f1= Starting Frequency.

Q2) Sampling rate

The choice of sampling rate is determined from the highest frequency present in
significant amount in the signal. For audio signals we may have frequencies to above
50kHz , but only want to respond to 20kHz and below. In this case filtering would be
needed to remove these high frequencies before sampling takes place. The strategy
chosen determines the number of samples taken during 1 period of the highest
frequency present in the signal.
(The period is the time taken for 1 full cycle of a repetitive wave. The envelope modulation
approach gives useful sampling rates with good accuracy for most applications. Also referred to
as oversampling.)
no of
samples per
Strategy period for 8 Explanation
bit converter
Used for non-repetitive signals where extreme
Every reading precise *2n 800
precision is required
Used for very repetitive signals; lower limit of
Nyquist criterion 2 2
sampling rate
exp 0.374 Chosen to match sampling error to resolution
Envelope modulation 20
n or measurement error inherent in converter

Nyquist criterion ( sampling theorem)

The information present in a signal can be recovered by taking at least 2 samples in every
period of the highest frequency present in the wave, over a large number of periods.

When you break a signal down into its component sine waves, you see that the signals
energy is distributed as a function of frequency. This distribution of a signals energy
over frequency can be shown as a plot of spectral density vs. frequency, such as the
solid plot shown below.

The quirk in the frequency domain is that a steady, repetitive signal has its energy
concentrated in spikes around the fundamental frequency and its harmonics. The more
steady the cyclical waveform is, the narrower these spikes are. So a signal that varies
over a span of a few seconds will have spikes that are around 1Hz wide, while a signal
that varies over a span of a few minutes will have spikes that are only a small fraction of
1Hz wide.

With the table given the paper I sent you. We can observe the amplitudes of accelerometer
current and speed sensor. With the increase in the voltage step by step we can clearly observe
there is increase in the amplitude in case of accelerometer and speed sensor, but whereas
there is continuous decrease in the amplitude when it comes to current sensor. All these values
help us in analyzing the unknown frequency. The random occurrences of amplitude in the
current sensors appear because of improper sampling.