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( )

.. , .. , ..
2

1. 7
1.1. . -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.11. -. . . . . . . . 28
1.12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
1.13. . . . . . . . . 32
1.14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.15. . . . . . . . . 37
1.16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

2. 47
2.1. . -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3

2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
2.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
2.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
2.10. -. . . . . . . . 90
2.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.12. . . . . . . . . 109
2.13. . . . . . . . . 133

148

. . . , -
: , , , -
, ; ,
.

.. .
. . .:
, 1998, . 572.

(. .
, 1994, .2, 6, .67-81) -
, ,
. ,
( ), ,
-
(Wunder und Zauber), -
, :
() ... . . .
( ), -
: , .
, -

( ) -
() -

.
,
-
1997-2000 .
5

..
, .

, - -,
.
... ...
(), , -.
, -
, (-
) . -
, , , (
, -
;
).

,
, , - -
..
. -
, .. , . . .
- , ,
, . ,
.
,
( , , -
),
. -
, , ,
.
, -
, , .
, -
( )
.
-
( ), -
-
. ,
.
.A.
6

.A. .

,
.

1. .. . ,
.4. .: - , 1955.
2. .., ..
. .: , 1984.
3. .., .., .. . .:
, 1979.
4. .., .. . - .: , 1988.
5. .., .. . - .: , 1986.
6. .., .. . .: ,
1979.
7. .., ..
( ). .: . 1982.
8. . . .: , 1977.
9. .. -
. .: , 1989.
10. ., ., .
. .: , 1971.
11. . / . ..
.. . .: . 1978.


1.

1.1. .

1. ,
. a. a = 1 .
2. V S
. P . -
. M
. , -
.
3. m, q, -
R,
Q. .
4. l m.

. . -
F . F ?
5. 1 -
. ?
6. .
.
. m 0.4 , R 0.15 ,
8

. 1.1. 4

, 105 .
, .
7. , ,
,
.
,
, , ,
, -
? .
8.
, .
? n.
9.
, n ?
10. , -
, , -
p, E.
.
11. -
.
12. ,
k
m1 m2 .
13. ,
I1 I2 , ,
. -
M = .
9

. 1.2. 14

14. , . 1.2.
m, l, k.
15. l
, . 1.3. -
,
. -
.
16. R
m r.
. .
17.
m, x,
x :

a) U (x) = U0 (x/l)3 3(x/l) ,


 

) U (x) = 4a (b/x)1 2 (b/x)6 .


 

. 1.3. 15
10

. 1.4. 16

18. , ""-
y = a sin(2x/l). ""-
. .

19. m
V (r) = Kr 3 , K > 0 r = a.
,
?

20. l
,
T0 .
, /2?

21.
m U (x) = k|x|n ,
n > 1. , n = 2.

n?

22. ,
x -
F = x3/2 .
?
.

23. , y = kx2 .
. -
?
11

1.2.

24. m = 100 ,
k = 10 /, v0 = 1 /. -
x0 = 4 . -
t = 1 .
25. C = 16 -
L = 160 .
V = 10 B, .
? -
?
26. l = 2 m = 1 10
. ?
, .
27. m, c -
R0 -
P .
, :
-
,
.
28. , x0
v0 , x(t)
t2 . .
29. l = 5 , -
100 .
, .
30. f0 = 100
Q = 100. ,
, R = 5 .
31. m k -
f = v. ,
, , -
. -
?
32. ,

12

= 0 . -
?
33. r = 5
l = 2 .
10 . -
. ,
?
= 20106 .
34. ,
?
35. , -
v0 .
.
t2 , -
.
. , -
. -
?
36. , -
, ,

2e2 d3 x
F = ,
3c3 dt3
- -
. , -
= 1015 / a = 108 .
1) , .

2) ?

3) ?

1.3.

37. -

13

.
?
38. , -
-
.

.
39. 38
.
40. -
p ,
- (x). d/dp.
41. , -
.
: -
-
.
42.
. -
2 , 20 .
?
43. ,
x0 v0 ,
. , -
-
.
44. -
f (t) = p(t).
45. -
, -

N
X 1
F (t) = p (t nT ).
n=0


T .
? ?
14

. 1.5. 46

46. . 1.5
. -

. v -
, e,
. .
,
v l0 , 0 -
. m.
47. -
, -

0 , t < 0 , t > T,
F (t) =
f, 0<t<T.

?
48. -

,

0 , t < 0 , t > T,
F (t) =
t , 0 < t < T .
, -
. ? -
.
49. Q 1
,

f0 , nT t (n + 0.5)T , n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
F (t) =
0 , .
15

T = 2/. -
.

1.4.

50. l

, . -
?
51. m R
, U (r) = cm/r n , c > 0.
n -
?
52. l = 1
0.01 .
100 ?
53. -
. t,
-
. , -
2 ?
54. " "
U (x) = U0 (x/l)3 p(x/l) ,
 

< p < . p -
?
.
55. a b ,
-

p4 + (a + b)p3 + p2 + ap + b = 0 .

56.
, . -
a b , -
.
16

1) ap + b = 0

2) p2 + ap + b = 0

3) p3 + ap2 + bp + 1 = 0

4) p4 + ap3 + bp2 + p + 1 = 0

57. a b ,
-

p3 + (b + 3)p2 + 3ap + a + b = 0 .

58. D- -

p5 + p4 + 2p3 + p2 + 2p + 1 = 0 .

59. D- -

). (p + 1) sh(p + 2) = 0 ,
). ep (p + 2) + p2 + 3p + 1 = 0 .

60. -

ax = x2 + y 1 , y = xy .

61.
x xy xy y
x = x2 , y = ,
2 +x +x 2
> 0, > 0, 2 > 1, ,
.
62. -
:

dN N dT
= , mc = N k(T T1 ) ,
dt l dt
17

N , T , l
, m , c -
, = (T T0 ) , > 0, T1 -
, T1 < T0 , k -
.
,
.
63. ,
.
, ?
64.
C1 C2 , C = C2 C1 << C0 = (C1 +
+ C2 )/2. (C/C0 , 0 ), 02 = 1/LC0 ,
.
65.

X
C(t) = C0 + C (t n ) .
n=

(C/C0 , 0 ), 02 = 1/LC0 , -
.
66. Q
1 C(t) = C0 + C cos(pt), p 20 ,
C C0 . ((p 20 )/0 , C/C0 ) -
. -
C/C0 ,
?
67. , -
, U0 .
C(t) = C0 + C cos(2t), C << C0 . -
?
68. 67, -
Q.
66.
69. p
-
2 g/l a. -
. ?
18

. 1.6. 77

70. l
, p

p 0 = g/l a ( -
).
?

1.5.

71.
, ?

72.
, -
. ,
, -
- .

73.
,
?

74.
, a -
.
.
.
19

. 1.7. 78

75. . -
. . -
.
76. m q d -
,
. -
. .
.
77. ,
.(1.6). ,
.
78. (. . 1.7). -
. .

79.
. , .
? -
,
.

. 1.8. 80
20

. 1.9. 82

1.6.

. -
, -
, .. -
, ,

.
80.
k, . 1.8, -
m, - 2m.
.
81. ,
. . -
, .
?
82. L M
k (. 1.9).
a, -
, .
. : ,
.
83. ,
(. 1.10) -
.
84. 83 ,
4 .
21

. 4-
, -
.
85. ,
. 1.11.
86. m -
, -
(. . 1.12).
k.
.
87. .
-
. ,
- . .

1.7.

88.

f (x, t) = Re{A exp[j(t kx)]}

2f 2
2 f
v = 0.
t2 x2
?
89. , f (x vt) g(x + vt) -
f g.

. 1.10. 83
22

. 1.11. 85

f (x vt).
, , t = 0
f (x) .
90. -
, v = 1 /. -
-
,
, . 1.13
2 4 .
91. . -
1 / , -
(. 1.14).
2 . -
2 5 .
92. (x, t) -
(, ) = x vt, = x + vt.
? ,

F (x, t) = f (x vt) + g(x + vt) ,

. 1.12. 86
23

. 1.13. 90

. 1.14. 91

f g .
93. , -

F (x, 0) = (x) , Ft (x, 0) = (x) .

94. V -
. ,
t = 0:

1) f (x, 0) d -
, f (x, t)/x|t=0 = 0;

2) , f (x, 0) = 0, f (x, t)/x|t=0


d ?

95. , -
y(x, t) -
. T , . -
.
24

96. , -
. . -
, .
97.
-
. , -
.
.

1.8.

98. ,
2 v 2 k2 = 0 = vk. -

. , f (x vt) g(x + vt) -
. .
99. -
.

2F 2
a). t2
v 2 xF2 + 02 F = 0 .

F 3
b). t + v F F
x x3 = 0 .

2
c). i F F
t x2 = 0 .

100.
:
a) = vk + 0 b) 2 = 02 + v 2 k2
k3
c) 2 = kg + d) 2 = c2 k2 /(1 + rd2 k2 )

v (k) v (k) .
101. -

2f 2
2 f 4f
v = 0.
t2 x2 t2 x2
25

-
,
.
102.
Z
F (x, t)
i (x x )F (x , t) dx = 0 .
t

.
103. v () .
, v = v .
104. = 2/k ,
. , v
v :
dv
v = v .
d
105. --
.

1.9.

106. , -
. ,
, , N 1 . -
, ,
? .
107. = (k) -
f (x) = A(cos k1 x + cos k2 x),
|k1 k2 | k1 , k2 . ,
: -
.
.
(k).
108. , 107
f (x)
26

k0 k/2 k0 + k/2 k0 k , -
. , -
t > 0
. -
.
x ,
xk 2.
109. (k) t = 0
+
dk
Z
2 /(k)2
f (x) = e(kk0 ) eikx
2

t > 0, k0 k.
110. (k) -
k0 k k0 .
, v (k0 ) 6= 0,

f (x, t) = F [x v (k0 )t]ei((k0 )tk0 x) ,

F (x) 2/k0 -
. .
111. 110 ,
F (x, t).
112. (k) -
k0 k k0 ,
v (k0 ) = 0. ,

f (x, t) = F (x, t)ei((k0 )tk0 x) ,
F (x, t) 2/k0
. F (x, t).

1.10.

113. ei(tkx) -
.
27

~
114. ei(tk~r) . -
, -
~v ?
.
115. 0 .
, :

1) ,
V ?

2) , ?

c.
116.
.
117. , -
.
118. 0 v
. -

, , .
?
119. 0 c -
v. , -
?
, 1.
120. , -
E(x, t) = E0 cos(0 t k0 x).

v0 .
. ,
t = 0 x = 0. ,
.
121. , -
v, -
-
. .
1.
28

.
- "" -
, -
.
.
122. -
2 = c2~k2 , c . -
, ~v
?
123. -
( ) 2 = 02 + c2 k2 ,
c .
, v
.

1.11. -.

124. v0 -
n ~
~~k. , , -
.
.
125. v (~k).
V

~k. , ,
cos = v /V , ,
.
126. , , -
v0 n -
~ ~~k. , -
U
. -
.
29

127. 124 126 -


.
128. ~v0 -
n > 1 -
, , ~k.
.

? E ~ 0 , -
.
129. x
E = E cos(tkx),
x. v -
T . ,

:
1) , -
T .
2) ,
, T 1/.
3) v 6= /k. ( T
) ?
4) , , -
n
.
, -
.

130. -
2 = ck + k3 ?
. -
c, > 0.

1.12.

131. -
.
30

. 1.15. 139

132.
-
k.
, ? -
.
133. ,
().
.
134. , "-
"?
135. . ,
12 2 , 10 . ?
136. 0.01 -
. 36 /.
, -
?
137. , kh 1 (h
)
= ck k3 c . , -
.
138. V -
,
. .
V = 20 /.
139. , -
. , -
. 1.15. ?
V .
140. .
31

. -
10 .

141. . r -
,
. . -
.

142. . ,
, -
.
? .

143. , -
-
39 .

144. .

145. .
-
. 2 = k3 /,
, .

146. ,
.

147. -
. -
= 1 ?

148. -
. -
? -
? -
.
32

1.13.

149. -

F F I I
+ v1 = I , v2 = F ,
t x t x
v1 , v2 > 0. , -
+ .
, -
?
150. 149, , -
( -
).
151.
149 150 .
-
, .
152.

( ck2 )( vk) = 2

1. -

.
?
153.

( vk)( + vk)( 2vk) = 3 ,

> 0, 1. ?
, , ?
154.
,

k2 c2 p
2
=1 ,
vk 0
33

. 1.16. 155

0 < v < c. ? -
,
, .
. -
.

155. . 1.16
E, -
K. P .
y(x, t)

ytt + Ky + P yxx + Eyxxxx = 0

P -
?
156. (, k)
3 ck = 0, ,c > 0. -
? , ?
157. l 2 c2 k2 = 2 -
. ?
158. -

[ 1 (k, )][ 2 (k, )] = 2


1 (k, ) 2 (k, ) ,
. ,
(, ) , -
.
159.
( vk)( 0 ck2 ) = 2 . : -

.
34

160. , -

2
( kv + 0 )( kv 0 ) =
k2 + d2
.
161. -

p2 b2
+ = 1,
2 ( vk)2
p b . -
, , ,
, -
.
162. 161
.
163. -
.
,
, , -
pp = np T , T .
164.
,
1 2 . . -
, v1 v2 > 0 ,
v1 v2 < 0 .
165.

1
= k2 + , 0 ,
k B i
, k .

166. ,

2 c2 k2 02 id ( kv) = 30 ,

35

. 1.17. 167

v > c,c, d, 0 > 0, d, 0 0 .


.
?

1.14.

167. , -
, , . 1.17 Z -
, Y -
. .
168. 167 ,
.
169. ,
. . 1.18 )-).
, -
:

. 1.18. 169
36

. 1.19. 170

1). .
2).
.
3).
(k 0).
170. L C-, . 1.19 -
2 C1 , C2 , C1 , C2 , . . . .
-
.
171. , LC, 1.18,,
. ,
, , -
.
172. 171
-
, C
L. -.
, -
, - -
.
173. , 172, .
? ,
, -
.
174. , , -
, ,
, x.
. ,
x?
175. x = 0
. -
37

V . ?
, x = 0 ?
176. C -
L
C L. (. 1.20). -
V .
? = V /V+ -
. -
.

1.15.

177. , -
.
178. , , -
, . ,
,
, . ,
, -
. .
H, L. -
L = 50 , H = 50 .
179. (
) N -
, . l,
m, k.

. 1.20. 176
38

180. ( -
) N -
, . l,
m, k.
181. -
l, . -
C L.
182. C L
, C0 .

C l C0 C l C 0 .
183.

2F 2
2 F
v = 0,
t2 x2
F (x, t) x t.
l . ,

F (x, t) = Re{eit f (x)} ,

:
) f (x);
) n , ;
) fn (x) ( )
.
) , fn (x)

Zl
fn (x)fm (x) dx = 0 , n 6= m.
0

184. 183 , -
:

F
y(0) = 0 , = 0,
x x=l
39

. 1.21. 186

,
,
F F
= 0, = 0,
x x=0 x x=l
, .
185. L
. -
.
186. , M L -
.
m (. 1.21).
.
187. L R
. ,
. c0 . ,
?
188. L R, R L
. , .
c0 .
189. L R, R, R L
. ,
. c0 . -
.
190.
. -
. 5 .
191. -
.
.
40

. 1.22. 197

192. R. -
, , -
, T .
193. -,
,

~2 2 (x, t)
i~ = 0,
t 2m x2
(x, t) . ,
, L , -

. .
194. ,
L R. .
.
195. -
. -
, . a b.
.
196.
R.
197.
,
(. . 1.22). . l.
,
0 < x < l l < x < -
Z1 Z2 , Z1 > Z2 .
41

1.16.

198. , , sin x x x3 /6. -


, sin(2 ).
. y = sin x
y = x x3 /6. , ?
199. , y = sin x/x -
. -
( ). .
200. px = sin x p > 0.
, p
. p,
.
201. y = sin y
x = 5/2, px = sin x.
p ? C -
200 p.
202.

1 1 0
A = 1 2 1 .
0 1 1
,
,
. A.
203. A 2 2 detA = 1. ,
|SpA| > 2, , 1.
204. (1 + i)1999
205. -
sin 3, cos 3, sin( ), cos( + ).
206.

sin + sin 2 + sin 3 + . . . + sin N .

207. , ,
x1 (t) = a cos(t + 1 ) x2 (t) = b cos(t +
+ 2 ) .
42

. 1.23. 215

. , x1 (t) =
= a sin(t) x2 (t) = b cos(t)
208. ,
.
209.
Z
eax cos bx dx

210. r -
. z
. ,
(1,0), (0,-1), (2,2). ,
z + 2 z = 0.
211. z = eit , z = reit ?
212. e m xy. -
B . , -
z i z = 0. ,
z = reit .
213. , ei -
, ,
x y -
.
214. z
x , iz, iz, iz ?
215. M
(. . 1.23). ,
, x.
a.
43

216. -
x, ,
. C, q.
217. m
v1 v2 , .
F (t).
t = 0 x1 x2 .
218. a
q.
.
Zt
219. (t) = ( )d .

220. sign x (x). -


sign x
221.

0, t < 0,t > T ,
f (t) =
f, 0<t<T,

(t).
222. : y = |x|, y = [x], y = x.
[x] x, x x.
: d|x|/dx, d2 |x|/dx2 , d[x]/dx, d{x}/dx.
223.
df
). if = (t), f |t<0 = 0 ,
dt
df
). if = (t), f |t<0 = 0 .
dt

224. :
 t
e , t 0,
). f (t) =
0, t < 0,
 t
te , t 0,
). f (t) =
0, t < 0,

a , |t| ,
). f (t) =
0 , |t| > .
44

225. , f (t) - f , -
f (at) - |a|1 f/a .
226. ,
Z
1
(t) = eit dt .
2

. , -
R R
(t) dt = 1 > 0 , , (sin t/t) dt = .

227. 226, -
.
228. . -
:
Z
). f (t) eit dt ,

Z
1
). f (t) eit dt ,
2

Z
1
). f (t) eit dt ,
2

229. , f (t) = 1/(t2 + 2 ) -


f = e|| .
230. eit , cos t, cos2 t,

P
Cn (t nT ).
n=
231. f (t), -

P
Cn ( n). , f (t)
n=
. ,
f (t).
232. :

sin t, cosn t,
P
Cn (t nT )?
n=
45

. 1.24. 233

233.
, . 1.24
234. f (t) T -
f .
F (t), f (t).
235. , n- f (t) ,
- f 1/ n+1 .
224.

P
236. (x n) .
n=
237.
Z
2
I(a, b) = sin(bx2 ) eax dx ,
0
Z 2
eax
I(a, b) = dx .
b2 + x 2
0

a b b a.
.
238.
Z
1
J0 (z) = cos(z sin t) dt

0


z .
239.
Z
t3
 
1
Ai(z) = cos tz + dt
3
0
46

z
.
240. f (t),
Z
f (t ) 1
2 2
d = 2 .
+a t + b2

a b ?
2.

2.1. .

4.
x , .
T , , -
. 2.1, T 4F x/l.
p
mx = 4F/lx = 4F/ml.
F .

. 2.1. 4

p
7. t = R/g 42
8. n
n3 . -
. ,
48

E. -
-
L,
, . -
, -
,
-
. ,
, , k = CE L ,
C() .
= 1, = 1, k L.
n . -
T2 /T1 = n.
10. T E 1/3 1/2 p5/6
q
12. T = 2 (mm 1 m2
1 +m2 )k
q
13. T = 2 (I1I+I1 I2
2 )
q
14. T = 2 1/ 3g 2 + m
3k

15. ,
/2. -
I1 = ml2 /3,
I2 = ml2 /12. -

I1 (/2)2 I2 2 ml2 2
K=2 + = ,
2 2 8

1 l ()2
=[2mg (/2)2 + mgl(/2)2 ] = mgl .
2 2 2
q
T = 2 2gl
q
5g
16. = 7(Rr)

17. m
U (x), x0 . -
,
49

d2 U (x x0 )2

U (x) = U( x0 ) + ,
dx2 x=x0
2

-
m/22 + k 2 /2 = const, =
= x x0 k = (d2 U/dx2 )x=x0 . ,

p
p
= U (x0 )/m T = 2 m/U (x0 ).
. )
x0 = l U (l) = 6U0 /l2 .
p
T = 2 6U0 /ml2 .

) x = 6 2b -
U (x) 36 22/3 a/b2 .

r
2/3 b m
T =2 .
6 a

19. , , -
-
[2],

L2
U (r) = U (r) + ,
2mr 2
L . a,
r = a : U (a) = 0.

U (r) = Kr 3 , , L2 = 3mKA5 . -
U (a) = 15Ka.

17,
p , -
T = 2 m/(15Ka).
20. T . T = T
T0 . , 1.
, , , -
t1 , , ,
/2, t2 .
50

, T 4(t2 t1 ). , -
, , -
.
:

Z
d
= ,
()

() ,
. ,
,

. , -
.
, 22 () = 21 () + 22 () ( 1 -
, 2 ). , 2 () 2 (),
:

1 1 2 () 1
22 .
1 () 2 () 22 () 2 ()

Z
22 () d 22 ()
1 2 6 2 .
222 () 2 () 222 ()

v2 () 2 , 22 () = (g/l)(sin2 (/2)sin2 (/4))


(3g/l)2 /16. 1 2 c
.
t1 t2 . , ,
,
:

02 = 0 ,
p 1

0 = g/l.
, t 1 = 0 ln(k + k2 1),
1 2
t2 = 0 ln(2k + 4k 1), k = /. , ,
t2 t1 01 ln 2. p
: T T0 + 4 l/g ln 2.
51

21. m -
U (x)

mx2
+ U (x) = E = const ,
2
2[E U (x)]/m. U (x) = k|x|n ,
p
x =

Zxm r Z1
dx m 1n/2 d
T =4 =4 A ,
1 n
p
2[E U (x)]/m 2k
0 0

A ( -
), kAn = E.
, n = 2 -
( ). 1 < n < 2,
A 0, n > 2,
A 0.
23. . -
, -
: . , -

m(x2 + y 2 )
+ mgkx2 = E
2
(E ). , x y-
, y = y (x)x = 2kxx.

mx2
1 + 4k2 x2 + mgkx2 = E .

2
-
. (2kx 1), -
m(gkx2 + x2 /2) = C.
.
,
, -
,
(. . 2.2). x, -
, ,
52

. 2.2. 23.

, -
, -
.
.

2.2.
1
25. V (t) = V (0) cos t, I(t) = CV0 sin t, = LC 6.28105 /c.
Qm = V (0)C = 1.6107 K.

26. E 0.3 ; N 1033


27. (.
19).
U (r) = GM m/r, G , M
.

GM m L2
U (r) = + ,
r 2mr 2
L . ,
(R) =
, U
= 0, , L2 = GM m2 R. U (r)
r = R,
GM m
U (r) U (R) + (r R)2 .
2R3
53


q -

= U (R)/m (. 17), =
p
= GM/R3 .
g , , g = GM/R02 , R0 -
.
r
R0 g
= .
R R0

,
R. ,
-
, -

.
r(t) = r(t) R -
, -

r(0) = 0, r(0) = P/m

P
r(t) = sin t .
m

, rmax = R + P/(m), -
,
rmin = R P/(m). , -
,
, 90 .
, -
R, -
.
, .
, ,
, -
P/(m). ,
a (a ). a =
= R, = P/(mR).
29. Q = 455, d = 6.9103 , = 1.54103 .
30. C = 1/(2f RQ) 3.2109 , L = RQ/(2f ) 8104 .
54

31. -
,
t+T
Z t+T
Z
Q= vF dt = v 2 dt .
t t

,
. ,
A , -
x(t) = A cos(t+) v(t) = A sin(t+),
= k/m. , Q = T 2 A2 /2.
p

W .

dW
W (t + T ) W (t) = Q , = kA2 /(2m) .
dt
-
, .
W = kA2 /2, dW /dt = 2 W , = /(2m).
W (t) = W (0) exp(2t),
A(t) = A(0) exp(t).
, -
.
36.

e2 ...
mx + m 2 x = x,
c3
. -
= t,
:
d3 x d2 x
+ 2 + x = 0.
d 3 d
= 2e2 /(3mc2 ) 6.26109 .
p3 + p2 + 1 = 0, -
. -
.
p = i, p =
= i + , .
55

, p1,2 = i + /2. ,

p 1/ 3 , , , ,
1 .
, ,

x(t) = Aet/2 cos(t ) .
= e2 2 /3mc3 .
Q = /(2) = 3mc3 /(e2 ) 1.59108 . -
W = m 2 a2 /2, -
W = 2W/Q = 2 3 e2 a2 /(3c3 ).
, W 1.81028 .
t = 1 ln 2 = 5.5108 .

2.3.
37. E = m 2 A2 /4, E = mkA2 /4.
m k,
. E /E = m 2 /k =
= 2 /02 .
41. -
f0
x + 2 x + 02 = f0 cos(t) .
, ,
x(t) = A cos(t + ),
f0
A= p ,
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 2
02 2
cos = p ,
( 2 02 )2 + 4 2 2
2
sin = p .
( 02 )2 + 4 2 2
2

1
-
, -
. ,
-
dxn /dtn .
.
56

0 ,
A = f0 /02 , = 0. 0 , A = f0 / 2 , = .

.
0 ,
.
, -
:
. ,
F 2 x, F x, F 02 x, -
. 02 x(t) f0 cos t, .. A f0 /02 , 0.
, ( 0 ),
, , -
, x(t) = f0 cos t.
, : x(t) f0 / 2 cos t, .. A f0 /w2 ,
.
42. A/A = (0 /)2 = 0.01.
44. -

x + 2 x = p(t) .

, -
t = 0. -, -

Z+0
2
x(+0) x(0) + x(t) = p .
0

, x(t) ( -
-
, , -
).
, x(0) = 0, -
,
x(+0) = p.

p
x(t) = sin t .

57

45. -
44. -
, N -
:
N 1
p X
x(t) = sin (t kT )

k=0

sin = Im[exp(i)].
T = .
N 1 N 1 N 1
! !
X X X
iw(tkT ) it ik
sin (t kT ) = Im e = Im e e
k=0 k=0 i=0

,
sin(N /2)
ei(N/21) .
sin(/2)

  
p sin(N /2) N
x(t) = sin t 1 .
sin(/2) 2


p sin(N /2)
A= .
sin(/2)

sin(N T /2)/ sin(T /2) N = 10 . 2.3.


46. v l0 , , -
,
.

Z Z
l e2
P = Fx (t) dt = dt .
l2 + y 2 (t) l2 + y 2 (t)
p

y(t) . -
y(t) = vt, .. ,
58

. 2.3. 45.

; -
, P = 2e2 /(vl).
-
A = P/(m0 ) = 2e2 /(vlm0 ).
49. F (t) :

X 2nt X 2nt
F (t) = a0 + an cos + bn sin ,
T T
n=1 n=1

ZT
1
a0 = F (t) dt ,
T
0
ZT
2 2nt
an = F (t) cos dt ,
T T
0
ZT
2 2nt
bn = F (t) sin dt ,
T T
0

n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . F (t),
, :

a0 = f0 /2 , an = 0, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
2f0
bn = , n = 1, 3, 5, . . . , bn = 0 , n = 2, 4, 6, . . . .
n
59

,
- n = 1,

f0 /2.
,
f0 2f0 2t
F (t) + sin .
2 T
=
= f0 /(2 2 ). -
, A =
= 2f0 Q/( 2 )

2.4.
p
50. < g/l.
51. , -

cm L2
U (r) = +
rn 2mr 2
. , ,

nCm L2 n(n + 1)Cm 3L2


U (r) = n+1
, U (r) = + .
r mr 3 r n+2 mr 4
L , -
R ,
L2 = nCm2 /Rn2 . U
(r),

Cm
U (r) = [n (n + 1) + 3n]
Rn+2
(r) > 0, ..
, U
0 < n < 2.
52. T .
(T ) = 1000 = 1 ,
:

02 = 0, ,
60
p
, 0 = g/l.
, -
(t) = 0 [exp(0 t) + exp(0 t)]/2. t = T -

e0 T + e0 T = 200 .

, ,
s
1 l
T ln 200 = ln 200 = 1.69 .
0 g

54. , ,
U (x):
U0  6U0 x
U (x) = 3(x/l)3 p , U (x) =

.
l l3
, p >p0 U (x) , -
x = l p/3.
, .
. 2.4
U (x), p > 0. -

2 3pU0 /l2 (
), ,
= xxmin , + 2 = 0,
2 = U (xmin )/m, m . -
, = x xmax , 2 = 0.
55.
-, -
. , -
,

(p) = a0 pn + a1 pn1 + . . . + an1 p + an = 0 , (1)

a0 > 0. (1) n pm = Re pm +i Im pm . -

p. (
), .
,
.
61

. 2.4. 54.

.
(1) -
Re pm < 0, .. (p)
),


a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0
a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0

Dn =
a5 a 4 a 3 a 2 . . . 0
(2)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 0 0 0 0

: -
( a1 an ) (1);

( a0 ); (
, n) . -


a1 a0 0
a1 a0
1 = a1 , 2 = , 3 = a3 a2 a1 , . . .
a3 a3 a5 a4 a3

a1 a0 0 0 . . . 0

a3 a2 a1 a0 . . . 0

. . . , n = a5 a4 a3 a2 . . . 0 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 0 0 0 0 0
62

. 2.5. 55.

p4 + (a + b)p3 + p2 + ap + b = 0 .



a + b 1 0 0

a 1 a + b 1

0 .
b a 1
0 0 0 b

1 = a + b, 2 = a, 3 = b[a
(a + b)2 ], 4 = b3 = b2 [a (a + b)2 ].
:

b > 0, a + b > 0, a (a + b)2 > 0 .

,
a > 0,
. , b a

a < b < a + a, a, b > 0, -
. ,
.

a > 0, 0 < b < a + a .

. 2.5 .
56. 1. a > 0,b > 0;
2. a > 0,b > 0;
3. a > 0,b > 1/a;
4. a > 0,b > 1/a + a.
63

. 2.6. 57.

57.

a > 0, a > b, b > 8/3

(a, b) (. 2.6 -
.
58. : = 1/p
2/p2 1/p3 2/p4 1/p5 . p = i,
, :
2 2
= Re = ,
2 4 (1)
1 1 1
= Im = 3 + 5 .

= (), = ()
( , ), -
,
, , , -
.
, () , ()
, , , -
, ( , ),
.
. -
.
0 (1) , 2 4 , 5
( /2)5/4 ,
64

. ,
(1) ,
2 2 , 1 2 2 .
d /d . -
,

d 4 3 2 + 5

= .
d 4 3 8

,
-
, = 2. -

( ( 2), ( 2)) = (1/2, 3 2/8), -
. ,
. -
, . 2.7.
,
, p
i i.
Im p > 0 . , -
-
.
-
- . = 1 -
p1 = 0.513376,p2,3 = 0.65878 i1.12403,
p4,5 = 0.415468 i0.987388.
,
D = 2 -
D = 3.
60.

x2 + y 1 = 0 , xy = 0 ,

, -
(xi , yi ), i = 1, 2, 3: P1 (0, 1), P2 (1, 0) P3 (1, 0).
,
, = x xi , = y yi .
1.

a = , = ,
65

. 2.7. 58.

: ap2 1 = 0.p
a > 0
: p1,2 = 1/a, -
P1 . a < 0
,
(. [8]) , -
, ,
.
2. P2

a = 2 + , = ,

: ap2 (a + 2)p + 2 = 0,
p1 = 1, p2 = 2/a, a > 0
a < 0.
3. P3

a = 2 + , = ,

ap2 + (a + 2)p + 2 = 0, p1 = 1,
p2 = 2/a. a > 0 a < 0.
61. : P1 (0, 0) -
p1,2 = 1/2, -
. P2 (1/2, 0) p1 = 1/2, p2 = +(12)/[2(1+2)],
66

, . P3 (, (1
2)) 8p2 + (12 2)p
(2 1) = 0. ,
, ,
P3 .
62.

y = (T T0 )/(T0 T1 ) , x = N/[k(T0 T1 )] 1 , = kt/mc .

:
dx dy
= r(x + 1)y , = xy,
d d
r = mc(T0 T1 )/kl > 0 . -
: P1 (0, 0) P2 (1, 1). -
, -
, , P1 p12 = (1 1 4r)/2.
r < 1/4 ,
P1 , p > 1/4
, P1 .
P2 p1 = 1,
p2 = r, .
63.
.
64. q . , -
, , ,
, q(t) q(t) . -
- xn = [qn , qn /0 ]T ,
n
-
, 0 = 1/ LC0 , T . -

qn
q(t) = qn cos (t tn ) + sin (t tn ) , n < t < (n + 1) .

.
:
 0   0 
cos 2 sin 2 cos 1 sin 1
xn+2 = 2 1 xn (1)
20 sin 2 cos 2 10 sin 1 cos 1 ,
67

p
1,2 = 1/ LC1,2 ( , n -
C2 C1 ). , -
, -


  , -
A . A
.
  -
, A ,
. ,
  -
, | Sp A | > 2,
Sp ( !).
 
| Sp A | = 2,

2 + 2


2 cos 1 cos 2 1 2

sin 1 sin 2 =
1 2
2 2 12 + 22
   
1 + 2
= 1+
cos(1 + 2 ) + 1 cos(1 2 ) = 2 .
21 2 21 2
(2)

= C/C0 1,
p p
1 = 0 / 1 /2 2 = 0 / 1 + /2 .

, :
12 + 22
= 1 + 2 /8 + O(4 ) ,
21 2
1 + 2 = 20 + 30 2 /16 + O(4 ) ,
1 2 = 0 /2 + 50 3 /64 + O(5 ) .

(2),
2

cos 20 + [(cos 20 1) 30 sin 20 ] = 1

(3)
16

, 2 , ,
| cos(20 )| 1, .. 0 n/2, n =
= 1, 2, . . . .
n = 1; 0 = /2 + , || << 1.
, , ,
(1 + 22 2 /8 + . . . ). , -
, /4.
68

-
.
n = 2, 0 = + .
(1 22 3/82 + . . . ). 0 0
2 32 /16. ,
, 2 .
, n
, n = 1: -
.
n
N = 2.
66.

q + 2 q + 02 (1 cos pt) q = 0 , (1)



q , = 1/ LC0 , = C/C0 1, = /(2Q)
. q(t) = exp(t)x(t)

x + 2 (1 cos pt) x = 0 , (2)

2 = 0 2 . ,
0 .
(2)

1
x(t) = A(t)ei0 t + .. ,
2

A(t) -
. -
,
0 . .. -
. x(t):

1h i
x(t) = i0 A(t) + A(t) ei0 t + .. ,
2
1h 2 i
x(t) = 0 A(t) + 2i0 A(t) + A(t) ei0 t + .. .
2

, , A(t) , -
A(t) . -
69

(2),

02 ipt
2i0 A(t)ei0 t e + eipt A(t)ei0 t

2
2
2i0 A (t)ei0 t 0 eipt + eipt A (t)ei0 t = 0 .

2
exp(i0 t) 2/p.
,
, exp[i(p20 )t],
p 20 , .

i0
A(t) + A (t)ei(p20 )t = 0 . (3)
4
0 p/2 = a(t) = A(t) exp(it).
:
i0
a(t) ia(t) + a (t) = 0 .
4
, a(t) =
= a (t) + ia (t). a (t) a (t)

 0 
a (t) + + a (t) = 0 ,
4  (4)
 0
a (t) a (t) = 0 .
4
a (t), a (t) exp(t), (4)


+ 0 /4
= 0.

+ 0 /4
q
1,2 = (0 /4)2 2 . , -
, , || > . -
2 = (0 /4)2 2

(/0 )2 = (/4)2 1/(2Q)2 , (5)

(/0 , ) , -
(0,2/Q) (. . 2.8).
70

. 2.8. 66.

, , -
= 0, min = 2/Q
67. A = C/C0 sin 2W , -
.
68. C/C0 > 2/Q.
70. , -
, -

x (02 + p2 cos pt)x = 0 ,

= a/l.

x 02 x = f (x, t) = xp2 cos pt .

,
, . -
p 0 . -
: x(t) = y(t) + (t), ,

y, . -
,

y + 02 (y + ) = f (y + , t) .

= 2/p:

y 02 y = f (y + , t) , (1)
71

( ) -
. :

02 = f (y + , t) f (y + , t) . (2)

, y -
. , (1)
h(y) = f /x, (2) f (y, t).
(2), , 02 ( 0 p),

1 = f (y, t) = yp2 cos pt ,

1 = y cos pt. h(y), ,


(1) :

y + 2 p2 /2 2 y = 0 .


, -
ap > 2lg.

2.5.

80. 12 = 0, X 1 = [1, 1, 1] T ; 22 = k/m, X 2 = [1, 0, 1]T ; 32 = 2k/m,


   

X 3 = [1, 1, 1]T .
 

82. , ,
,
. ( ) ,
, -
p . -
1 = k/M ,
X 1 = [1, 1]T .
 

, -
.  
T
p
2 = 6k/M , X 2 = [1, 1] . -
,
:
 
x1 (t)    
= X 1 (a1 cos 1 t + a2 sin 1 t) + X 2 (b1 cos 2 t + b2 sin 2 t) .
x2 (t)
72

. 2.9. 83.

a1,2 b1,2 , -
a1 = b1 = a/2, a2 = b2 = 0.
:
r r !
a k 6k
x1 (t) = cos t + cos t ,
2 m m
r r !
a k 6k
x2 (t) = cos t cos t .
2 m m

83. .
.
, p
,  . 1 = g/l,
X 1 = [1, 1, 1]T . ,

p -
2 = g/l  k/m .
 +
X 2 = [1, 0, 1]T .
. -
, A B (. . 2.9), -
1/2 (
). ,

p 2 =
= g/l + 3k/m. .
, -
, A B
. ,  , , ,
x1 (0) = x3 (0) = 2x2 (0). X 3 = [1, 2, 1]T .


84. -
,
73

. 2.10. 84.

. N -
, (.2.10),
mi , Ii
li , i = 1, 2, . . . , N .

p 0i =
= mi gli /Ii . ,
. -

l.
i- xi .
:

Ii xi + mi gli xi = ki l2 (xi+1 xi ) ki1 l2 (xi xi1 ) , i = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 .


(1)

, -
. ,
x1 = 0, xN = 0. , . 2.10,
, -
, , k0 = kN = 0.
. ,
.

  (1) ,
 
 
T
X = [x1 , x2 , . . . xN ] K M -
74

N :
 
K =
I 2
1 01
l2
+ k1 k1 0 ... 0 0
2
I2 02
k1 + k1 + k2 k2 ... 0 0
l2 2

= I 3 ,
0 k2 03
+ k + k . . . 0 0

l2 2 3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I 2
0 0 0 . . . kN 1 N l20N + kN 1

I1 /l2

0 0 ... 0
  0
I2 /l2 0 ... 0
2

M = 0
0 I3 /l ... 0.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 0 . . . IN /l2
, , -
.

d2        
M X = K X .
dt2
   
, X = Re{exp(it) X },
X = [x1 , x2 , . . . xN ]T , -
 

.
-
x1 , x2 , . . . xN :

K X = 2 M X
     
(2)

, -
, ..

Det K 2 M = 0
   

, -
N 2 :

aN N + aN 1 N 1 + . . . + a1 + a0 = 0 ,
2 , a K
 

  = i
M . N ,
75

.
i (2),
  , . -
X i ,
.
, -
, -
N 5
,
. ,
, -
, (. 179 180.
, -
.
,
m02 + k

k 0 ... 0 0
  k
m02 + 2k k ... 0 0
2

K = 0 k m0 + 2k . . . 0 0 ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . k m02 + k

m 0 0 0 ... 0
  0 m 0 0 ... 0

 
M = 0 0 m 0 ... 0

=m I ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0 .............. m
I , 2 = g/l.
 

. N = 4,
:
2
0 + k/m k/m0 0 0
k/m
02 + 2k/m k/m 0 X = 2 I X .
    
0 k/m 2
0 + 2k/m k/m
0 0 k/m 02 + k/m


1 1 0 0
1 2 1 0     
X = I X (3)
0 1 2 1
0 0 1 1
76

= m( 2 02 )/k. , -

(3 62 + 10 4) = 0 . (4)

1 = 0 1 = 0 .
. ,
,
 . -
X 1 = [1, 1, 1, 1]T .



(4). ,
-
. , ,
-
,
. -
,
p -
. 2 = 2k/m,
2 = 2. , -
.
X 2 = [1, 1, 1, 1]T .
 

, (4)
( 2). 2
4+ 2 = 0,
3,4 = 2 2.
r   k
3,4 = 02 + 2 2
m
, 3,4 -
(3). , :

X 3 = [1, 1, 1 + 2, 1 2]T , X 4 = [1, 1, 1 2, 1 + 2]T ,
   

 
85. 1 = 2, X 1 = [1, 0, 1]T , 2 = 2 2, X 2 = [1, 2, 1]T , 3 = 2+ 2,
 

X 3 = [1, 2, 1]T .
 

87. , ,
. -

,
77

. -
,
: H = He + Hk + H .
He = p2 /2m. -
. ,
(
) Hk = kx2 /2+ p2 /2m. , -
-
, x q, x I, m L, k 1/C, I
, L C .
Hk = q 2 /(2C) + P 2 /(2L),
P = Lq , q.
. -
,
H = eqx/(Cd), d .
:
p2 q2 P 2 eqx
H= + + + .
2m 2C 2L Cd
:
H p
x = = ,
p m
H eq
p = = ,
x Cd
H P
q = = ,
P L
H q ex
P = = .
q C Cd
-
,
e e
x = q, q + 02 q = x,
mCd LCd
02 = 1/(LC).
. , -
, , , -
,
.

x(t) = Re[x0 exp(it)] , q(t) = Re[q0 exp(it)] ,
78

2
  
e/(mCd) x0
=0
e/(LCd) 2 02 q0

, -
,

e2 02
2 2 02 =

.
mCd2
, C = 0 S/d ( ); ,
, n0 = 1/(Sd) =
= 1/V .

2 2 02 = 02 p2 ,


p
p = e2 n0 /m0 -
. ,
, -
, -
. , -
, . -
, ,
,
.
, -
0 , -
.
0 , , = 0 + , -
p2 /w0 ,
, -
. 2 = p2 . , -
, -
, .
86. ,
6 ,
. , -
x y -
.

79

.
. , (xi , yi ) -
, -

x1 + x2 + x 3 = 0 , y1 + y2 + y3 = 0 .

-
. , , -
-
, . -
x a (a

) -
l = 3x.
3mx2 /2, 9kx2 /2.
p , -
1 = 3k/m.
,
. ,
-
, , -
. -
. C
. 2.11,. -
,
y.

y1 = y3 x1 = x3 , x2 = 0 , y2 = 2y1 , (1)

, . -
, , x1 y1 .
-
, , x1 , y1 a. , -
, ,

2mx21 6mx21
E = + ,
2 2
9kx21 27ky12 3 3kx1 y1
E = + .
4 4 2
, -
L(x1 , x1 , y1 , y1 ) = E E , ,
80

. 2.11. 86.

:

9k 3 3k
2mx1 = x1 + y1 ,
2 2

27k 3 3k
6my1 = y1 + x1
2 2
, , x1 , y1 exp(it),


2m2 9k/2
   
3 3k/2 x1
= 0.
3 3k/2 6m 2 9k/2 y1
, -
6 4 (27k/m) 2 + 27k2 /m2 = 0.
12 = 3k/m, 22 = 3k/(2m).

[x , y ]T = [1, 3/3]T [x , y ]T = [1,
 1 1 1 1 1 2
3/3]T . X = [x1 , y1 , x2 , y2 , x3 , y3 ]T , -
,
(1),

X 1 = [1, 3/3, 0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3]T ,
 

X 2 = [1, 3/3, 0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3]T .
 

, -
,
, 2 .
,
p -
2 : 3 = 2 = 3k/(2m). ,
, , -
, (. . 2.11, ). ,
81

,   1  2 . -
X 1 X 2
.
(xi , yi ), i = 1, 2, 3
.
, -
-
2/3 :
      
xi   xi cos(2/3) sin(2/3) xi
= U 2/3 = ,
yi yi sin(2/3) cos(2/3) yi
, , -
1 3 2 1. P .
,
 
X 1 = P X 1 = [1, 3/3, 0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3]T ,
 

X 3 = P X 2 = [0, 2 3/3, 1, 3/3, 1, 3/3]T .
   

   
, X 1 X 1 , ,
     
X 3 X 1 X 2 .
, -
 
: 2 X 2
 
X 3 . :
p p p
{0, 0, 0, 3k/(2m), 3k/(2m), 3k/m} .

2.6.

88. 2 = v 2 k2 . .
V = /k = v.
91. . . 2.12
93.
x+vt
1 1
Z
F (x, t) = [(x vt) + (x + vt)] + () d .
2 2v
xvt
82

. 2.12. 91.

94. . . 2.13
95. , -
. -
y, x. -
(.. ) .
dx (. . 2.14). -
,
T sin (x) + T sin (x + dx). (x) ,
.
sin tg (x) = yx , yx = /x. :

2y

y y
dx 2 = T +T ,
t x x x x+dx

2y 2
2 y
c = 0,
t2 x2
p
c = T /
.

. 2.13. 94.
83

. 2.14. 95.

96. -
, -
:
dv p
= , + (v) = 0 , (1)
dt t
= (p, S) . (2)

S . ,
x.
: (x, t) =
= 0 + (x, t), p(x, t) = p + p (x, t), vx (x, t) = v (x, t).
(1)-(2), ,

 
p
p = ,
S

v
 
1 p
= ,
t 0 S x
v
+ 0 = 0.
t x
t, x -
,

2v 2
2 v
c = 0,
t2 x2
c2 = (p/)S .
. ,

84

, , -

. ,
.
.
p = const
s  s
p p0 RT
r
c= = = .
S 0
T , R ,
.
p = 28, T = 293 K c =
= 1.4 8.3103 293/28 = 349 /, = 32
c = 326 /, = 28.8, c = 344 /.
97.
,
:
1 B
rot E = , (1)
c t
1 D
rot H = , (2)
c t
div D = 0 , (3)
div H = 0 . (4)
D B -
E H D = E,
B = H, .
z, , -
,
. (3) -
Ez /z = 0. z- (3)
, Ez /t = 0. Ez = const.
, Hz = const.

, ,
, . -
, -

,
.
85


:
Ey Hx
= , (5)
z c t
Ex Hy
= , (6)
z c t
Hy Ex
= , (7)
z c t
Hx Ey
= , (8)
z c t
(5) , (8) , -
Ey :
2 Ey 2
2 Ey
v = 0,
t2 x2

v = c/ . -
.

2.7.

99. a). 2 = 02 + v 2 k2 ; b). = vk k3 ; c). = k2 .


100.
a) v = v + 0 /k , v = v ;
v2 k
q
b) v = v 2 + 02 /k2 , v = p ;
02 + v 2 k2
p g + 3k2 /
c) v = g/k + k/ , v = p ;
2 gk + k3 /
c c
d) v = q , v = q .
1 + rd2 k2 (1 + rd2 k2 )3

102.
Z
F (x, t)
i (x x )F (x , t) dx = 0
t

86

F (x, t) = F0 exp[i(t kx)]:

Z
i(tkx) it
iF0 e iF0 e (x x ) ekx ) dx = 0 ,

Z
it
e (x x ) eikx dx =

Z
i(tkx)
=e (x x ) eik(xx ) d(x x ) = ei(tkx) (k) ,

(k) - (x). -
= (k).
(k), , ,
, -
, .
, .

2.8.

106. 2N .
110.
Z
1
f (x, t) = F (k)ei[w(k)tkx] dk ,
2

(k) , F (k) -
f (x, 0) = F (x)eik0 x :
Z
F (k) = F (x)ei(kk0 )x dx .

87

, , F (k)
|k k0 | k.
(k) k0 :

(k) = (k0 ) + (k0 )(k k0 ) + (k0 )(k k0 )2 /2 + . . .

, -
, k k0
.

Z
1 i((k0 )tk0 x)
f (x, t) = e F (k) ei(kk0 )[xw (k0 )t] dk =
2

= ei[(k0 )tk0 x] F [x (k0 )t] .

,
, -
v = (k0 ),
0 = (k0 ) v = 0 /k0 .
, -
. -
,
| (k0 )|(k)2 /2 1. [| (k0 )|(k)2 ]1 .
111.
F F
+ v = 0,
t x

v = (k0 ).
112.

Z
ik0 x 1
f (x, 0) = F (x) = e ei(kk0 )x F (k)dk ,
2

Z
1
f (x, t) = eik0 x ei[(k)t(kk0 )x] F (k)dk .
2

88

(k) k0 -
: (k) = (k0 ) + (k0 )(k k0 )2 /2 + . . . .
, :

Z
i(0 tk0 x) 1 (k 2
f (x, t) = e ei[ 0 )(kk0 ) t/2(kk0 )x]
F (k)dk =
2

= ei(0 tk0 x) F (x, t) ,

0 = (k0 ). F (x, t)
, .
:
Z
F i (k0 ) 1 (k 2
= (k k0 )2 ei[ 0 )(kk0 ) t/2(kk0 )x]
F (k)dk ,
t 2 2

Z
2F 1 (k 2
= (k k0 )2 ei[ 0 )(kk0 ) t/2(kk0 )x]
F (k)dk .
x2 2

, , -
F (x, t):

F (k0 ) 2 F
+i = 0.
t 2 x2
, -
. ,

.
= i sign( (k0 ))t,
:

F | (k0 )| 2 F
+ = 0.
2 x2

x 1/k, t
(x)2 /| (k0 )| (| (k0 )|(k)2 )1 1/0 . 0 t
1,
.
89

2.9.

113. ,
V = /k

114. -
( )

= kV , k = k .


V.

115. ,
, . -
= 0
k = 0 /c, c . , -
, = V k = 0 (1 V /c).
, =
= 0 (1 + V /c).
, , (-
) = 0 .
= V k,
c = /k. = 0 /(1 V /c).
, = 0 /(1 + V /c)

117. = ( kV) , = (k V/c2 ) ,


kp
c , = 1/ 1 V 2 /c2 .

118. , ,
= 0 , k = (0 cos /c, 0 sin /c) (-
, x ). -
= (0 + 0 v cos /c).
,
v
= 0 (1 + cos ) .
c

119. = (1 + v/c) 2. 2 1 .
90

120. , -
, , eE0 cos(0 t
k0 v0 t) = qE0 cos[(0 k0 v0 )t], e . -
= 0 k0 v0 A =
= eE0 /(m 2 ), m .
121. . -
119 , = (1+v/c) 2.
, ,
,
. , -
, , = 2 = 4 2 .
123. c
, , ( 2 c2 k2 )
.

2.10. -.

125. . 2.15 ,
x V . -
, ,
,
.
. , , -
, -
. A ,
. ,
v (k) .
cos = v /V ,
.
, A,
.
, , -

(0, 2), .
-
.
91

. 2.15. 125.

126. -
:

mV 2 mV 2
+U = + ~ + U ,
2 2
mV = mV cos + ~k cos ,
0 = mV sin ~k sin ,

, (. .2.16,),
U U .
.
, , ,
, cos 1.
,
E mV V , V = V V .
   
kV nV
U = ~ 1 cos = ~ 1 cos (1)
c

,
,
.
, : > 0 = arccos(nV /c), (1) -
U < 0
. -
(. . 2.16, ). :
< 0 , , , -
. . ,
-
. , ,
.
92


V

q
j j
V
k

. 2.16. 126.

130. -
, kv = 0. -
,

k2 kv 2 + c = 0 .

-
: v 4 4c 0. ,

4
v 4c = vmin .

:
r !
v2 4c
= 1 1 4 .
2 v

, , -
-
(. 2.17). -
= vk, . -

. , 1 2
. -
, 1
v, 2 .
, -
. ,
, .
, -
- ,
93

. 2.17. 130.

= /, c = g, -
, , g .
vmin 23 /.
, -
, ,
,
.. v < vmin . , ,
, 23 /c, .
-
(. 141-144).

2.11.

131. v = v /2, v =
= 3v /2.
132. -
. 2.18.
,
v min 23 / (. 130).
133. - -
2 = gk + k3 /, g
, , -
. , -
. k, -
,
.
p
k g/. ,
94

. = 1000 /3 ,
= 74103 /, = 2/k = 1.7 .
= 13.5103 /3 , = 465103 /, = 1.18 .
,
.
134. , . -
-
= gh k, h .

V = gh.
h = 3 , V 170 /c 600 /.
135. 5 .
136. Fr = v 2 /gL,
L . -
,
. 3.6 /.

137. c = gh, = gh [h2 /6 /(2g)].
138. = 2V 2 /g 20 .
139.
p ,
1 = (v 2 /g)(1 1 4g/v 4 ). p

2
2 = (v /g)(1 + 1 4g/v 4 ).
g/v 4 1, 1 2/(v 2 ) 2 2v 2 /g.
. . 130.
140.
, -
, .

. 2.18. 132.
95

, , , ,
,
,
, , -
, -
,
. ,

, .
d, .
, -,
k 1/d, -
.
, [3], ,
.

v (p p0 )
+ (v)v = U , (1)
t

v , p , p0 ,
, U (r) -
, ,
( = const)

div v = 0 . (2)


, , ..
rot v = 0.
v = , (2)
:

= 0 . (3)

, -
(v)v , -
(1) [/t + (p p0 )/ + U ] = 0, -

p p0
+ + U = 0. (4)
t
96

, ,
, , (4)
.
z , xy -
. -
(x, y, t). (4),
, , :


+ g = 0 . (5)
t z=

, ,
=
z |z= ,
 2 

+g = 0.
t2 z z=

, , -
z = 0, (3),
-
:

= 0 , (6a)
 2 

+g = 0. (6b)
t2 z z=0

(6) :


(x, y, 0) = 0 (x, y) , = 0. (7)
t t=0

(6)-(7) -
[9]. (6)
exp(pt), p Re p > 0,
t 0 :

p = 0 ,
 
(8)
+ p2 p

g = = g0 (x, y) .
z z=0 t z=0,t=0

(5), -
z = 0. p (x, y) p .
97

0 (x, y) ,
,
p ,
r = x2 + y 2 .
(8)

Z
p (r) = ekz J0 (kr)F (k, p) k dk , (9)
0

J0 (kr) . ,
k ekz J0 (kr) ,
(9).
k -
:
z . (9) (8), :

Z
gk + p2 F (k, p)J0 (kr) k dk = g0 (r) .

(10)
0

F (k, p) -
- [10].
- 0 (r) -
0 (k)

Z
0 (k) = 0 (r)Jm (kr) r dr , (11)
0

Jm (kr) m.

Z
0 (r) = 0 (k)Jm (kr) k dk , (12)
0

(11)-(12) , 0 (r)
[10]. , -
R
, (r) |0 (r)| dr ,
0
.
98

(10) , (gk + p2 )F (k, p) -


- g0 (r). -

Z
g0 (k) kz
p (r, z) = e J0 (kr) k dk . (13)
p2 + gk
0

, -
- :
Z
1 g0 (k) kz
Z
(r, z, t) = ept dp e J0 (kr) k dk . (14)
2i p2 + gk
L 0

p L,
-
p (r, z).
, .. -
(r, t). (5) z = 0
,
Z
1 p
Z
(r, t) = 0 (k)J0 (kr) k dk ept dp . (15)
2i p2 + gk
0 L

, p/(p2 + a2 ) -
cos at,
Z
(r, t) = 0 (k) J0 (kr) cos[(k)t] J0 (kr) k dk . (16)
0

(k) = gk
.
(16) ,
, .
(k) -
exp(ikx),
exp[i((k)t
kx)] exp[i((k)t + kx)],
x. -
(k)
99

t t. -
,
, . -
, -
.
, -
,
Z
1 1h i
(x, t) = A(k)ei(k)t + B(k)ei(k)t eikx dk , (17)
2 2

A(k) B(k) .
:

ZZ
1 1h
(x, y, t) = A(kx , ky )ei(k)t +
2 2

i
+ B(kx , ky )ei(k)t ei(kx x+ky y dkx dky , (18)

(7) ,
ZZ
1
A(kx , ky ) = B(kx , ky ) = 0 (kx , ky ) = 0 ei(kx k+ky y) dx dy . (19)
2

0 (kx , ky ) - -
0 (x, y).
p ,
r = x2 + y 2 , (18)
(19) .
(19)
Z Z2 Z
1
0 (k) = 0 (r)r dr eikr cos d = (r)J0 (kr) r dr . (20)
2
0 0 0
q
k = kx2 + ky2 , k r, ,
c :
Z2
1
J0 (x) = eikr cos d .
2
0
100

(18), -
(16). , ,
.
,
(16) ,
,
t
. , cos[(k)t]
J0 (kr) t r .
-
. , t
-
, kr 1.

p -
J0 (x) 2/(x) cos(x /4). (16)
:

r Z
2
(r, t) = 0 (k)k1/2 cos[(k)t] cos(kr /4) dk =
r
0
r Z
1
= 0 (k)k1/2 {cos[(k)t kr + /4] + cos[(k)t + kr /4]} dk =
2r
0
Z
r
1
= Re ei/4 0 (k)k1/2 ei[(k)tkr] dk +
2r
0
Z

+ ei/4 0 (k)k1/2 ei[(k)t+kr] dk . (21)


0

Z
I1 = 0 (k)k1/2 ei[(k)tkr] dk . (22)
0



. , , -
101

, [11], :

Zb
I(t) = F (k)eit(k) dk , (23)
a

F (k) (k) , a b -
, t :

(k) = 0 (24)

k , a < k < b, (23)


s
2
I(t) F (k ) ei[t(k )/4] ; (25)
| (k )|t

, (k ) > 0 , (k ) < 0.
k ,
(25). -
(24) ,
, O(1/t).
(24) , -
: I(t) exp(t), > 0. k = k -
.
(22). (k) = (k)kr/t,

(k) = v (k) = r/t . (26)


p
= gk, v (k) = g/(4k), -
k = gt2 /(4r 2 ).

gt2
(r, t) = t(k ) = (k )t k r = . (27)
4r
, (k ) = (k ) = 2r 3 /(gt3 ) < 0. -
, , I(t)

gt2
r  2
gt 2
I1 0 ei(gt /4r/4) .
r 2r 2 4r 2
102

, (21) -
,
I. ,

gt2 gt2
 
cos gt2 /4r .

(r, t) = 2 3 0 (28)
4r 4r 2

r t, -
, r/t .
-
,
, -
.
,
. ,
k0 , k0 k/2 k0 +k/2, k k0 , -
,
(k0 ),
.
-
, . t
r ,
(26), . -
(r, t) = (k0 )t k0 r,
- -
k0 . , ,
:
, (k0 )k,
, -
| (k0 )|t,
p ,
1/ | (k0 )|t.
, -
(25), /4, -
, , ,
. , , -
,
.
, , -
0 (r).
103

. 2.19.

(28) -
. , -
d , -
, ,
. 2.19,. - ,
,
. 2.19,. , 0 (k)
k . 1/d. , gt2 /4r 2 & 1/d (. 0
(28)), .

,
: r1 gdt/2. , -

, gd/2.
(27)
r, 1 : ,
,
2, 1 . -
r2 gt2 /4, g/2.
(28) ,
, .
, .. -
,
. -
, ,
, . -

, . -
,
.
104

. 2.20.
.

. 2.20.

143. V
. -

. ,
-,
, -
v () < V , -

v ()
cos = .
V

, , -
, .
, ,
.
, . 2.21. -
AB . c
A, t B,
|AB| = V t. A
, t -
r = v t = V t cos /2 C.
, ,
A, V t/4
O, V t/4 A. ,
B x,
105

. 2.21.

. C

x = V t + r cos ,
y = r sin .

r t ,
1 3 1
x = V t + V t cos2 = V t + V t cos 2 ,
2 4 4
1 1
y = V t cos sin = V t sin 2 .
2 4
(x + 3V t/4)2 + y 2 = (V t/4)2 .
B , . 2.21 -
. |OB| = 3V t/4, 0 = arcsin(1/3) 19.5 .
, t, , -

! , -
, v < V .
144. -
- . -
. 2.21.
B -
x . A, -
,
x. -
cos = v ()/V , -
. t, B,
r = V t cos /2 C (
, v = v /2). -
106

(r, t) = gt2 /(4r) , -


, 140.
r V t :
V 2
r= cos2 ,
g
(1)
2V 2
Vt= cos .
g

x = V t + r cos ,
(2)
y = r sin .
(1) (2),
V 2
x= cos (2 cos2 ) ,
g
(3)
V 2
y= sin cos2 .
g
(3) -
-
.
/2 /2, (x, y) -
, , .
, 2,
. 2.22.
-
, -
. -, ,
x. -,
, , -

p .
V v = g/k, 2V 2 /g. -
, , -

, p
m = arcsin(1/ 3) = 35.3 , cm = 2/3V ,
m = 4V 2 /3g.
, ,
, -
. l,
107

. 2.22. -

. -
l k 2/l (, ,
V > v ). , -

Fr = V 2 /gl, .
Fr << 1, , l, -
.
Fr >> 1
.
, , -
.
Fr ,
( ), Fr (-
) , .
145. 140.
146. 144 -

2 sin2 cos3
x= ,
V 2 cos2
3 sin
y= 2 .
V cos3
,
.
147. -
.
108

-:
 
v
+ (v) v = grad p + F + v , (1)
t

, p , F
, . (v)v
v/t . -

, ,
.

v
v ,
t
= / .
, ,
. E v 2 ,

E v
v vv
t t
v v/L2 , L ,
,

1 E
2 (2)
E t L
-
,

4
k2 .
g2
. -

= (P/x)P 1 , P , -
.
v g/,

/v 5 /g3 = k5/2 /g1/2 .


109

= 1 , = 1.75103 , = 103 /3 ,
7105 1/, 5105 1/.
148.
2/3
2

2
k .

p
/v k3 /. -
, k, =
= 2 2 /. 0.3 ,
3103 . ,
.

2.12.

149. F = F0 exp[i(t kx)], I = I0 exp[i(t kx)].


i( kv1 )F0 = I0 ,
i( + kv1 )I0 = F0 ,

( v1 k) ( + v2 k) = 2 . (1)

-
,
.
= 1 (k)
= 2 (k), , -
/k.
,
-
. (, k)
(0 , k0 ) (-
) . , -

110

. -
(k, ) .
, .
-
, -
.
-, ( ..) .
-
, [ 1 (k)], -

[ 1 (k)] [ 2 (k)] = , (2)

, , k.
, -
-
,
. , , -
,

[ 0 v1 (k k0 )] [ 0 v2 (k k0 )] (0 , k0 ) .

v1 = (d1 /dk)k=k0 , v2 = (d2 /dk)k=k0


(, k) , ..
= 0 k = k k0 , (1) (
). -

(2) .
,
.
, -
,
-
. ,
, 150.
, (1),
. 2.23. , -
.
= v1 k = v2 k
.
111

. 2.23. , -


k / v1 v2 .
, , -
.
, -
, |k| < 2/(v1 + v2 )
, , -
( . ).
:
Im < 0, -
, .
( ), , -
,
. , -

|| < 2 v1 v2 /(v1 + v2 ),
-
k. , -
: -
.
150.

( v1 k) ( v2 k) = 2 .

, v2 > v1 . -
. 2.24. , -
. |k| < 2/(v2 v1 )
-
. ( )
112

151. -

< 2 v1 v2 /(v2 v1 )
. .
, , ,
D(, k) = 0 t = 0 x = 0
, = + i ,
. -
, -
exp( t) exp(i t): < 0
. -
.
,
, -
: ki (),
, -
x.
, , , ,
.. . -

x , ,
.
ki () < 0, -
. ,
ki () , ,
x. -
k+i () ki ().
, -
, , -
.
k+i () > 0, = 0, -
exp[k+i ()x], ..

-
x. , ki () < 0, -


x.
, -
, -
[4, 1]: ki (), -
,
, -
113

. 2.24. , -

. , -
: + . ,
:
k -
,
, .
, , || -
= v1 k, = v2 k,
, k () .
.

< 2 v1 v2 /(v2 v1 ), , -
,
, .. ,
.
. -
. 2.24,.
, -
.
151. , v1 v2 , -
,
F F I I
+ v1 = I , + v2 = F . (1)
t x t x
149 150 ,
, -
. ,
, v2 > 0, v2 > |v1 |.
114

(1):

( v1 k)( v2 k) + 2 = 0 . (2)

-
, -

k. , -
(P.A.Sturrok), ,
[4]2 .
D(, k) = 0 -
k i (k), , i (k) < 0,
,
. ,
: ki (), -
, :

1)
k ;

2) = c , c < 0.

,
.
-
, -
.
,

d D(, k) D(, k)
= 0, = 0, 6= 0 . (3)
dk k
2
.
- exp[i(t kx)], -
. , -

.
.
,
.
115

D(, k) = 0,
.
(2). -
, |k| <
2/|v2 v1 |. , , -
k:
1 h p i
k1,2 () = (v1 + v2 ) (v2 v1 )2 2 4v1 v2 2 .
2v1 v2

|| : k1 (x) /v1 , k2 (x) /v2 .


, v1 v2 > 0,
k -
. .
v1 v2 ,
k -
. k1,2 () p ,
, .. c = i2 |v1 v2 |/|v2
v1 |. ,
.. . -
.
, , , -
(2),
, -
, , -
.
.
, (1), ,
t = 0 - . , -
.
(x , t ), V = (v1 + v2 )/2
. (1) :

F F I I

v = I ,
+ v = F , (4)
t x t x

v = (v2 v1 )/2. I ,
, F

2F 2
2 F
v 2 F = 0 . (5)
t 2 x 2
116

F (x , +0) =
= (x ), Ft (x , +0) = 0.
. (5), :

F (x , p) p2 2 p
2 2
F (x , p) = 2 (x ) . (6)
x v v
F (x , p) F (x , t ). (6)

2 2
F (x , p) = Ae p x /v ,

x > 0, x < 0. -
, |x | , ,
. A -
dF/dx |+0 dF/dx |0 = p/v 2 , (6)

p ,
x = 0. A = p/(2v p2 2 ), x > 0 :
p 2 2
F (x , p) = p e p x /v . (7)
2v p2 2

x > 0, -
x . -
,
p
1 p exp( p2 2 x /v) pt
Z
F (x , t ) = p e dp . (8)
2i 2v p2 2
L

, -
p,
.
p
1 1
Z 2 2
exp( p x /v) pt
F (x , t ) = e dp . (9)
2v t 2i
p
p2 2
L

[10],
  q  
1 2 2 2
F (x , t ) = I0 t x /v (t x /v) . (10)
2v t

I0 (z) , (z) -
: (z) = 0 z < 0 1, z > 0.
117

. 2.25. 151. -
() ( ) -
.

, -
t = x /v -
1/(2v), ,
- :

t < |x |/v ,

0 

F (x , t ) = 1

2 2
t I1 t x /v2

(x vt ) + 2 2 t |x |/v .
2 2v t x /v2

x < 0 x .
,


0 t < x/v1 , t > x/v2 ,
1


[(x v1 t) + (x v2 t)] +

F (x, t) = 2  p  (11)

tI 1 t 2 (x V t)2 /v 2 x/v1 t x/v2 .

+

p
2v t2 (x V t)2 /v 2
,
t .

-
I0 (z) ez / 2z z . -
, ,
. 2.25. -, v1
v2 , .
v1 > 0, v2 > 0,
,
.
118

v1 < 0, v2 > 0 ,
, , .
x F (x, t) exp t/ t t ,
.
154. =
= /0 , k = kc/0 , = v/c < 1 = p /0
:
( 2 k2 )( k 1) = 2 . (1)
, , -
( = 0) = k,
= k = vk + 1.
. -
, ,
,
.
(1) , -
. , , , -

, . -
x = /k y = 1/k. x
, y .
y x:
(x2 1)(x )
y= . (2)
(1 + )x2 1
y(x) ,
.
x = 1, x = x = 1
x = 1/
1 + , ,
1/ 1 + ,
.
< 1/ 1 + y(x) . 2.26,.
, y -
x. ,
. -
(1) , -
. -
.
(k, ) -
2.26,. -

119

. 2.26. 154. -
(1/k, v ).

: x y . ,
x (2) y (x )/(1 + ), -
,
k 0 = 1 + + k. x y 0, ..
, = k k . x 1 y = 2(1
)(x 1)/ = k + /(2(1 )) k .
. x 1

(k, ): = k + /(2(1 + )).
x 1/ 1 + , (k, )
1/ 1 + .
, , -
. 2.27,.

1/ 1 + < < 1.
(x, y) . 2.27,.
, -
. , y
,
, y, -
x (2) .

y,
x. , -
, .
(k, )
, . -
. 2.26,.
120

. 2.27. 154. -
(k, ). -
. k
.

155. P > 2(KEI)1/2 .


157. L > 2c/.
158. ,
1 (k, ) 2 (k) ,
, =
= i. , -
, .
, 1 (k, ) > 2 (k, ).
:

1h p i
= 1 (k, ) + 2 (k, ) D(k) . (1)
2

D(k) = [1 (k, ) 2 (k, )]2 42 , -


.
. 2.28
D(k). k ( 1), -
.
,
( 2). , -
3, -
D(k) .
: D(k0 ) = 0, dD(k0 )/dk = 0, D (k0 ) > 0.
121

. 2.28. 158. -

( < c ), ( = c )
( > c ).

D(k)

1 (k0 , ) 2 (k0 , ) = 2 ,
1 (k0 , ) 2 (k0 , ) = 0 , (2)

(k0 , ) (k0 , ) > 0 .

k, , -
(, ). ,
, , -
D(k).
, (2), -
. , , -
.
, ,
.
,
? ,
. -
c . < c
, > 0 ,
k0 . , c c , -


k, 0 ,
.
, (1).
= 0 + , k = k0 + k, 0 = [1 (k0 ) + 2 (k0 )]/2, D(k) D (k0 )(k)2 /2,
122

r
1
= v k c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )]k2 (2 2c ) .
2
v = d1 (k0 )/dk = d2 (k0 )/dk
(2)

1
[() v k]2 c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] + (2 2c ) = 0 ,
2

" r ! #
1
v c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] k
2
" r ! #
1
v + c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] k = (2 2c ) .
2

-
, , ,
> c . ,
, ,
,
. -
, , (2),
r
1
v= c [1 (k0 ) 2 (k0 )] , (3)
2
, -
. ,
.
159.
p p = /0 , 0 = /0 ,
k = k c/0 , v0 = v/ v/(c0 ) -
:

( v0 k) ( 1 k2 ) = 20 .

, -
-
, 158. (2)
123

. 2.29.
159.

, ,
:

1 + k2 v0 k = 2 , v0 = 2k ,

v02
1 = 20 .
4

(v02 , 0 )
(. 2.29). -
. , , -
(. 158).
, ,
.
, ,
. -
(3) 158, v02 = ,
v02 = 4/9, = 4/9.
160. , 0 d
, -
:

2
( vk 1)( vk + 1) = .
1 + k2

1 (2)
2 (2) < 2/(1 + k2 ), 1 (k) 2 (k) .
124

1 + k2 < . , -
> 1, -
, k0 = 0.
.

2 /(1 + k2 ) 2 (1 k2 ). ( kv 1)( kv +
+ 1) = 2 (1 k2 )
[ (v + )k] [ (v )k] = 1 2 .
,
> 1.
. v >
v < . . 2.30.
165. , -

. -
exp[i(t iBx + x)].
x ( < 0),
, , -
.

(. 2.31). k 1,
B >> 0 -
,
, B << 0 . , -
, , -
,
.
|B| 1
.

. 2.30.
160.
125

. 2.31.
165.

B,
.
-
, 151. -
,

.

d
= (k) , = 0, Im (k) = 0 . (1)
dk
N -
, N 1. -
, . -
, (1) , -
,
, -
,
, , -
.
.
(1)

1 d 1
= k2 + , = 2k .
kB dk (k B)2

z = k B, k B
z:

1 1 1
= 4
+ , B = z + . (2)
4z z 2z 2
126

B,
z , -
. z
, ,
. ,
,
(2),
,
, .

B, 2z 3 + 2Bz 2 1 = 0 -
. , B < Bc =
= 3/2, B > 3/2
, B < 3/2 .

166. , , ,
,
. -
. 2.32. -
, ,
L. , ,
,
, , -
ki = i/L, i .
i = (ki ). .
.
, L (k)
, L -
-
. ,
. 2.32,
(0, 0 ).
,
, , -
k,
, ,
.
, , , ?

, ,
127

. 2.32. -
,

, . -
,

, -
i = + ii . , i > 0,
, i < 0.
-
, i ,
.
, -
,
.
, , , -
.

.
1966 .. -
, , -
.
3 .

k = ki (), i = 1, 2, . . . , s (s ).
-
ki (w) , -
, .
3
[4].
128

. 2.33. .

, -
150: , k ()
, , , k () +
.
k+i ki . 150 ,
, k+i > 0, ,
< 0 , , ,
ki
,
. . 2.33
.
, -
. 1 2 {+},
3 4 {}. 1 3 ,
2 4 .
:
{+} -

: k+1 k . . . , {}
+2
:
k . . . .
k1 2
ki () k, k+1 ()
{+}, k1 ()
{}. k+ k .

k+ k ,
.
k+
A+ (0).
L). , , -
A+ (0) exp(k+
, , ,
129

, , , -
k+ .
k R2 .
|R2 |A+ (0) exp(k+ L),

|R2 |A+ (0) exp[(k+ k )L]. -
,
. ,
x = 0 k k+ -
R1 ,
k )L]. ,
A+ (0)|R1 ||R2 | exp[(k+


|R1 ||R2 | exp[(k+ k )L] = 1 .

.
, , -
(k+ k ).

, -

F ( , ) = Im[k+ () k ()] = 0 . (1)

, -
, .
L , 4 . ,
- , (1),
, -
.
-
, ,
(1). = 0
F (0 , 0) > 0. , k+ (0 )
k k (0 ).
, k+ , k ,
< 0 (2) ,
. ,
, .
, -
, , F ( , 0) 0 .
4
, F ( , ) -
.
130

. 2.34. (1) -
. 1 , 2
.

1 , 2 , . . . . ,
, -
1 , 2 , . . . ,
,
.
, ,
, (1), -
, (. . 2.34). = 0 + i0
, F (0 , 0) = 0. -
F ( , 0) 0. ,

max F ( , 0) = 0 , < < . (2)

(2) -
( ), -
,
-
.
, -
, e (2),
, -
(
), -
(1) ,
.
,
. . -
131

. 2.35. -
.

:
p q  p q 
2 2
id 0 + c k2 2 2 2 2
id + 0 + c k 2 ( vk) = 30 ,
(3)

, 0 = 0. , p -
1,3 (k) id/(2) 02 + c2 k2 ,
2 (k) = vk. . 2.35. || -
1,3 (k) ck, 2 = vk, ,
1 2 , 3 . 1
3 ,

d
q
1,3 (k) = 02 + c2 k2 + i p 2 .
2 0 + c2 k2

0 6= 0 -
, 0 = 0,
.
0 , ,
, -
. . , : k = 0 / v 2 c2 ,
= vk ,
1 2. -
. , 3 -
0
.
132

, (3)
, , , 2 ,

k = k k = . ,

  
V k i v k = 2 , . (4)

-
:

3 (k) = V k + i . (5)

(4) (5) V = 1 (k ) = c2 /v, =


= d/(2 ), 2 = 30 /(2 ). (4)
k,
s
   2 2
1 1 1 1 1 4
k1,2 () = + i i . (6)
2 V v V V v V Vv

, -
, /V , Im k1 >
0, Im k2 < 0. , , -
, k1 ,
k2 .
(2) Im k1 ()
. Z = w + iu = (1/V
1/v) i/V , a2 = 42 /V v, (6)

p
Z 2 a2 = s + it .

( s, t, w, u ). ,
:

(t2 u2 a2 ) t2
w2 = .
t 2 u2

t2
w2 u2 . w2 (t2 ),
, , .
133

. 2.36. w2 (t2 ).

2.36. , t ( -
)
p w 0
/V 2 /V 2 + 42 /(V v), w
0 /V . w ,

p Im k1 () = 0,
/(2V ) + /V 2 + 42 /(V v)/2.
2

Im k3 = /V -
, (2), -
c,
r
1 2 42
+ + = ,. (7)
2V 2 V2 Vv V
2 = 2 2 v/V = 2 . > , F ( , 0) > 0,
.
= 0 , ,

2 2 v
2 =
V
-
.

2.13. -


178. T 2L/ gh 4.5103 = 1.25 .
179. , -
(. 2.37).
134

. 2.37. .

d .
N 2 . -
1 N xn
n- . :

x1 = 0 ,
k k
xn + 02 xn = (xn+1 xn ) (xn xn1 ) , n = 2, . . . , N 1 , (1)
m m
xN = 0 ,

02 = g/l. Xn
xn (t) = Re{eit Xn }; Xn (1)

X1 = 0 , (2a)
 
2k k
2 + 02 + Xn = (Xn+1 + Xn1 ) , n = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 , (2b)
m m
XN = 0 . (2c)

Xn = A sin[(n 1)],
A . (2a)
, (2b)

4k
2 () = 02 + sin2 . (3)
m 2

(2c), , -
sin[(N 1)] = 0,

j
j = , j = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 , (4)
N 1
135

. 2.38. -
.

(3) (4) -
:
s
4k j
j = 02 + sin2 , j = 2, 3, . . . , N 1 , (5)
m 2(N 1)


Xn(j) = Aj sin[j (n 1)] (6)

j- . , N 2
, . -
j, 1, 2, . . . , N ,
.

, . 2.38 (, )
(), (3). -
,
(4). p -
1 = 0 2 = 02 + 4k/m,
. -
.

/(N 1), . . . -
. -
, -
N , ,
136

, 1
2 , .
,
Aj , (6) ,
(j)
Xn , . .
, .
,
, -
. . 2.39
, N = 9. -
, ,
, .
,
, , -
, N ,
, N .
,
. ,
. , -
,
( ),
,
.

181. n = 1/ LC(n/l), l = 1, 2, . . . .
182. , -
U (x, t) I(x, t)
U I I U
= L , = C .
x t x t

. 2.39. -
.
137

U, I exp(it), -

U (x) I(x):

U (x) = U+ eikx + U eikx ,


1  
I(x) = U+ eikx U eikx ,
Z0

U+ U ,
p
x, Z0 = L/C -
, k = LC.
U (0) = 0, U+ = U ,
, x = l
I(l, t) = C0 dU (l, t)/dt -
= iC0 U (l). ,
I(l)


z = kl = LCl:

C0
ctg z = z.
CL
. 2.40.
, C0 /CL 1 z /2. -
z = /2 ,
= (C0 /CL)(/2),
 
C0
= 1 .
2l LC Cl

(C0 /Cl 1)
p ,
ctg z 1/z, z = Cl/C0 ,

1
= .
LlC0

, -
C0 L0 = Ll,
.
185. . 186.
186. ,
. ,
138

. 2.40. 182

. 2.41 dx, -
x x + dx.

2 y(x, t)
dx = T (x + dx) sin (x + dx) T (x) sin (x) .
t2
T (x) x, (x) -
. -
, T (x) = g[m + M (1 x/L)]
,
M = L , (x) y(x, t)/x. dx
, :

2y
 
y
2 T (x) . (1)
t x x

. x = 0 -
, y(0, t) = 0.
,
. -
,

2 y(L, t)
m = T (L) sin (L) .
t2
, T (L) = mg, -
:
 2 
y y
y(0, t) = 0 , +g = 0. (2)
t2 x x=L
139

. 2.41. 186

, y(x, t) =
= Re[eit Y (x)]. = + 1
x/L, = m/M , 2 = L 2 /g, Y ()
:
 
d dY ()
+ 2 Y () = 0 .
d d

= 2
m = 0.

d2 Y () dY ()
2 2
+ + Y () = 0 .
d d


 
dY ()
Y (2 ) = 0 , + Y ()
= 0.
d 2 =2 1+

Y () = C1 J0 () + C2 N0 () .

J0 N0 , C1 C2
, . -
,
-
:

C1 J0 (2 1 + ) + C2 N0 (2 1 + ) = 0 ,
   
C1 J1 (2 ) J0 (2 ) + C2 N1 (2 ) N0 (2 ) = 0 .
(3)
140

J0 () = J1 () N0 () = N1 () .

(m = 0).
= 0, N0 -
. ,
C2 = 0,
C1 J0 (2) = 0, , = 0n /2,
mn n- m- .
01 = 2.405, 02 = p p
5.520, 03 = 8.654. p -
1 = 1.2 g/L, 2 = 2.76 g/L, 3 = 4.33 g/L
, m 6= 0,
(3)
 
J1 (2 ) J0 (2 ) N0 (2 )
 
N1 (2 ) N0 (2 ) J0 (2 ) = 0 .

. -
, = 1 ( ), -
: 1 = 1.056, 2 = 4.082, 3 =p7.738.
,
p
p 1 = 1.056 g/L,
2 = 4.082 g/L, 3 = 7.738 g/L.
187. R L -
, ,
. , -
,
96:

v c2
= 0 ,
t 0 x
v
= 0 .
t x
, v , .
,
c , -
(. 182).
, v U , I, c20 /0 L, 0 C,
. -
, .
141

v (0, t) = 0, ,
= 0,
. -
. ,
L,
R . 189,
,
, -
. ,
,
( ).
, -
, -
.
, -
, ..
L = (2n + 1)/4, n = 1, 2, . . . ., ,
= 2c0 /,
 
1 c0
n = n + .
4 L

188. n = nc0 /L.


189. -
. -
( ..),
. -
, L R.
-
,
. v(L) =
= v0 . -
S = R2 , =
= c0 /(4L) ( ) v0 .
-
(v = ):

1 2
= 0, (1)
c20 t2
142


: /n = un (t)
.
,
(r ),
5 . ,
,
.
, , R0 ,
,
. (1), -
, (r, t) = A exp[i(t
kr)]/r, k = /c0 ,
 
ik 1
v(r, t) = A 2 ei(tkr) . (2)
r r

-
kr. r R0 ,
.

Aeit
v(R0 ) = v0 eit ,
R02

a = v0 R02 . , -
, ,

iv0 R02 k ei(tkr)


v(r, t) = .
r
R c -
, -
:

2 R02
I = 4R2 0 v 2 = c0 20 v02 R02 .
c20
5
, .
, -
, .
[3]
143

, -

2 R02
P c0 v02 . (3)
2c20

. -
I P R2 0 v02 R4 2 /c0 , R
. , , W =
= 0 v02 L. Q 2W/I,

c0 L L
Q 2
= 2.
R R

L R Q L2 /R2 1. ,
.
p
190. /(R3 ) 1 . (. [3])

l(l 1)(l + 2)
l2 = , l = 2, 3, . . . .
R3


(l=2) -
2 2 .
191. l2 = [80 Gl(l 1)]/[3(2l + 1)]. . [7].
192. -

2f
 2
2f

2 f
v + 2 = 0, (1)
t2 x2 y
p
f , v = T /.
, f f (x, y, t) = Re{F (x, y) exp[it]}.
F (x, y)

2F 2F 2
+ + k2 F = 0 , k2 = . (2)
x2 y 2 v2

, F (r = R) = 0.

, F (r, ) = R(r) (). R(r) ()
144


 
d dR
+ k 2 r 2 m2 R = 0 ,

r r
dr dr
2
(3)
d
+ m2 = 0 .
d2

m2 . ():

() = A cos(m) + B sin(m) .

, m .
R(r) , ,
r,

R(r) = CJm (kr) .

, ,
J0 (kR) = 0, k = kmn = mn /R, mn -
. m n

 
sin m
Fmn (x, y) = Jm (mn r/R) .
sin m

mn = vkmn = vmn /R .
193. En = ~2 2 n2 /(2mL2 ), n = 1, 2, . . . .
194. C, -
x = 0,

 nz 
(x, y, z, t) = AeiEt/~ sin (r, ) ,
L
n. ,
(r, )

+ k 2 = 0 ,
2 2
k2 = 2mE/~2 2 n2 /L2 , = x 2 + y 2
. , -
.

145

(R) = 0. -
192
, :
 
sin m
(r, ) = Jm (mn r/R) ,
sin m
2 = 2 /R2 . :
kmn mn

~2 mn
 2
2 n2

E= + 2 .
2m R2 L

p
195. nm = gknm th hkmn , kmn = (1/(a2 m2 ) + 1/(b2 n2 ), m, n
, .
196. (. -
182),
:
2V 2
2 V
c = 0.
t2 x2

c2 = 1/ LC p .
Z = L/C x = l, ,
,
g = Z1 /Z2 =
= L1 /L2 > 1.
.
x = 0 V (0, t) = 0, -
. -
,

V V
V (x = l 0) = V (x = l + 0) , =g .
x x=l0 x x=l+0
, , x > l ,
.
.
, V (x, t) =
= Re{V (x) exp it}, V (x)

V (x, t) = A sin kx , 0 x l,
V (x, t) = Beikx , x l,
146

k = /c. x = 0 -
. x = l, :

A sin kl = Beikl , A cos kl = igBeikl .

tg kl = i/g -
. kl = n + i, n =
= 0, 1, 2 . . . .
1
th = .
g

1 1 g+1
= arcth( ) = ln .
g 2 g1
, -
:
nc c
n = +i .
l l
n > 0. , -
, -
x > l. , x > l
-
: Vn exp(ikn x) = exp(x/l) exp(inz/l). g > 1
> 0, -
x. ,
c. x
t ,
, t = t
x/c.
exp(ct /l),
exp(ct/l) exp(x/l).

. -
,
.
-

, , .
147

,
, .. -
. ,
,
, -
x, , x > l -
, .
, . ,
t -
, , -
, , -
n .

, .
. g 1,
1/g.
. g 1, , g = 1+, -
(1/2) ln(2/). ,
, -
, 1/ l/c
.
148

1. .., ..
. .: , 1984.

2. .., .. . - .: , 1988.

3. .., .. . - .: , 1986.

4. .., .. . .: ,
1979.

5. . . .: , 1977.

6. .. -
. .: , 1989.

7. ., ., .
. .: , 1971.

8. .. . : -
-. 1995.

9. .
. .: , 1965.

10. ., . -
. .: , 1968.

11. .. . .: , 1984.