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POWER CRISES

POWER CRISIS

SUBMITTED TO:- SUBMITTED BY:-


Mrs. SAVITA AMARPAL(3843)
SARTAJ(3846)
BBA II (4th SEM)

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INTRODUCTION
Imagine this scenario: One morning you wake up, yawn,
scratch yourself, and sit up. Wearily, you stumble out of bed. You go to your
refrigerator for a glass of milk only to discover that the light inside does not
turn on and everything inside it has been sitting at room temperature
overnight and is quickly beginning to spoil. "That's funny, "you think to
yourself. When you try to brew a cup of coffee the coffee maker does not
seem to want to start. Your gas stove won't turn on, so it looks like there'll
be no bacon and eggs this morning. As you sit down with your bowl of dry
cereal, you glance out the window and wonder why there is no newspaper.
You pick up your cordless phone to call the newspaper and complain, but it
doesn't turn on either. You begin to panic and you run out to the car. It won't
start. "What's going on?" you think to yourself. "Why doesn't anything
work?"

Does this sound like the beginning to some strange science fiction novel?
Well, the scenario we just illustrated could be very real indeed. Together,
fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas, and their derivatives) provide more
than 85% of the energy used by mankind today. Unfortunately, the reserves
of those fuels are not infinite. Scientists predict that within the next two
centuries we will run out of those valuable energy sources. This is you
experience energy crisis. Clearly, something must be done. But what?
Before the Industrial Revolution of the 1890s, human beings had only a
moderate need for energy. Man mostly relied on the energy from brute
animal strength to do work. Man first learn to control fire around 1 million
BC. Man has used fire to cook food and to warm his shelters ever since.
Fire also served as protection against animals. Thousands of years ago,
human beings also learned how to use wind as an energy source. Wind is
produced by an uneven heating by the sun on the surface of the earth
because of the different specific heats of land and water. Hot air has lower
pressure than cold air and since high pressure tries to equalize with low
pressure the current called wind is produced. Around 1200 BC, in
Polynesia, people learned to use this wind energy as a propulsive force for
their boats by using a sail. About 5 thousand years ago, magnetic energy
was discovered in China. Magnetic force pulled iron objects and it also
provided useful information to navigators since it always pointed North
because of the Earth's magnetic field. Electric energy was discovered by a
Greek philosopher named Thales, about 2500 years ago. Thales found that,
when rubbing fur against a piece of amber, a static force that would attract

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dust and other particles to the amber was produced which now we know as
the "electrostatic force". Around 1000 BC, the Chinese found coal and
started using it as a fuel.

An energy crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy
resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and
additionally to electricity or other natural resources.

The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy, with many
recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. In particular, the
production costs of electricity rise, which raises manufacturing costs.

For the consumer, the price of gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and
other vehicles rises, leading to reduced consumer confidence and
spending, higher transportation costs and general price rising.

Webster defines crisis as a “decisive moment “or “turning point”. We are


now at an extremely critical stage of using energy beyond a practical limit.
We have increased our usage enormously, especially oil, in the past
decade. The consequence is we are quickly exhausting our finite supplies
of oil and natural gas. As a result, we are becoming more dependent on
foreign sources of oil to keep our country functioning. In 1977 the United
States with only 6 percent of the world’s population consumed
approximately 30 percent of the energy produced in the world. These
statistics are startling reminders of our insatiable energy appetite. Some
people may ask “do we have an energy crisis”. The answer is a definite yes.
Our next step is to realize we are at a crucial time if we are to reverse our
terrible trip towards energy starvation. We will have to recognize our
mounting trouble and act decisively to stem the tide.

About 60% of all the energy used in the world today comes from burning oil
and natural gas. Despite massive exploration program, very few large
outfields have been found in recent years. This could well mean that most
of the world's oil has been already discovered, and that, in the future oil can
be run out faster than anticipated. Today, the world is producing enough oil
to meet its present needs. If only we could use oil at its present rate then
world's reverse could last for over 100 years. Unfortunately world's energy
demand has been growing steadily over the past 50 years, and most
experts believe that this trend will continue. No one can exactly tell that how
much the energy will cost in the future and no one can exactly tell that how
much the energy will needed in the future. The problem about the world's
future energy supplies is called the world’s energy crisis.

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MEANING OF POWER (ELECTRICITY)

Electricity is a general term that encompasses a variety of


phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These
include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning and static
electricity, but in addition, less familiar concepts, such as the
electromagnetic field and electromagnetic induction.

In general usage, the word "electricity" is adequate to refer to a number of


physical effects. In scientific usage, however, the term is vague, and these
related, but distinct, concepts are better identified by more precise terms:

Electric charge – a property of some subatomic particles, which


determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is
influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.

Electric current – a movement or flow of electrically charged particles,


typically measured in amperes.

Electric field – an influence produced by an electric charge on other


charges in its vicinity.

Electric potential – the capacity of an electric field to do work on an


electric charge, typically measured in volts.

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Electromagnetism – a fundamental interaction between the magnetic field
and the presence and motion of an electric charge.

Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though advances


in the science were not made until the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries. Practical applications for electricity however remained few, and it
would not be until the late nineteenth century that engineers were able to
put it to industrial and residential use. The rapid expansion in electrical
technology at this time transformed industry and society. Electricity's
extraordinary versatility as a source of energy means it can be put to an
almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting,
communications, and computation. The backbone of modern industrial
society is, and for the foreseeable future can be expected to remain, the
use of electrical power.

WHAT IS POWER CRISIS?????


An energy crisis is any great bottleneck or price rise in the supply of energy
resources to an economy. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and
additionally to electricity or other natural resources. The crisis often has
effects on the rest of the economy, with many recessions being caused by
an energy crisis in some form.

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TYPES OF ENERGY CRISIS--


1. NUCLEAR POWER
Even in the heady days of the 1950s, problems with nuclear power were
beginning to arise. For one, early nuclear technologies were developed in a
sort of hothouse that was insulated from commercial realities. When these
technologies were transferred to civilian power sectors, they could not
compete economically with conventional power sources. However, the
equipment manufacturers and utilities believed that additional experience
would bring decreases in cost.

One of the main sources of opposition to nuclear power was based on the
assumption that it was inherently unsafe. Many engineers argued that the
plants were safe, and that built-in safety features could prevent and had
prevented accidents. The possibility of accidents caused mainly by operator
errors had been repeatedly. The immediate result was long lines at gas
pumps, high heating bills, and a worldwide economic downturn.
Many power utilities had acted in the postwar period as Promoters of
increased electric usage among consumers, through publicity campaigns
and the direct sale of electric appliances.

2. HYDROELECTRIC POWER
Man has utilized the power of water for years. Much of the growth of early
colonial American industry can be attributed to hydropower. Because fuel
such as coal and wood were not readily available to inland cities, American
settlers were forced to turn to other alternatives. Falling water was ideal for
powering sawmills and grist mills.

As coal became a better-developed source of fuel, however, the importance


of hydropower decreased. When canals began to be built off of the
Mississippi River, inland cities became linked to mainstream commerce.
This opened the flow of coal to most areas of America, dealing the final
blow to hydropower in early America.

Water power really didn't stage a major comeback until the 20th century.
The development of an electric generator helped increase hydropower's
importance. In the mid-20th century, as Americans began to move out of
the cities and into "suburbia," the demand for electricity increased, as did

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the role of hydroelectricity. Hydroelectric power plants were built near large
cities to supplement power production.

The problems included frequent floods, erosion, and deforestation. The


TVA provided for the building of several hydroelectric dams. Not only were
the dams successful in controlling the flooding, they also provide electricity
to the region. The TVA is an example of successful implementation of
hydroelectric power.

3. FUEL CELLS
The fuel cell is one example of a government-sponsored technology which
has, after several decades of research and development effort, produced a
viable technology. The fuel cell is a chemical method of producing
electricity, somewhat analogous to an ordinary battery. The difference is
that the fuel cell must be continuously supplied with chemical reagents in
order to function. It does not hold a charge like a battery. The fuel cell
derives current from a chemical reaction using oxygen from air and
hydrogen from a fuel source (usually petroleum, synthetic fuels derived
from coal, or natural gas, but renewable fuels such as methanol have been
tried).

In operation, fuel cells are silent and produce only water and carbon dioxide
as waste products. The electrochemical process used in a fuel cell was
discovered in the early 19th century, although it was not proposed for
commercial purposes until the 1930s. In the 1950s, Westinghouse Electric
developed commercial versions of these devices, but found only niche
markets for them. In the 1960s, fuel cells designed for NASA provided
power for the Apollo spacecraft. Early NASA fuel cells supplied by General
Electric Company used an unusual electrolyte composed of a polymer
material in the form of a membrane. The resulting fuel cells were quite
expensive. By the 1990s, fuel cells using less expensive materials and solid
fuels were available and put into operation experimentally as part of utility
company power networks. Unfortunately, the U.S. Department of Energy
has had difficulty transferring the financial responsibility for commercializing
this technology to the private sector. Additionally, many utilities remain
unconvinced that fuel cells represent an economical alternative to other
medium-scale power sources, especially gas turbines leading to energy
crisis.

4. SOLAR POWER
The history of solar energy conversion is another example of a technology
that is inextricably linked to government policy and financial support. While
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solar cells were developed by the 1950s which could generate enough
electricity directly from sunlight to operate electronic circuits, the amount of
current was small and the price was high.

Nonetheless, solar cells found niche applications by the 1960s. The most
famous application was in space: from the 1960s on, many satellites were
powered by solar cells.

A second important application was developed by telephone companies to


operate remote repeaters and other equipment. Solar cells remained
inefficient and expensive compared to other methods, and were suitable
only where no other energy source could be used or where cost was not a
major consideration.

Solar power for utility applications was given a temporary boost through the
government funding of applied research on solar cells and the construction
of experimental solar stations. Not all of these solar stations used solar
cells; several large systems used computer-controlled, movable mirrors to
focus light on a boiler, which produced steam to drive a turbine. However,
these large-scale plants remained experimental, and funding eventually
dried up.

5. WIND POWER

By far the most successful alternative energy technology has been the
exploitation of wind. This form of small- to medium-scale generation was
repeatedly passed over by American utility companies before the 1970s
because it was considered unreliable and unsuitable for large scale
exploitation. But in time, due to changes both in the technology and in the
business environment, wind power became a part of established electrical
networks.

The use of wind energy to serve various industrial purposes is quite old,
dating at least to the 12th century. Unlike other power sources such as
water or steam, wind power was for the most part left behind in the late 19th
century by electric companies looking for ways to drive generators. It was
seen as unreliable and unavailable in sufficient quantities to power larger
machines. The energy crisis of the early 1970s revived interest in wind-
powered electric generation, and a number of European firms quickly
moved to the forefront in providing updated versions of this ancient
technology. Early emphasis in America was on the development of multi-
megawatt wind turbines, although such designs did not see much
commercial success.

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The turning point for alternative energy utilization in the United States,
including wind power technology, was national legislation which in 1978
forced utilities to purchase the power generated by independent producers.
This act, called the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), was
intended to advance deregulation in the industry, but also to encourage
experimentation with new energy technologies.
Others--
• Biomass
• Geothermal
• Fusion

6. OIL CRISIS

The world at large and India in particular have moved towards a serious
energy crisis in the 1980s .Of occurs this crisis first cropped up the 70s
when the open countries suddenly raised the priories of oil .The oil price like
was coupled with the inefficient supply of conventional flues and the rapid
rise in the demand of energy. While the demand of energy has significantly
increased due to rapid industrialization urbanization transportation and
communication development modernization of agriculture and due to heavy
population pressure; the supply position has deteriorated owing to heavy
depletion of fissile fuel reserves and to technological inefficiencies
associated with exportation of those reserves. Hence now we find and
unabridged gap between demand and of conventional fuel, which is in, turn
worsening the energy crisis. Though there is turn stability in the oil market
at the moment it is deceptive.

ROLE OF STATE IN ENERGY SECTOR

India’s tradition of state-dominated, centralized planning slows progress in


the energy sector. The production of coal, India’s most highly-consumed
energy source, remains largely in state control, with 90 percent of
production accounted for by the state-run coal mines.
The national government also subsidizes energy prices, at times limiting
profitability for both private and state investors.

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Challenges:

The primary challenges facing India’s energy sectors are:

Ø Coal depletion and pollution – Coal accounts for more than half of
the country’s energy consumption. Although it is the world’s third biggest
coal producer…

India’s coal reserves could run out in forty years.

Ø Rising oil imports - Oil consumption, which accounts for roughly a


third of India’s energy use, has increased in the past twenty-five years.
India now imports about 65 percent of its petroleum. With energy demands
rising, the figure could be as high as 90 percent by 2025. The oil demand
has pushed India to make deals with countries—such as Sudan, Syria, and
Iran—that raise supply concerns.

Ø Natural gas demands - Natural gas consumption has risen faster than
any other type of energy source, but India’s limited domestic gas reserves
spell a need for foreign dependency in this sector as well. The government
has slowly been switching from highly polluting coal-fired power plants to
plants using natural gas. India's natural gas needs have resulted in
negotiations with nations of concern in terms of reliability, including Iran,
Bangladesh, and Burma.

Ø Inefficient electric systems - Although 80 percent of the country has


access to electricity, unreliable power grids cause regular blackouts.
Furthermore, inefficient electric systems result in at least a 30 percent loss
of power along the delivery chain. State electricity boards run the
infrastructure behind the country’s power distribution and own a large
portion of electrical output. The boards are in poor financial shape, largely
because they provide power at highly subsidized rates, particularly to
farmers. Although the government has loosened limitations on foreign
investment in the power sector, the notion of working with the financially
beleaguered electricity boards has scared off private investment.

Ø Energy-related water shortages - Indian farmers have access to


heavily subsidized power to pump water for irrigation. The low costs lead
them to wasteful water use, depleting the water tables. As water tables
lower, larger pumps require more power to access deeper water supplies.

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Ø Limited nuclear energy – With fourteen nuclear power plants run by


state-owned companies, nuclear energy accounts for just 3 percent of
India’s energy consumption. New Delhi hopes to boost this sector through a
deal allowing U.S. companies to sell equipment, nuclear fuel, and reactors
to India. However, even with a U.S.-India agreement, large scale expansion
of the nuclear energy sector will likely take decades because of slow
implementation and the relatively higher expense when compared to other
forms of energy.

USERS OF ENERGY(ELECTRICITY)

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CAUSES OF ENERGY CRISIS

LOW WATER IN DAMS

INADEQUATE FINANCE

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LACK OF TEC HNOLOGY

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OUR COMMENTS FOR SAVINGS IN


ENERGY
These types of energy are constantly being renewed or restored. But many
of the other forms of energy we use in our homes and cars are not being
replenished. Fossil fuels took millions of years to create. They cannot be
made over night. And there are finite or limited amounts of these non-
renewable energy sources. That means they cannot be renewed or
replenished. Once they are gone they cannot be used again. So, we must
all do our part in saving as much energy as we can.

IN HOME:
In the home, energy can be saved by turning off appliances, TVs and radios
that are not being used, watched or listened to. The lights should be turned
off when no one is in the room. By putting insulation in walls and attics, the
amount of energy it takes to heat or cool our homes can be reduced.
Insulating a home is like putting on a sweater or jacket when we're
cold...instead of turning up the heat. The outer layers trap the heat inside,
keeping it nice and warm.

RECYCLING:
To make all of our newspapers, aluminum cans, plastic bottles and other
goods takes lots of energy. Recycling these items -- grinding them up and
reusing the material again -- uses less energy than it takes to make them
from brand new, raw material. So, we must all recycle as much as we can.

TAKING CARE OF CARS AND TRUCKS


We can also save energy in our cars and trucks. Make sure the tires are
properly inflated. A car that is tuned up, has clean air and oil filters, and is
running right will use less gasoline. Don't over-load a car. For every extra
100 pounds, one should cut mileage by one mile per gallon. When your
parents buy a new car, tell them to compare. The fuel efficiency of different
models and buys a car that gets higher miles per gallon.

IN THE COLLEGE
Energy can be saved in the college. Each week one can choose an energy
monitor who will make sure energy is being used properly. The energy
monitor will turn off the lights during break time and after class. "Turn It Off"
signs should be made for hanging above the light switches as a reminder.
Energy Patrol can be started in the college. One can make sure whether
their classmates recycle all aluminum cans and plastic bottles, and make
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sure the library is recycling the newspapers and the college is recycling its
paper.

POWER GENERATION FACILITIES


New power generation facilities, principally gas-fired combustion turbines
and combined-cycle units making more efficient use of gas, can be
constructed more quickly than large-scale centralized power plants, but
even they take as long as two years to site, obtain required permits, and
build connecting transmission lines. And that assumes that the state
regulatory commissions involved recognize the need for new construction
and act favorably and expeditiously.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES
Development of new generation technologies to improve the utilization of
energy has improved, but incrementally, with dramatic new efficiencies
unlikely in the immediate future. The prospects for getting "more bang for
the buck" are good in the long term, but not in the near term.

By 2020 we could be dependent on imported energy for three-quarters of


our total primary energy needs ... we may become potentially more
vulnerable to price fluctuations and interruptions to supply caused by
regulatory failures, political instability or conflict in other parts of the world.

SOLUTIONS FOR ENERGY CRISIS


1. DRILL DOMESTICALLY WHEREVER WE CAN TO PRODUCE MORE
OIL

● Firstly, corral the environmentalists, and drill for oil on land we own, and
control, where we KNOW there is oil. (Florida's west coast).
● As to our energy future, while innovation from new technology will take
care of the long-term problem, the short term must be dealt with by ignoring
environmentalists and moving ahead with drilling in Alaska as well as the
various U.S. coasts where it is prohibited.
● There are vast amounts of oil (actually, bitumen, a precursor of oil) in oil
shale in the United States, and new technology (exists) for extracting it with
minimal environmental effects.

2. HYDROGEN: THE FUEL OF THE FUTURE

● Build a national network of hydrogen refueling stations (hydrogen gas


stations). This should be easy. After all, Eisenhower was able to build the
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interstate highway system in the 1950s and 60s, which seems like a much
more complex task.
● The plan to see being the best is hydrogen with water being the exhaust
from the vehicles. With the use of solar panels, we can generate the
hydrogen free… well, almost free… but without the need of oil.
● Some of BMW's new 2008 luxury cars will have the ability to run on
hydrogen. Keep in mind that these are not fuel cells. Rather, these are
conventional internal combustion engines that have been modified to burn
hydrogen or (and this is key) gasoline. Since the hydrogen infrastructure is
very spotty, these vehicles can use gasoline at the flick of a switch when
hydrogen is not available.

3. ETHANOL -- IF THE BRAZILIANS CAN DO IT, WHY CAN'T WE?

● Brazil runs over 50% of its vehicles on ethanol. Ethanol can come from
many sources. The production plants are being built now. (One in my home
state of Georgia is purported to be producing ethanol from trees)
● Get sugar cane fields growing. Sugar cane requires less fertilizer than
corn and is easier to make ethanol out of.
● Turn lawn grass, America's largest crop, into ethanol.
● There is no reason that ethanol cannot be our primary fuel. A gradual
increase of ethanol/gasoline mixtures at the pump until the standard fuel is
80%-90% alcohol can be a real possibility within the next 8 to 10 years if
someone would actually get it rolling now.

4. BIODIESEL -- PROVEN POWER FROM GARBAGE

● Why not use every bit of waste, i.e., paper sludge; slash piles, veggie by-
products (carrot tops, potato skins, beet peelings, etc.) to make more fuel?
● Biodiesel can provide a major new energy source. If it is made with non-
food crops, the yield is far higher than with soybeans.
● All we really need is car companies to increase the number of cars with
diesel engines. … The second part of this has to be biodiesel stations.
Biodiesel fuel can easily be made at home, and it can be made from used
vegetable oil. Currently someone who makes their own biodiesel 40-50
gallons at a time at a cost of $0.69 a gallon.
● Biodiesel -- There is no reason, other than distribution, why every ship,
train, semi-truck, tractor, or piece of construction equipment with a diesel
engine should be burning straight (petroleum-based) diesel.

5. SOLAR ENERGY COULD DO THE JOB JUST BY ITSELF

● The United States has thousands of miles of desert and plains that
receive enormous amounts of sunlight every day, often even in winter. It

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has been said that approximately 100 square miles of solar panels or a
modest multiple thereof (5-10X) could generate enough electricity to
accommodate virtually all of the electric energy needs to the country.
● In Las Vegas the amount of solar energy there is amazing. We could
make it mandatory that all new houses have solar roof tiles instead of
regular tiles and give tax credits if people replace their tiles with solar tiles
on their existing homes.
● Solar panels in the southern states, especially Florida and the like, could
easily be used to run all the electricity a house needs. Furthermore, having
lived in Florida, it's so sunny that the excess electricity could either be sold
back to the electric companies or the solar package could come with a
power supply to use in charging an electric-powered vehicle.

6. LETTING IN THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF SUN

In a cold climate we welcome the sun's heat and light most of the time. And
once we capture the heat, we don't want to give it up. In a warm climate, we
don't want the heat, but we do want the light. Advances in window
technology let us have it both ways.
Less than half of the sun's energy is visible. Longer wavelengths--beyond
the red part of the visible spectrum--are infrared, which is felt as heat.
Shorter wavelengths, beyond purple, are ultraviolet (UV). When the sun's
energy strikes a window, visible light, heat and UV are either reflected,
absorbed or transmitted into the building.

7. DEVELOP WIND, SOLAR ENERGY TO MEET POWER CRISIS

Alternative sources like wind and solar energy need to be developed to tide
over the power crisis in rural India. To meet the power crisis of rural India,
there is a desperate need to develop wind and solar energy for power
generation. Commenting on the sick Public Sector Units, Centre had
planned to make 25 sick units "economically viable" by bailing them out of
crisis this fiscal.
We have seen improvements after these units to increase their profitability
or they would be shut down just the way we had closed two sick units in the
recent past.

8. AS A WHOLE, ENERGY CRISIS

Conservation is not the total Answer, but it would certainly improve our
situation. This would have to be a conservation program that would
encompass all of our consumers. The initial step would be less driving and
more use of mass transportation system. In some parts of the country it

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would mean adding more buses and trains, in other parts, it would be
modernizing the existing systems. Also it would include an educational
program for the energy consumers to make them aware of how they can
save energy daily. This has already begun and hopefully it will continue.

In addition, the new car manufacturers will have to increase the fuel
efficiency of all cars. Another solution will concern the industrial sector of
our economy, to continue their cutbacks and their fuel efficiency programs
without seriously affecting their production.

LONG TERM / FUTURE SOLUTIONS

India needs approximately 100000MW of additional power by 2010 if it is to


embark on a high growth trajectory and emerge as an economic giant by
2020.However, most projections state that at the current rate of capacity
addition we will fall well short of achieving this target.
To address this problem, it helps in understanding the issues involved,
there are primarily three of them they are--
1. Finance
2. Technology
3. Structure of the power grid

FINANCE
As there is a glut of capital in the international markets to the tune of around
USD 2 trillion, the power market in India is one of the few areas in which a
part of this can be invested with the prospect of assured returns for
investors (hopefully the government can facilitate this by giving counter-
guarantees) .In addition, we need to move towards a public-private model
where the government provides the grid and charges the private sector to
use it and privatize the distribution and generation of energy and give them
tax breaks or exemptions to pay for politically desirable (read unprofitable)
ventures like subsidized power for farmers.

TECHNOLOGY
There are 3 technologies which are uniquely suited to the Indian market.

1) GAS BASED POWER GENERATION


Gas based power plants are ideal for India as we have recently discovered
vast gas reserves in the Krishna-Godavari basin and other locations. In
addition, Russia a non-OPEC Country and currently the world’s second
largest oil producer in addition to being a long standing ally of India
currently has about 50% of the world’s proven gas reserves, thus, shielding

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us against any unforeseen price fluctuations like has been seen in the case
of oil due to rising tensions in the middle east.

2) NUCLEAR POWER GENERATION


Nuclear power has a vast potential to fulfill our energy needs. Each nuclear
generator generally produces around 1000MW of power and doesn’t need
to be refueled between 5-10 years (depending on the design). In addition, it
produces no green house gases (one of the reasons the French are ‘holier
than thou’ on the Kyoto treaty is because they get 75% of their energy
needs from nuclear power).

The problem, of course, is the NPT which prevents companies like France’s
Avera or America’s GE to build and/or operate Nuclear power plants in
India.

However, the Ministry of Atomic Energy, Russia has a holding company


MINATOM which is eager not only to build power plants in India (which it is
already doing) but, for a price, is willing to transfer it to BHEL and others so
that we wouldn’t be dependant on anyone for building and operating our
power plants. Now these are water-cooled nuclear power plants which are
as safe as any in the West at a fraction of the price not the Sodium cooled
ones on which Chernobyl was based so we shouldn’t be unduly worried
about unsafe nuclear power in our backyards. As for the fuel the Russians
have some 500 tonnes of U-235 (the byproduct of the former USSR’s arms
buildup) which could be effectively used for this.

3) HYDROELECTRIC
This is the cheapest source of power but causes massive environmental
problems like soil erosion and takes a long time to build, typically 10 years,
without any litigation from the likes of Mrs. Medha Patkar & Arundhati Roy.
However, once a study has conclusively proved the feasibility of a project if
should be brought under an act which makes it immune to frivolous
litigation.

STRUCTURE OF THE POWER GRID

We, like, most other nations have a unidirectional power grid i.e. one way
flow of electricity from the supplier to the consumer however in India most
business houses have captive power generation due to the lack of reliable
power, why not further encourage them to ramp up their captive power
production and let them put the surplus for sale on the power grid? This will
lead to reduced prices of power for the enterprise (economies of scale) and
more power to our booming economy.

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The most logical today are atomic power by fusion, solar power, reusing
waste, and further development of synthetic fuels.
The atomic fusion power would be a great source if we were able to use
hydrogen from the oceans as its source. There are numerous dangers that
would have to be ironed out. And last, possibly the same Yankee ingenuity
that has made this country flourish could take another step for mankind and
came up with some entirely new and effective source of energy.

RECENT CASES OF ENERGY CRISIS


1. INDIA FACES MAJOR ENERGY CRISIS DUE TO CRUDE OIL
REFINING CAPACITY AND COMPLIANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL
CLEAN UP STANDARDS

India faces more problems that just need for reliable energy supply. Even if
the Government is able to acquire rights to Natural gas and Crude oil
supplies all around the world, the problem does not end there.
India faces a major shortage of refining capacity. As a result prices of
diesel, Petrol and Kerosene can go through the roof even if the Crude oil
price moves up slowly.

The refineries all around India are old and mainly acquired from the Soviet
Union many tears back. They need to be replaced soon. They operate at a
much lower capacity die to maintenance needs and cause bad pollution all
around. The refinery owned and operated by Reliance is the only one in the
country that is of world class standard and is sophisticated. It was
operational approximately 22 months back and is based on most advanced
technologies in the world.

The rest of the 18 refineries are in hopeless condition. Some of those


India’s refineries cannot get rid of the high sulphur content to produce what
is internationally known as sweet crude. Many of the refineries cannot
effectively extract Kerosene through the secondary process, Kerosene is
high demand since it lights up many homes sin India.
Seven of these prehistoric 18 refineries can be modernized. But red tape
and lack of operational control is taking the country to the brink of a major
energy crisis.

Raghunath Mashelkar, scientific adviser to the government recently


submitted a report on the status of the refineries to the Government. India’s
115m-tonne refining capacity needs some major capital investment, the
report clearly mentions about the need of “substantial capital funding” to

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POWER CRISES
upgrade or overhaul processes to meet global standards on quality petrol
and diesel fuels.

India needs US $6.5 Billion to upgrade these refineries to meet the Euro IV
standard of emission by 2010. Stepping up to Euro III emission standards
will also require hardship as required by next April.
According to the New Delhi-based Energy and Resources Institute (Teri),
fiscal incentives are required from the Government to move forward
towards this capital investment.

2. ENERGY CRISIS FORCES INDIA TO FOCUS ON ‘SHIFTING THE


EMPHASIS FROM PERSONAL TRANSPORT TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT’

India has given its go-ahead to Metro Rail projects for Mumbai, Hyderabad
and Bangalore and would provide viability gap funding for the projects in
various states, Union Minister for Urban Development Jaipal Reddy said on
Friday.
The choice of deciding about the nature of gauge to be adopted in the
metro rail projects has been given to state governments, Reddy said.
In his inaugural address at ''Cityscapes 2006'', a meet on Urban
infrastructure reforms with public-private linkages, being organized by the
FICCI, Reddy said metro rail projects in Hyderabad, Mumbai and Bangalore
can take off immediately.
The project proposals were pending; following the stand of Indian Railways
that broad gauge should be adopted for Metro Rail projects, while many
state governments preferred standard gauge.

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POWER CRISES

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. WWW.GOOGLE.COM
2. WWW.YAHOO.COM
3. UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT(SHIV KUMAR)

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