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Full Scale Measurements Sea trials

Experimental Methods in Marine Hydrodynamics

Lecture in week 45 Contents:
Types of tests
How to perform and correct speed trials
Wave monitoring
Motion measurement
Hull monitoring
Propeller cavitation observations
Performance monitoring
1 Covers Chapter 11 in the Lecture Notes
Dedicated sea trials are conducted under the
following circumstances:
Delivery of newbuildings (Contractual Trials)
Speed-power (compliance with contracted performance)
Bollard Pull test (tugs and offshore vessels compliance with
contracted performance)
Maneuvering (compliance with IMO criteria)
Sea keeping (only high speed craft)
If a special problem has arisen, for instance:
Propeller noise and/or erosion
Steering problems
Excessive fuel consumption
For research purposes (quite rare due to high costs)

Delivery Sea trials (Contractual trials)

Ship building contracts contain specific requirements for

speed-power performance
Failure to meet requirements means fees to be paid and ultimately
that the ship owner has the right to refuse to accept the ship
For tugs and offshore vessels, there will be requirements
for bollard pull as well
There might be requirements also for maneuvering trials :
Emergency stop test
Turning circles
Zig-zag tests
High speed craft requirements also for seakeeping tests
IMO: 2000 HSC Code (IMO 185E)
Applicable standards
ISO 19019:2005 Sea-going vessels and marine technology --
Instructions for planning, carrying out and reporting sea
ISO 15016:2015(E) Guidelines for the assessment of speed
and power performance by analysis of speed trial data
Replaced previous version in 2015. Significant differences!
ITTC Recommended procedure 7.5-04-01-01.1 Preparation
and Conduct of Speed/Power Trials
ITTC Recommended procedure 7.5-04-01-01.2 Analysis of
Speed/Power Trials Data
IMO: 2000 HSC Code (IMO 185E) Requirements for
testing of high speed craft

IMO HSC testing requirements

Normal stop from max speed to zero
Emergency stop
Crash stop
Cruise performance in two sea states
Normal conditions
Worst intended conditions
Measurements of accelerations, speed, relative wave heading
Failure tests
Check that the ship, crew and passengers are not at risk if for
instance the steering fails

Organization of Delivery Trials

The Shipbuilder is responsible

Trial Leader
From the shipbuilder
Responsible for the execution of all phases of the trial
Ship masters
There is one ship master hired by the shipbuilder who is in charge
of handling the ship
There is usually one or more ship masters hired by the shipowner
who is going to take over the ship
Measurements are performed by shipbuilder or by third
party (like Marintek or Maskindynamikk)

Execution of speed trials
Always run back and forth at same engine setting
Run back and forth at the same track
Perform runs at different speeds (at least three)
If possible, orient the track with and against the wave

> Min. 10 minutes

Steady Approach

Steady Approach
> Min. 10 minutes

Measured mile

Trial Conditions max acceptable
Sea state
When wave spectrum is measured: H1 3 2.25 LPP 100
When wave height is visually observed: H1 3 1.5 LPP 100
Beufort 6 (20 knots) (for ships with L>100 m)
Beufort 5 (for ships with L 100 m)
Water depth h
If h 3 B TM or h 2.75VS2 g correction is required
Tests shall not be performed in waters where h 2 B TM
or h 2 VS g

In cases of current time history deviating from the assumed
parabolic/sinusoidal trend and the change of the current speed
within the timespan of one Double Run is more than 0,5 knots,
tests shall not be carried out
Trial Conditions Contractual
Sea state
No waves
In practice: Beufort 1 (Wave height 0.1 m)
No wind
In practice: Beufort 2 (Wind speed 6 knots)
Water depth h
In practice: h 3 B TM and h 2.75VS g

No current
No practical limit for when corrections are made. Use of double runs
means that corrections are always included

Correction of trial results
When trial conditions are not fulfilled corrections must be
Typical corrections:
Draught interpolation in model test results on two draughts
Wind calculation of wind resistance using empirical drag coef. or
results from wind tunnel tests
Shallow water empirical formulas
Waves calculation of added wave resistance and speed loss
Standards for how corrections shall be performed:
ISO 15016 Guidelines for the assessment of speed and power
ITTC Recommended procedure 7.5-04-01-01.2 Analysis of
Speed/Power Trials Data
STAWAVE by Marin
Comes with a free software package for performing the analysis
ISO 15016 correction flow chart

ISO 15016 correction method

Compute resistance correction:

Compute power correction:

The propulsive efficiency is assumed to vary linearly with

the added resistance:

IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index -
Increases the need for standardized trial and correction
The speed at 75% MCR in calm water must be accurately
Now longer just a matter for yard and ship owner
Shall be approved by classification society

Speed measurement
Speed over ground and Speed through water
Timing a measured mile
the old-fashioned way, only applicable to dedicated speed trials
Gives speed over ground
The obvious choice, always used
Gives speed over ground
Speed log
Device to measure speed through water
Always installed on ships
Doppler log is most common on large ships
Measures speed at about 10 m below bottom, close to bow
The accuracy is questionable!
Measurement of shaft power
Strain gauges glued directly to the shaft
Calibration factor must be calculated, so shaft dimensions and
material properties must be known exactly
Tachometer to measure shaft speed
Commercial power meters
Made for permanent installation
The best, but most expensive alternative
Poor, but cheap alternatives are
fuel rack measurements (measurement of fuel consumption,
combined with supplier data for fuel quality)
measurement of cylinder pressure (used on large, slow speed
For diesel-electric drive-trains, the frequency converter (drive)
will usually be able to output information about power supplied to
18 the electric motor
Shaft measurements

Torque measurement Thrust measurem.

Optical torque sensor

Optical thrust and torque measurement

Required accuracy for thrust measurement is

25 naonometers!
Challenging, but possible, according to
supplier VAF Instruments
Bollard Pull

Good location Poor location

Bollard pull test

Bollard pull test
2x460 kW

Maneuvering trials

Trial types and execution same as in model scale

(D)GPS position measurement
Gyro compass course
Rate of turn (if possible)
Rudder angle
Propeller revs

Types of Ship Maneuvers
IMO standard maneuvers:
Zig-zag tests
10/ 10 to both sides
20/ 20 to both sides
Turning circle test
35 rudder angle
Full astern stopping test
Additional maneuvers:
Spiral test
Reverse spiral test
Pull-out maneuver
normally added at the end of a turning test

Zig-zag test

Test 2011: 20-20 zig zag

Turning circle

Testing of position-keeping ability and
thruster performance at zero speed
Important for vessels that have requirements to Dynamic
Positioning performance
No standard tests or commonly recognised procedures
There is a need for development of standardized tests and analysis
procedures for this purpose
A way to characterise thruster performance at zero speed:
Run the thrusters in different combinations (one by one, and in
specific combination) for a short time
Measure the acceleration of the ship in the horisontal plane
Compute the impulse required to create the acceleration
Compare the effective impulse with the impulse provided by the
thruster(s) to arrive at a kind of efficiency
Measurements environmental conditions
Water depth
Echo sounder (ship instrument) or nautical charts
Water quality
Temperature: Cooling water intake temperature can be used
Density: From nautical charts or density measurements
Velocity and direction from anemometer
A separate, calibrated instrument is preferable
Watch out for influence of superstructure on the measurement
Nautical charts and tables
the difference in speed between double runs
a 360 turning test at low speed
The difference between log speed and GPS speed
often, one doesnt trust the speed log sufficiently for this purpose
Wave measurements

Visual observation and estimation

Estimates by yard representative, ship-owner representative, and
possibly a neutral third party are compared and averaged
Mobile wave buoy
Accurate (but only at a single point)
Recovery of the buoy is difficult (risk of loosing it)
Fixed weather station
Good solution if one is nearby
Wave radar (Wavex)
Bow-mounted altimeter
Wave information without measurement: Hindcast data
Wave buoys
Fugro Oceanor Wavescan
Directional wave spectrum
Water temperature and salinity
Must be moored; large, heavy, costly
Smaller, spherical buoys
Drifting or moored
Simple buoys measure wave height only by use
of an accelerometer
Advanced buoys can measure the directional
wave spectrum through use of the Doppler shift
of the GPS signals
Usually measures position for a drifting buoy
this can be used as an estimate of current
Can be brought along for a full scale test
Wavex by Miros AS

Bow-mounted altimeter
SM - 094

Measures relative wave motion

Ship motions must also be measured
in order to calculate absolute wave

SM - 055

Using the ship as wave buoy

Measurement of ship motions and accelerations

Knowledge of ship motion transfer functions can be used
to find the wave spectrum from the measured ship motion
power spectrum
Current research topic
Can hardly work for short waves, since then the ship
doesnt move

Beufort wind scale with related sea conditions
Sea Description term Wind sp. [knots] Wave height [m] S
Beufort state Wind Wave min max Probable Max D
0 0 Calm Calm 0 1 0 0c
1 0 Light air Ripples 1 3 0.1 0.1 R
2 1 Light breeze Small wavelets 3 6 0.2 0.3 S
3 2 Gentle breeze Large wavelets 6 10 0.6 1L
4 3 Moderate breeze Small waves 10 16 1 1.5 S
5 4 Fresh breeze Moderate waves 16 21 2 2.5 M
6 5 Strong breeze Large waves 21 27 3 4L
7 6 Near gale Large waves 27 33 4 5.5 S
8 7 Gale Moderately high waves 33 40 6 7.5 M
9 8 Strong gale High waves 40 47 7 10 H
10 9 Storm Very high waves 47 55 9 12.5 V
11 9 Violent storm Exceptionally high waves 55 63 11.5 16 E
12 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 63 71 14 16 A
13 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 71 80 >14 >16
14 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 80 89 >14 >16
38 15 9 Hurricane Exceptionally high waves 89 99 >14 >16
Illustrations of Beufort wind (and wave) scale
From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaufort_scale

Hindcast data
Information about wave and wind condition in the past
Data collected by meteorological institutes
From wave buoys, weather stations, satellites, observations
Many different sources
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ECMWF
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration www.noaa.gov
is the main source
Many different applications are using their open data
From hindcast data you can get information about sea state
and wind in your area
You can of course not get wave elevation time series!
Localized information for the Norwegian coast:
Norkyst 800 http://thredds.met.no/thredds/catalog/fou-

European Centre for Medium-Range

Weather Forecasts
An independent intergovernmental organisation founded in
1975 and supported by 34 states
Produces global numerical weather forecasts for users
Offers hindcast data for wind and waves freely available
for download
Data in GRIB file format requires a suitable routine for
reading and interpreting

Ocean current
Important to correct speed-power related measurements for
the effect of current
Dedicated speed trials aim at cancelling the effect of
current by using double runs
For ship monitoring (monitoring performance during normal
operation) this is not an option
Direct measurement possible by using buoys
Not a practical solution for ship monitoring!
If accurate speed-through-water measurement on the ship
was available, problem would be solved, but it isnt!
Hindcast data available from OSCAR Ocean Surface
Current Analyses Real-time
43 http://www.esr.org/oscar_index.html
Measurement of motions
Accelerations: Conventional accelerometers
Angles: Gyros, compass, accelerometers
Rate gyro to measure rate of change of angles
Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)
Consists of a number of accelerometers built into one compact unit
Gives out accelerations, velocities and motions at any point
Konsberg Seatex MRU is a good example of a commercial IMU
Kongsberg Seapath
Combination of DGPS and IMU for accurate position

Kongsberg Seatex MRU 5+

Kongsberg Seapath 330

Measurement of forces:
Hull Monitoring
Hull Monitoring System:

Strain gauges most

common sensor
Short and long gauges
Cabling exposed to
damage, gauges work
Sensors based on fiber-
optics - polarimetric and
bragg-grating suggested as

Strain gauge in protective casing:

Rolls-Royce Health and Monitoring
System - HEMOS

Performance monitoring
Typical merchant ship application:
To monitor the development of speed and fuel consumption
over time, in order to detect need for maintenance
Monitoring and correcting for environmental conditions
Waves, wind, water temperature
Accurate measurement of shaft power and speed through water
Measuring and correcting for loading condition
Data processing
Setting-up and running automatic data transmission
Many other types of performance monitoring coming up
Ref. Rolls-Royce HeMOS system
Propeller Cavitation

Seen from below Seen from the side

Cavitation observation techniques

2. generation borescope

Source: marin.nl
1. generation borescope
Sample picture from full scale propeller cavitation observation

Types of tests
How to perform and correct speed trials
Wave monitoring
Motion measurement
Hull monitoring
Propeller cavitation observations