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RESEARCH CULTURE

The many, often subtle 'point-sized' rules and customs of research activity picked

up and repeated by organizational members until their actions 'blend into a collective

attitude. Within this community the accepted research culture - even if it is unconsciously

accepted by many - defines how each individual should think, act and make decisions

about research." (Hauter 1993)

The PUP should pushed their effort to make the students participate and contribute

in accordance to their efforts. That is why, the University of the Philippines is well-known

in science and technology because they very interested in the field of research, in

somehow, they invented things and conceptualized ideas in heed to the own criteria as

the part of the study.

Schein (1985) identifies research culture with refers to the organization culture

literature through six general meanings of culture in the organization.

The six general meaning intended are:

1.) Observed behavioral regularities when people engage in research, such as language

and the rituals used.

2.) The norms that evolve in research groups or research environments.


3.) The philosophy that guides an organization's policy towards research.

4.) The dominant research related values espoused by an organization such as applied

focus or leadership in qualitative research.

5.) The rules of the game for getting along with research in the organization. "the ropes

that a newcomer must learn in order to become accepted researcher.

6. The feeling or climate about research that is conveyed in an organization by the

physical and administrative facilities as well as the way in which researchers in the

organization interact with others.

PUP set their agenda through transforming the university into one of the research

institutes in the country. It is important to plat the environment into the appropriate

procedures, so that the students and the faculty members having their freedom and well-

disciplined through their research study, especially the basics, attitudes and norms of

such research activity.

In 1992 a Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) was carried out in the United

Kingdom. A reasonably large body of literature has since reported on the variables that

appear to correlate with research productivity. RAE was an evaluation of the quality of

research across various academic departments, in a wide range of academic institutions.

According to Johnston (1994) the assessments were done by a number of different panels

(60 in 1992) which used differing criteria. Most, however, are reported by Johnston, as

using quality of published output as the major indicator. While productivity measured as

publications is not a direct parallel with presence of a research culture, and is in fact
debated as a valid criterion of research quality, the Research Culture 5 literature on the

RAE does give some insight into the variables that may constrain the emergence of

research culture.

https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=

8&ved=0ahUKEwi70fbQwIPXAhWGFpQKHctyADcQFghVMAc&url=http%3A%2F%2Fw

ww.reconstrue.co.nz%2FEstSusCulture02.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2iFz-

AjWUEzW9vGik7bbGj

By Dr. Robin Hill.

"Research, to put it simply, involves 'finding out.' If this is done in advance of future

action, there are obvious advantages... ...we might take a simple example. The youth who

is now a paraplegic in hospital is there because he neglected to do some elementary

research. He would not have suffered a broken neck had he searched the river for rocks

before he dived in. Maybe he did look, cursorily. But his investigations would have had to

have been sufficiently thorough to discover the submerged rocks as well as the visible

ones, especially at the point where he dived. Otherwise he could be said to have

generalized from an unrepresentative sample (the visible rocks)." Shellard (1979) Page

1.

(Book) Hill, R.A. (1993). Establishing and Sustaining a Research Culture: A

working paper. Presented to the Australian and New Zealand Academy of

Management Conference, held at Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia,

December 1993.
This quotation sets the scene for this paper. It is an attempt to "look before you

leap" into the actions of setting up programs, institutions and resources to establish and

sustain a research oriented environment, or research presence, in an organization that

has not traditionally been involved in research. Much of the salient literature on the topic

comes from Nursing Research and the Society of Research Administrators, with some

additional input from Higher Education research literature. PUP is one the well-known

state universities in the Philippines just because of their academe that promotes the

culture of research, their ideas, concepts, materializations, and other mediums that heeds

the social problem of the country through their research. Their research represents the

concepts, the voice of the youth in amidst to the social issues, which is why they keep on

their efforts to do so.

Andrew Cheetham of the University of Western Sydney (UWS), Australia, further

notes, The research culture is the structure that gives [research behavior] significance

and that allows us to understand and evaluate the research activity.3 So, an institutions

culture of research is not simply a group of scholars who see the importance of research.

A culture of research provides a supportive context in which research is uniformly

expected, discussed, produced, and valued.

Source: Cheetham, Andrew. Growing a Research Culture. Address to the Academic

Senate University of Western Sydney, May, 2007. p. 5.


http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0018/7119/Item_3.6_Building_a_Researc

h_Culture__Tabled_Doc.pdf

Came back from the scribes of history, there are many civilizations that luring their

advancement in science and other disciplines, just because of research. They dont think

as the part of being citizen of that certain community but they value research as the one

that can change anything. Many countries in the ancient period have turned their status

into being civilized state because of the advancement and research. In the Philippines,

PUP is one of it, by promoting the essence of research in which they are capable to find

not just the inquiry but that inquiry that can turn into sometime which can change in a

sudden and create an impact.

While defining a culture of research may be difficult, it is no challenge to recognize

the increasing importance of having one. Faculty at major research institutions have

traditionally been expected to maintain scholarly activities, including conducting research

and publishing scholarly works. But it is no secret that, in recent decades, faculty at

comprehensive and teaching universities have also come under pressure to research

and publish.4 This pressure continues today. Institutions and units that have traditionally

emphasized effective faculty contact with students as a criterion for success are looking

to develop cultures of research and increase faculty research production.


Source: Youn, T. I. K., and Price, T. M. Learning from the Experience of Others: The

Evolution of Faculty Tenure and Promotion Rules in Comprehensive Institutions. Journal

of Higher Education, 80(2), 2009. p. 205.

In this type of scenario of developing the certain university as one of the best

research in the country, it takes time and efforts especially from the faculty member. The

faculty has the big role in leading the students in their efforts of their contributions not just

for the university, but for the country. So, the role of the faculty has the bigger in

developing through this.

FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY

According to Northwestern University, Fiscal responsibilities associated with the

administration of grants and contracts reside with the department, center, or institute that

administers the award. Various circumstances may arise with the fiscal status of

sponsored awards, and the following policy addresses the required procedures to be

followed in the noted instances: over expenditures, cost transfers, audit disallowances,

withholding of final payment, bankruptcy of the sponsor, advance payments, Industry

Clinical Trial appropriations, and funding regarding Pre-Spending, Out Year awards and

multiple projects.

http://www.northwestern.edu/asrsp/docs/fiscal_response.pdf
Fiscal responsibility is very important in one University specially in PUP, Involving

the Publics of PUP in funds management, Prudent allocation of funds. Considering this

responsibility will help the University avoid unnecessary bankruptcy, over expenditure and

so on.

SPG U-M STANDARD PRACTICE GUIDE of University of Michigan states that

Four main elements should exist in all University units that manage their own finances.

The University requires these elements for all units (and at all levels) that control their

own finances. If a unit has a unique Dept ID, this policy is applicable. Major operating

units, sponsoring agencies, donors, and other internal or external agencies may impose

additional requirements. The minimum requirements are:

Preparation of a budget plan (including anticipated revenues and expenditures)

Processing and Approving Financial Transactions

Financial Review

Internal Controls and Management Responsibilities

http://www.spg.umich.edu/policy/500.01According to doctors in economics from the

University of Braslia (SELENE; RICARDO, 2003, p. 5):

Fiscal responsibilities are distributed throughout the PUP, which has a large and

highly decentralized environment. The organization structure, in particular the


administrative structure, establishes many of the roles and responsibilities for financial

management.

According to doctors in economics from the University of Braslia (SELENE;

RICARDO, 2003, p. 5): Although innovative and adapted to local needs, the Fiscal

responsibility law of Brazil sought inspiration also in recent international experience.

Throughout the Decade of 90, some countries have undertaken successful initiatives in

order to prevent the emergence of large public deficits and excessive levels of debt.

Highlights, in this respect, the lessons provided by the experiences of the European

Economic Community (1992), of the Budget Enforcement Act of the United States (1990)

and Fiscal Responsibility Act of New Zealand's (1994). Are still very recent initiatives; It

can be said that in the years 90, the world began to wake up to fiscal responsibility.

Same on the PUP Fiscal responsibility is very important to prevent excessive

levels of debts that may occur, specially the kind of our university that we dont that much

budget because of our little amount of tuition fee.

According to Northwestern University, The University reserves the right to seek

incremental or total funding in advance, or to decline a project if it believes the financial

status of the sponsor is in doubt or if the sponsor is unknown to the University. If the

sponsor is unwilling to provide a sufficient advance or incremental funding, the Office for
Sponsored Research (OSR) may require that the department, school, or center to provide

an at risk pre spending guarantee.

http://www.northwestern.edu/asrsp/index.html

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