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1 exercise
1. Only about (the one/one) percent of (the water/water) on Earth is (the fresh/fresh) water.
2. (The mineral/Mineral) phosphate is (the most/most) common ingredient of all types of (the fertilizers/
3. (The/A) process of refining minerals requires (a/an) huge amount of (an electrical/electrical) energy.
4. (A humor/Humor) runs through (the American/American) literature from (the earliest/earliest) times
until (the present/present).
5. (The ozone/Ozone) layer acts as (a/an) umbrella against (the most/most) of (the Suns/Suns) dangerous
6. In (the early/early) 1800s, Sequoia, (a Cherokee/Cherokee) leader, created (the/a) first written form of
(a North/North) American Indian language.
7. (The Goddard/Goddard) family of (the New/New) England produced some of (the/a) finest furniture
made in (the United/United) States in (the seventeenth/seventeenth) century.
8. (The popcorn/Popcorn) has (a/the) same food value as any other kind of (a corn/corn).

27.2 exercise

1. Hills known as land islands, or salt domes, are _____________ Louisianas marshlands.

(A) extremely interesting features of (B) of extremely interesting features (C) interesting extremely
features of (D) extremely interesting of features

2. ____________________ of chamber music is the string quartet.

(A) The famous most form (B) The most famous form (C) The form most famous (D) Most the form

3. Not until the seventeenth century ____________ to measure the speed of light.

(A) did anyone even attempt (B) anyone did even attempt (C) did anyone attempt even
(D) did even attempt anyone

4. Alfalfa is ____________________ for livestock.

(A) a primarily grown crop (B) grown primarily a crop (C) a crop grown primarily (D) a grown crop

5. The Franklin stove, which became common in the 1790s, burned wood_____ an open fireplace.

(A) efficiently much more than (B) much more efficiently than (C) much more than efficiently (D) more
efficiently much than

6. Reinforced concrete is concrete that is strengthened by metal bars_________________.

(A) in it that are embedded (B) embedded that are in it (C) are that it embedded in
(D) that are embedded in it

7. Most southern states had set up primary school systems by the late eighteenth century, but only in New
England ________________________ and open to all students.

(A) primary schools were free (B) were primary schools free (C) free were primary schools
(D) were free primary schools

8. Geometry is useful ________________________ carpentry and navigation.

(A) as in such diverse occupations (B) such as in diverse occupations (C) in such diverse occupations as
(D) diverse occupations such as in

9. __________________________ of the early years of space exploration was the discovery of the Van
Allen radiation belt in 1958.

(A) Perhaps the greatest triumph (B) The triumph perhaps greatest (C) The greatest perhaps triumph (D)
The triumph greatest perhaps

10. Today _______________major new products without conducting elaborate market research.

(A) corporations hardly introduce ever (B) hardly ever corporations introduce (C) hardly ever introduce
corporations (D) corporations hardly ever introduce

11. Across the Chesapeake Bay from the rest of the state __________, whose farms produce beans,
tomatoes, and other garden vegetables.

(A) there lies Marylands Eastern Shore (B) lies Marylands Eastern Shore (C) Marylands Eastern Shore
lies there (D) Marylands Eastern Shore lies

12. Acidophilus bacteria are _________________ in an acid medium.

(A) those that grow best (B) those grow best that (C) that those grow best (D) grow best those that

Review F

1. __________ book Jubilee, which was based on the life of her great-grandmother, Margaret Walker was
awarded the Pulitzer Prize.

(A) For her (B) Her (C) It was her (D) That her

2. Rarely ____________________ more than 50 miles from the coast.

(A) redwood trees grow (B) redwood trees do grow (C) grow redwood trees (D) do redwood trees grow

3. Nerve cells, or neurons, ________________________ in the human body.

(A) the most complex cells are (B) are the most complex cells (C) most complex the cells are
(D) most are the complex cells

4. A lodestone is _________________________.

(A) an occurring naturally magnet (B) a magnet naturally occurring (C) naturally a magnet occurring
(D) a naturally occurring magnet

5. Nashville, Tennessee, has ________________ the capital of country music.

(A) as long been known (B) been known long as (C) long been known as (D) long as been known

6. __________ charming shops and restaurants, Old Town is the most picturesque
section of Albuquerque.

(A) With its (B) Its (C) Because its (D) With its

Comparisons 29 exercise

1. Wild strawberries are _______________ cultivated strawberries.

(A) not sweeter (B) not as sweet as (C) less sweeter than (D) not sweet as

2. Sea bass ____________ freshwater bass.

(A) are larger than (B) the larger the (C) are as large (D) than are larger

3. Automobiles, airplanes, and buses use more energy per passenger ____________.

(A) as do trains (B) than trains do (C) trains do (D) like trains

4. The larger a drop of water, _____________ freezing temperature.

(A) the higher its (B) its higher (C) higher than its (D) the highest

5. __________ San Diego and San Francisco, Los Angeles has no natural harbor.

(A) Dissimilar (B) Unlike (C) Dislike (D) Different

6. The water of the Great Salt Lake is ________________ seawater.

(A) saltier than that of (B) as salty as that of (C) saltier than (D) so salty as

7. A psychosis is a severe mental disorder, ________________ a neurosis.

(A) the most serious (B) as serious (C) more serious than (D) as though serious

8. The social system of bumblebees is not as complex __________________.

(A) than honeybees (B) as honeybees (C) that honeybees are (D) as that of honeybees

9. The administration of private colleges is nearly __________ that of public colleges.

(A) same (B) just as (C) the same as (D) similar

Test 3 preview Reading

The technology of the North American colonies did not differ strikingly from that of Europe, but
in one respect, the colonists enjoyed a great advantage. Especially by comparison with Britain,
Americans had a wonderfully plentiful supply of wood. The first colonists did not, as many people
imagine, find an entire continent covered by a climax forest. Even along the Atlantic seaboard,
the forest was broken at many points. Nevertheless, all sorts of fine trees abounded, and through
the early colonial period, those who pushed westward encountered new forests. By the end of the colonial
era, the price of wood had risen slightly in eastern cities, but wood was still extremely abundant.
The availability of wood brought advantages that have seldom been appreciated. Wood was a foundation
of the economy. Houses and all manner of buildings were made of wood to a degree unknown in Britain.
Secondly, wood was used as fuel for heating and cooking. Thirdly, it was used as the source of important
industrial compounds, such as potash, an industrial alkali; charcoal, a component of gunpowder; and
tannic acid, used for tanning leather. The supply of wood conferred advantages but had some negative
aspects as well. Iron at that time was produced by heating iron ore with charcoal. Because Britain was so
stripped of trees, she was unable to exploit her rich iron mines. But the American colonies had both iron
ore and wood; iron production was encouraged and became successful. However, when Britain developed
coke smelting, the Colonies did not follow suit because they had plenty of wood and besides, charcoal
iron was stronger than coke iron. Coke smelting led to technologic innovations and was linked to the
emergence of the Industrial Revolution. In the early nineteenth century, the former colonies lagged behind
Britain in industrial development because their supply of wood led them to cling to charcoal iron.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The advantages of using wood in the colonies (B) The effects of an abundance of wood
on the colonies (C) The roots of the Industrial Revolution (D) The difference between charcoal iron
and coke iron

2. The word strikingly in the first paragraph is closest in meaning to

(A) realistically. (B) dramatically. (C) completely. (D) immediately.

3. Which of the following is a common assumption about the forests of North America during the colonial

(A) They contained only a few types of trees. (B) They existed only along the Atlantic seaboard.
(C) They had little or no economic value. (D) They covered the entire continent.

4. Look at the word plentiful in the bold text below:

Especially by comparison with Britain, Americans had a wonderfully plentiful supply of wood.
The first colonists did not, as many people imagine, find an entire continent covered by a climax
forest. Even along the Atlantic seaboard, the forest was broken at many points. Nevertheless, there
was an abundant supply of fine trees of all types, and through the early colonial period, those who
pushed westward encountered new forests.

Underline the word or phrase in the bold text that has the same meaning as plentiful .

5. According to the passage, by the end of the colonial period, the price of wood in eastern cities

(A) rose quickly because wood was becoming so scarce. (B) was much higher than it was in
Britain. (C) was slightly higher than in previous years. (D) decreased rapidly because of lower
demand for wood.

6. What can be inferred about houses in Britain during the period written about in
the passage?
(A) They were more expensive than American houses. (B) They were generally built with imported
materials (C) They were typically smaller than homes in North America. (D) They were usually built
from materials other than wood.

7. Why does the author mention gunpowder in paragraph 3?

(A) To illustrate the negative aspects of some industrial processes (B) To give an example of a product
made with wood compounds (C) To remind readers that the colonial era ended in warfare (D) To suggest
that wood was not the only important product of the colonies

8. The phrase follow suit in paragraph 4 means

(A) do the same thing. (B) make an attempt. (C) have the opportunity. (D) take a risk.

9. According to the passage, why was the use of coke smelting advantageous?

(A) It led to advances in technology. (B) It was less expensive than wood smelting. (C) It produced
stronger type of iron than wood smelting. (D) It stimulated the demand for wood.