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Bypass Controller Type AV6+

Application Function
30 years experience with Sulzer-Bypass-Systems, including HP Bypass
controls and safety functions, show that the bypass- Controller
controller is neither an integrated part of the boiler controls
nor the turbine controls. The Sulzer-Bypass-System is The HP-bypass
an independent system which serves to coordinate the controller consists
boiler and turbine operation during startup, shutdown of a pressure
and load disturbances. The necessary signal exchange controller, controlling
between the bypass-controller and other systems is superheater
small. Much more important is a bypass-controller which pressure through the
exactly fulfills the requirements of the bypass operation in position of the steam
the plant and allows the easy implementation of required valve, a temperature
safety functions. The life conserving operation of the controller, controlling
heavily stressed valves and pipework, especially by downstream
accurate steam desuperheating in all operating modes temperature through
and transients, poses a special challenge for the bypass- the position of
controller. the spray control
valve and a Op/Cl-
Features Controller for the
spraywater isolation valve.
Standardised
The key part of the pressure controller is the setpoint generator.
n Proven solutions from more than 30 years of
It has to produce the correct setpoint for all the different
experience with HP & LP-bypass automation
operating modes during start-up, load operation, load rejection
n System responsibility in one hand and shutdown. The heart of the setpoint generator is a rate
Flexible limiter, which limits the gradient of any pressure increase during
all operating modes, therefore protecting components from
n State Controller with Observer (SCO) reduces
pressure/temperature transients.
temperature transients for valves and pipes
n For any type of boiler plant
n With or without safety function
n Degree of automation selectable
Open

n Clear and simple interface to boiler and turbine


controls
n Hundreds of bypass controllers installed
n Satisfies highest automation requirements

Fig.1 HP Bypass with Controller


For the case of large load rejections or turbine trips the
bypass controller contains the necessary functions to
initiate a quick opening, in order to keep the pressure
excursion as small and short as possible.
For a hot start, where the boiler is already under pressure,
the functions min. position and minimum pressure are not
active. The pressure controller will automatically select on
basis of the superheater pressure the type of startup.
Temperature control
The HP-spraywater controller, has to deal with large
variations of process conditions as gain, time delay, and
disturbances. CCI/Sulzer state controllers with observer
(SCO) are using a dynamic model of the process to
reduce temperature deviations and especially temperature
Fig. 2 Cold Start-up with HP-Bypass gradients during transient plant operating conditions.
Possible reductions are by a factor of 2- 4 over conventional
The Operating modes are mainly determined by process PI(D)-controllers. This is an important life conserving factor
signals, namely the superheater pressure and the valve for the heavily stressed walls of valves and piping.
position. Therefore the bypass controller does not depend Safety Function
on many signals from the boiler or turbine controller.
Regulations in various countries allow the use of the
Start up
HP-bypass valves as safety valves against overpressure
The functions of the pressure setpoint generator are in the superheater. CCI/Sulzer HP-Bypass valves can
shown at the example of a plant cold start. be equipped with additional safe opening devices.
First the Bypass valve is opened to minimum position The necessary safety control cabinet is completely
(Ymin). This ensures steam flow through the superheater independent of the HP-Bypass control, but for smooth
and reheater immediately after ignition. transfer between safe opening and control the two
functions are coordinated by a number of signals.
When there is enough steam production to reach a
minimum pressure (pmin) the controller begins to control LP Bypass Controller
the live steam pressure by opening the bypass valves. Although independent in operation from the HP-bypass
When the Bypass valve reaches the position Ym (defined controller the LP-bypass controller must operate well
by the desired steam flow during boiler start up) the coordinated with the HP-Bypass system.
setpoint generator begins to increase the pressure Pressure Control
setpoint in accordance with the steam production of the
boiler, but limited by the maximum gradient. The LP-bypass pressure controller controls during start-up and
load rejections the reheat pressure. Similar to the HP-pressure
Once the target pressure for starting the turbine (psynch) controller, it contains a setpoint generator producing the correct
is reached, the setpoint generator switches to (fixed) pressure setpoint during all operating modes.
pressure control.
As the turbine starts to accept steam the bypass will
start to close until the turbine takes over all the steam
produced by the boiler and the bypass is fully closed.
Load operation
As soon as the bypass is closed the pressure setpoint
tracks the actual pressure plus a threshold dp which
keeps the bypass closed (follow mode). The maximum
gradient of the pressure setpoint is still limited. If the life
steam pressure exceeds this gradient, e.g. due to a load
rejection, the bypass will start to open and the controller
returns to pressure control mode. The pressure is
controlled by the bypass until normal operation has been
restored and the bypass is closed again.

Fig. 3 LP-Bypass with Controller


Boiler start-up
The controller has to control the steam pressure in the
reheater system. The bypass is either closed until the
desired reheat pressure is reached and starts then to open
and control the pressure, or the pressure is increased in a
controlled manner similar to the HP-bypass. Both operating
modes are available in the LP-bypass controller.
Load operation
The bypass is closed but the controller monitors the reheat
steam pressure in order to open and control the pressure
whenever an unacceptable pressure increase is recognised. Fig. 4 Bypass Controller Interfaces
The first stage pressure of the turbine is used to generate the
output signals to the positioners are 4-20 mA signals.
sliding pressure setpoint.
Emergency and trip input signals as well as alarm
Condenser protection output signals are usually hardwired binary signals.
Whenever the condenser is not able to accept steam Outputs are dry switchover contacts (SPDT), Input
or the injection water system is unavailable, the bypass signals usually contacts from other systems.
is closed through a separate safe channel in order to As standard connection to the plant DCS the bypass
protect the condenser. This emergency closing function controller provides a serial MODBUS-interface. The
can close either through a separate safe closing device MODBUS carries all input and output signals of the Man-
the LP-Bypass steam control valve or a separate LP- Machine Interface (MMI). It allows manual control of all
bypass steam isolation valve. valves as well as setpoints as defined in the detailed
With large bypass valves, their flow capacity at high controller configuration. MODBUS is the de facto world
reheater pressure can exceed the absorption capacity standard for datalinks between different control systems
of the condenser. For such cases the steam flow to the and available on most DCS.
condenser is limited by the bypass controller. A detailed interface signal list is usually worked out during
If power operated reheater safety valves are used (e.g. engineering of the individual bypass controller.
CCI/Sulzer MSV-valves), coordinated operation of the If a redundant manual control is required, a touch
reheater safety valves with the LP-bypass can further screen panel can be provided. The touch screen panel
improve plant operation for the case of turbine trip or load provides all process visualisation and complete manual
rejection at high load. The Sulzer-LP-bypass controller can control. Additionally through the touch screen panel
provide the necessary signals for operation of the reheater all control parameters can be adjusted. The change
safety valves. of control parameters is protected by a password. If
Spray water control no touch screen panel is used the parameters can
be changed through the programming interface of the
Because the steam conditions after the LP-bypass controller with the help of a PC.
desuperheater are usually very near or at saturation
The programming language for the bypass controller
condition, the temperature after the desuperheater cannot
corresponds to the international IEC 1131 standard. The
be used as control signal. The necessary injection water
subset “Function Block Diagram” (FDB) is used which has
flow and related valve position of the injection valve is
the advantage that it provides directly an easy readable
therefore calculated from the steam flow and the steam
documentation of the controller functions.
conditions. The steam flow is in turn calculated as a
function of the steam conditions and the valve position of
the bypass valve.
Interfacing
The field signals are usually connected as 4-20 mA
signals to the bypass controller. The transmitter have
individual circuit breakers.
The positioners for hydraulic actuators are usually directly
installed in the cabinet, so that output signals are directly
driving proportional valves and solenoid valves. The
Fig. 5 Touch Panel with Process Picture of HP/LP-Bypass
Technical Data
Cabinet 2200mm x 1000mm x 600mm Standard functions – Startup type selection
Hx W x D HP-bypass (Cold start, Hot Start,
270 kg Hot Restart)
Double front and back doors (Not all functions – Min Position
might be used in – Min Pressure
Ambient Conditions 0 – 32 ºC, max. 90 % R. H.
specific application) – Pressure increase
Electromagnetic – RFI IEC 801-3
– Fixed Pressure
compatibility (EMC) 27-500 MHz: 10 V/m
– Follow operation
– Ground Cont. IEC 801-5
2 kV shield to ground – Shutdown
– ESD IEC 801-2 – External Pressure Setpoint
8 kV air / 4 kV contact – Max gradient can be variable,
Power Supply 110 – 230 VAC redundant depending on any other
or 24 VDC redundant signal value
Power Dissipation max. 360 W – Temperature Control
Transmitter Inputs 4– 20 mA – Spraywater Isolation Valve
Transmitter supply with Control
individual circuit breakers – State Controller with
Binary Inputs 24 VDC Observer (SCO) used for
Interrogation voltage for dry pressure and temperature
contacts
Binary Inputs 24 VDC Standard functions – Pressure Increase
interrogation voltage for dry contacts LP-bypass – Fixed pressure
Binary Signal Dry contact SPDT – Load operation
Outputs 250 V / 1 A AC, 30 V / 1 A DC (Not all functions – Emergency closing of
DCS-Interface MODBUS or MODBUS Plus might be used in steam isolation valve
(for other Datalinks consult specific application) – Spraywater control
CCI) (Calculated)
Analog Outputs 4-20mA isolated 500V Optional – Control of third stage
(Optional) desuperheater spray valves
Terminals Compression type Options – Functions can be adapted
Signals AWG 12 to satisfy specific plant
Power AWG 10 – 8 requirements
Hydraulic PVR10-10 mounted in the – Signal connections to
Positioners cabinet hardwired M/A-stations

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(BTG Valves)
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