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Tutorial 4.

2 (Transfer Function)

1. A simple surge tank with fixed valve on the outflow line is illustrated in Figure 1. If the
outflow rate is proportional to the square root of the liquid height, an unsteady-state
model for the level in the tank is given by:

= 1/2

As usual, you can assume that the process initially is at steady state:

= = 1/2

Figure 1.
(a) Find the Transfer Function H (s)/ Qi (s). Put the Transfer Function in standard
gain/time constant form.
(b) Find the transfer function Q(s)/ and put it in standard form.
(c) If the algebraic relation for the outflow rate is linear instead of square root, the level
transfer function can be put into a first-order form,
() +1

With = , = / , and = is the initial steady-state volume.

When written this way is easily interpreted as the liquid residence time at the
nominal operating conditions. What are equivalent expressions for K and in the part
(a) level transfer function, that is, for the square root outflow relation?

2. An exothermic reaction, A 2B, takes place adiabatically in a stirred-tank reactor.

This liquid reactor occurs at constant volume in a 1000gal reactor. The reaction can be
considered to be first order and irreversible with the rate constant given by:

= 2.4 1015 20,000/ (1 ) Where T is in oR.

(a) Using the given information below, derive a transfer function relating the exit
temperature T to the inlet concentration . State all assumptions that you make.
(b) How sensitive is the transfer function gain K to the operating conditions? Find an
and evaluate the sensitivities. (That
expression for the gain in terms of ,
is dK/d, etc).
Available Information

(i) Nominal steady-state conditions are:

= 0.8 / 3
= 1500 ,
= 20/ min =
(ii) Physical property data for the mixture at the nominal steady state:

= = 0.8 , = 52 3 , = 500 /

3) The contents of the stirred-tank heating system shown in Figure 2 are heated at a
constant rate of Q (Btu/h) using a gas-fired heater. The flow rate w (lb/h) and volume
V (ft3) are constant, but the heat loss to the surroundings QL (Btu/h) varies with the
wind velocity v (ft/s) according to the expressions:
= ( )
() = + ()
Where , , . Derive the transfer function between exit
temperature T and wind velocity v. List any additional assumptions that you make.

Figure 2.
4) Consider the following transfer function:
() 5
() = =
() 10+1

(a) What is the steady-state gain?

(b) What is the time constant?
(c) If U(s) = 2/s. what is the value of the output y(t) when t ?
(d) For the same U(s), what is the value of the output when t = 10? What is the output
when expressed as a fraction of the new steady-state value?
(e) If U (s) = (1 e-s)/s, that is the unit rectangular pulse, what is the output when t
(f) If u(t) = (), that is, the unit impulse at t = 0, what is the output when t ?
(g) If u(t) = 2 sin 3t, what is the value of the output when t ?

5) For the process modelled by:

2 = 21 32 + 21

= 41 62 + 21 + 42

Find the four transfer function relating the outputs (y1, y2) to the inputs (u1, u2). The u
and y are deviation variables.

- End of Questions-