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# Physics Unit 4

Momentum
=
Momentum is a vector quantity. Draw a vector triangle to find the resultant.

Newtons second law can be formulated in terms of change in momentum. The rate of change of
momentum is proportional to the magnitude of the resultant force and takes place in the
direction of the resultant force.

= ( )

=

For rocket propulsion or firework a different form of the equation can be written,

=

## Impulse = Change in Momentum

In order to achieve a change in momentum a resultant force must act on the object. The longer
time for which the force acts, the smaller the force needed for a given change in momentum.

= ()

Conservation of Momentum
Total momentum before collision = Total momentum after collision.

1 1 + 2 2 = 1 1 + 2 2

## Energy & Momentum

Since = ,
2 = 2 2
2 2
= =
2 2
2
=
2
Elastic collision: Total kinetic energy conserved.

Inelastic collision: Total kinetic energy not conserved, missing energy has converted to another
form, such as thermal energy.
2 Dimensional Collisions
For elastic collisions between two equal mass objects, one of which is initially at rest, we can write:

2 12 22
= +
2 2 2
2 = 12 + 22

For momentum conservation the objects must move at right angles to each other after collision.

Circular Motion

Angular Velocity

=

=

2
=

= , tangential velocity
2
=

Centripetal Acceleration
2
= = 2

When an object moves in a circular path at constant speed its direction is changing so therefore it
is accelerating. The acceleration is directed to the centre of the circular path, perpendicular to its
tangential velocity.
Centripetal Force
Since, =
2
= = 2

Momentary Apparent Weightlessness

When a person feels weightless, there is no reaction force the only force acting on them is their
weight, .

2
=

2 =

Electric Fields
Electric field strength is a vector quantity. The direction of is the same as the direction
of the electric force , which is defined as the force on a positive charge.

=

= =

=

## Uniform Electric Fields

Field lines are from the positive plate to the negative plate.
The value of is the same everywhere within the field, therefore force remains
constant.

The electric field strength in a uniform electric field can also be expressed as:

=

Where , is the potential difference between the oppositely charged plates and is the
separation of the plates.

Equipotential Lines

The work done in moving a charged object along an equipotential line is zero. The work
done , in moving a charge between two equipotential lines is:
=

## Where , is the difference in potential or voltage between the lines.

The size of the electric field , a distance , from a point charge is:

=
2
1
=
40
0 = 8.85 1012 1
= 8.9 109 1

Coulombs Law
1 2
=
2
Suppose Q is an isolated large charge and a small charge q is placed near it.

=
2

= 2

=
2

Capacitance
When you apply a potential difference to the terminals of the capacitor, the sides or the
plates of the capacitor become charged. As a result there is an electric field between the
plates. If the potential difference is and the charge that this p.d. displaces from one side
of the capacitor to the other is , then:

=

## Measuring the charge stored

Charge is equal to the area under a current-time graph. If the current is constant it is
simple = . The following circuit is setup and the experiment proceeds:
To keep the current constant, the rheostat is kept at its maximum of 100k.
Close the switch, start the clock and note the reading on the microammeter.
Keep the current at that initial value by gradually reducing the resistance of the
rheostat.
You need to reduce this slowly at first and then quickly towards the end.

Obtained graph:

Energy Stored
A potential difference builds up across a capacitor as it charges. The capacitor is fully
charged once the pd across it becomes equal to the emf of the source.

=

## In the case of capacitors,

1 2 1 2
= = =
2 2 2
Capacitors store this transferred energy as electric potential energy.

## Charging and discharging capacitors

Time constant:
=

The unit of the time constant is in seconds. It tells us how many seconds it takes for the
current to fall to 37% of its starting value.

= 0 = 0

= 0 =

= 0 = 0

If we consider a time period of = , then substituting to one of our discharging
equations we get,
1
= 0 0 1
0
1
0.36787

So, during the discharge process, in one time constant, the charge remaining in the
capacitor is roughly 37% if its initial value. The charge remaining is very close to zero
when 5-time constants have passed. Hence, we often take 5 as the time for a capacitor
to fully discharge.

When a capacitor is charged through a resistor, in one time constant the capacitor charge
and pd reach 63% of their final vales. Again, 5 is often taken to be the time for the
process to be complete.

= (1 )

Substituting t=RC,
1
= ( )

1
0.6321

## At every stage of the charging process = + , but as the

capacitor charges increase and decreases. When the
capacitor is fully charged, the current in the circuit is nearly

zero since =
.
Magnetic Fields
Lines representing the magnetic field in a given region are called lines of magnetic flux.

The number of lines passing through a unit area perpendicular to the field represents the
flux density, , and is a measure of the magnetic field strength.

## A length of wire, , carrying a current, , experiences a force, , in a magnetic field.

For an angle , between the current carrying conductor and the magnetic field,
= sin

= 1 1 , ()

=

## = drift speed of the charge carriers.

Substituting in to = ,
= () =

is the total number of charge carriers in the piece of wire is the force on one of
these charge carriers or electrons, so the equation can be simplified to:

## = = in the case of an electron.

Magnetic Flux
=
The product of the magnetic flux density and the area through which it acts is called the
magnetic flux through the area. The unit of magnetic flux is Webers, Wb.

The rate of change of magnetic flux is particularly important as we can reveal what it
means by dimensional analysis.

= Wbs1

Wbs1 Tm2 s 1 NA1 m1 m2 s 1 NmA1 s1 Js1 A1 WA1 V

When a magnetic field passes through a coil of wire that has N turns, the magnetic flux
linking the coil is , or . The rate of change of magnetic flux linkage is proportional
to the magnitude of the induced emf, , in the coil, this is Faradays Law.

Lenzs Law
The induced emf must cause a current to flow in such a direction as to oppose the
change in flux linkage that produces it.

=

Where the graph is positive, the magnetic flux through the coil is increasing as the
magnet approaches the coil. Where the graph is negative, the magnetic flux is decreasing
as the magnet exits the coil. The max emf when the magnet approaches is a little less than
the maximum emf as it exits, because the magnet accelerates through the coil. Thus, the
rate of change of magnetic flux is greater as it exits.

Transformer Equation

= , ideally = , but in practice, < .

The Nuclear Atom
Nucleon and proton numbers are always conserved.
220 216
86Rn 84Po + 42He + energy

Beta-minus decay:
131 131 0
53I 54Xe + 10 + 0v

Electron beams:

The release of electrons from the surface of a metal as it is heated is known as thermionic
emission.

If, on escaping, these electrons find themselves in an electric field, they will be accelerated
by the field, moving in the positive direction. The kinetic energy they gain depend on the
potential difference that they move through.
= , = 1.6 1019 C

Electrons as waves

= or = , where = 6.63 1034 Js1

Fast electrons or other particles may have a wavelength similar in size to nuclear matter,
which means its structure can be investigated in scattering experiments. The higher the
particle energy, the shorter the wavelength, hence the greater the detail that can be
resolved. So high-energy particle beams are required for fine structure to be investigated.