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SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS

Lesson 03
Chapter 3 Subsurface Explorations

Testing Theory

Experience
Lesson Plan

g Topic 1 (Section 3.0, 3.1, 3.2)


- Historical data
- Formation of soils and landforms
- Field reconnaissance

g Topic 2 (Section 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6)


- Sampling techniques and tools
- Boring methods
- Sampling methods
Lesson Plan

g Topic 3 (Section 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10)


- The Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
- The Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
- Log of boring information (Boring logs)
- Groundwater measurements

g Topic 4 (Section 3.11, 3.12)


- Guidelines for minimum subsurface explorations
- Geophysical tests
Subsurface Explorations

Lesson 03 - Topic 1
Historical Data, Soils and Landforms, Field
Reconnaissance
(Section 3.0, 3.1, 3.2)
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Identify sources of subsurface information
- Compare soil formations and landforms
- Report relevant field reconnaissance information
Preparing for Subsurface Exploration

If you do not know what you should be


looking for in a site investigation, you are not
likely to find much of value

Glossop (1968)
Eighth Rankine Lecture
Points to Ponder

g Byinvesting in a systematic approach to


developing subsurface information, overly
conservative designs could be avoided and
costly construction claims can be minimized
Review available subsurface information and develop preliminary model of subsurface conditions

Developing a Identify material properties required for design and constructability and estimate scope of field program

Plan site exploration and field test program

Subsurface Model Conduct field investigations and field testing

Site Investigation and Field Testing


Perform sample descriptions and laboratory index tests

Summarize basic soil/rock data and develop subsurface profile

g Figure 3-1 No
Are results
consistent with
preliminary
model?

Yes
Review design objectives and initial results

g Step 1:

Phase II Investigation (if needed)


Are there additional Yes

- Subsurface Exploration
data needs

No

- Field Exploration Select representative soil/rock samples and details of laboratory testing

Conduct laboratory testing

g Step 2:

Laboratory Testing and


Review quality of laboratory test data and summarize

- Laboratory testing

Test Interpretation
- Test interpretation No
Are results
consistent and valid

g Step 3:
Yes

Is a Phase II Yes

- Subsurface Model for


Investigation
necessary?

No

Engineering Design Engineering


Design
Select material properties and finalize subsurface model

Perform design and consider constructability issues


Historical Data
g Table 3- 1

g Utilitymaps
g Aerial photographs
g Topographic maps
g Existing subsurface exploration data
g Geological reports and maps
g Water/brine well logs
g Flood insurance maps
g Soil survey
g Sanborn fire insurance maps
Soil Formation

g Soils are a result of weathering of rocks


- Rocks are igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
g Weathering processes
- Mechanical (physical) processes
Expansion, abrasion, temperature changes, erosion by
wind/rain, crystal growth, organic activity

- Chemical processes
Hydration, hydrolysis, oxidation, solution, leaching
Mainly occurs by fluids seeping in to the fractures
caused by mechanical processes
Weathering of Rocks
Weathering of Rocks
Weathering of
Rocks
g Look at range of
particle sizes
Formation of Landforms

g Once rock is broken into fragments, rate of


weathering depends on particle size and the
climate
g Smaller particles weather faster due to larger
surface area
g Weathering can break down particles to soil and
colloidal sizes (not visible to naked eye)
g Soils formed by a particular geologic process
assume characteristic topographic features called
LANDFORMS
Types of Landforms

g Residual
g Transported
Residual Soils
g Figure 3-2
Transported Soils

g Water
g Ice
g Wind
g Gravity
Water Transported Soils

g Table 3-2

g Water
- Flood plain
- Coastal plain
- Terraces
- Lakebed (lacustrine, varves)
- Delta
- Alluvial Fans (Filled valleys, basin deposits)
Ice and Meltwater Transported Soils

g Table 3-2

g Ice (Glacier) and Meltwater


- Moraines (Terminal, lateral)
- Glacial till (ground moraine)
- Outwash
- Eskers
- Drumlins
Wind Transported Soils

g Table 3-2

g Wind (Aeolian)
- Loess
- Sand Dune
Gravity Transported Soils

g Table 3-2

g Gravity
- Colluvium
- Talus (Scree)
Urban Fill Sites

g Insert slide
What type of geomaterial is this?
Field
Reconnaissance
g Figure 3-3

g Recommended for
all projects
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Identify sources of subsurface information
- Compare soil formations and landforms
- Report relevant field reconnaissance information
Any Questions?

THE ROAD TO
UNDERSTANDING
SOILS
AND
FOUNDATIONS
Subsurface Explorations

Lesson 03 - Topic 2
Sampling techniques and tools, Boring
methods, Sampling methods
(Section 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6)
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Contrast field testing and field sampling
- Compare field boring methods for soil and rock
- Select appropriate field sampling and handling
techniques in soil and rock
- Calculate rock quality designation (RQD)
Soil Exploration for Geostratification

g Number of layers
g Thickness and depth of layers
g Types of geomaterials and properties
g Groundwater table(s)
Invasive Exploration Techniques

SPT CPT DMT PMT VST


Truck-Mounted Drill Rigs

Layne Drilling
All-Terrain Drill Rigs

McLean, VA GT Campus, Atlanta, GA


Track-Mounted Drill Rigs

Tucson, Arizona
Specialty Rigs (Winky)
Tucson, Arizona
Specialty Rigs for Difficult Access
US 60 Pinto Valley, Arizona
Helicopter
Transported Rigs
g Sedona, Arizona
For Extra Credit, Can you Spot the
Inspector?
Auger Borings
Solid Stem Auger Drilling
Hollow-Stem
Auger Boring
Hollow Stem Auger (HSA) Drilling
Rotary Wash Borings
g Inrotary wash method,
borehole is stabilized
either by temporary steel
casing or drilling fluid.

g Fluids include water,


bentonite or polymer
slurry, or foam that are
recirculated in tub or Rig conducting
rotary wash boring
reservoir at surface.
Rotary Wash Borings
g Rotary wash techniques
are are best for borings
extending below
groundwater table
g Rotary wash can achieve
great depths > 300 ft
(>100 m)
g Drilling bits:
Drag, Roller, and
- Drag bits for clays Diamond Bit Types
- Roller bits for sands
Rotary Wash Boring Method
Wash Boring
Soil Sampling Methods
g Disturbed Sampling
- Bulk samples (from auger cuttings or test pit excavations)
- Drive samples (e.g, split-barrel)
- Table 3-5(a), 3-5(b)

g Undisturbed Sampling
- Push Tubes (Shelby, Piston)
- Rotary & Push (Denison, Pitcher)
- Table 3-6
Disturbed Soil Sampling Methods
g Bulk Sampling
- Used for testing of borrow materials for controlled
fill (compacted samples)
- Testing includes index, classification, moisture-
density, and higher-order tests on compacted
specimens.
Disturbed Soil Sampling Methods
g Split-Barrel (Split-Spoon) Sampling
- Drive a split-barrel into the soil and collect sample
- Samples used for index, classification and moisture-
content tests
g Discussed more with SPT
Split-Barrel (Split-Spoon) Sampler
Undisturbed Soil Sampling Methods

g Thin-Walled Shelby Tube


g Piston Push Samplers
g Pitcher (Rotary & Push)
g Denison (Rotary & Push)
Thin-walled Shelby Tube
Sampling
g ASTM D 1587 standard
g 3.0-inch O.D. with 2.8-inch I.D. tube
g Usedin soft to firm silts and clays to clayey
and silty sands
g Lengths of about 30 inches
g Madeof carbon steel, brass, stainless, or
galvanized steel
Shelby Tube Sampling
Thin-Walled Tube Samplers
Preparing the Shelby Tube
Sampling Disturbance

Photoelasticity
Studies
Sampling Disturbance

Radiography (X-rays) of Tubes


Protection of Samples
g Provide care in
transport
g Minimize
Vibrations
g Do not expose to
heat, sun,
drying, freezing
g Not extrude in
field
Field-Extruded Tube Samples
Special Samplers
g Piston, Sherbrooke,
Laval, NGI, and
Japanese Samplers
g Large diameters tube
samplers for soft and
sensitive clays &
silts.
g Less disturbance for
quality lab testing Sealing & Waxing Tubes
Stationary Piston Sampler
(also Osterberg Sampler, Hvorslev Sampler)

g Thin walled tube with


piston, rod, and modified
sampler head

g Piston head fixed and


vacuum applied to
increase & maintain
sample recovery

g Useful in very soft soils


Pitcher and Denison Samplers
g Pitcher is tube sampler with outer rotating
core barrel
g Used in stiff to hard clays and soft rocks
g Inner thin walled tube is spring-loaded and
remains stationary while outer barrel cuts
through material.
g Denison sampler similar but tube projection
is manually- adjusted
Pitcher Sampler
Pitcher
Sampler
Denison Sampler
Exploration of Rock

g Investigative methods:
- Geophysical methods (section 3.12)
- Geologic mapping (need qualified geologists)
- Drilling and coring (this section)
- Exploration test pits
Exploration of Rock
g Refusal
- Auger refusal
- SPT refusal (> 50 blows per 1 inch penetration)
g Rock Coring (ASTM D 2113)
g Noncore drilling
g Percussive methods
Percussive Drilling

Air-Tracks Drilling for Placement of Dynamite


to Remove Rock, Penobscot, Maine
Rock Coring Methods

g Standard rotary equipment or wireline


g Drill bits for cutting rock
g Different core barrels for sampling rock
g Drilling fluids and casings.
g Observations noted during drilling.
g Logging of recovery and rock quality
Rock Coring Methods

Layne Rock Drilling


Types of Rotary Wash Bits

Tricone, Roller, Plug Bit Roller Bits


Drilling and Coring Bits

g Diamond bits are the best and hardest,


producing high quality core. Fastest
cutting rates. Expensive
g Synthetic bits. Less expensive. Generally
good quality cores.
g Tungsten carbide. Least expensive.
Slower coring rates.
Types of Coring Bits

Diamond, Carbide Carbide Type Bits


Tungsten, Sawtooth
Diamond Core Bits
g Core Size: Larger better but more $
g Diamond setting: hardest vector set against the
work
g Bit Profiles: Full-round, semi-round, flat crown,
semi-flat
g Diamond size: relates to hardness and fineness of
rock minerals
g Waterways: flushing cuttings & rock flour; Number
of ports, slots, discharge direction.
g Matrix: secure diamonds & dissipate heat
www.ackerdrill.com
Diamond Coring Bits

www.ackerdrill.com
Core Barrels

g Core barrel retains rock core samples from


drilling operations.
g Single tube core barrel: most rugged,
least expensive
g Consists of head section, core recovery
tube, reamer shell, & cutting bit
g Often used as starter when beginning core
operations
Core Barrels
Core Barrels
g Double tube core barrel is the standard.
g Outer barrel rotates with cutting bit
g Inner barrel is either fixed or swivel type
(with bearings) that retains core sample.
g Core diameters generally range from 0.85 to
3.35 inch)
- See Table 3-7
g NX core: standard diameter
- 2.15 inches (54 mm)
Core Barrels

Double Tube Core Barrel (Swivel Type)

Outer Barrel Assembly Inner Barrel Assembly


Triple Core Barrel
g Good for obtaining core samples in
fractured rock and highly weathered rocks
g Outer core barrel for initial cut and second
barrel to cut finer size. Third barrel to retain
cored samples
g Reduces frictional heat and vibration that
may damage samples
Rock Coring
Drilling Fluids
g Rotary wash with water, foam, or drilling
mud (bentonitic or polymeric slurries), or
Revert
g Fluids reduce wear on drilling and coring
bits by cooling
g Fluids remove cuttings & rock flour.
g Recirculate to filter fluids and to minimize
impact on environment
Core Recovery
g Core Runs taken in either 5- or 10-foot
sections (1.5- or 3-m sections).
g Log the amount of material recovered.
g Core Recovery is percentage retained.
Core Recovery
Core Recovery
g Coresshould be stored in either wooden
boxes or corrugated cardboard box.

g Boxmarked with boring number, depth of


core run, type core, bit type, core recovery
(CR), rock type, RQD, and other notes.

g Core operations should be documented:


- Loss of fluid, rates, sudden drop in rods,
poor recovery, loss of core
Rock Quality Designation (RQD)

g The RQD is a modified core recovery


g Measure of the degree of fractures, joints,
and discontinuities of rock mass
g RQD = sum of pieces > 4 inches (100 mm)
divided by total core run
g Generally performed on NX-size core
Rock Quality Designation
5-foot core run = 60 inches

16" 6" 10" 8" 6" 3" 11"

RQD = 43"/60" = 72% Quality RQD


Very Poor 0 to 25%
Poor 25 - 50%
( x i > 4 inches )
RQD = Fair 50 - 75%
X T ( total run ) Good 75 - 90%
Excellent 90 - 100%
Care & Preservation of Rock Cores
g Routine: Rock samples in core boxes
g General:Avoid shock and vibration
during handling and transport.
g Man-made fractures may result from
excessive movements, temperatures,
and exposure to air.
g Storage for future reference
Storage of Rock Core Boxes
Geologic Mapping
g Need experienced Engineering Geologists
g FHWA Manual on Rock Slopes (1989)
g Field mapping of exposed rock outcrops
- Discontinuities, types, orientation, infilling,
surface aspects, spacing
- Directions of faults, shear zones, evidence of
tectonic activities
g Special drilling to orient fracture directions
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Contrast field testing and field sampling
- Compare field boring methods for soil and rock
- Select appropriate field sampling and handling
techniques in soil and rock
- Calculate rock quality designation (RQD)
Any Questions?

THE ROAD TO
UNDERSTANDING
SOILS
AND
FOUNDATIONS
Subsurface Explorations

Lesson 03 - Topic 3
SPT, CPT, Boring Logs, Groundwater
(Section 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10)
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Describe the Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
- Explain energy and overburden corrections
- Recall components of a boring log
- Discuss the Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
- Identify the differences between SPT and CPT
- Identify groundwater measurement techniques
Sequence of SPT (ASTM D 1586)
140 lb (63.5-kg)
Hammer dropping
Anvil 30 (0.76 m)

Drill Rod Sizes


Drill Rod Symbol OD, in
Split-Spoon A 1-5/8
Drive sampler N 2-3/8
2 OD
1-3/8 ID
30 Long SPT Resistance
No Liner (N-value) is
total number of
Seating Spoon 6 (150 mm) blows to drive
Second Increment 6 (150 mm) sampler the 2nd
and 3rd 6 (150
Third Increment 6 (150 mm)
mm) increments
Split-Spoon Sampling
Advantages

g Obtain a sample and N-value


g Simple and rugged
g Suitable in many soil types
g Can be performed in weak rocks
g Readily available throughout the U.S.
Disadvantages

g Disturbed samples (index tests only)


g N-value is a crude number for analysis
g Not applicable in soft clays and silts
g High variability and uncertainty
g Unreliable in gravelly soils
SPT Hammer Types
Donut Safety Automatic
Hammer Lifting Mechanisms
Rope and Cathead Safety Automatic
Energy Considerations in SPTs
Comparison of SPT N-values
0 10 20 30 40
0

10
Company #1
20 Manual Hammer
Depth in Feet

30 Company # 2
Manual Hammer
40
Company #2
50 Automatic Hammer

60

70
N-values
Energy Efficiency of Hammers
Measured N-values Corrected N60
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50
4 4

Donut
ER = 34 (energy ratio)
6 6 Safety
55 45
60 Trend
40

Depth (meters)
8
Depth (meters)

8
56 41
63
41 10
10
63
39
63 12
12 47

Donut 64 56
14 Safety 14
69
Sequence
16 16

N60 = (Ef/60) Nmeas


Ef = 60 for Rope & Cathead Ef = 80 for Automatic system
Correlations Based on N-values
Sands (Reliable) Silts and Clays (Unreliable)
N60 Relative Density N60 Consistency
0-4 Very loose 0-2 Very soft
5-10 Loose 2-4 Soft
11-30 Medium Dense 5-8 Medium
31-50 Dense 9-15 Stiff
> 50 Very dense 16-30 Very stiff
Over 30 Hard

If your agency uses an automatic hammer, make sure that


you correct the measured N-value accordingly to N60-value
Effect of Overburden on N-values

g N-values of similar materials increase with


increasing effective overburden stress
g To ensure comparison on a consistent basis,
normalize the N-values to a certain pressure

N160=CN N60
Effect of Overburden on N-values

g1 tsf (= 1 atm) is the normalization pressure

N160=CN N60
CN = [0.77 log10 (20/po)]
CN < 2.0 ; po is in tsf
Graph of CN
Overburden Correction Factor, CN
g Do no apply 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
0
CN in 1
indurated and

Vertical Effective Pressure, tsf


2
cemented 3

soils 4
5
6

7
8
9
10
SPT Test Errors

g Section 3.7.4, Table 3-10


Boring Logs

g Record maximum
information
accurately
g Field vs Final log
g Many log formats
g Every log must
have certain
minimum
information
Boring Log (Upper half)
Boring Log (Lower half)
Cone Penetration Testing (ASTM D 5778)
Advantages / Disadvantages
Advantages Disadvantages
g Fast and continuous g High capital investment
profiling of strata g Requires skilled
g Economical and operator for field use
productive g Electronics must be
g Results not operator- calibrated & protected
dependent g No soil samples
g Strong theoretical basis g Unsuited to gravelly
for interpretation soils and cobbles.
g Particularly suited to
soft soils
Cone Penetrometers
Cone Penetration Vehicles

Mobile 25-tonne rigs with hydraulic pushing systems. Enclosed cabins to


allow testing for all weather conditions
Cone Penetration Vehicles
Electronic Friction Cone Penetrometer
qT (MPa) fS (kPa)
0 2 4 6 8 0 100 200 300
0 0

2 2

4 4

6 6

8 8
Depth (m)

Depth (m)
10 10

12 12

14 14

16 16

18 18

20 20
Piezocone Penetrometers

Porewater Pressures Measured at Apex


McClelland Penetrometer Design
CPT Profiles
Soil
Behavior
Type
g Standard Electronic
Friction Cone
Comparison of SPT and CPT

g SPT gives physical samples for testing but


does not provide continuous profile
g CPT does not retrieve physical samples but
gives continuous profile
- Quicker (less expensive)

g Itis most beneficial to use CPT with another


method that allows for retrieval of physical
samples
Groundwater Measurements

g Groundwater level and pore water pressure


measurements are extremely important for
geotechnical analysis
g Sources of Information
- Existing wells
- Open borings
- Observation wells
- Piezometers
Observation
Wells
Piezometers

g Add slide
Water Level Measurements

g Chalked tape
g Tape with float
g Electric water-level indicator
g Data loggers
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Describe the Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
- Explain energy and overburden corrections
- Recall components of a boring log
- Discuss the Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
- Identify the differences between SPT and CPT
- Identify groundwater measurement techniques
Any Questions?

THE ROAD TO
UNDERSTANDING
SOILS
AND
FOUNDATIONS
Subsurface Explorations

Lesson 03 - Topic 4
Minimum Subsurface Explorations,
Geophysical Tests
(Section 3.11, 3.12)
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Locate minimum subsurface exploration
program components
- Identify geophysical testing techniques
Minimum Guidelines for Exploration

g Number of exploration points


g Depth of exploration points

g Table 3-12
- Retaining walls
- Embankment foundations
- Cut slopes
- Shallow foundations
- Deep foundations
When do you Need More than
Minimum?
Group Exercise

g Whatare the key points for determining the


extent of subsurface explorations?
- Length between exploration points
- Depth of exploration points
- Number of exploration points
- Effect of type of foundation
Geophysical Tests

g Non Destructive Tests


g Area coverage between exploration points

g FHWA (2005) Manual


Types of Geophysical Tests

g Seismic methods
g Electrical methods
g Gravity and magnetic methods
g Near-surface nuclear methods
g Borehole methods

g Table 3-13
Geophysical Equipment

Seismograph Spectrum Analyzer

Portable Analyzer Velocity Recorder


Seismic Reflection
Seismic Refraction
Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)

Xadar Sensors & Software GeoRadar


Examples of Ground Penetrating
Radar (GPR)
Useful in Locating Underground Utilities
Results from Ground Penetrating
Radar (GPR)
Advantages

g Non-invasive
- Beneficial at contaminated sites
- Useful in gravelly and talus deposits where
drilling is difficult
g Covers large geographical areas quickly
g Small strain measurements possible
g Relatively inexpensive considering the large
area covered by the tests
Disadvantages

g Works best in cases where there is large


change in property being measured
g Each method has some limitation
- Equipment, noise, processing, etc.
g Results can be non-unique
g Specialized equipment is required
Examples of Uses of Geophysical
Tests
g Highly variable subsurface conditions
- Karst, buried gravel deposits, etc.
g Regional studies
- Depth to rippable rock
- Selection of alternative alignments
g Settlement sensitive structures
- Evaluation of in-situ deformation moduli
Learning Outcomes

g Atthe end of this session, the participant will


be able to:
- Locate minimum subsurface exploration
program components
- Recall geophysical testing techniques
Any Questions?

THE ROAD TO
UNDERSTANDING
SOILS
AND
FOUNDATIONS
Interstate 0 Apple Freeway
Note: Scale shown in Station Form
S.B. N.B.
Apple Apple
Frwy Frwy

Baseline
Baseline 90
90 91
91 92
92 93
93
Stationing
Stationing
Interstate
Interstate 00

Proposed
Proposed Toe
Toe
of
of Slope
Slope
Proposed
Proposed Final
Final Grade
Grade
2 Proposed
Proposed
1 Abutment
Abutment
Existing
Existing
Ground
Ground Surface
Surface
Site Terrain
Apple Freeway Exploration Reconnaissance

Exercise Basic Soil


Site Inspection

Subsurface
g Appendix A Properties Borings

- Section A.2 Laboratory


Testing

Slope Stability

Embankment
Settlement

Spread
Footing
Design

Pile Design

Construction
Aspects
Plan a subsurface exploration
program given the following:
g Examination of USGS topo and geology
maps and USDA soil map indicates delta
landform
g Field inspection showed wet area with
cattails in the vicinity of east abutment
Develop a Boring Location Plan

S.B. N.B.
Apple Apple
Frwy Frwy

Baseline
Baseline 90
90 91
91 92
92 93
93
Stationing
Stationing
Interstate
Interstate 00

Proposed
Proposed Toe
Toe
of
of Slope
Slope
Proposed
Proposed Final
Final Grade
Grade
2 Proposed
Proposed
1 Abutment
Abutment
Existing
Existing
Ground
Ground Surface
Surface
Proposed Boring Layout
Final Exploration Layout

CPT-BAF-4
CPT-BAF-2

CPT-BAF-3
CPT-BAF-1
Boring Logs

g Appendix A
- Section A.2
CPT Logs Appendix A, Section A.2
Hand Auger
Logs
g East Abutment
Summary of Exploration Phase

g Terrain Reconnaissance
- Delta landform
- Possible buried clay deposit
g Site Inspection
- Unsuitable soil near east approach embankment
- Easy access for drilling and CPT equipment
g Borings, CPTs, Hand Auger Holes
- SPT show sand over clay over gravel and rock
- CPT indicates thin silt seams in clay layer
- Hand auger holes define unsuitable organics
- Undisturbed samples and vane shear tests in clay
Any Questions?

THE ROAD TO
UNDERSTANDING
SOILS
AND
FOUNDATIONS