Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

ISSN (Online): 2319-7064


Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391

Failure Modes and Effective Analysis of All-Terrain


Vehicle and Go-Kart: A Review
Jawagar Shrehari J1, Raagul Srinivasan K A2
1
B.E. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. N.G.P. Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India
2
B.E. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. N.G.P. Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, India

Abstract: The failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is used to identify the risks in a process, to quantify the effects that failure
would have on customers, and to establish mitigation plans for high-risk items. The remainder of this paper outlines the use of the
spreadsheet and explains how to complete each field. This paper indicates the current situation, use, and effectiveness of Failure Modes
& Effects Analysis (FMEA) and its role in improving the standard and reliability of automotive products. The need for a formal
methodology for identifying the product failure modes and effects is developed. Lastly, a set of case study of recommendations and
opportunities for student research pertaining to SAE competitions where FMEA are presented with an ultimate goal of improving the
FMEA process and ultimately the reliability of automotive products.

Keywords: Failure Mode Effective Analysis (FMEA), Risk Priority Number (RPN), Failure, Product, Effect

1.Introduction automotive and medical [4]. FMEA is an easy to use and yet
powerful pro-active engineering quality method that helps to
An important challenge facing automotive industry is to bring identify and counter weak points in the early conception
a product to the consumer that meets the Voice of the phase of products and processes [5]. Failure Modes and
Customer or customer requirements with high reliability. Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a systematic method for
Although not an explicitly stated requirement, the desire for analyzing and ranking the risks associated with various
highly reliable products is an implicit want of most, if not all products (or processes), failure modes (both existing and
customers. The specific challenge to an OEM is to develop potential), prioritizing them for remedial action, acting on the
products with high reliability under shortened design cycles, highest ranked items, reevaluating those items and returning
cost reduction initiatives, and pressures to produce products to the prioritization step in a continuous loop until marginal
with focus market appeal. The Failure Mode and Effect returns set in [6]. Since FMEA method is based on finding,
Analysis (FMEA) is one of the more familiar of the system prioritizing, and minimizing the failures, it has been broadly
safety analysis techniques in use. It has remarkable utility in utilized in numerous types of industrial areas [7,8]. FMEA
its capacity to determine the reliability of a given system. The has been widely adopted by reliability practitioners and has
FMEA will specifically evaluate a system or subsystem to become standard practice in Japan, America, and European
identify possible failures of each individual component in manufacturing companies [9,10].
that system and, of greater importance to the overall system
safety effort, it attempts to forecast the effects of any such 3.Procedure of FMEA
failure(s). Because of the FMEAs ability to examine systems
at the component level, potential single-point failures can be In order to perform this method, the FMEA team should be
more readily identified and evaluated. concurrently formed including experienced engineers
familiar with project process and also experts who have the
2.Literature Review most understanding of the designated product/ process. One
of the benefits of this team working is that each activity is
FMEA is an inductive engineering technique used to define, defined always will be agree by all the organization units.
identify, prioritize, and reduce or eliminate potential modes These teams are responsible for all related activities from the
of failure in product and process design. FMEA can be first stages until implementation of proposed actions and
defined as a systematic group of activities intended to: (a) survey their results and finally competition of FMEA. FMEA
recognize and evaluate the potential failure, (b) identify procedure commences with reviewing design details,
actions that could eliminate or reduce the chance of the illustrating equipment block diagram and recognizing all
potential failure occurring, and (c) document the entire potential failures, respectively. Following recognition, all
process [1]. Primarily applied to the design and possible causes and effects should be classified to the related
manufacturing of products, FMEA is widely used in failure modes. After this practice, priority of failures due to
industries such as automotive, aerospace, electronics, their disaster effects should be ranked by a Risk Priority
medical, telecommunications, and building and road Number (RPN), which is the multiplication of severity of
construction [2, 3]. Failure mode and effects analysis failures (S), their portability of occurrence (O), and the
(FMEA), The tool was first proposed by NASA in 1963 for possibility of detection (D) [7].
their obvious reliability requirements. Since then, it has been
extensively used as a powerful technique for system safety
and reliability analysis of products and processes in a wide
range of industries particularly aerospace, nuclear,

Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2016


www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Paper ID: ART20163722 1543
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
4.1 Deterioration rate (Severity)

Severity or deterioration of risk is only considered in its


"effect"; reducing the deterioration of risk is only possible
through changes in process and how to do activities. There
are a few quantitative factors for this deterioration of risk that
is expressed on a scale of 1 to 10 [8].

4.2 The possibility of risk (Detect)

Probability of detection is a kind of assessment that exists for


identify a cause/ mechanism of risk. The team must use an
evaluation criterion and rating systems even if some changes
be necessary in special cases. The best determine controls
those that are done during the process of the development
projects in the earliest possible time. Also, the team should
review potential risks scores after scoring and ensure that the
rating is still remains. Although FMEA prioritises more
critical failures, it also requires an analysis of each
component of a system and this might be time consuming for
the available resources [9].

4.3 The probability of event (Occurrence)

Occurrence is the probability emergence of a specific cause


or mechanism. In other words, the probability of occurrence
specifies that a potential error occurred with what frequency.
The probability of occurrence is assessed based on a 1 to 10
scale [8]. In order to achieve this number, survey previous
Records and documents, check the control processes and
labour laws can be helpful [9].

5.FMEA of Student Project: Go-Kart and All-


Terrain Vehicle
Figure 1: Flow Chart for procedure of FMEA 5.1 Go-Kart

4.Collection of Information and Determining A Go-Kart also written as Go-Cart is a type of pen-wheel car.
Potential Risks, Causes and Effects Go-Karts come in different shapes and forms which are
powered by electric motors to high-powered IC engines. In
some countries, Go-Karts can be authorized for use on public
For effective FMEA analysis the information should be
roads. Though there are some restrictions, e.g. in the
accurate, useful and comprehensive about the considered
European Union a go-kart on the road needs head light
project, we can get help through interview with informed and
(high/low beam), tail lights, a horn, indicators and a
skilled people, practitioners, administrators workshops and
maximum of 20 hp.
warehouses. Also, brainstorming sessions involving
employees from various departments can be used for
understanding about performance and risks associated with 5.2 All-Terrain Vehicle (Quad-Bike)
equipment, warehouse and workshop environment. The use
As the name indicates, it is designed to handle a wider
of scientific resources such as articles, books and Internet are
variety of terrain than most other vehicles. By the current
also other useful and helpful ways. Then, a list of failures,
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) definition,
their causes and conceivable mechanism should be provided
ATVs are intended for use by a single operator, although
and the causes must be possible completely and briefly.
some companies have developed ATVs intended for use by
Similarly, adequate knowledge of the evaluation area can
the operator and one passenger. These ATVs are referred to
help to identify the reasons for the creation of risk. In order
as tandem ATVs [10]. The use of these vehicles are limited
to better assess risks, we should pay enough attention to
but are being developed in the field of automotive industry.
documents, operation standards, requirements and
Various student competitions are held for designing and
regulations governing the workplace and the working
manufacturing of an All-Terrain Vehicle. The FMEA helps in
conditions.
assisting of various aspect of the competition.

Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2016


www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Paper ID: ART20163722 1544
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
6.DFMEA Table of a Go-Kart
Potential Potential failure Current process
Process step SEV Potential causes OCC DET RPN
failure modes effects controls
when proper
when linkages analysis softwares
can lead to welding type is
are not welded like
collapse of the not studied ,
properly, when SOLIDWORKS
CHASSIS vehicle , leads to 2 when material 1 5 10
appropriate SIMULATION,
over vibration in type is not
material type is ANSYS can prevent
the vehicle analyzed in an
not chosen, this type of failure
analysis software
may lose control
of the vehicle
Improper good quality tires
leading to an less importance
seating with that are having good
accident, to fasteners
steering links, results with go-kart
TYRES skidding 2 (bolts and 3 3 18
tires subjected currently, fasteners
especially on wet Nuts),low quality
to high wear with Ok stickers are
roads, affects the tires
and tear to be purchased
vehicle speed
performance
Insufficient
improper
deformation due volume of the proper exposure to
lubrication,
to overheating, lubricant and air for sufficient
low qualitied
burning of spark very less idea engine cooling ,
spark plugs,
ENGINE plugs, incomplete 4 about the type of 2 appropriate 4 32
improper fuel
combustion the lubricant that lubricant is to be
valve tuning,
leading to very is to be used and used fulfilling the
less swept
less mileage heat transfer of purpose
volume
engine.
Improper
ignition switch batteries from
IGNITION
condition, Will not start the improper wiring reputed
SYSTEM AND 4 5 5 100
improper engine. and design . manufactures are to
BATTERY
battery be purchased
selection.
inadequate
results from 3D ensure that the drive
improper leads to designing , less and driven shafts
material type , unsatisfied knowledge on holding the chain
improper gear performance , the type of are parallel to each
TRANSMISSION 6 4 3 72
meshing , low leads to high bearing to be other , proper
qualitied amplitude used , low greasing of the
bearings vibrations qualitied chains chain , proper
used in chain bearing type .
drives ,
inadequate
results from 3D
improper
designing, less roundness checking,
machining, break down,
REAR AXLE 2 knowledge on 7 proper mounting, 3 42
improper transmission loss
the type of diagnosis
mounting
bearing to be
used.
steering ratio
improper
varies, tie rod improper
STEERING stability, more
alignment, 5 designing and 5 steering calculations 4 100
SYSTEM tire wear, chance
steering mounting
for collision
geometry

Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2016


www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Paper ID: ART20163722 1545
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
7.DFMEA Table of an All-Terrain Vehicle (Quad-Bike)

Potential Potential Failure Potential Current Process


Process Step SEV OCC DET RPN
Failure Mode Effects Causes Controls
when the
welding is
when the analysis software
improper and
appropriate such as
may lead to total the material
welding is not SOLIDWORKS,
collapse and usage is not
CHASSIS done. when the 10 8 ANSYS etc. can be 1 80
vibration in the studied or
material type is implemented to
vehicle. analyzed
not chosen prevent this type of
properly in an
properly. failure.
analyzing
software.
steering ratio chances of
varies, tie rod accident is more improper
STEERING
alignment, due to improper 8 designing and 9 steering calculation 4 90
SYSTEM
steering stability of mounting.
geometry. vehicle, tire wear.
control of the
improper vehicle may be good quality fasteners
joining with lost which may quality les and tires that are
TYRES steering links, lead to accident. 5 fasteners and 4 having good results 5 75
high wear and Skidding on wet tires. with quad torc
tear of tires. roads may affect vehicles are used
the performance.
deformation due
improper
to overheating, very less idea
lubrication, low appropriate lubricant
incomplete about the type of
ENGINE qualitied spark 8 3 is to be used to fulfil 3 65
combustion lubricant used
plugs, less the purpose.
leading to less for heat transfer.
swept volume
mileage.
improper
switch switches and batteries
IGNITION
condition, engine will not improper wiring from reputed
SYSTEM AND 6 8 8 25
improper start. and design. companies are to be
BATTERY
battery purchased.
selections.
low qualitied ensure proper bearing
low qualitied
leads to high chain used for is used, ensure that
TRANSMISSION bearing,
vibration, poor 7 chain drive, 10 drive is parallel to 10 15
SYSTEM improper gear
performance. poor bearing drive shaft, proper
meshing.
material. greasing is made.
low brakes may less importance
improper
BRAKES lead to panic 10 to brake wires 7 brake calculations. 7 35
design
situation. and brake oil.
may lead to total
improper
SUSPENSION collapse and improper load distribution
selection of 10 6 9 28
SYSTEM vibration in the mountings analysis
suspension
vehicle.
chances of
improper accident is more
improper material and load
A-ARMS selection of due to improper 9 6 8 20
mountings analysis
material stability of
vehicle, tire wear.
when the
appropriate
may lead to total
welding is not improper
collapse and load distribution
KNUCKLE done. When the 9 designing and 5 9 10
vibration in the analysis
material type is mounting.
vehicle.
not chosen
properly.
over load and may lead to failure analysis software
lack of
improper of the such as
REAR SHAFT 8 knowledge 8 9 55
selection of transmission SOLIDWORKS,
about the loads
material system ANSYS etc. can be

Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2016


www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Paper ID: ART20163722 1546
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)
ISSN (Online): 2319-7064
Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96 | Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
implemented to
prevent this type of
failure.
analysis software
such as
may lead to total
improper SOLIDWORKS,
shear force and collapse and
COUPLING 7 designing and 8 ANSYS etc. can be 3 60
torsional effect vibration in the
mounting. implemented to
vehicle.
prevent this type of
failure.
steering ratio chances of
lack of
varies, tie rod accident is more
STEERING TIE- knowledge analysis of steering
alignment, due to improper 8 8 8
ROD about the using lotus software
steering stability of
steering
geometry. vehicle, tire wear.
when the
appropriate
improper
welding is not may lead to lethal analysis of material
material
BUMPER done. When the damage of the 10 10 and weld using 9 28
selection and
material type is vehicle and rider analysis software
welding
not chosen
properly.
When
appropriate leads to high improper analysis of material
SWING ARM mountings are vibration, poor 9 designing and 2 and weld using 4 72
not given it performance. mounting. analysis software
will fail
low quality may lead to improper
checking for quality
NUTS lead to rusting irremovable 2 material 6 9 70
and material
and erosion permanent joints selection

8.Conclusion [6] Dailey KW. The FMEA pocket handbook. 1st ed. USA:
DW Publishing Co.; 2004.
This paper reviews the FMEA process of two different [7] Rhee SJ, Ishii K. Using cost based FMEA to enhance
reliability and serviceability. J Adv Eng Infor 2003;
student competitions where FMEA play a great role in
17:17988.
assessing the failure modes, effects and its causes and help
[8] Bahrami, Mahdi, Danial Hadizadeh Bazzaz, and S. Mojtaba
the users in developing the system or rectify it. The failure Sajjadi. "Innovation and improvements in project
mode and effect analysis is an excellent tool for foreseeing implementation and management; using FMEA technique."
the potential effects of failures within a required system or at Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 41 (2012): 418-
a component level. It also offers some flexibility in safety 425.
system analysis because of its nature to examine the failure [9] Vandenbrande WW. How to use FMEA to reduce the size
modes and effects within the system or subsystem. It helps an of your quality toolbox. J Qual Prog 1998;31:97100.
engineer in identifying the problem before they reach the [10] Chen JK. Utility priority number evaluation for FMEA. J
customer and helps him race towards the peak of perfection. Fail Anal Prev 2007;7(5):3218.
[11] Hung GQ, Nie M, Mar KL. Web-based failure mode and
References effect analysis (FMEA). Comput Ind Eng 1999;37(1
2):17780.
[1] AIAG, "Potential Failure Mode and Effects Analysis [12] Puente J, Pino R, Priore P, Fuente DDL. A decision support
(FMEA)," 3rd ed, 2001. system for applying failure mode and effects analysis. J
[2] Y. Papadopoulos, D. Parker, and C. Grante, "Automating Qual Reliab Manage 2002;19:13750.
the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of Safety Critical [13] Trammell, S.R., Lorenzo, D.K. and Davis, B.J. (2004),
Systems," presented at Eighth IEEE International Integrated hazard analysis: using the strengths of multiple
Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering methods to maximize the effectiveness, Professional
(HASE04), 2004. Safety, Vol. 49 No. 5, pp. 29-37.
[3] K. Onodera, "Effective techniques of FMEA at each life- [14] Semp, Bradley W., Ayaz Pathan, and Patrick E. Dessert,
cycle stage," presented at Annual Reliability and The Role of Automated FMEA in Automotive Reliability
Maintainability Symposium, 1997. Improvement, No. 2006-01-1619. SAE Technical Paper,
[4] Ebeling, C. (2001), An Introduction to Reliability and 2006.
Maintainability Engineering, Tata McGraw-Hill, New [15] "Standards for All Terrain Vehicles and Ban of Three-
York, NY. Wheeled All-Terrain Vehicles; Proposed Rule". Consumer
[5] Plaza, I., Ub, M., Medrano, C., Blesa, A. (2003), Product Safety Commission (Federal Register). 2006-08-10
Application of the Philosophy of Quality in the Digital
Electronic Matter, International Conference on
Engineering Education, July 2125, 2003, Valencia, Spain.

Volume 5 Issue 12, December 2016


www.ijsr.net
Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY
Paper ID: ART20163722 1547