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Primary 11Flight Controls

The material covered in this document is based off information obtained from the original manufacturers’

The material covered in this document is based off information obtained from the original manufacturers’ Pilot and Maintenance manuals. It is to be used for simulation purposes only.

Copyright © 2012 by Angle of Attack Productions, LLC All rights reserved

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Table of Contents Table of Illustrations Primary Flight Controls Overview 3 Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments

Table of Contents

Table of Illustrations

Primary Flight Controls Overview

3

Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments

4

Basic Physics of Flt Ctrl Surfaces

5

Figure 11-2. Stabilizer Trim Cutout and Override Switches 9

Elevator & Tab Ctrl Systems

6

Figure 11-3. Flight Controls Hydraulics

18

Stabilizer Trim

8

Figure 11-4. Flight Controls Cables

19

Ailerons and Aileron Trim

12

Figure 11-5. Flight Controls Panel

21

Flight Spoilers

15

Rudder and Rudder Trim

16

Components

20

Flight Controls Switch

20

Flight Spoilers Switch

20

Flight Control Low Pressure Light

20

Yaw Damper Switch and Warning Light

21

STBY Hydraulic Low Quantity & Low Press Lights

21

Flight Control Panel Warning Lights

22

Alternate Flaps Arm and Control Switches

22

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Primary Flight Controls Overview An aircraft’s attitude can be changed around three (3) perpendicular axes

Primary Flight Controls Overview

An aircraft’s attitude can be changed around three (3) perpendicular axes that intersect at the Center of Gravity (CG):

Lateral axis,

Longitudinal axis,

Vertical axis.

External forces (eg. Wind) may alter the desired flight path thus creating the need for the aircraft to be maneuvered back to the correct attitude through three (3) movements:

Pitch (around the Lateral axis),

Roll (around the Longitudinal axis),

Yaw (around the Vertical axis).

To achieve these movements around the aircraft’s axes, flight controls are employed. There are two (2) groups of flight controls: Primary and Secondary. Secondary flight controls are covered in the Secondary flight controls lesson.

The primary flight control surfaces and their direct effects are:

Elevators (change in Pitch),

Ailerons (change in Roll),

Rudder (change in Yaw).

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Yaw Pitch Roll Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments Page 11-4 Rev 1.0 APR 12 Primary Flight
Yaw
Yaw
Yaw Pitch Roll Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments Page 11-4 Rev 1.0 APR 12 Primary Flight Controls
Yaw Pitch Roll Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments Page 11-4 Rev 1.0 APR 12 Primary Flight Controls

Pitch

Yaw Pitch Roll Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments Page 11-4 Rev 1.0 APR 12 Primary Flight Controls

Roll

Figure 11-1. Aircraft Movments

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Basic Physics of Flt Ctrl Surfaces An aircraft is free to rotate within the three

Basic Physics of Flt Ctrl Surfaces

An aircraft is free to rotate within the three axes and it will always turn about its CG, or center of gravity. The tendency to do this is known as a turning moment. A moment is equal to the product of the force applied and the distance from which the force is being applied. This is known as arm and it is measured with reference to a defined datum.

Because the relationship between force and arm is inversely proportional, the longer the distance from the datum means the force has to be smaller to maintain positive balance, and vice-versa.

The flight controls are designed to deflect airflow and produce these forces that make the aircraft turn around its axes. This is done by changing the angle of attack of the control surface thus allowing for a change in lift.

EXAMPLE: When the control column is pulled back the elevators are deflected upwards and due to the lower angle of attack on the control surface, there is lesser lift in the horizontal stabilizer causing it to go down and thus bringing the aircraft nose up.

The 737NG has two (2) elevators, two (2) ailerons, one (1) rudder and eight (8) flight spoilers. We will now split this lesson into Pitch, Roll and Yaw.

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Elevator & Tab Ctrl Systems Elevators are movable surfaces attached to the rear spar on

Elevator & Tab Ctrl Systems

Elevators are movable surfaces attached to the rear spar on the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer that control the pitch attitude of the aircraft around its lateral axis. The pilot moves the control column FWD or AFT to achieve the desired change in attitude. Paired cables are used to transmit pilot input into the respective interfaces and flight control surfaces.

In order to provide system redundancy, each hydraulic system A & B powers one of the two elevators on the 737NGX. Either hydraulic system may power both elevators in case one of the two systems fails.

The basic principle is: The control column sends the pilots inputs to the elevator power control unit (PCU) which is an interface between the pilots mechanical input and a series of hydraulic actuators on each elevator. These inputs are also sent to the Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU) for flight data recording.

The autopilots have a separate series of actuators that also give mechanical input to the elevator PCU’s.

The right PCU gets hydraulic system B pressure and the left PCU gets system A pressure. This means either hydraulic

system may command both elevators in case one of the two systems fails.

The PCU’s ensure that the elevators may always be moved under any condition. This means that even in the event of

a complete hydraulic failure, the cables and linkages allow for manual operation of the elevators. This condition is known as manual reversion.

In case one of the control columns becomes jammed,

elevator control is still achievable from the other control column thanks to the Elevator Breakout Mechanism. This provides added reliability and system redundancy.

At least 31lbs of additional force must be applied to use the working control column while the other is jammed. In this condition, when 100lbs of force are applied on the control column, the elevator moves 4º. In a total hydraulic failure emergency situation, this amount of deflection is sufficient for a safe landing flare.

The elevator PCU’s also limit the amount of elevator travel. When the horizontal stabilizer is neutral and there is no input to the Mach Trim Actuator (which will be discussed further along), the elevator is downrigged four degrees

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Elevator & Tab Ctrl Systems (Cont.) (with reference to the stabilizer mean chord line). From

Elevator & Tab Ctrl Systems (Cont.)

(with reference to the stabilizer mean chord line).

From this position, the elevator can move 24.3º up and 18.1º down.

Each elevator has three balance panels with balance weights in the forward side and a tab attached to the AFT edge. The balance panels decrease the force necessary to move the elevator in flight.

The elevator feel and centering unit is a computer that gives variable control column forces as the airspeed changes and the horizontal stabilizer moves. The elevator feel computer receives input from:

Pitot Tubes through Pitot Ports

Hydraulic System A & B

Horizontal Stabilizer

Elevator Feel Shift Module (EFSM) – This last mechanism operates during a stall providing 850psi of hydraulic system A pressure to the elevator feel system.

The elevator feel and centering also moves the elevators to a neutral position when there is no input. When the control column moves, a roller is moved causing springs to

extend and provide a feel force. When the control column is released, the roller moves to a detent and thus the system moves to a neutral position.

At higher airspeeds, the elevator feel computer increases the metered pressure to the control column feel system to provide simulated aerodynamic forces when operating the control columns. This feature is not available during manual reversion.

The elevators also have a tab that varies to help reduce the required elevator pitching moment. When the trailing edge flaps are up, the elevator tab operates in balance mode. The tab moves in a direction opposite to elevator travel.

When the TE flaps are not up and there is hydraulic power, the elevator tab operates in anti-balance mode. The tab moves in the same direction of elevator travel.

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Stabilizer Trim Most aircraft have little surfaces on the flight controls that are utilized to

Stabilizer Trim

Most aircraft have little surfaces on the flight controls that are utilized to hold the aircraft in its current attitude without the pilot having to make excessive input on the control systems. This process is known as trimming the aircraft, and the 737NGX is trimmable in all three of the primary flight controls. The pitch trim is controlled with a movable horizontal stabilizer by either of three ways:

Manual Operation, with the Stabilizer Trim Wheels

Electric Operation, with the Stabilizer Trim Switches

Autopilot Operation, achieved electronically through a Digital Flight Controls System (DFCS).

During Manual Operation, the pilots use stabilizer trim wheels that are linked to a mechanism with a jackscrew. When the jackscrew moves, the horizontal stabilizer moves.

It’s good to know that under normal conditions, the stabilizer trim is the only control surface on the 737NG that is completely independent from the need of hydraulic power. This also means that under certain flight conditions, the effort required to manually operate the stabilizer trim may be higher.

During Electric Operation, the pilots operate four stabilizer

trim switches located on the outboard side of each control wheel. These control electric input to the stabilizer trim actuator that also moves a mechanism with a jackscrew. Like we mentioned before, when the jackscrew moves, the stabilizer moves. The system is made so that:

When the electric stabilizer switch is operated, the horizontal stabilizer is moved and so are the stabilizer trim wheels. In case the stabilizer is trimmed to the end of its electric limits, additional trim is available through the manual trim wheels.

Finally, during Autopilot Operation, the Digital Flight Control System gives electric input to the stabilizer trim actuator, however, this actuator operates at different speeds when receiving autopilot input. Stabilizer position sensors feed the DFCS: Sensor A sends information to the DCFS via the Flight Control Computer (FCC) A, and similarly for sensor B.

There are various switches associated to stabilizer trim operation:

Column Cutout Switches

Stabilizer Trim Override Switch

Stabilizer Trim Cutout Switches

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Stabilizer Trim (Cont.) ● Flaps Up Switch ● Stabilizer Trim Limit Switches The Column Cutout

Stabilizer Trim (Cont.)

Flaps Up Switch

Stabilizer Trim Limit Switches

The Column Cutout Switches allow for the stabilizer trim to stop in case the pilot electrically trims the stabilizer opposite to elevator control input.

The Stabilizer Trim Override Switch bypasses the column cutout switch. The pilot uses this switch to operate the electric trim if both column cutout switches fail.

The Stabilizer Trim Cutout Switches are used to stop the stabilizer trim actuator if there is any uncommanded motion of the trim actuator.

The Flaps Up Switch determines trim speed relative to flap position. When the flaps are up, low speed trim is engaged at 0.2units per second. When flaps are not up, high speed trim is engaged at 0.4units per second.

The Stabilizer Trim Limit Switches limit the range of stabilizer travel. There are different limits for manual, autopilot, flaps up or flaps down operation. There is also a takeoff warning switch that alerts for incorrect stabilizer trim configuration during takeoff. The cockpit STAB TRIM indicator has a

STAB TRIM MAIN NORMAL AUTO ELECT PILOT CUT OUT Figure 11-2. Stabilizer Trim Cutout and
STAB TRIM
MAIN
NORMAL
AUTO
ELECT
PILOT
CUT
OUT
Figure 11-2. Stabilizer Trim Cutout and Override Switches

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Stabilizer Trim (Cont.) green band to show the takeoff trim range. The horizontal stabilizer movement

Stabilizer Trim (Cont.)

green band to show the takeoff trim range.

The horizontal stabilizer movement lower and higher limits, as well as the neutral position, are marked on the fuselage. The limits are:

4.2º of stabilizer leading edge UP

12.9º of stabilizer leading edge DOWN

It’s good to keep in mind that when the stabilizer moves UP the aircraft nose moves DOWN, and vice-versa.

We’ve mentioned the Mach Trim System a couple of times during this lesson. This will be explained now.

Mach number is the relationship between the true airspeed of an aircraft and speed of sound. If the Mach number exceeds 1.000, the aircraft becomes Supersonic.

The 737NGX has a maximum cruising speed of Mach

0.780.

The Mach Trim system provides speed stability at Mach numbers above 0.615. Elevators are adjusted relative to stabilizer position as speed increases, subsequently

changing the control column neutral position through the elevator feel and centering unit. The Mach information is obtained from the Air Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU).

Another similar system in the 737NGX is the Speed Trim System.

Like the Mach Trim system, the Speed Trim system also provides speed stability, however, it is designed to return the aircraft to a trimmed speed by trimming the stabilizer opposite to the direction of speed change. This also increases control column forces. Some conditions that have to be met for speed trim operation are:

Low Gross Weight

AFT Center of Gravity

N1> 60%, or high power settings

Airspeed between 100 indicated knots (KIAS) and Mach

0.50

Autopilot Disengaged

Essentially when the speed trim system comes alive, it requires the pilot to provide a significant amount of pull force to reduce airspeed and significant amount of push

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Stabilizer Trim (Cont.) force to increase airspeed. You can see that there are quite a

Stabilizer Trim (Cont.)

force to increase airspeed.

You can see that there are quite a few ways that the elevator controls translate to direct and comfortable pilot control. Although quite complex, this elevator system is relativily simple compared to other aircraft flight controls systems.

Notes

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Ailerons and Aileron Trim Ailerons are movable surfaces on both wing outboard trailing edges that

Ailerons and Aileron Trim

Ailerons are movable surfaces on both wing outboard trailing edges that control the flight attitude of the aircraft about the longitudinal axis, more commonly known as roll. The ailerons are coupled so that when one of them moves down, the other moves up. There are three ways of achieving roll control on the 737NG:

Manually, by moving either control wheel

Automatically, by autopilot input to move control wheels with actuators

Through Flight Spoilers. (These will be discussed at a further stage during this lesson)

During manual operation, the flight crew controls the roll attitude with control wheels that are interlinked mechanically in order to provide system redundancy. Just like with the elevators, the ailerons are actuated through pairs of cables that transmit force. Ailerons are also operated via the Aileron Power Control Unit (PCU) that acts as an interface between the pilot’s mechanical inputs and a series of hydraulic actuators that move the ailerons with wing cables.

The aileron PCU’s ensure that the ailerons are movable under any condition. Under normal operation, each

hydraulic system controls a single aileron. In case of a hydraulic system failure, the working system may control both ailerons. In case of a total hydraulic failure, ailerons are still controllable mechanically. This condition is known as manual reversion.

The upper PCU gets hydraulic system B pressure and the lower PCU gets hydraulic system A pressure. The PCU’s also limit aileron travel to 20º UP and 15º DOWN.

When pilots turn the control wheels, mechanical stops in the aileron control wheel components keep the control wheel movement limited to 107.5º left or right.

The aileron feel and centering move the ailerons to a neutral position when there is no input. When the control column moves, a roller is moved causing springs to extend and provide a feel force. When the control column is released, the roller moves to a detent and thus the system moves to a neutral position.

The Captain’s control wheel directly transmits force input to the aileron feel and centering unit whereas the First Officer’s control wheel directly transmits force to the spoiler mixer. The spoiler mixer is further discussed in the Secondary

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Ailerons and Aileron Trim (Cont.) Flight Controls lesson. In case there is a failure or

Ailerons and Aileron Trim (Cont.)

Flight Controls lesson. In case there is a failure or jam in either control wheel, the Aileron Transfer Mechanism allows for both control wheels to be able to make roll commands.

EXAMPLE: If the spoiler system is jammed, aileron roll control may be achieved through the Captain’s control wheel, however, the First Officer’s control wheel and the flight spoilers would then be unusable. On the other hand, if one control wheel cannot move, the mechanism allows the other pilot to operate the other control wheel satisfactorily.

The ailerons also have a trim system that works similarly to the elevator trim system, except that there is no trim wheel. Instead, two (2) Aileron trim switches are located in the AFT electronic panel and the aileron trim indicator is located on the top of the aileron control wheel. The indication is in units of trim, where each unit is equal to 6º of control wheel rotation. The maximum trim available is 9.5 units or 57º of control wheel rotation.

When the aileron trim is in operation, an actuator moves the same aileron roller that we discussed before, causing springs to extend. This gives input to the power control units to move the ailerons and the control wheels are also moved.

Both aileron trim switches must be operated at the same time to supply power to the trim actuator.

We saw before that the elevators and their systems were virtually in a straight line from the control columns in the cockpit. This is not the case with ailerons, where many of the components are located away from the airplane’s fuselage. The very ailerons are located on the outboard trailing edges of both wings. This requires complex component linkages, which are achieved in the following way:

The systems that run along the centerline are connected to Aileron Body Quadrants near the forward bulkhead of the main landing gear wheel well. Both body quadrants are connected to each aileron PCU. If one hydraulic system is OFF, the other PCU commands both quadrants.

The body quadrants are connected to the wing quadrants through the wing cables so when a wing cable moves, it moves the related wing quadrant and finally the respective aileron.

Similarly to the elevators, there is an aileron tab that moves

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Ailerons and Aileron Trim (Cont.) in a direction opposite to aileron movement to maintain positive

Ailerons and Aileron Trim (Cont.)

in a direction opposite to aileron movement to maintain positive balance.

EXAMPLE: When the control wheel is moved to the left, the left aileron rises and the left aileron tab comes down. In the opposite wing, the right aileron comes down and the right aileron tab rises. This induces a noticeably higher angle of attack in the right wing when compared to the left wing, thus causing the right wing to go up and roll the aircraft towards the left.

The ailerons also have balance panels and weights in order to decrease the force necessary to move them during flight.

Notes

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Flight Spoilers Flight Spoilers are used to achieve significantly higher rolling moments around the airplane’s

Flight Spoilers

Flight Spoilers are used to achieve significantly higher rolling moments around the airplane’s longitudinal axis. These are a series of panels on the upper surface of each wing that rise when extended thus creating an enormous amount of drag. Flight spoilers are only meant to be an aid to roll control, not the primary roll control method.

There are twelve (12) spoilers on each wing, numbered 1 to 12 from left to right. The most outboard and the most inboard spoilers on each wing are ground spoilers. Only the four (4) flight spoilers on each wing provide roll control.

During roll, when the control wheel turns left, the flight spoilers on the left wing move up and in the right wing they stay faired down.

Flight Spoiler panels on the 737NG have numerous functions such as:

Aiding ailerons in achieving roll control,

Aileron trim,

Speedbrake operation during flight,

Speedbrake operation on ground during landing.

Similarly to ailerons, the flight crew uses the control

wheels to control roll with spoilers. The control wheels give mechanical input to the aileron Power Control Units (PCU’s) through the aileron feel and centering unit. From here, the PCU’s supply mechanical input to the flight spoiler actuators that use hydraulic power to move the flight spoilers.

The control wheels must be displaced more than 10º left or right to actuate the respective set of flight spoilers.

System redundancy is provided in the following manner:

Each hydraulic system powers a specific set of flight spoilers in such a way that there is no asymmetrical deployment when there is a hydraulic system failure. One- sided deployment of spoilers is also avoided with this redundancy.

Although most of the aileron operation seems difficult to understand and may need several reviews before it sinks in, keep in mind that most of what you have learned here will be transparent to you as the pilot flying. Having an understanding of the background workings of these systems may give you a greater appreciation for what goes on behind the scenes, and what happens when things go awry.

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Rudder and Rudder Trim The rudder is a movable surface attached to the rear spar

Rudder and Rudder Trim

The rudder is a movable surface attached to the rear spar of the vertical stabilizer that provides Yaw control of the aircraft around its vertical axis. The rudder may be operated by either of three ways:

Manually, with the rudder pedals,

Manually, with the rudder trim,

Through the Yaw Damper.

During manual operation, the pilot presses the pedals to achieve movement in the respective direction.

EXAMPLE: When the right rudder pedal is pressed, the rudder moves to the right of its neutral position thus creating a rightward turning moment and achieving yaw to the right. The same logic applies when the left rudder pedals are pressed.

Similarly to the rest of the flight control surfaces we’ve covered, rudder pedal movement inputs are linked to control valves in the Rudder Power Control Unit (PCU) via cables and linkages that also pass through the Rudder Feel and Centering Unit. In the case of rudder control, the pilot inputs are also linked to a STBY Rudder PCU that provides backup and system redundancy in the event of

main rudder PCU malfunctions.

There is no manual reversion available for rudder control, which means that if theoretically both normal hydraulic systems and the STBY hydraulic system were to fail, rudder control would not be achievable. The probability of this happening is negligible.

We mentioned earlier that elevators and ailerons had a pair of PCU’s to control them. During normal operation, only one main PCU powers the rudder. The original 737 was designed using one dual valve with input from both hydraulic systems. This was partly responsible for a series of accidents associated to 737 rudder problems. In 2003, the Rudder System Enhancement Program (RSEP) was introduced, where the original dual valve that received input from both hydraulic systems A & B was replaced by one set of components and actuators for Hydraulic System A, and an independent set of components and actuators for Hydraulic System B. In this lesson we will discuss the rudder system schematic with RSEP installed.

Both hydraulic systems and the STBY hydraulic system have separate control input mechanisms for the rudder PCU. All three of them have individual jam protection mechanisms.

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Rudder and Rudder Trim (Cont.) When either system A or B is jammed or disconnected,

Rudder and Rudder Trim (Cont.)

When either system A or B is jammed or disconnected, the main rudder PCU detects a pressure imbalance via the Force Flight Monitor (FFM). It is important to understand this because the FFM, after 5 seconds, automatically turns on the STBY hydraulic pump, STBY rudder shutoff valve, and pressurizes the STBY rudder PCU. Lights and annunciators are displayed in the cockpit when this condition occurs.

The rudder has a maximum deflection of 29º left and 29º right.

The rudder feel and centering unit gives simulated feel to the rudder pedals and centers the rudder and rudder trim inputs in the rudder PCU. When a pilot presses his rudder pedals, a roller is moved and springs are compressed supplying feel force to the pedals. When the pedals are released, the roller moves to a detent and the system moves to a neutral position.

The rudder may also be operated manually through the electric rudder trim control. This changes the rudder neutral position. One of the two rudder trim switches inside the single rudder trim control is connected to the Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU) to record rudder trim position.

The rudder trim indicator shows the amount of rudder trim in units. Rudder authority is limited when airspeed is higher than 137 indicated knots (KIAS) in order to provide protection after takeoff and before landing.

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CONTROLS RUDDER CONTROLS ELEVATOR A B STBY SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM RESERVOIR RESERVOIR RESERVOIR 1 2

CONTROLS

RUDDER

CONTROLS

ELEVATOR

A B STBY SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM RESERVOIR RESERVOIR RESERVOIR 1 2 3 4 5 6
A
B
STBY
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
SYSTEM
RESERVOIR
RESERVOIR
RESERVOIR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
FLAP
CONTROLS
AILERON
CONTROLS

Figure 11-3. Flight Controls Hydraulics

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AILERON PCUs RUDDER PCUs ELEVATOR PCUs Figure 11-4. Flight Controls Cables Page 11-19 Rev 1.0
AILERON PCUs RUDDER PCUs ELEVATOR PCUs Figure 11-4. Flight Controls Cables
AILERON
PCUs
RUDDER
PCUs
ELEVATOR
PCUs
Figure 11-4. Flight Controls Cables

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Components We’ve had a look at different flight control surfaces and systems on the 737NG.

Components

We’ve had a look at different flight control surfaces and systems on the 737NG. Now, we will discuss two of the three primary main use components, which are:

Flight control cables,

Flight control panel,

Flight control Hydraulic Modular Packages.

Flight Control cables are used to give mechanical input to each Feel and Centering Unit, then to each Power Control Unit (PCU). The feel and centering units provide artificial feel forces to the controls and pedals, and also sets them to neutral positions. The PCU is responsible for directing hydraulic fluid in order to achieve control surface movement. Both these components were discussed in the respective sections of this lesson.

The flight control panel (located in the FWD Overhead panel) has a series of hydraulic control switches and caution lights for the flight control systems. These are:

Flight Controls Switch
Flight Controls Switch

Two switches (one for each hydraulic system) with three positions- ON, OFF, STBY RUD. The flight controls shutoff valve is powered by a 28V DC motor.

1. ON Position: Is the normal operating position. Hydraulic

system pressure is on to the elevators, elevator feel computer, ailerons and rudder.

2. OFF Position: Hydraulic system pressure is removed from

the elevators, elevator feel computer, ailerons and rudder.

3. STBY RUD position: It has the same effect as the OFF

position, but instead turns on the STBY hydraulic pump and pressurizes the STBY rudder PCU to achieve STBY Rudder control and STBY Yaw Damper.

Flight Spoilers Switch
Flight Spoilers Switch

Two switches (one for each hydraulic system) with two positions- ON, OFF. 28V DC motors also power them.

1. ON position: Is the normal operating position. Hydraulic

system pressure is on to the flight spoilers.

2. OFF position: Removes hydraulic system pressure from the

flight spoilers.

Flight Control Low Pressure Light
Flight Control Low Pressure Light

The low pressure warning switch gives an amber light indication when there is low hydraulic system A or B pressure to the flight control system. The low pressure light only operates when the flight control switch is in the ON or OFF position. When the switch is in the STBY RUD position,

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Components (Cont.) the STBY rudder shutoff valve controls the low pressure light through the valve

Components (Cont.)

the STBY rudder shutoff valve controls the low pressure light through the valve position relay.

The low pressure light comes on when system pressure is less than 1300psi.

When the low pressure light comes on, there is a master CAUTION and also the FLT CONT annunciator comes up.

Yaw Damper Switch and Warning Light
Yaw Damper Switch and Warning Light

One switch with two positions- OFF, ON.

1. ON position: Engages either the main yaw damper

to main rudder if the B flight control switch is in the ON position, or the STBY yaw damper to the STBY rudder PCU if both the A & B flight control switches are in the STBY RUD position.

2. OFF position: disengages Yaw Damper.

The Yaw Damper warning light comes on when the system is disengaged.

STBY Hydraulic Low Quantity & Low Press Lights
STBY Hydraulic Low Quantity & Low Press Lights
STBY Hydraulic Low Quantity & Low Press Lights Figure 11-5. Flight Controls Panel Page 11-21 Rev

Figure 11-5. Flight Controls Panel

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Components (Cont.) The STBY hydraulic low quantity light comes on when: 1. STBY system reservoir

Components (Cont.)

The STBY hydraulic low quantity light comes on when:

1. STBY system reservoir hydraulic fluid quantity decreases

below 50% of its normal quantity.

The STBY low pressure light comes on when:

2. STBY system output pressure from the STBY electric

pump decreases below limits.

Flight Control Panel Warning Lights
Flight Control Panel Warning Lights

There are certain warning lights that illuminate when unwanted flight control conditions exist:

1. Feel Differential Pressure Light: Comes on when there

is a 25% difference between the system A and system B metered output pressures in the elevator feel computer for more than 30 seconds.

2. Autoslat Fail Light: Comes on when the autoslat function

becomes unavailable.

3. Speed Trim Fail Light: Comes on when the speed trim

function in the flight control computers (FCC’s) becomes unavailable.

4. Mach Trim Fail Light: Comes on when the mach trim function in the flight control computers (FCC’s) becomes unavailable.

Alternate Flaps Arm and Control Switches
Alternate Flaps Arm and Control Switches

This series of control switches is discussed in the Secondary Flight Controls lesson.

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