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Outline Respiration and Lipid Metabolism Aerobic Respiration - Review

1. Review of Aerobic Respiration


2. Carbon sources in glycolysis
3. Metabolism of PEP and pyruvate
4. Oxidative pentose phosphate pathway
5. Malate oxidation
6. Electron Transport

Aerobic Respiration - Review Glycolysis Carbon sources


Sucrose
6C Sugar UTP (night)
conversion to 5C Glucose Starch
sugar Cytosolic Sucrose synthase Chloroplast
Synthesis of 3C Triose phosphates
(day)
to 7C sugars
UDPGlucose + Fructose
Synthesis of
PPi
organic acids
UTP Hexokinase

Lipid breakdown Glucose phosphate


in glyoxysome
Glucose
Organic acid Glycolysis
synthesis in
mitochondria Pyruvate
Gluconeogenesis
in cytoplasm

Pathways to metabolize PEP & Pyruvate Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway


Glucose-6-P Functions
Glucose
NADH NAD Vacuole storage 1. supplies NADPH for
Glycolysis
Mitochondrion degradation NADP+ biosynthesis
Pyruvate
NADPH
2. reduce O2 for ATP
synthesis in mitochondria
se
yla 6-Phosphogluconate
ox 3. Biosynthetic substrates for
rb
ca
P RNA & DNA
PE Oxaloacetate Malate
HCO3 CO2 lignin & flavonoids
aromatic amino acids
ADP Alcohol
NADP+
dehydrogenase NADPH 4. Produce Calvin cycle
ATP
vate e intermediates before
Pyru xylas
o greening
arb
dec Ribulose-5-P
NADH NAD
CO2

Fermentative Metabolism
NADH NAD Fructose-6-P

1
Citric Acid Cycle oxidation of malate

NAD+
Malate + NAD+ Oxaloacetate + NADH
Malate
dehydrogenase
Start Mon

NAD+
Malate + NAD+ Pyruvate + CO2 + NADH
malic enzyme

From mitochondrion Into cytosol

Functions
1. Complete oxidation of Krebs cycle intermediates

2. Regulation of malate levels in cell (malate can be


stored in vacuole e.g. CAM plants)

Electron Transport Pathway Electron Transport Pathway in Plants

Electron &
Proton
carrier
FMN &
Fe-S
proteins
e-
Fe - S
2e- Fe-S
proteins
proteins
b&c
cytochromes

e- e-

Cu centers
cytochromes
a1 & a3

Outside membrane Oxidize NADH & NADPH


1. Multiple NADH dehydrogenases
Inside membrane Oxidize NADH & NADPH
2. Alternative Oxidase Rotenone resistant pathway for NADH oxidation

Cyanide and CO insensitive pathway

Electron Transport Pathway in Plants Alternative Oxidase


Animal mitochondria cyanide 100% Outline Lipid Metabolism
Animal mitochondria + cyanide 1% of uninhibited control

Plant mitochondria cyanide 100% 1. Functions of lipids in plants


Plant mitochondria + cyanide 10-100% of uninhibited control
2. Triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipis & glyceroglycolipids
Roles of Alternative oxidase
1. Volatilize chemical attractants 3. Lipid synthesis
2. Adjust rates of ATP synthesis 4. Lipid degradation
Low ATP demand high AO activity

Hi ATP demand low AO activity

3. Response to stress
Draining Ubiquinone pool prevents
Voodoo lily superoxide/hydroxide buildup

Skunk cabbage

2
Lipid Storage
Lipid Functions 1. Oil bodies store lipids = spherosomes or oleosomes
Half-bilayer membrane
1. Carbon storage single layer of phospholipids formed from ER
Seeds e.g. commercial oils: sunflower, soybean, peanut, cotton formed within ER membrane bilayer
Fruits e.g. avocado, olives Oleosin proteins stabilize membrane
2. Energy Storage same as above
3. Energy harvest chlorophylls & carotenoids
4. Membranes phospholipids
5. Protection waxes
6. Hormones isopreness precursors to some hormones (ABA & GA)
metabolic products (natural rubber)
sterols & tocopherols Oil Body
7. Intracellular signalling
linolenic acid jasmonate activates defenses against
fungal & insect pathogens
anther & pollen development

11.16 Cycle of fatty acid synthesis in plastids of plant cells

Triacylglycerols
1. Glycerol + 3 fatty acids (acyl groups)
Fatty acids: 12 20 carbons, mostly 16-18
Oils unsaturated fatty acids
Fats mostly saturated fatty acids

Structural features of triacylglycerols and polar glycerolipids

Glycerophospholipids

Glyceroglycopholipids Glyceroglycopholipids Glycerophospholipids

3
Lipid Conversion to Carbohydrates
Biosynthesis of Glycerophospholipids & Glyceroglycolipids
-oxidation of fatty acids
Acetyl CoA Oil Triacylglycerol hydrolysis to free fatty acids
Acyl Carrier Protein 100% in Bodies
Condensation to fatty acids-ACP Chloroplast
Oilseed

Fatty acid oxidation to Acetyl CoA


Germination
Glyoxysome
Succinate Glyoxylate cycle

Glycerol-3-P
Sucrose
Growth
Glycerophospholipids
Different Glucose Mitochondrion
Acyl
Carriers
Gluconeogenesis
Malate Oxaloacetate
Cytosol
Glyceroglycopholipids

Lipid Conversion to Carbohydrates

END
Respiration &
Lipid Metabolism