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Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II




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EMAIL: ivan.nieto@unad.edu.co




Environment: Collaborative learning - Evaluation and monitoring
School of Basic Sciences Technology and Engineering
Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II


Abstract - All kinds of materials found in the When the two crystals are united, we find a diffusion of
universe can be divided into three classes electrons of the crystal n top, that when these are, we
according to their level of conductivity, this is due obtain fixed charges in a point in both sides of the union,
to the number of valence electrons in their outer which is called of several ways: of exhaustion, of
deplexion , emptied, among others.
orbit; this determines the ability of conducting
current flow; the more valence atoms there are in
the outer orbit, the resistance to current flow is

Conductors: all materials allow the passage of

current; in the outer orbit there are less than 4
valence electrons; which makes him a good
conductor. Copper has in its last orbit 1 electron of
valence by which it is used as electrical conductor.
Insulators: They present resistance to the passage
of the current since in their last orbit there are more
than 4 valence electrons.
Semiconductors: They are materials that in their
last orbit have 4 valence electrons like silicon and
germanium; characteristic that is exploited to
manipulate this material by means of doping
(adulteration) and turning it into a controlled
conductor; breaking the balance of the material.
Depending on the material used as doping, a N type
or P type material will result; this means that if we
do do n a material of 3 valence electrons we will
obtain an N-type conductor and if we do it with a
Reverse polarization
material of 5 valence electrons we will obtain a
As the diffusion progresses, the space charge zone
type P material increases in width, penetrating the crystals on both sides
INTRODUCTION of the junction. of course, that by accumulating positive
ions in zone n and negative ions in zone p, an electric
The history of semiconductors began in the 19th field is generated, acting on the free electrons of zone n
century when Faraday found that changing the with a given displacement force, opposing the electron
temperature of a material called silver sulphate current.
also varied its level of resistivity.
However it was only after the development of the This is called a diode, which in a case as described, is
transistor in 1948, we began to investigate the not subject to an external potential difference, ie is not
polarized, since the electrons flow from the zone n to the
physical properties of the materials.
zone p.
El nodo p representado con la letra (A) y n ctodo
representado con las letras (C o K).
A. P-N Binding Devices
They are unions of two semiconductor materials types p
and n, also known as P-N junctions. It must be taken into
account that since each of the crystals are separated, they
do not have an electric charge, because in each crystal,
the quantity of electrons and protons is equal, so we can
say that the two crystals, both p and n, are neutral
Environment: Collaborative learning - Evaluation and monitoring
School of Basic Sciences Technology and Engineering
Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II

Reverse polarization

The negative pole of the battery is connected to the

Diode characteristic curve
zone p, increasing the space charge zone, and this in turn
increases the voltage in that zone reaching the value of
Threshold voltage, (v). By directly polarizing the
the voltage of the battery. The diode does not conduct
diode, the initial potential barrier is reduced, increasing
current; but due to the effect of temperature, electron-
the current slightly, about 1% of the nominal. But, when
hole pairs will form on both sides of the junction,
the external voltage exceeds the threshold voltage, the
producing a small current called reverse saturation
potential barrier disappears, so that for small voltage
increases large variations of the intensity occur.

Maximum current (Imax) this is the maximum current

that the diode can carry without being blown by the
Joule effect. Since it is a function of the amount of heat
that the diode can dissipate, it depends mainly on the
design of the same.

Reverse saturation current (Is). It is the small current

that is established by inversely polarizing the diode by
the formation of electron-hollow pairs. It is a function of
the temperature of the material, being allowed to double
by each increase of 10 in the temperature.

Breaking Voltage (Vr). Theoretically, by inversely

polarizing the diode, the diode will conduct the reverse
saturation current; in reality, from a certain value of the
tension of the rupture can be due to two effects:

Avalanche effect In reverse bias, electron-hole pairs are

generated that cause the reverse saturation current; if the
reverse voltage is high the electrons are accelerated by
increasing their kinetic energy.

Direct polarization - Zener effect: it is based on the application of inverse

voltages that, due to the characteristic constitution of the
In this, the battery reduces the potential barrier of the same, generate strong electric fields that cause the
space charge zone, allowing the passage of the electron breakage of the bonds between the atoms thus leaving
currents and voids through the junction. free electrons able to establish the conduction.
In the symbolic representation of the diode, the arrow
indicates the direction of direct polarization.


It has the same physical appearance as a common

rectifier diode; since there are several diodes that their
Environment: Collaborative learning - Evaluation and monitoring
School of Basic Sciences Technology and Engineering
Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II

designs are easily confused, making it difficult to

differentiate one from the other. If we observe an
electronic assembly, the Zener diode can be easily
identified, by its connection form, where the Zener
diode is connected in parallel with the load and in
reverse so that it can perform the stabilizer function, in
addition it will always be associated to the power lines
of the equipment.

It consists of two electrodes, the anode and the cathode,

have engraving on its surface, most of which specify the
voltage for which it was designed, but it is subject to
erasure over time due to manipulation or deterioration,
which difficult in the concrete identification of the

Its symbol in circuit is: OPERATION OF THE TRANSISTOR

The bipolar transistor is a device of three terminals by

which it is possible to control a great power. The power
to be regulated is applied between the collector terminals
(C) and the emitter (E), and the control signal is applied
to the base terminal (B) by means of which we control
the power. With small variations of current through the
C. BIPOLAR BJT TRANSISTOR base terminal, large variations are achieved through the
collector and emitter terminals. If a resistor is installed
The bipolar transistor is a three-terminal device-emitter, this current variation can be converted into voltage
manifold and base-, which can be of two types: NPN and variations as required.
PNP. The way to distinguish an NPN type transistor
from a PNP is by looking at the emitter terminal arrow.
In an NPN this arrow points out of the transistor; in a
PNP the arrow points inwards. Furthermore, in normal
operation, said arrow indicates the direction of the
current flowing through the emitter of the transistor.

The emitter is very doped (p +). As more doping of the

emitter, more carriers will have the current.

The base must be very narrow and little doped, so that

little recombination takes place in the same, and
practically all the current that comes from emitter passes
to manifold.

The collector is a less doped area than the emitter. The

characteristics of this deals with the recombination of D. MOSFET TRANSISTORS
the carriers coming from the sender.
Types of bipolar transistors (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) are field-effect devices
that use an electric field to create a conduction channel.

There are two types of N-channel MOS (NMOS)

transistors and P-channel or PMOS MOSFETs.
The MOS structure.

It is composed of a substrate of silicon, pure pon, on

which a layer of Silicon Oxide (SiO2) with insulating
characteristics is generated, which presents a high input
impedance, on this layer, a layer of Metal (Aluminum )
Environment: Collaborative learning - Evaluation and monitoring
School of Basic Sciences Technology and Engineering
Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II

with conductive characteristics and on the lower part is E. LED DIODE

placed an ohmic contact, in contact with the capsule.
(Light-Emitting Diode :) is a semiconductor device that
emits incoherent light of reduced spectrum when the PN
junction in which an electric current circulates through
it is directly polarized. This phenomenon is a form of
electroluminescence, the LED is a special type of diode
that works like a common diode, but that when being
crossed by the electric current, emits light. This
semiconductor device is commonly encapsulated in a
plastic sheath of greater strength than those of glass
usually used in incandescent lamps. Although the plastic
may be colored, it is only for aesthetic reasons, as this
does not influence the color of the light emitted. Usually
an LED is a composite light source with different parts,
In an N-type MOSFET, an electric field is created under which is why the intensity pattern of the emitted light
the oxide layer that impinges on the surface of the can be quite complex.
semiconductor P. This field attracts the electrons to the
surface under the oxide layer, repelling the voids into the
substrate. If the electric field is very intense it is possible In order to obtain a good luminous intensity, the current
to create a very good region in electrons, called channel through the LED must be chosen correctly and avoided
N, that allows the passage of current from the Source to to be damaged; for this, it must be taken into account
the Drain. The higher the Gate voltage, the greater the that the operating voltage ranges from 1.8 to 3.8 volts
electric field. approximately according to the material of manufacture
and the color of the light it emits and the range of
In a type P MOSFET, the operation is the reverse, since intensities that must circulate by it varies according to
the carriers are hollow, so that there is conduction in the its application. The typical polarization current values
perpendicular electric field, must have opposite of an LED are between 10 and 20 milliamperes (mA) in
direction to that of the type N MOSFET, so the applied the red diodes and between 20 and 40 milliamperes
voltage must be negative . The voids are attracted to the (mA) for the other LED. LEDs have enormous
surface under the oxide layer, and the electrons are advantages over common indicator lamps, such as low
repelled towards the substrate. If the surface is very rich power consumption, almost zero maintenance and a life
in voids, the P-channel is formed. of approximately 100,000 hours. For protection of the
LED in case there are unexpected peaks that could
Types of mosfet transistors damage it. A common silicon diode is placed in parallel
and opposite direction

It has three electrodes:

- Gate or gate (G), connected to the metal plate.

- Source or source (S) symmetrical, interned in the


- Drainer or drain (D), symmetrical, embedded in the

Environment: Collaborative learning - Evaluation and monitoring
School of Basic Sciences Technology and Engineering
Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II

Unit 1: Semiconductor elementals Required
bibliographic references.
These are the required bibliographic references involved
in the unit one activity; also use the UNAD virtual
library to consult other books and relevant information.

Basic principles of semiconductor physics

Enderlein, R., & Horing, N. M. (1997).

semiconductor junctions in thermodynamic
equilibrium in Fundamentals Of Semiconductor
Physics And Devices. Singapore: World Scientific.
There are LEDs of various colors that depend on the url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dir
material with which they were built.
Red LED: consists of a p-n junction obtained by the site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_535
epitaxial growth method of the crystal in its liquid phase,
on a substrate. This type of LED works with low current P-N Union phenomena
densities offering good brightness, being used as a
display device in portable computers.
GaAsp LEDs are currently used due to their higher Enderlein, R., & Horing, N. M. (1997).
brightness. Semiconductor junctions under non-equilibrium
conditions in Fundamentals Of Semiconductor
Orange and yellow LEDs: They are made up of GaAsP
as well as their siblings the reds but in this case to get Physics And Devices. Singapore: World Scientific.
orange and yellow light as well as light of wavelength Retrieved
smaller, what we do is to extend the width of the fromhttp://bibliotecavirtual.unad.edu.co:2048/l
prohibited band, by means of the increase of phosphorus
in the semiconductor. Its manufacture is the same as that
used for red diodes, by epitaxial growth of crystal in the x?direct=true&db=e000xww&AN=82603&lang
gas phase, the formation of the p-n junction is done by =es&site=ehost-live&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_573
Zn diffusion.
Union devices
Levinshtein, M. E., Simin, G. S., & Perelman, M.
With the work of research on the devices of union, we M. (1998). Transistors: From Crystals To
learned about their characteristics, the use, for what they
serve, their polarities counting as much as possible with Integrated Circuits. Singapore: World Scientific.
our own words some of these terms and helping us with Retrieved
the sources found to develop a good job, in addition to from: http://bibliotecavirtual.unad.edu.co:2048/
using the IEEE format and investigating how it was
worked and how each of its aspects are done. login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.asp
Environment: Collaborative learning - Evaluation and monitoring
School of Basic Sciences Technology and Engineering
Group_ 299002_1 Physics of Semiconductors.
2017 - II

OVI Unit 1 - Diode types Comparta el artculo escrito en el foro de trabajo

con sus compaeros de grupo.
This Virtual Information Object (OVI) named Diode
types pretend identify the most common P-N union Como en el foro encontrars otros artculos, lee y
semiconductor devices according to its features. This retroalimenta para tener otro punto de vista. Si
OVI will help you to develop the activities of unit one, necesita corregir su artculo (de acuerdo con los
specifically to identify some kind of commercial diados. comentarios), es el momento adecuado para hacerlo.
Nieto, I. (2017). Diode types. [Video file]. Bogot, CO.
Recuerde que sus comentarios deben mostrar una
Retrieved from:http://hdl.handle.net/10596/12571
lectura adecuada del documento ledo y argumentar
su posicin.

Pasos, fases de la estrategia de aprendizaje para


Tarea Ciclo 1 - Reconocer los diferentes dispositivos

de unin P-N y los fenmenos segn su construccin

Actividades para desarrollar

Actividades individuales:

Verifique la informacin a la que se hace

referencia en el entorno de conocimiento.

El estudiante debe investigar sobre los dispositivos

de unin, establecer caractersticas, tipos de
dispositivos, polarizacin y muchos otros detalles que
usted considera como informacin relevante.

Usando la informacin recolectada, escriba un

artculo de referencia usando sus propias palabras
para redactar el documento, incluyendo cada detalle
mencionado en el paso anterior.