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MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS CASE: CHAO


27 PHRAYA DOCK

Summary:
Team members:
The network of floating docks along the Chao Phraya
Amar Singh Birdi, River, Bangkok, Thailand, is a significant factor in
16037092 sustaining Bangkoks tourist industry. In 2016 alone,
Harry Black, 160137905 the number of tourists visiting the city exceeded 20
million, with the trend of the last five years suggesting
Daniel Wilson, 160095742 future growth REFERENCE. Consequently, the strain on
Simon Woods, 160111307 the transportation system poses a problematic
increased rate of degradation to the numerous floating
Ciaron Newland, student
docks used heavily by tourist companies; the most
number.
prominent of which, the Chao Phraya Express Boat,
departing every thirty minutes, each with a 100-120
passenger capacity REFERENCE. The docks currently in
operation are suffering from: rust accumulation due to
prolonged exposure to highly acidic river water, weld
failures due to misalignment of the 4-point tidal floating
system and gradual deterioration of the polymer
rollers. REFERENCE. Constant usage on an annual basis
prevents any servicing of the docks. This deterioration
has prompted the Thai government and Bangkok port
authority to call for international proposals to tackle
these issues. No budget has been specified, however
cost reduction will be an influential factor of the criteria
prioritisation.
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

1. Introduction

The constraining mechanism for the docks must be updated to resist corrosion and
loading due to the docks horizontal components of motion. The provided information
states that the materials, environment, loading capacity and practicality of
maintenance must be accounted for.
The first issue addressed was the environmental aspect as this influences material
choice. This concerns the regions ambient temperature and water conditions. In 2016,
the mean average yearly temperature of Bangkok alone was calculated as 29C from
temperature data on holiday-weather.com. The maximum temperature was 31C in
April and minimum of 26C in December. According to climate data provided by the
Thai Meteorological Department, which shows the average yearly temperature for all
of Thailand over the 1951-2011 period, there has been a steady increase from 32.1C
in 1951 to 32.8C 2011. If this trend continues, material choice will need to satisfy
conditions of a maximum and minimum service temperature approximately 20C
greater or lower than the obtained average boundaries.
The corrosion of the metal anchor pole is due to the relatively high acidity of the water.
The Chao Phraya River is heavily polluted; water quality tests by threegeneration.org
have determined that the water has been contaminated by nitrates and phosphates.
From a report written about the Chao Phraya River with hydrological information from
Thailand, Survey and Ecology Department, Meteorology and Hydrology Division, the
pH levels of the water vary from 6.7-7 along the river.
From this information, material choice can be determined.
The solution to the problem of corrosion would be to have the anchor poles coated in a
corrosion resistant alloy, such as Nickel or an Inconel alloy. Nickel is very expensive but
is has higher corrosion resistance in corrosive environments than many other metals.
Inconel 625 is a nickel alloy with 20~23% chromium and shows high corrosion
resistance in oxidizing solutions. This alloy does not suffer from pitting corrosion,
crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion fractures. Since stress corrosion cracking is
unpredictable and will cause the material strength to drop considerably, eventually
leading to failure, it is essential that this type of damage is avoided, more so since it is
not easily visible to a brief inspection. The constant service will negate detailed
inspection. Pitting corrosion is also difficult to detect and predict; this may also lead to
material failure, so avoiding it is just as important as avoiding stress corrosion. Monel
generally has excellent corrosion resistance in sea water according to
EngineeringToolbox.com and can withstand high speed salt water.
The vertical anchors do not support any vertical load but a horizontal (radial) load as
stated before. This causes the rollers to wear and shearing of the welds. Weld failure
can be due to crevice corrosion which can be avoided with material choice, however
reducing the load placed upon them will also effectively increase their lifespan.
Mounting the rollers on springs and dampeners will reduce the component of force
directly placed on the welded parts of the structure, reducing the chance of having
them shear. The rollers themselves are made of an unspecified polymer but it can be
assumed that a metallic roller would have greater hardness and will resist abrasion
more effectively. By intuition, the frictional force between the metallic anchor bar and
a metallic roller will be less than it would be for a polymer equivalent for a given
normal reaction force. Lower friction means a lower shearing force on the roller surface
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

so the rollers should not be worn out. They can be made of the same metal with the
same corrosion resistant coating that the anchor bars are made from.

(approx. 500 words - Use this section to make a quick introduction into the case study,
comment on the preliminary specifications provided and how the team went about
analysing the case in-depth, acquiring additional info and modelling a new set of
specifications.
How would these contribute to solve the stated problem more efficiently?)

2. Revised project statement

The new anchoring mechanism must utilize corrosion resistant materials to prevent
the current state of corrosion from returning, reduce the loading on the welds and not
suffer from worn rollers. In addition, the new design must be easy to maintain by brief
inspection due to the extensive consumer demand, which negates thorough
inspection. Any new materials introduced must have a maximum service temperature
greater than 51C and a minimum service temperature lower than 0C.
The old and corroded anchor poles will be replaced with new bars produced from the
same material and to the same dimensions as previously. However, the new bars must
receive an Inconel 625 coating to resist various types of corrosion even at high
temperatures or pressures and the demand for maintenance must be reduced. The
coating can be applied by electroplating.
New metallic rollers will replace the existing and worn polymer rollers. These will be
made from the same materials and finish as the new anchor poles. This should reduce
the frictional force upon the roller surface, thus lowering wear whilst being corrosion
resistant.
The rollers themselves will be mounted onto the frames via springs and dampers to
reduce the loading on the welds and prevent shearing.

(100 200 words)


(In this section, you will make a re-interpretation of the original problem-statement
and specifications as provided by the selected case. For this new statement, youll
need to address the problem generally in a way that demonstrates that you
understand the problem and are ready to offer an effective solution)

3. Objectives tree

(Fill in with as many boxes as you identify for every level, branch, and sub branch.
Other templates are accepted as along as these are compatible with the objectives
tree method)
L L L
e e e
v v v
e e e
l l l Material choice
1 2 3
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

Withstand loads Minimal


wear Springs and
Replace worn parts dampeners

Longevity
Temperature Material
serviceable choice Inconel
Coating alloy
Corrosion Resistant
Nickel

Chao Phraya Maintainable Easy part


replacement Simple design
Dock by brief
Non-disruptive
inspection

Can withstand high


Safety loads
Prevent slipping Friction padding on the
hazards dock floor

4. Objectives ranking matrix

(Fill in the whole list of objectives -in all levels- in the first column and the first row,
and compare one against each other with a binary result -0 or 1-. In the last column
make a sum of every row to get a total ranking. You are free to normalize or add
further comparison stages)
For example, in the table below, Objective 1 is considered to have more importance
than Objective 2 (1) but less importance than objective 3 (0).

Row>column
Longevity Cost Easily Safety Aesthetic TOTAL
Maintainabl
e

Longevity 1 1 0 1 3

Cost 0 0 0 1 1

Easily 0 1 0 1 2
Maintaina
ble
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

Safety 1 1 1 1 4

Aesthetic 0 0 0 0 0
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

5. Establishing functions, final specifications, and metrics

Objectiv Function Specification Metric


e
Safety Construct a safe The dock should be able to withstand the high load An upper limit of load capacity
floating dock that can due to the weight of numerous tourists. This is done should be enough to withstand
support the specified by picking suitable materials and using dampeners 150 people for clearance. If
load of around 100 and springs on the rollers. Furthermore, any slipping average body mass is 68kg,
people. hazards should be eradicated by using rubber padding then the dock should be able
on the floor of the dock. to withstand more than 11
tonnes.
https://www.rush.edu/health-
wellness/quick-guides/what-is-
a-healthy-weight
Easily The dock should be The changes made to the dock should not be An inspection of one hour
Maintaina serviceable during peak overcomplicated, so that observation and maximum should be adequate
ble times without user maintenance of the dock is quick and simple. for one dock.
disruption.
Longevity The design needs to Firstly, the old rollers and anchor bars should be The design should be able to
last for extended replaced with newer parts. The newer parts will be safely operate for ten years
periods of time without electroplated in nickel alloy, such as Inconel, to reduce between routine maintenance
wearing or operating corrosion by oxidisation over time. To add to this, the for a total lifetime of fifty
unsafely. rollers should be mounted on dampeners to reduce years before replacement of
breakage of welds within the structure. parts.

Cost The cost of the It is essential that the one-time installation expense is
installation of the deemed affordable by the government and therefore
network of docks must must keep to a minimum. The upkeep cost of the dock
within the national must be close to the current maintenance expenses so
transport budget. that no additional strain is placed on the current
transport budget.


MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

6. Conclusions
Elaborate on how your set of specifications can lead to a successful and effective
design is taken to the next stage. (300-600 words)

The specifications devised provide a good compromise between the objectives the
new Chao Phraya dock should fulfill and the restrictions imposed. The continuous
usage in particular creates limitations on the design. As shown in the objectives
matrix, safety is paramount, followed by longevity of the structure. Both of these
factors will be addressed by the improvements suggested. Initially, replacement of the
pre-existing rollers and anchors will be carried out so that nickel-alloy components can
replace them. This will cause minimal disruption to the dock users as no severe
changes in design are made; the only change in design will be the addition of dampers
on the rollers.
The new anchors and rollers, including the damping system described, will be able to
withstand higher loads for a longer period of time. This massively increases the safety
of the structure, as problems such as material corrosion and weld shearing are
eradicated, which could cause failure and result in injury.
Easy maintainability ranks as less important than safety and longevity, but is still
significant and is requested by the client. Due to the simplicity of the new design,
which differs only slightly from the previous, inspection and upkeep will be brief. A
reasonable metric will be that each inspection will not exceed one hour.
Cost efficiency is another factor that should be utilized. However, this is directly
affected by the longevity of the structure. Longevity is, in turn, affected by
maintenance. Furthermore, despite cost being a factor, safety of the structure should
be held as top priority. This means that reducing the cost to implement and
consistently refurbish the dock is not vital.
The new Chao Phraya dock will be successful as long as the objectives above are
achieved. The suggestions made within this specification are a manner of doing so.
Coating of the components and minor redesign will guarantee that all restrictions are
appeased while structure performance is kept high.

7. Literature
(List all the formal sources you utilize to document your specifications. You do not
need to add citations within the body of text).
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I

8. Appendices

You are welcome to add any useful information (sketches, materials datasheets,
standards, etc.). These pages will not count towards the 10-page maximum limit for
the specifications document.
MEC1012: Mechanical Engineering Professional Skills I