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DRAFT MANUAL

ENERGY & EFFICIENCY


MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Doc. No.: CenPEEP/March-05/EEMG/Rev 0

Centre for Power Efficiency & Environmental Protection


(CenPEEP)

National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd.


(A Government of India Enterprise)

i
PREFACE
Our mission is to make available reliable and quality power in
increasingly large quantities at competitive prices. Thus we must
strive to produce electricity at the lowest cost. Efficiency
improvement has a direct bearing on the cost of electricity. Hence
we must run the plant at its best achievable efficiency all the time.

Towards this end plant efficiency management system is being


restructured. An immediate need has been felt for developing and
implementing a uniform, simplified and IT enabled system for
plant efficiency monitoring, reporting and improvement. The
system will also provide expertise support to the station in critical
performance gap areas.

To meet this objective, a document on Energy & Efficiency


Management System has been prepared for the use of Energy
& Efficiency Management Group (EEMG) at Stations and
concerned department at Region & Corporate Center.

The document is prepared based on discussions with various NTPC


Stations, EEMG Knowledge team and the experience gathered by
CenPEEP in last 7-8 years. The document includes plant efficiency
measurement / testing procedures, test frequency, reporting
formats, computations, monitoring system, documentation to be
maintained by EEMG etc. Thrust has been kept on On-Line
Performance monitoring and analysis aspects. Effort has also been
made to bring out clarity on various efficiency issues to implement
uniform systems.

Performance calculations of various equipments/systems are also


provided in soft copy to enable the performance calculations by
entering the input parameters. This is to stream line the
calculation procedure across NTPC stations and facilitate problem
analysis.

It may be mentioned here that the document for Gas Turbine and
WHRB will be issued separately.

Centre of Excellence for Efficiency (CEE) within CenPEEP


will be looking after the activities related to efficiency improvement
and performance monitoring.

All Stations, Regions and Corporate Center departments are


advised to implement the Systems and procedures given in the
document. Suggestions for further improvement of the document
may please be sent to Corporate CenPEEP.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In preparation of this document the support and cooperation of


station representatives, operation services, knowledge team
members of EEMG was vital without which this document could
not have been successfully completed.

The information available in Heat rate Improvement Guide lines


for Indian Power Plant has been used and customized, as
applicable for implementation in NTPC.

The continued support and guidance of management has helped in


finalizing various systems and practices covered in the document

i
Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Objective
2 Definitions
3 Heat Rate Assessment
3.1 Monitoring Primary Process Indicators
3.2 Heat Rate Deviation Trending
3.3 Parameters To Be Tracked
3.3.1 Turbine Cycle
3.3.2 Boiler Cycle
3.3.3 Auxiliary & Station Power
3.3.4 Unaccountable losses
4 Baseline For Comparison With Actual Performance
4.1 Design
4.2 Performance Guarantee Test
4.3 Historical Operating or Test Data
4.4 Benchmarking Similar Units
4.5 Current Expected
5 Methodology for Heat Rate deviation calculation
5.1 Data Collection Methodology
5.2 Deviation Calculation Methodology
5.3 Monthly Heat Rate Deviation
6 Periodic Testing with On-Line Instrument
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Type Of Tests
6.3 Testing Frequency
7 Instrumentation
7.1 Pressure Transmitters
7.2 Temperature
7.3 Flow
7.4 Gas Analyzers
7.5 Energy Meters
7.6 Additional Equipment
8 Typical Test Procedures
8.1 HP/IP Turbine Efficiency Test
8.2 Turbine Cycle Heat Rate Test
8.3 HP Heater Performance Test
8.4 Condenser Performance Test
8.5 Cooling Tower Performance Test
8.6 Mill Dirty Air Flow Test
8.7 Air Heater Performance Test
8.8 Boiler Efficiency Test

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9 Heat Rate Action Plan
9.1 Preparation of action Plan
9.2 Calculation of Unit & Station HR
9.3 Review of Plan
9.4 Annual Targeting
10 Reporting System & Formats
10.1 Information Flow
11 EEMG Structure & Responsibility
11.1 Setup - Station
11.2 Setup - Region
11.3 Setup - Corporate
12 Tools
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Comprehensive Thermal Kit
12.3 Thermodynamic Model of the Plant
13 Fault trees

ii
1. INTRODUCTION
Efficient operation of generating power plants has always been
important to utilities. The heat rate of a conventional Coal fired
power plant is a measure of how efficiently it converts the chemical
energy contained in the fuel into electrical energy. This conversion
is accomplished in four major steps. First, the chemical energy in
the fuel is converted into thermal energy, then the thermal energy
is converted into kinetic energy, then the kinetic energy is
converted in mechanical energy, and last the mechanical energy is
converted to electrical energy. In each of these sub-processes,
some energy is lost to the environment. Some of the fuel is not
burned completely, some of the thermal energy is lost out the stack
and rejected to the cooling water, some of the kinetic and
mechanical energy produces heat instead of electricity, and last,
some of the electricity that is produced is used by these sub-
processes. The heat rate of a power plant is the amount of
chemical energy that must be supplied to produce one unit of
electrical energy.

If a power plant converted 100% of the chemical energy in the fuel


into electricity, the plant would have a heat rate of 860 kcal/kWh.
Unfortunately, due to the losses described above, a modern
conventional power plant might have at best a design full load heat
rate of 2200 kcal/kWh, which is about 39% efficient.

Many factors affect the actual, operating heat rate of a plant:

i. The initial design. Some units are designed to be more


efficient than others. Some units have more stages of feed
water heaters, resulting in better efficiency; or some units
have steam driven pumps and fans instead of electric drives;
some units operate at higher initial temperature and/or
pressure, which results in a lower heat rate.
ii. Ambient conditions. A plant is more efficient when the
condenser circulating water temperature is cooler.
iii. Load Factor. Conventional power plants are most efficient at
full load, and the efficiency decreases as the load decreases.
iv. The fuel that is supplied. A plant may have been designed to
burn a low moisture bituminous coal, but it is receiving a
high moisture sub- bituminous coal. This will adversely
affect the heat rate.
v. How well the plant is operated and maintained. Power plants
can be operated efficiently or inefficiently. Equipment
deterioration may not be corrected speedily or completely,
drain valves could be passing, unnecessary auxiliary

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equipment may be run, the initial steam temperature may
not be continuously maintained as high as it should be, etc.

It is this last category, which is very important for a running plant


to bring out the cost of generation.

1.1 OBJECTIVE

The purpose of a heat rate monitoring and subsequent


improvement is to reduce the heat rate of a unit. This result in
several benefits:

The amount of money spent for fuel will be reduced. This lowers
the cost of producing the electricity.

The amount of emissions to the environment will be reduced.


Improving the heat rate reduces the amount of greenhouse gas
that is produced. Less fuel burned means less ash to be disposed
of, and less particulate go out the stack.

Because less fuel is required to produce the same amount of


electricity, the amount of wears on equipment such as pulverizers,
coal pipes and nozzles, etc., is reduced. Also, along with reduced
fuel flows, the airflow is reduced, reducing velocities through the
boiler, resulting in less erosion and reduced fan power.

Heat rate improvement results in an increase in the net generation


of the unit, allowing the unit to run at a higher plant load factor.
This advantage can be very valuable, especially during summer
when the condenser cooling water temperatures and ambient air
temperatures are high, which sometimes results in generation
being limited due to condenser back pressure or running out of
fan(s) capacity.

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2. DEFINITION
The purpose of this section is to clearly define the terms used in
this document along with the general terms, which are specific to
performance monitoring of equipment and system. This is to have
clarity and same understanding of the terminology used across the
organization.

2.1 Heat Rate - There are several different definitions of heat


rate that are used. Each definition is valid and useful when
properly applied and clearly explained to anyone who could come
across it. Unfortunately, too often only the term heat rate is
used, and it is not always clear exactly which heat rate is being
used. It is very important that additional terms be used so that it
is perfectly clear what is meant.

2.1.1 Unit Heat Rate - A unit heat rate includes all heat input to
the boiler. The heat input to the boiler should include all forms of
chemical energy supplied and the gross electrical generation.
For most functions (daily/monthly/annual reporting, comparison/
benchmarking of units) unit or plant heat rate should be used.

2.1.2 Net Unit Heat Rate - A unit heat rate includes all heat
input to the boiler. The heat input to the boiler should include all
forms of chemical energy supplied and the net electrical
generation i.e., auxiliary power is to be subtracted from gross
electrical energy.

2.1.3 Actual Unit Heat Rate - The true heat rate of a unit is
usually calculated from the amount of fuel (all fuel, coal, oil, gas,
etc.) burned during the period, the gross calorific value of the fuel,
and the generation for the period. The integrated readings of fuel
burned and generation are (i.e. daily, weekly, or monthly) used to
calculate the actual heat rate. Actual heat rate includes fuel
burned during startups, and includes the negative net generation
during off-line periods.

2.1.4 Design Unit Heat Rate - The heat rate on a unit varies with
both load and ambient conditions (air and cooling water
temperature). However, one design heat rate number is
frequently published for a unit. It is the heat rate the designer
anticipates will occur at the design condenser pressure and a
certain load. Whenever it is given, the unit condition should also
be specified (such as maximum continuous rating (MCR) or the
load when the turbine valves are wide open (VWO), etc.).

2-1
2.1.5 Reference Unit Heat Rate - This is the heat rate the unit is
capable of obtaining, based on the initial design configuration. It
is usually derived from the turbo generator and boiler performance
guarantee or acceptance test results.

2.1.6 Expected Unit Heat Rate - The heat rate that the unit
should be capable of obtaining based on the present design
configuration. It is calculated by adjusting the reference heat rate
for the effects of permanent modifications to the unit.

2.1.7 Gross Turbine Cycle Heat Rate (GTCHR) - A Gross


Turbine Cycle heat rate includes only heat input to the turbine
cycle. GTCHR is the ratio of total heat input to the turbine cycle
and the gross generator output.

2.1.8 Target Unit Heat Rate - The heat rate i.e. set as a goal.
This is usually based on historical performance along with
anticipated changes resulting from improvement activities and
uncorrected degradation.

2.2 On-Line Test - Performance testing of unit or equipment


with the use of on line instruments and with the use of additional
test instruments as applicable such as APH test.

2.3 Performance testing with Off- line Instrument -


Performance testing of unit or equipment with the use of off-line
test instruments installed prior to the test along with the use of
online unit data as the case may be.

2.4 Unit Auxiliary power Consumption total electrical power


consumed to operate the generating units auxiliary equipment.

2.5 Boiler gross efficiency the ratio of energy output to


energy input when input is defined as the total heat or combustion
available from the fuel .

2.6 Cleanliness factor ratio of the actual thermal


transmittance to the transmittance at 100% clean condition

2.7 Condenser air-in-leakage leakage of air into the


condenser steam side

2.8 Condenser Backpressure absolute pressure on the steam


side of the condenser above the tube bundles. It is sometimes
referred to as condenser vacuum when referenced to atmospheric
pressure. It may not be the same as turbine exhaust pressure.

2-2
2.9 Continuous monitoring monitoring conducted on a
uniform continuous basis, using automated data collection

2.10 Correction factors factors to be applied to test results to


correct for off design or non-standard conditions.

2.11 Data validation process to ensure that the collected data


satisfies statistical criteria and complies with the physical laws
(thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, etc.) of the process.

2.12 Enthalpy-drop test a test conducted to determine the


turbine efficiency based on the energy used by a turbine section

2.13 Exhaust loss those losses associated with the steam


exiting the low-pressure turbine as a result of kinetic energy
changes and pressure drops. They are usually characterized in the
thermal kit provided by the turbine manufacturer.

2.14 Feed water heater drain cooler approach (DCA) the


difference between the shell side drain outlet and the feed water
inlet temperatures.

2.15 Gross generation total electrical output from the


generator terminals

2.16 Heat balance diagram a diagram expressing temperature,


pressure, enthalpy, and flow values throughout the cycle for a
given set of conditions.

2.17 HP-IP turbine shaft leakage the steam leakage from the
HP turbine to the IP turbine through the shaft seals of a combined
HP-IP element.

2.18 Make-up water water added to the cycle to replace losses

2.19 Maximum continuous rating (MCR) the contractual


maximum continuous rating (MCR) output from a steam generator

2.20 Micro fouling fouling of the condenser tube surface due to


microbiological growth, deposits or corrosion. This inhibits heat
transfer through the tube walls.

2.21 Net generation difference between the electrical generator


output and the auxiliary electrical power

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2.22 Performance parameters those variables in a cycle, which
can be measured or calculated which are indicative of the level of
performance of a component or system

2.23 Reheater pressure drop pressure drop encountered in the


reheat section of the boiler including piping

2.24 Sequential valve (partial arc control) the operation by


which the steam flow arc control into a turbine is governed by
opening one or more control valves sequentially

2.25 Single valve (full arc control) the operation by which the
steam flow into a turbine is governed by opening all control valves
simultaneously

2.26 Steam path audit an audit of the turbine steam path that
is used to quantify associated performance losses for each
nonstandard condition. These performance losses are determined
by taking detailed physical measurements of the steam path
during a turbine outage.

2.27 Sub cooling the temperature reduction of the fluid below


its saturation temperature

2.28 Terminal temperature difference (TTD) the difference


between the saturation temperature of the heating fluid at shell
inlet pressure and the outlet temperature of the heated fluid

2.29 Thermal kit a compendium of performance information,


generally provided by the turbine generator manufacturer. These
include heat balances of the turbine cycle and correction curves to
heat rate and load for deviations from rated values of selected
performance parameters.

2.30 Main steam flow S/H steam flow at the HP turbine inlet

2.31 Turbine choke point the operating condition at which


further reductions in pressure at the turbine exhaust flange result
in no increase in turbine output for a given set of upstream
conditions

2.32 Turbine efficiency the ratio of the actual enthalpy change


in the turbine to the isentropic enthalpy change

2-4
2.33 Turbine exhaust pressure the LP turbine exit pressure
measured at the exhaust flange. It may not be the same as the
condenser backpressure.

2.34 Valve point the valve position just before the succeeding
valve starts to open

2.35 Valve point loading the technique of loading a unit at its


valve points to maximize its efficiency

2.36 Valves Wide Open (VWO) the valve setting, which


corresponds to all turbine control valves fully open

2.37 Variable pressure operation an operating method in


which the load is changed by varying throttle pressure for a fixed
valve position (Multiple combinations of valve position may be
utilized)

2.38 Air Pre heater leakage - Air Pre heater leakage (%) is
defined as the weight of air passing from the airside to the gas side
of the air heater. This index is an indicator of the condition of the
air heaters seals for specific configuration.

2.39 Air Pre heater Gas side Efficiency - Air Pre heater Gas side
Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the temperature drop, corrected
for leakage, to the temperature head, expressed as a percentage.

2.40 X-Ratio - X ratio is the ratio of heat capacity of air passing


through the air heater to the heat capacity of flue gas passing
through the air heater

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3. HEAT RATE ASSESMENT

3.1 MONITORING PRIMARY PROCESS INDICATORS

3.1.1 Purpose

Heat rate monitoring is focused on identifying heat rate problems


and then identifying and implementing corrective actions to
eliminate the efficiency loss. In this approach, heat rate deviations
from expected or design levels are identified and quantified. Then
using fault trees or other resources the cause(s) are identified.
This method is useful, but the fact is, the heat rate should not be
allowed to deteriorate to the point that unexpected or unknown
deviations exist.
The personnel operating or maintaining the equipment should be
aware of equipment deterioration and corrective action should be
taken prior to the point that it significantly impacts the heat rate.
By following good O&M practices and proactive action, heat rate
deteriorations can be avoided (or at least accounted for) before they
are reflected in the overall performance statistics.
This pro-active approach is accomplished by identifying key
primary process indicators , monitoring them and taking
corrective actions immediately as indicated. If this is done, the
improvement in higher-level performance parameters (heat rate,
availability, etc.) will follow.
A secondary purpose for monitoring primary process
indicators is to assist in instrument validation/instrument
calibration. By closely monitoring critical instruments, drifts or
irregularities can be quickly identified and the instrument
calibrated or replaced.

3.1.2 Definition of Primary Process Indicators

It is the information to be monitored, measured, or tracked


that will give an indication that the process is in trouble and
needs corrective action (or that there has been a change in
the process) prior to seeing adverse impacts to a higher
indicator, such as a heat rate deviation.
Some indicators are also parameters used to calculate heat rate
deviations, such as hot reheat steam temperature. However, most
indicators are at a much lower level, such as mill outlet
temperature. Normally, heat rate deviations are not calculated for
mill outlet temperature, even though it affects the thermal
performance (and other characteristics) of the unit. Another
example of a primary process indicator is condenser water box

3-1
differential pressure. If it increases (due to fouling of the inlet tube
sheet, for example), it can reduce the condenser circulating water
flow, resulting in a higher condenser pressure and a higher heat
rate. Monitoring this differential pressure will immediately show
when a change has occurred, and signal for corrective action to be
taken, before it adversely affects the unit heat rate.
Each system in the power plant (fuel supply, combustion, feed
water, condenser circulating water, etc.) has multiple Primary
Process Indicators that can be used to determine if the process is
functioning as designed, (or if there has been a change to the
process).
There are several available sources that can be used to help
develop a list of indicators, such as original equipment
manufacturers manuals, heat rate deviation fault trees, etc. List of
indicators enclosed is considered to be useful in identifying
problem in initial stage.

3.1.3 Data Collection and Analysis Methods

The second step is to determine the data collection methodology for


each indicator. Some Primary Process Indicators may be
monitored continuously via a computer system or a recorder or
indicator in the unit control room. Others may have a
site/auxiliary control room/local board indication that is only
periodically checked, or only measured during routine or special
tests.

3.1.4 List of Primary Process Indicators

The following is a partial list of Primary Process Indicators that


should be monitored. Because each unit has different designs,
this list is only a guide, and items should be added or deleted
as necessary. Items marked (H) should be given the highest
priority, and should be control charted/trend charted on all units.
Items marked (M) are a medium priority and should be control
charted/trend charted wherever practical. Items marked (L) are
the lowest priority and should be control charted/trend charted
where these points are available on a DAS and/or if there are
known problems. There are certain parameters which are
applicable in the new station only.

3.1.4.1 Boiler - Water/Steam Side

a) Steam Temperatures:

i. Final Superheat outlet temperature(s) (H)

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ii. Hot Reheat outlet temperature(s) (H)
iii.T across attemperation station when the steam
Temperature is below set point (H)
b) Attemperation Flows
i. Reheat (H)
ii. Superheat (H)
c) FW temperature at economizer outlet (M)
d) Water/Steam temperature rise across each sections (M)
(Econ , WW, Primary SH, Final SH, Reheater, etc.)
e) Pressure Drop
i. Economizer (L)
ii. Economizer outlet Final SH outlet
(Once through units) (M)

3.1.4.2 Boiler - Fire Side

a) Flue gas temperatures


i. Air Pre heater inlet gas temperature(s) (H)
ii. Air Pre heater outlet gas temperature(s) (H)
b) Primary air header pressure (H)
c) Wind box pressure (H)
d) Furnace draft (L)
e) Wind box to furnace differential (M)
f) Draft loss through each bank of convection pass (L)
(i.e. FSH, LTSH, RH)
g) Furnace exit gas temperature (M)
h) Flue gas oxygen percentage rise goose neck to air heater inlet. (M)
i) Flue gas oxygen percentage rise - air heater outlet to ID fan inlet (M)
j) Damper positions (fuel/air, aux. air, over fire, AA, etc.) (M)
k) Burner tilt position (M)
l) Soot blowing steam usage (M)
m) Ratio of fan amps to flow (FDF, IDF, PAF) (M)

3.1.4.3 Air Pre Heater

a) Air temperature entering (units with steam coils ) (L)


b) T at AH outlet/cold air bypass junction (H)
c) Flue gas analysis - oxygen at AH inlet/ outlet (H)
d) Flue gas analysis - carbon monoxide at goose neck area
and between Economiser outlet & ID Fan (M)
e) Draft loss through AH
i. Air side (L)
ii. Gas Side (L)
f) AH x-ratio * (M)
g) AH gas side efficiency * (M)
h) Leakage * (H)

3-3
i) Ratio of total primary air flow to total secondary air flow (M)

3.1.4.4 Pulverizer

a) Mill outlet temperatures (mill in service) (H)


b) Mill outlet temperatures (mill out of service) (H)
c) Temperature drop at air / tempering air junction (M)
d) Ratio of mill amps to coal flow (M)
e) Ratio of mill P to coal flow (M)
f) Mill Fineness:
i. % Passing through a 50 mesh (H)
ii. % Passing through a 200 mesh
(H)
g) For each coal pipe, the difference between its air flow
and the average for all pipes from that mill. (M)

3.1.4.5 Turbine

a) MS pressure (H)
b) Pressure ratio
i. HPT - First Stage / HPT exhaust (H)
ii. IP - inlet / outlet (H)
iii. LP - inlet / last extraction (M)
c) Ratio of corrected first stage pressure to corrected flow (H)
d) Section efficiencies * (M)

3.1.4.6 Feed water (Heaters and Feed Pump)

a) Terminal Temperature Differences * (TTD) (M)


b) Drain Cooler Approaches * (DCA) (L)
c) Water side pressure drop (L)
d) Pressure drop in extraction piping (L)
e) Feed water temperature at HPH outlet (H)
f) T at Top HPH FW outlet / FW temp after bypass junction (M)
g) Heater level (L)
h) Heater vent positions (L)

3.1.4.7 Boiler Feed Pump

a) BFP balancing drum leak off (BDLO) pressure (H)


b) Ratio of pump amps to feed water flow through the pump (M)
c) % of total FW flow carried by each pump (L)
d) Recirculation V/V passing (H)

3.1.4.8 Condenser

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a) Condenser CW Flow (H)
b) Air In leakage (H)
c) Water box Differential Pressure (H)
d) Terminal Temperature Difference (M)
e) Temperature Rise (M)
f) Deviation from expected Condenser Back Pressure (H)
g) Pressure drop across trash rack/traveling water screens (M)
h) Condensate sub cooling (L)
i) Air steam mixture sub cooling (L)
j) Tube Cleanliness factor (M)

3.1.4.9 Cooling Tower

a) Range (H)
b) Approach (H)
c) CW Flow (H)
d) WBT at Tower inlet (M)
e) CT inlet temperature [H]
f) CT outlet temperature [H]
g) CT fan power [M]

3.1.4.10 Other

a] Unit Station service, from unit board(s) (H)


b] Common Station Service (L)
c] Coal size leaving the crushers (L)
d] Number of leaking valves (may be divided into three
Categories, based on heat rate impact) (M)
e] Soot blower availability by area
(WW , PSH , Final SH, RH, Econ, etc.) (M)
f] Makeup water flow (M)
g] Steam flow to auxiliary equipment (BFPT, FDFT,
other units, etc.) (M)

* Calculated data based on test.

3-5
3.2 HEAT RATE DEVIATION TRENDING

Why are heat rate deviations calculated for various parameters?.


Heat Rate parameters are operating data or calculated values from
operating data for which heat rate deviations can be calculated
relatively easily, such as condenser pressure or turbine efficiency.

By calculating actual heat rate and comparing the actual heat rate
to some baseline and trending the deviation, we can determine if
the performance of the unit is improving or deteriorating. One
advantage of this method is that the cost of the overall
performance deterioration can be calculated

a) The magnitude (heat rate deviation) of each problem area


can be determined. On an individual unit, the problem
areas can be ranked, and the most costly can be addressed
first.
b) The heat rate deviation can be readily converted to a cost.
When a corrective action is determined, the cost/benefit of
the action can be calculated.
c) Trade-off between parameters can be calculated. For
example, if a unit is having problems maintaining steam
temperatures, a temporary solution might be to increase the
airflow to the boiler. Unless you can calculate the heat rate
deviation for the low steam temperature and compare it to
the heat rate deviation due to the additional airflow, you
cannot determine if it is more economical to run at reduced
temperature or at higher airflows.
d) Problems at different units can be compared and ranked. By
doing this, the problems areas at multiple units of a plant or
over an entire system can be ranked. For example, a 200
MW unit might have a condenser pressure 25 mmHg higher
than the expected value; a 500 MW unit might have an exit
0
gas temperature 25 C higher than expected. Unless the
impacts of both problems are converted to a heat rate
deviation (then cost), which problem should be addressed
first cannot be determined.
e) Once the heat rate deviations for each parameter are known,
they can be summed to give a accountable heat rate
deviation. Usually this value is smaller than the total heat
rate deviation. The difference is the unaccountable heat
rate deviation, and represents problems areas that are not
tracked by a parameter (for example LP turbine efficiency,
cycle isolation problems, etc.)

3-6
3.3 PARAMETERS TO BE TRACKED

There are two methods to track Heat rate deviation.

First, deviations could be assigned to each equipment, i.e., a heat


rate deviation would be computed for the high pressure turbine,
the air pre heater, the boiler, the feed water heaters, the BFP, the
condenser, the CW pumps, etc. There are definite advantages to
this method, in that it would be known precisely which equipment
is not operating properly. However, the overall performance of
most equipment is not continuously monitored, but instead the
steam/air/flue gas conditions around the equipment are
monitored. For example, if the steam temperature at the intercept
valve is low, it is relatively easy to calculate a heat rate deviation
for it. It is much time taking to routinely determine the equipment
that is causing the deviation, it could be the attemperator valve
leaking, the reheater could be fouled or slagged, the gas
recirculating fans or high pressure feed water heaters could be out
of service, etc.

The second method of tracking heat rate deviations would then be


by steam/air/flue gas conditions, i.e., a heat rate deviation would
be computed for the MS temperature, the HRH steam temperature
at the intercept valve, the condenser pressure, the flue gas
temperature leaving the AH, the flow rate to the APH coils, etc.

The combination of these two methods is a better way of


calculating actual heat rate deviation. Heat rate deviations are
calculated for some equipment (i.e., the turbine sections), but most
losses are calculated from the conditions of the steam/air or flue
gas at various locations (i.e. Main Steam Throttle, condenser
pressure, AH exit gas temperature). If one of the steam/air/flue
gas conditions is causing a significant deviation, then the next
level of analysis is performed to determine the root cause.

Parameters that may be monitored and have heat rate deviations


computed include:

3.3.1 Turbine Cycle

3.3.1.1 Condenser Back Pressure

Condenser pressure is usually one of the largest heat rate


deviations at a plant. As the pressure in the condenser rises, the
amount of energy extracted from each kilogram of steam is
reduced. Approximately 1% of the output of the IP/LP turbine will

3-7
be lost for every 6 mm Hg increase in condenser pressure. Usually
a heat rate deviation is calculated due to the difference between
the expected and actual condenser pressure. It is also possible to
divide this deviation into two parts. The first heat rate deviation is
due to the cooling water flow rate being different from design, and
the second heat rate deviation due to fouling and air ingress of
tubes.
Deviation due to CCW flow
Deviation due to fouling and air ingress.

3.3.1.2 Final Feed water Temperature & High Pressure


Heaters Bypassed

There are three ways of calculating deviations due to the feed water
performance. First, a deviation can be calculated due to the final
feed water temperature being lower than expected. Second, a
deviation can be calculated from the amount of time a heater or a
string of heaters are bypassed. Third, both methods can be
combined, where the final feed water temperature deviation is used
when all heaters are in service and the deviation for heaters being
bypassed is used (and the final feed water temperature is ignored)
when one or more heaters is bypassed. The reason the final feed
water temperature cannot be used alone is two fold. First, the heat
rate deviation for the top heater being bypassed is different from
the deviation that would be calculated based on the resulting final
feed water temperature. Second, if a lower pressure heater is
bypassed, the final feed water temperature may not change, but
there is a heat rate deviation due to the higher extraction flow to
higher-pressure heaters.

3.3.1.3 Makeup

Makeup is the quantity of water that is lost from the cycle during
operation. It is not simply the water supplied to a unit, as water is
also supplied for boiler hydrostatic tests, chemical cleanings, etc.
Water supplied for these purposes should be excluded. The heat
rate deviation for makeup is an approximation, as the location in
the cycle of each loss is not known, therefore the exact heat rate
deviation is not known. Losses from main steam are the most
expensive, because so much energy has been added to it. Losses
from LP heaters are relatively inexpensive.Typically, an assumption
is made that the loss is from the boiler drum, half at saturated
liquid condition and half at saturated vapour.

3-8
3.3.1.4 Turbine Efficiency

The loss due to reduced turbine section efficiency is calculated for


each turbine that operates entirely in the superheated steam
region. This can be done by continuously calculating each
sections efficiency (from station temperatures and pressures) and
comparing to an expected value. However, it is more common to
periodically test the turbines (usually at valves wide open) and to
compare that efficiency to the expected VWO efficiency, and to
assume that the heat rate deviation is constant over the load
range. The heat rate correction factors for turbine efficiency are
usually obtained from the manufacturer, or they can be calculated
with the use of a thermodynamic model of the plant. The actual
deviation can be due to various factors, depending on the cause of
the efficiency loss. If the steam path is worn or rough, the exhaust
temperature increases, so less energy per kilogram of steam flow is
converted to mechanical work. In the HP turbine this loss is
partially offset because less energy will be required to be added in
the reheater. This small gain can also be lost if the amount of
reheat attemperation must be increased. If the stage pressures are
also affected, then there are additional effects due to change in
extraction flow rates. Usually heat rate deviations are calculated
for the following sections:
High Pressure Section Efficiency
Intermediate Pressure Section Efficiency

3.3.1.5 Auxiliary Steam Usage

Several auxiliary equipment present in the plants that are supplied


with steam. The steam that is used may be main steam, from a
turbine extraction, from the CRH, or some other location.
Regardless of the source of the steam, its use comes at some price.
If the auxiliary equipment does not use the steam, it would flow
through the turbine, producing kilowatts. Therefore the use (or
excessive use) of this steam causes a heat rate deviation. It is
worthwhile to monitor the flow rate of steam to each auxiliary but
taking total usage is also useful. The flow rate may be measured
with orifice plates, nozzles, . Or the flow may be derived from a
pressure reading. Some equipment, such as SCAPH, has a
relatively constant steam flow, and only the number of hours of
use is tracked. Some potential auxiliary steam users are:

SCAPH
TDBFP
Steam Jet Air Ejectors (SJAE)
Steam supplied to/received from other units

3-9
Misc. auxiliary steam headers

3.3.2 Boiler Cycle

3.3.2.1 Combustibles in Bottom Ash

Periodically, ash samples can be collected from the bottom ash and
the carbon content of the ash determined. The unburned carbon
represents chemical energy that was supplied to the boiler, but
was not converted to thermal energy, extracted, rather it was lost.
To convert this to a heat rate deviation some assumption about
how much ash goes to fly ash and how much ash goes to bottom
ash must be made. Typically, for pulverized coal fired unit it is
assumed that 80 % of the ash in the coal goes to fly ash and 20 %
of the ash goes to bottom ash.

3.3.2.2 Combustibles in Fly Ash

As with bottom ash, fly ash can be sampled, and analyzed to


determine the carbon content. Two important considerations in fly
ash sampling are the location and the frequency. As the fly ash
leaves the convection pass, some ash is usually collected on
hoppers between the economizer and the air pre heater. There are
additional hoppers collecting some ash after the air pre heater.
Most of the ash is collected in the precipitators. At any time the
carbon content of the ash at any of these locations can vary
considerably. The preferred method to ensure that the ash
collected is representative of the fly ash leaving the convection pass
is to collect the ash at that location. The drawback to this method
is that this area is extremely hot and it is not easy to collect the
sample here. For this reason, many plants collect their fly ash
samples further downstream. If this is done, ash samples should
be periodically collected from both places (Economizer & ESP) and
the relationship between the two sampling ports determined and
applied to subsequent samples drawn at the downstream location.
The second consideration is the sampling frequency. The method
of choice is continuous sampling. As mills are removed from or
placed in service, burner tilts moved, etc., the carbons content of
the ash can change

3.3.2.3 APH Flue Gas Exit Gas Temperature

The exit gas temperature is one of the two parts of dry gas loss, the
energy that is lost out the stack. The temperature of the flue gas
leaving the air preheater is measured. The temperature at this

3-10
location is stratified; therefore it is important to measure the
temperature at enough locations forming a grid to get a
representative temperature. Quantity of gas and its temperature
at APH outlet is used in calculating this loss.

3.3.2.4 Oxygen at the Boiler Outlet/Air Heater Inlet

The other part of dry gas loss is the quantity of gas that leaves the
boiler. Normally, rather than directly measuring the amount of gas
flow, it is calculated from the O2 concentration of the gas and the
coal analysis. Due to air in-leakage in the convection pass, the
percentage of oxygen in the flue gas varies from point to point in
the duct. There are two methods used to determine the
representative O2 in the duct. First, multiple probes can be used.
(An advantage of this method is that if one probe fails, there are
other probes in the duct supplying the operator with information to
run the unit.) The second method is to periodically traverse the
duct sampling the flue gas at multiple locations, at different loads
or mill combinations. For each test, determine the average O2 in
the duct, and locate the station probe at a location that represents
the duct average under the different load or mill combinations.

3.3.2.5 Fuel Characteristics

As the amount of moisture in the fuel increases, the boiler


efficiency decreases as some of the heat released goes into heating
and vaporizing the moisture. Also, as the hydrogen content of the
fuel increases, the boiler losses increase as the water is formed
from the burning of the hydrogen. At some plants these two losses
are treated as heat rate deviations, i.e., there is an expected level
for each, which is compared to the actual value, and the difference
is converted to a heat rate deviation. At other plants, this is
treated as uncontrollable, as is the condenser circulating water
temperature, and the expected values for moisture and hydrogen
are continually set equal to the actual value and the expected heat
rate changes with the fuel analysis.

3.3.2.6 Main Steam Pressure Before ESV

If the unit is operating at a pressure at the stop valves different


from the expected, there is a heat rate penalty. This is due to the
fact that the higher the pressure the higher the available energy.
For a unit operating under Rated Pressure, the Expected value
will be same as Design pressure of the unit. (Occasionally a unit
may permanently lower its Main steam pressure due to reliability

3-11
issues, and then their expected value would be some value less
than the design value.) For a unit operating under Variable
Pressure, the expected value will vary as a function of the steam
flow to the turbine.

3.3.2.7 Main Steam Temperature Before ESV

As with the Main steam pressure, this is measured just before the
turbine stop valves. If there are multiple lines between the super
heater outlet and the turbine, the temperature should be
measured in each, as there can be differences pipe to pipe.

3.3.2.8 Hot Reheat Steam Temperature Before IV

Because there is usually some small temperature drop between the


hot reheat outlet and the turbine, this temperature should be
measured as close to the IV valves as possible. As stated for Main
steam temperature, it should be measured in each pipe.

3.3.2.9 Reheat Attemperation

Reheat attemperation temperature, is normally determined by


measuring the pressure drop across a flow orifice. This flow rate is
then divided by the feed water or main steam flow and expressed
as a percentage. Reheat attemperation affects the unit heat rate in
two ways. First, the quantity of FW used for RH spray did not pass
through HP turbine. Secondly in some of the units the heat picks
up through HP heater does not take place as the spray is taken
before HPH

3.3.2.10 Superheat Attemperation

Superheat attemperation, is normally determined by measuring


the pressure drop across a flow orifice. This flow rate is then
divided by the feed water or main steam flow and expressed as a
percentage. If the flow is taken downstream of the high-pressure
heaters, the heat rate deviation is negligible. If the flow is taken
from the BFP discharge, then there is a heat rate deviation because
the flow bypasses the high-pressure feed water heaters

3.3.2.11 Start-up Fuel

Normally, the reported heat rate of a unit is calculated using the


entire quantity of fuel that is supplied to the unit during the time
in question (this includes fuel burned when on-line, as well as fuel
burned during startups). In order to account for the heat rate

3-12
deviation due to fuel burned prior to synchronization, the quantity
of fuel burned before the unit is synchronized is measured. If this
deviation and the deviation for Station Service (Prorated) - Idle
are subtracted from the actual heat rate, the result is the
operating heat rate.

3.3.3 Auxiliary and Station Power

The heat rate deviation due to auxiliary power usage is divided into
three areas: unit auxiliary power, station service-operation, and
station service-idle.

3.3.3.1 Unit Auxiliary Power

This is the deviation due to higher than expected unit (auxiliary)


power usage. This source of power only applies during the time
when the unit is on line. This is the power supplied directly to
major auxiliaries for a single unit.

3.3.3.2 Station Service - Operating

This second deviation is due to prorata station service power usage


while the unit is on line. This includes power used by the coal and
ash handling equipment, makeup water plant, office and
maintenance shops, etc.
3.3.3.3 Station Service Idle

The third deviation is due to prorated station service power usage


while the unit is off line. The running auxiliaries for the unit in
idle condition need to be monitored.

3.3.4 Unaccountable Loss

The last category of losses is called unaccountable Loss. As the


name suggests, it is not truly measured, but is the difference
between the actual heat rate based on test and the sum of the
expected heat rate and all accountable heat rate deviations.
There are two types of problems that contribute to this area.
First is true losses that are not able to be measured, such as low
pressure turbine efficiency, cycle isolation, boiler radiation losses,
low pressure feed water heater performance, etc.
The second types of problems are errors. All errors end up in the
unaccountable heat rate deviation group. Examples of such errors
are coal heating value measurements; any instrument errors that
are measuring parameters such as Main steam temperature,
condenser pressure or boiler outlet O2, etc.

3-13
Other types of, errors include calculation procedure errors, i.e. the
calculated heat rate deviation of a 2% point change in HP turbine
efficiency could be different from the true heat rate deviation.

3-14
4. BASELINE FOR COMPARISION WITH THE
ACTUAL PERFORMANCE
To calculate a heat rate deviation for a parameter, its actual
value must be compared to some standard. There are several
options that may be used. They are

4.1 Design

One baseline that the current performance of the unit could be


compared to is the design heat rate. From the point of view of
setting up the tracking system, this is the easiest baseline to
obtain. However, there are several problems with this method:

The actual initial performance of the unit may have never


reached the design, or even if it did, the performance of some
areas may have been better, while others were worse.
The design heat rate is based on some ambient conditions
that vary during the year. Frequently the design heat rate is
calculated at some design condenser pressure (or inlet water
temperature). During some parts of the year, the condenser
pressure should be lower than the design; therefore the heat
rate should be lower than the design.
Over time, as changes are made to the plant, the original
design may not represent the current design performance of
each parameter or the overall heat rate.

4.2 Performance Guarantee Test

A better baseline to use would be the performance guarantee


(acceptance) test results. It represents the performance level that
was achieved when the unit was new, and as such, it is a level that
should be achievable. (It may not be economically feasible to
return all equipment to this level, but it is possible.) There are
three problems with this method

While the results of the acceptance test are achievable, they


may not be the best possible. For example, the vendor is
usually only interested in demonstrating that the guarantee
can be met. Sometimes, the performance can be improved
by minor adjustments to operating set points, to achieve
even better performance.
The operating conditions under which the acceptance tests
were run may not be possible for everyday operation.

4-1
Frequently, acceptance tests are run with the makeup
isolated, no soot blowing, no sluicing, etc.
Over time, as changes are made to the plant, the original
design may not represent the current design performance
of each parameter or the overall heat rate.

4.3 Historical Operating Or Test Data

Sometimes, a unit did not have an acceptance test. For those


units, historical operating/test data, taken from a certain time
period when the unit operation was considered to be good, can be
reviewed to determine what level of performance is possible. A
large amount of data should be collected when the unit is
operating at steady state conditions, and using some engineering
judgment a curve can be drawn through the better points.
There are two primary problems with this method:
The available operating data may not represent the best
achievable performance
The best data for one parameter (which occurred at one
point in time), when combined with the best data for
another parameter (which occurred at a different point in
time), may not be achievable together, or may not result in
the best overall unit performance. For example, for some
load, at some time, the amount of combustible matter in the
fly ash may have been very low. At some other time the
amount of excess air at the same load may have been low.
However these two levels cannot occur at the same time.

4.4 Benchmarking Similar Units

A fourth method that can be used is similar to the previous


method but, instead of looking at the performance of a particular
unit, all similar units in the utility or in the industry are surveyed.
Then operating or test data from the better or best performing
unit(s) is reviewed and used to set expected levels. Potential
problems with this method include the two problems mentioned
above. Also, care must be taken when picking units to use. Just
because the design of a unit is the same as another, other factors
can cause differences in their performance. An obvious example
would be the type of coal being burned and ash characteristics. A
low ash fusion temperature coal will be fired differently, and the
expected exit gas temperatures, total air, etc., for the two should
be different. Another example is the condenser cooling water
source at one location may allow that plant to maintain a certain
cleanliness factor, whereas the water at another location may
cause faster fouling and a lower average cleanliness factor.

4-2
4.5 Current Expected

The last method, and the one that is recommended, is to


compare the actual current performance to an expected value,
based on the current configuration of the unit. PG Test heat rate
is taken as reference. If a permanent modification is made to the
plant (such as adding additional air pre heater baskets, removing
reheat surface, retubing feed water heaters, etc.), then the heat
rate deviation due to the difference between the reference
parameter and the expected parameter is calculated, and added /
subtracted to the reference heat rate, to obtain the expected heat
rate

To calculate heat rate deviations for each parameter, the actual


parameter value is compared to the expected parameter value.
These expected parameter values are maintained as modifications
are made to the unit, so the comparison is always to a realistic and
achievable value.

Note-
1. Where PG test is conducted in one unit the same
value can be taken for other similar units.

2. Where PG test is not conducted the Design value


may be taken as reference.

4-3
5. METHODOLOGY OF HEAT RATE DEVIATION
CALCULATION

5.1 DATA COLLECTION METHODOLOGY

Heat rate deviations are calculated on the basis of parameter having


direct impact on Heat Rate. For arriving at best possible deviation value
duration of data collection and frequency of data collection plays vital
role. Heat rate deviation calculation on daily basis can be based on
24 hrs daily average value
Full load snap shot value

KEEPING IN VIEW THE POSSIBLE ERRORS IN CASE OF SNAP SHOT


READING, IT IS PROPOSED TO HAVE HEAT RATE DEVIATION
CALCULATION BASED 24 HOURS DAY AVERAGE VALUE AND FOR DAILY
HEAT RATE DEVIATION CALCULATION CORRECTION FOR LOAD AND
OTHER BOUNDRY CONDITIONS ARE TO BE APPLIED.

5.2 DEVIATION CALCULATION METHODOLOGY (See Format 5.1 &


Format 5.2)

5.2.1 Load

Daily average load based on 24 hr gross energy meter reading is to be


taken for calculation. This average value of Load is to be compared with
Full load capacity of unit. The difference of Load will be taken for Heat
rate deviation calculation. The heat rate deviation is to be derived from
Load Vs HR deviation curve. Till such time the customized correction
curve is not available the correction curves provided by manufacturer
may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample Calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design Full Load = 210 MW


Expected Load = 210 MW
Actual Load = 168 MW
Variance (Exp. Load - Act. Load) = 42 MW

Turbine HR Deviation = 45 kcal/kWh From Curve


Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %
HR Deviation = (45/(86.8/100))
= 51.84 kcal/kWh

5-1
DAILY HEAT RATE DEVIATION REPORT

STATION:
UNIT NO: DATE:
S. Parameter Unit Parameter Values Heat Rate Deviation
N Design Expe- Actual Varia- Daily Cumml.
cted nce Kcal/kWh Kcal/kWh
1 Load MW
Accountable HR Deviation
2 Main steam Press before ESV kg/cm2
3 Main steam Temp before ESV C
4 Hot Reheat Temp before IV C
5 Superheat Attemperation * t/hr
6 Reheat Attemperation * t/hr
7 Condenser Back Pressure * mm Hg
8 CW inlet temperature C
9 Makeup Water % MCR
10 FW temperature at HPH O/L * C
11 Dry Flue Gas loss (DFG)* %
Effect of Coal quality on DFG %
1) Oxygen at Eco Outlet %
2) APH Exit temperature C
(Corrected)
3) APH Leakage %
12 Wet Flue Gas loss* %
1) Moisture in coal %
13 Combustibles in Fly ash %
14 Combustibles in Bottom ash %
15 Startup-Oil Consumption KL
16 HP Turbine Efficiency %
17 IP Turbine Efficiency %
18 Total (A) (Total Kcal/
Accountable HR Deviation) kWh
19 Unaccountable HR Dev ( B ) Kcal/
(Based on monthly Test) kWh
20 TOTAL HR Deviation (A+B) Kcal/
kWh
21 PG Test HEAT RATE at full Kcal/
load (C) kWh
22 DERIVED UNIT HEATRATE Kcal/
(A+B+C)= D kWh
23 REPORTED HEAT RATE = E Kcal/
(On The Basis Of Coal) kWh
24 DIFF OF (E-D) Kcal/
kWh
Note: -1. * - Value in Expected Column is based on Actual Load condition
2. Actual parameters used are 24 hours average value taken from DAS
3. Coal Analysis Used is based on the latest Proximate Analysis
4. For arriving at Unit Heat rate Deviation, Monthly tested Boiler Efficiency & GTCHR is taken
as reference.
Format-5.1

5-2
MONTHLY EFFICIENCY REPORT
PARAMETERS IMPACT ON HEAT RATE DEVIATION

STATION:
UNIT NO: MONTH : DATE:
Sr. Parameter Unit Average Kcal/ Remark
No Value kWh
Reasons For Deviations Action Plan
1 Load MW
Accountable HR Deviation
2 Main steam Press before ESV kg/cm2

3 Main steam Temp before ESV C

4 Hot Reheat Temp before IV C

5 Superheat Attemperation t/hr

6 Reheat Attemperation t/hr

7 Condenser Back Pressure mm Hg

8 CW inlet temperature C

9 Makeup Water %MCR

10 FW temperature at HPH O/L C

11 Dry Flue Gas loss (DFG) %

Effect of Coal quality on DFG %

5-3
Sr. Parameter Unit Average Kcal/ Remark
No Value kWh
Reason with date Action Plan
12 Wet Flue Gas loss %

13 Combustibles in Fly ash %

14 Combustibles in Bottom ash %

15 Startup-Oil Consumption KL

16 HP Turbine Efficiency %

17 IP Turbine Efficiency %

18 Total (A) (Total Kcal/


Accountable HR Deviation) kWh
19 Unaccountable HR Kcal/
Deviation ( B ) kWh
(Based on monthly Test)
20 TOTAL HR Deviation (A+B) Kcal/
kWh
21 PG Test HEAT RATE at full Kcal/
load (C) kWh
22 DERIVED UNIT HEATRATE Kcal/
(A+B+C)= D kWh

Format-5.2

5-4
5.2.2 Main Steam Pressure

MS Pressure before ESV Day average of 24 hr is to be taken for


calculation. This average value of actual pressure will be compared with
expected pressure (Expected pressure = Design pressure) required. The
difference of Pressure will be taken for Heat rate deviation calculation
based on customized correction curves developed by station. Till such
time the customized correction curve is not available the correction
curves provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample Calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)


2
Design Pressure = 151 kg/cm (abs)
Expected Pressure = 151 kg/cm2 (abs)
2
Actual Pressure = 149 kg/cm (abs)
2
Variance (Exp. Press- Act. Press) = 2 kg/cm (abs)

Turbine HR Correction Factor = 0.999 from Curve


Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation =(2000/ (86.8/100))*(1-0.999)


= 2.3 kcal/kWh

5.2.3 Main Steam Temperature

Main steam temperature before ESV- Day average of 24 hrs of all the
available temperature points located before ESV is to be taken for
calculation. This average value of temperature is to be compared with
expected temperature. (Expected temperature = Design Temperature).
The difference will be taken for Heat rate deviation calculation based on
customized correction curves developed by station. Till such time the
customized correction curve is not available the correction curve
provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design M.S Temperature = 537 0C


Expected M.S Temperature = 537 0C
Actual M.S Temperature = 529.5 0C

5-5
0
Variance (Exp. - Act. M.S Temp.) = -7.52 C

Turbine HR Correction Factor = 0.998 From Curve


Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation =(2000/(86.8/100))*(1-0.998)
= 4.6 kcal/kWh

5.2.4 Hot Reheat Temperature

Hot Reheat Temperature before IV- Day average of 24 hrs of all the
available temperature points located before IV is to be taken for
calculation. This average value of temperature is to be compared with
expected temperature. (Expected temperature = Design Temperature).
The difference of temperature will be taken for Heat rate deviation
calculation based on customized correction curves developed by station.
Till such time the customized correction curve is not available the
correction curves provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design HRH Temperature = 538 0C


0
Expected HRH Temperature = 538 C
Actual Temperature = 530 0C
0
Variance (Exp. - Act. HRH Temp.) = -8.0 C
Turbine HR Correction Factor = 0.998 From Curve
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation = (2000/(86.8/100))*(1-0.998)
= 4.6 kcal/kWh

5.2.5 Superheat Attemperation

S/H attemperation to the boiler Day average of 24 hrs is to be taken for


calculation. This average value of S/H attemperation to be compared
with expected S/H attemperation. (Expected S/H attemperation = Value
corresponding to actual load is to be derived using Load vs superheat
attemperation curve). Load vs superheat attemperation curve, if not
available, may be developed from design data of Boiler. The difference of
average value of day and expected value of S/H attemperation is to be

5-6
taken for Heat rate deviation calculation based on customized correction
curves developed by station.
Till such time the customized correction curve is not available the
correction curves provided by manufacturer may be used. Corrections for
S/H spray is to be applied in case tapping of S/H Spray is taken form the
location before HPH heater.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design S/H Attemperation = 0 t/hr


Expected S/H Attemperation = 16 t/hr
Actual S/H Attemperation = 46 t/hr
Variance (Exp. Act. S/H Attemp) = -30 t/hr
= -5% of Main Steam Flow

Turbine HR Correction Factor = 0.999 From Curve


Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation = (2000/(86.8/100))*(1-0.999)
= 2.34 kcal/kWh

5.2.6 Reheat Attemperation

R/H attemperation to the boiler day average of 24 hrs is to be taken for


calculation. This average value of R/H attemperation to be compared
with expected R/H attemperation (Expected R/H attemperation = Value
corresponding to actual load is to be derived using Load vs reheat
attemperation curve). Load vs reheat attemperation curve, if not
available, may be developed from design data of Boiler. The difference of
average value of day and expected value of R/H attemperation is to be
taken for Heat rate deviation calculation based on customized correction
curves developed by station.
Till such time the customized correction curve is not available the
correction curves provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design R/H Attemperation = 0 t/hr


Expected R/H Attemperation = 6 t/hr

5-7
Actual R/H Attemperation = 18 t/hr
Variance (Exp. Act. R/H Attemp) = -12 t/hr
= -2% of Main Steam Flow
Turbine HR Correction Factor = 0.9968 From Curve
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation =(2000/(86.8/100))*(1-0.9968)
= 7.37 kcal/kWh

5.2.7 Condenser Back Pressure

Condenser backpressure based on 24 hrs averages is to be taken for


calculation. This average value of Condenser backpressure is to be
compared with expected condenser backpressure (Expected condenser
back pressure = Design condenser back pressure corrected for Load, CW
inlet temperature and flow). The difference of Average value of Day and
Expected value of condenser backpressure is to be taken for Heat rate
deviation calculation based on customized correction curves developed
by station. Till such time the customized correction curve is not available
the correction curves provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)


Design Condenser Back Pressure = 76 mm Hg
Expected Condenser Back Pressure = 51 mm Hg
Actual Condenser Back Pressure = 58 mm Hg
Variance (Exp. Act. Cond. B.P.) = -7 mm Hg

Turbine HR Correction Factor = 0.995 From Curve


Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation =(2000/(86.8/100))*(1-0.995)
= 11.52kcal/kWh

5.2.8 CW inlet temperature

CW inlet temperature based on 24 hrs average is to be taken for


calculation. This average value of CW inlet temperature is to be
compared with expected CW inlet temperature. (Expected CW inlet
temp= Design CW inlet temperature). Condenser backpressure deviation
is to be calculated due to difference of average value of day and expected

5-8
value of CW inlet temperature. Heat rate deviation is to be calculated
based on customized correction curves prepared by station for CW inlet
temperature vs Condenser backpressure. Till such times the customized
curve are available the correction curves provided by manufacturer may
be used.
Till such time the customized correction curve is not available the
correction curves provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)


0
Design CW Inlet Temperature = 30 C
0
Expected CW Inlet Temperature = 30 C
0
Actual CW Inlet Temperature = 25 C
Variance (Exp. Act. CW Inlet Temp.)
0
= 5 C
Change In Back Pressure. = 16.5 mm Hg
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation =(2000/(86.8/100))*(1-0.99)
= -23 kcal/kWh
5.2.9 DM Makeup Water

Total DM Make up to the boiler in a unit is to be taken for calculation of


% DM makeup. This is to be taken from individual flow meter installed in
the unit for make up reading. This average value of DM make up to be
compared with 0 % DM makeup as PG test is carried out with make up
in isolated condition. For comparing Heat rate loss due to DM make up,
it can be divided into 50:50 ratio as 50 % steam side leakage and 50 %
water leakage of total % of DM makeup. DM make up after boiler light up
is to be considered for calculation in case the unit has come after
shutdown or tripping.

Heat Value of make up, H (Dev) = 0.5*(H1 - H2) + 0.5* (H3 - H2)
HR (Dev) = [MU(Act) *H(Dev)*1000] / (GG)

Where
Daily DM Makeup = MU[Act] tones
MS enthalpy = H1 kcal/kg
Makeup water enthalpy = H2 kcal/kg
Feed water enthalpy = H3 kcal/kg
Gross generation = GG kWh
Heat Rate Deviation = HR (Dev) kcal/kWh

5-9
Sample Calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design DM Make Up = 0 %
Expected DM Make Up = 0 %
Actual DM Make Up-MU (Act) = 100 tones
Variance (Exp. Act. DM Makeup) = -100 tones

MS enthalpy H1 = 850 kcal/kg


Makeup water enthalpy H2 = 40 kcal/kg
Feed water enthalpy H3 = 250 kcal/kg
Gross generation GG = 4.032x1000000 kWh

H (Dev) = 0.5*(850-40)+0.5*(250-40)

HR Deviation = (100*510*1000)/4.032/1000000
= 12.65 kcal/kWh

5.2.10 Feed Water Temperature

Feed water temperature at top HPH outlet after joining of HPH bypass
line, based on daily 24 hrs averages is to be taken for calculation. This
average value of Feed water temperature is to be compared with the
expected value of Feed water temperature (Expected FW temperature =
Feed water temperature corrected for load, derived from curve between
feed water temperature vs load). The difference of Average value of Day
and Expected value of Feed water temperature is to be taken for Heat
rate deviation calculation based on customized correction curves
developed by station.
Till such time the customized correction curve is not available the
correction curves provided by manufacturer may be used.

Note- Customized correction curves are to be developed with the help of math
modeling software.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)


Design FW Temperature = 248 0C
Expected FW Temperature = 236 0C
Actual FW Temperature = 234 0C
0
Variance (Exp. Act. FW Temp) = 2 C

Turbine HR Corr. Factor at 236 0C = 0.996 From Curve


Turbine HR Corr. Factor at 234 0C = 0.995 From Curve
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

5-10
HR Deviation = (2000/(86.8/100))*(0.996-.995)
= 2.30kcal/kWh

5.2.11 Dry Flue Gas Loss

Calculation of Dry flue gas loss for calculating HR deviations shall be


based on following parameters

5.2.11.1 AH Exit Temperature


Daily last 24 hrs Average Value shall be used for computations
Its important to ensure that the online measurements of air and flue gas
temperatures are representative of average temperatures in the duct. The
on line feedback of flue gas exit temperature after air heaters can be
affected by gas stratification and may require more number of
thermocouples than presently installed.

In some layouts, the online thermocouples for flue gas temperature


measurement are mounted too close to air heaters in a cluster and need
to be relocated for representative measurement. Similarly the location
and number of temperature sensors on airside at air heater inlet and
outlet should be reviewed to obtain a representative average. In some
plants, on line thermocouples for secondary air outlet temperatures at
air heater outlet are mounted too close to the air heater and need to be
relocated downstream the ducts at an appropriate location for
representative feedback.

In 500 MW units, the flue gas sampling and temperature measurement


should be done in the common flue gas duct of Primary and Secondary
air heater outlet on each side. At present the flue gas temperature is
monitored only at outlet of each air heater and an average value based
on assumed proportions of flue gas flow through primary and secondary
air heaters, is used for efficiency computation. A grid of thermocouples
should be installed in each common outlet duct for representative on line
feedback of average flue gas temperatures.

5.2.11.2 O2 at Eco outlet


Daily last 24 hrs Average Value shall be used for computations
Its important to ensure that the online measurement of flue gas oxygen
of zirconia on both sides is representative of average value in the duct.
The same can be confirmed by doing a multi point grid survey. To
improve the accuracy of the feedback, two no. zirconia should be
provided in each duct for flue gas oxygen measurement.

5-11
5.2.11.3 Average Air Inlet Temperature to AH
Daily last 24 hrs Average Value shall be used for computations.
The reference value shall be computed based on proportions of actual
primary air and secondary air flows through the air heaters.
5.2.11.4 Proximate analysis of coal
Last tested proximate analysis shall be used.
5.2.11.5 Air Heater Leakage
Average air heater leakage value from the last test shall be used.
For 500 MW units a weighted average value of air heater leakage shall be
used in proportion to the air flows through the air heaters.
5.2.11.6 Unburnt carbon
Unburnt carbon in fly ash and bottom ash value from the last test shall
be used.
Calculations

For arriving at expected value of Dry flue gas loss station is to draw curve
of dry flue gas loss Vs load based on predicted boiler performance given
by manufacturer.

Step-1 - Conversion from Proximate Analysis to Ultimate Analysis

Reporting of Proximate Analysis of as fired coal should be on Total


Moisture basis

- TOTAL MOISTURE = M %
- ASH = A %
- VOLATILE MATTER = VM %
- FIXED CARBON = FC %
-------------------
TOTAL - 100 %

FcDc(T) =Free Carbon On Dry Ash Free Basis


= FC/[1-(1.1* A/100)(M/100)]

VmDf(T) = Volatile Matter On Dry Ash Free Basis


= [100 - FcDc(T)]

Cdf(T) =Fixed Carbon On Dry Ash Free Basis


=[FcDc(T)+ 0.9*[VmDf(T) 14 ]

Hdf(T) = Hydrogen On Dry Ash Free Basis


= VmDf(T)* [(7.35/VmDf(T) + 10)-0.013)

5-12
Ndf(T) = Nitrogen On Dry Ash Free Basis
= [ 2.1 - ( 0.012 * VmDf(T)]

Ca % = Carbon Percentage (Ultimate Value)


= Cdf(T) * [ VM+ FC(T)] /[ VmDf(T) + FcDc(T) ]

H % = Hydrogen Percentage (Ultimate Value)


= Hdf(T) * [VM(T)+ FC] / [VmDf(T) + FcDc(T) ]

N % = Nitrogen Percentage (Ultimate Value)


= Ndf(T) * [VM(T)+ C(T)] / [ VmDf(T) + FcDc(T) ]

S % = Sulphur Percentage (Ultimate Value)


= Assumed As Per Site Reference Value.

0% =Oxygen % (Ultimate Value)= 100 M - A Ca H N S

Step-2 - Reference Primary air Temperature:

Weighted Temp Air In = Tsai*Rsa + Tpai*Rpa

Where
Rsa - Ratio SA flow to Total Air flow = Fsa/Fta
Rpa - Ratio PA flow to Total Air flow = Fpa/Fta

Tpai = Primary air to AH inlet Temp


Tsai = Secondary air to AH in Temp

Step-3 - Calculation of CO2 at AH Outlet

Wet Oout = ((21* L) + 90*Oin)/(L + 90)

Dry Oout = Wet Oout / (1- %Flue Gas Moisture/100)

Where
Oin = % oxygen at AH Inlet from Zirconia
Wet Oout = % oxygen at AH Outlet on wet basis
L = % Average Air Heater Leakage
Dry Oout = % oxygen at AH Outlet on dry basis

5-13
CO2 % at AH Outlet

CO2 = X Dry Oout where X - % O2 + CO2 in Flue Gas (Orsat) for


station coal

Step-4 - Calculation of Weight of Dry Flue gas loss

Unburnt C in ash (Cash) = Pfa/100*Cfa + Pba/100*Cba

Where
Pfa/Pba - % of ash in fly ash and bottom ash respectively
Cfa/Cba - % Unburnt in fly ash and bottom ash respectively

C in ash / kg of coal (U) = A/100*Cash/(100-Cash) kg


Where
A = ash %

Weight of Dry Flue gas


Weight of dry gas = (Ca+S/2.67-100*U)/(12*CO2out) kg/kg coal

Where
Ca = % Carbon in fuel
S = % Sulfur in fuel
U = Carbon in ash / kg of fuel
CO2 = % Carbon dioxide at AH outlet

Sensible Heat dry gas

(Sh) = Wd*30.6(Tgo-Trai) kJ/kg

Where
Cp = Specific heat of gas kg/kg/C
Tgo = Avg. Flue Gas Temp at AH Out

Dry Gas Loss = Sh*100/(Gcv*4.186) %


Where
Sh = Sensible Heat of dry gas
Gcv = Gross calorific Value of coal

Sample calculation

1. Proximate Analysis Of Coal

Moisture = 12.2 %
Ash = 40 %
Volatile Matter = 22.9 %

5-14
Fixed Carbon = 24.9 %
Gross Calorific Value = 3320 %

2. Ultimate Analysis by preceding formulae


Carbon - 39.71 %; Sulphur 0.6 %; Hydrogen 2.58 %; Moisture 12.2
%; Nitrogen 0.76 %; Oxygen - 4.14 %; Ash - 40 %; GCV 3320
kcal/kg

Design Ultimate Analysis - Carbon - 37 %; Sulphur 0.3 %; Hydrogen


2.3 %; Moisture 12 %; Nitrogen 0.8 %; Oxygen 7.6 %; Ash - 40 %;
GCV 3300kcal/kg

3. Reference Air Temperature & Gas Temperature

Primary air to AH inlet Tpai = 40 0C


Secondary air to AH inlet Tsai = 34 0C
Weighted Temp Air In Tsai*Rsa + Tpai*Rpa = 36.1 C
0
Avg. F.G Temp At AH Outlet Tgo = 35 C
4. Calculation of CO2 at AH Outlet

Leakage = 10 %
AH Inlet Oin (Wet) = 2.7 %
Moisture in Flue Gas = 10 %

Wet Oout = ((21* L) + 90*Oin)/(L + 90) = 4.5 %

Dry Oout = Wet Oout / (1- %Flue Gas Moisture/100) = 5.0%

CO2 % at AH outlet = 19.3 5 = 14.3 %

5. Carbon in ash

% of Fly Ash Pfa = 80 %


% of Bottom ash Pba = 20 %
% Unburnt in fly ash Cfa = 0.4 %(Last tested value)
% Unburnt in Bottom ash Cba = 1.2 %(Last tested value)
% of Ash in Coal A = 40 %

Unburnt C in ash Cash = Pfa/100*Cfa + Pba/100*Cba


= 80/100*0.4+20/100*1.2
= 0.56 %

C in ash / kg of coal (U) = A/100*Cash/(100-Cash)


= 0.002251 kg/kg of coal

5-15
6. Weight of dry gas (Wd) = (Ca+S/2.67-100*U)/
(12*CO2out)
= 0.2314 kg/kg of coal

7. Sensible Heat Dry Gas (Sh) = Wd*30.6*(Tgo-Trai)


= 700.09 KJ/kg

8. Dry Gas Loss = Sh*100/(Gcv*4.186) %


= 5.038 %
Design Dry Gas Loss = 4.26 %
Expected Dry Gas Loss = 4.26 %
Actual Dry Gas Loss = 5.04 %
Variance (Exp. Act. Dry Gas Loss) = 0.78 %

Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh


Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

Total HR Deviation = (2000/((86.8-0.78)/100))-2000/(86.8/100))


= 20.9 kcal/kWh

5.2.12 Impact of Coal on Dry Gas Loss

Dry Gas Losses Corrected for Ambient air And Design Coal

= 4.71 %

Impact of Coal on Dry Gas Loss = 5.04 - 4.71 = 0.33 %

HR Deviation = (2000/(86.8-0.33)/100)-
(2000/(86.8/100))
= 8.8 kcal/kWh
5.2.13 Wet Flue Gas Loss

Calculation of Wet flue gas loss for calculating HR deviations shall be


based on following parameters

AH Exit Temperature - Daily 24 hrs Average Value


Air Inlet Temperature to AH- Daily 24 hrs Average Value
Proximate analysis of coal from the last test

For arriving at expected value of Wet flue gas loss station is to draw
curve of dry flue gas loss Vs load based on predicted boiler performance
given by manufacturer.

Sensible heat of water vapour (Sw) =1.88*(Tgo-25)+2442+4.2*(25-Trai)


KJ/kg

5-16
=2602 KJ/kg

Loss due to moisture in fuel = Sw*M/(Gcv*4.186)


= 2.284 %

Loss due to Hydrogen in Fuel = 9*H*Sw/ (Gcv*4.186) = 4.35 %

Wet Flue Gas Loss = 2.28 + 4.35 = 6.64 %

Design Wet Flue Gas loss = 4.82 %


Expected Wet flue gas Loss = 4.82 %
Actual Wet Flue gas Loss = 6.64 %
Variance (Exp. Act. Wet flue gas loss) = 1.82 %

Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh


Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation = (2000/(86.8-1.82/100)
(2000/(86.8/100))
= 49.3 kcal/kWh

5.2.14 Combustibles In Fly Ash

Last tested value of Combustible in fly ash is to be taken for calculation.


The last tested value of Combustible in fly ash to be compared with PG
Test / Best achieved value of Combustible in fly ash which ever is lower.
The difference is to be taken for Heat rate deviation calculations.

Change in Blr Efficiency with Unburnt

=0.8* (UBE-UBA) * ASH * 80.77/GCV

UBE - Expected level of unburned carbon expressed as percent by weight of


carbon in ash
UBA - Measured value of unburned carbon (%)
ASH - Ash content of coal from proximate analysis (%)
GCV - Gross Calorific value of the as-fired fuel (kcal/kg)

Sample Calculation
Ash % = 40 %
GCV = 3320 Kcal/kg
Expected Unburnt in Fly Ash = .5 %
Actual Unburnt in Fly Ash = 0.4 %
Variance (Expected - Actual Unburnt in Fly Ash) = -0.1 %

5-17
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %
Change in Boiler Efficiency with change in Flyash Unburnt = -0.062 %

HR Deviation = (2000/((86.8-0.062)/100))-(2000/(86.8/100))
= - 1.65 kcal/kWh

5.2.15 Combustibles In Bottom Ash

Last tested value of Combustible in bottom ash is to be taken for


calculation. The last tested value of Combustible in bottom ash to be
compared with PG Test / Best achieved value of Combustible in bottom
ash which ever is lower. The difference is to be taken for Heat rate
deviation calculation.

Change in Boiler Efficiency with change in Bottom ash Unburnt


= 0.2*(UBE-UBA)*ASH*80.77/GCV

UBE - Expected level of unburned carbon expressed as percent by weight of


carbon in ash
UBA - Measured value of unburned carbon (%)
ASH - Ash content of coal from proximate analysis (%)
GCV - Gross Calorific value of the as-fired fuel (kcal/kg)

Sample Calculation
Expected Unburnt in Bottom Ash = 2%
Actual Unburnt in Bottom Ash = 2.5 %
Variance (Expected Actual Unburnt in Bottom ash)
= 0.50 %

Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh


Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %
Change in Blr Efficiency with Unburnt (%) = -0.077 %

HR Deviation = (2000/((86.8-0.077)/100))-(2000/(86.8/100))
= 2.07 kcal/kWh

5.2.16 Startup - Oil Consumption

Total oil consumption during startups (Light up to synchronization) is to


be considered for loading in to heat rate deviation.

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Total Oil Consumption = 10 KL

5-18
Day Generation = 4.0 Mus

HR Deviation = 10*10/4
= 25 kcl/kWh

5.2.17 HP Turbine Efficiency

Last tested value of HP Turbine Efficiency in Valve Wide Open (VWO)


condition is to be taken for calculation. Comparison to be done with HPT
efficiency calculated from PG Test parameters at VWO condition. In case
PG test VWO is not available design value corresponding to VWO heat
balance diagram can be taken. The difference between last tested and PG
Test value/Design value of HP Turbine Efficiency is to be taken for Heat
rate deviation calculation.
HR Deviation due to Change in 1% HP Turbine Efficiency = 0.2 % of Unit
heat rate

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design HP Turbine Efficiency = 87.5 %


Expected HP Turbine Efficiency = 87.5 %
Actual HP Cylinder Efficiency = 86.5 %
Variance (Exp. Act. HPT Efficiency)
= 1.00 %
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation = 0.2/100*(2000/(86.8/100))
= 4.6 kcal/kWh

5.2.18 IP Turbine Efficiency

Last tested value of IP Turbine Efficiency is to be taken for calculation.


Comparison to be done with IPT efficiency calculated from PG Test
parameters. In case PG test data is not available design value can be
taken. The difference between last tested and PG Test value/Design value
of IP Turbine Efficiency is to be taken for Heat rate deviation calculation.
HR Deviation due to Change in 1% IP Turbine Efficiency = 0.2 % of Unit
Heat rate

Sample calculation (Column wise w.r.t Daily HR Deviation Report)

Design IP Turbine Efficiency = 91.0 %


Expected IP Turbine Efficiency = 91.0 %
Actual IP Turbine Efficiency = 90.0 %
Variance (Exp. Act. IPT Efficiency) = 1.00 %

5-19
Monthly Tested Turbine HR = 2000 Kcal/kWh
Monthly Tested Boiler = 86.8 %

HR Deviation = 0.2/100*(2000/(86.8/100))
= 4.6 kcal/kWh

5.3 MONTHLY HEAT RATE DEVIATION:

Monthly Heat rate deviation based on selected parameters will be the


weighted average of daily Heat rate deviations.

Monthly Heat rate = (Sum of product of daily Heat rate & daily
Generation) / (Total generation of the month)

5-20
6. PERIODIC TESTING WITH ON LINE
INSTRUMENT
6.1 Introduction

There are several methods available to assess the condition of


equipment (to determine if corrective actions are necessary) in a
power plant. One method is to periodically open and inspect
equipment on some schedule. There are several disadvantages to
this. First, many times the equipment is inspected, at some
expense, when it is not required (and unfortunately sometimes
equipment is damaged as a result of the inspection). Second, if a
problem occurs just after an inspection, it may not be detected for
a long time, during which time, additional damage is done, and the
equipment does not operate efficiently.

A second method is to use station instruments to provide data for


calculation of equipment condition. While this method is useful for
trending the performance pattern and calculating deviations on the
basis of this. But there is one significant drawback i.e. the
accuracy of station instruments, which, in most cases, is not high
enough to provide reliable information. So, it is difficult to take
crucial decisions, which will have large costs and outage time.

But once trend of deterioration is visible from online instrument,


then extent of deterioration can be known through performance
testing with off line high accuracy instrumentation.
Tests with on line instruments are done to compare the current
performance with expected performance and to assess performance
degradation. Performance guarantee tests can be used as the
baseline, or the initial periodic test, conducted after an overhaul
can be used to know degradation after the annual overhaul.

In summary, the periodic performance tests are conducted to:

Compare the current performance with expected


performance
Evaluate the effectiveness of maintenance work
Determine the most efficient operating regime for equipment
Account for heat rate losses

6-1
6.2 Types of Tests

6.2.1 HP / IP Turbine Enthalpy Drop Efficiency Test

6.2.1.1 Purpose

The purpose of HP/IP Turbine Enthalpy Drop Test is to determine


the efficiency of HP and IP sections of the turbine, trend their
performance and generate data to pinpoint the probable cause of
degradation. The trends can then be used for determination of the
optimum point at which the costs incurred due to performance
degradation exceed the cost to be incurred for restoration of
equipment.

6.2.1.2 Frequency

Time based, typically 6 monthly, but the other triggers can take
precedence:

Before and after turbine overhauls


Change in pressure ratio of first stage to HP exhaust or HRH
at Intercept Valve to IP Exhaust
Increase in Steam flow, at constant valve position
Abnormal first stage pressure
High extraction temperatures

6.2.2 Condenser Performance Test

6.2.2.1 Purpose

Condenser tests are done to assess the thermal and hydraulic


performance of the condenser in terms of tube fouling, air-in-
leakage and to optimize condenser-cleaning schedules. It is also
used to trend the performance parameters and generate data to
pinpoint the probable cause of degradation. The trends can then
be used for deciding the future course of action like tube cleaning
schedules, attending air-in-leakage, and adequacy of CW flow.

6.2.2.2 Frequency

Time based, typically every month, but other triggers can take
precedence:
High condenser back pressure
Pre and post tube cleaning
High water box dP

6-2
Excessive CW temperature rise

6.2.3 Feed water Heater Performance Test

6.2.3.1 Purpose

The purpose of Feed water heater tests is to assess the current


performance and to provide data to assist in optimization of normal
operation of the heater. Calculating and monitoring Terminal
Temperature difference (TTD), Drain Cooler Approach (DCA), the
pressure drop on the feed waterside and the temperature rise
across the heater, can analyze heater performance. These
parameters are trended over time for identification of abnormal
changes in heater performance and to determine whether
corrective action is required to maintain optimum performance.

6.2.3.2 Frequency

Time based, typically every month, but the other triggers can take
precedence:

High TTD
High DCA
High drain temperature
Low FW temperature
Excessive tube bundle pressure drop

6.2.4 Pump Performance Test

6.2.4.1 Purpose

BFP Performance tests are run to compare the current


performance of the BFP to its expected performance and also to
compare its performance against similar pumps. The parameters to
be determined include the total head developed by the pump, the
balancing drum leak off flow and the efficiency of the train (i.e.
motor, hydraulic coupling and the pump) over the normal
operating range. This information can be used to determine if any
corrective maintenance is required immediately or will be required
in the future.

6.2.4.2 Frequency

Time based, typically every 12 months, but the other triggers can
take precedence:

6-3
Before and after pump or hydraulic coupling overhauls
High Balancing Drum Leak Off (BDLO) pressure.
Abnormal difference in the motor current on two pumps at
the same flow.
Abnormal difference in the flow of two pumps at the same
motor current.
Change in the flow/motor current ratio
High power usage recorded during a Unit Auxiliary Power
Consumption Test

6.2.5 Turbine Pressure Survey Test

6.2.5.1 Purpose

Turbine pressure survey is a graphical method of obtaining the


indication of turbine internal condition.

6.2.5.2 Frequency

Time based, typically every 6 months, but the other triggers can
take precedence:

Before and after Overhauling


Change in Turbine pressure trend.

6.2.6 Gross Turbine Cycle Heat Rate Test

6.2.6.1 Purpose

The purpose of the Turbine Cycle Heat Rate test is to determine


overall turbine cycle performance (both heat rate and
capability). It is used as guidance in scheduling maintenance
outages on the basis of performance trends.

6.2.6.2 Frequency

Time based, typically every month, but the other triggers can take
precedence:
Before and after turbine overhauls
Increase or decrease in steam flow at constant turbine
control valve position
Abnormal first stage pressure
High extraction temperatures
High Condenser heat load
Increase in unaccountable heat rate deviation

6-4
6.2.7 Primary Air Flow Calibration

6.2.7.1 Purpose

Calibration of primary airflow through the pulverizers is the


first step in balancing fuel and air to the burners. It is
important to ensure that each primary air flow instrument is
indicating the actual primary air flow through the mill before
proceeding with other pulverizer tests by calibrating the station
flow indication against the flow measured in a grid using a
standard pitot or a calibrated S type pitot.
The data collected in this test may also be used to draw clean
air curves.

6.2.7.2 Frequency

As per requirement when there is:

Evidence of coal setting in horizontal pipe runs


Poor coal fineness
Excessive mill spillage of coal
High pressure drop across pulverizer

6.2.8 Mill Dirty Air Flow Test

6.2.8.1 Purpose

The dirty air/coal flow test is done to:


Detect imbalance, if any, in the air and coal flows between the
discharge pipes of a Pulverizer.
Collect a representative, iso-kinetic, sample of pulverized coal from
different pipes for determination of fineness fractions
Crosscheck the readings of the station instrumentation e.g.
primary airflow through the mill, mill outlet temperature, coal flow
through the feeder etc.

6.2.8.2 Frequency

Time based, typically before every pulverizer maintenance and


before the unit outage, but the other triggers can take precedence:

Slag formation around certain burners of the same


pulverizer.
CO imbalance at the furnace exit
Temperature imbalance at the furnace exit

6-5
Large O2 spread at AH inlet to maintain equal steam
temperatures.
High content of combustibles in fly ash
Poor flame appearance

6.2.9 Flue Gas path O2 Mapping Test

6.2.9.1 Purpose

This test is useful for calculating Air ingress in the various section
of the boiler
Detect pressure drop at the various section of FG duct
Detect reason for gas loading ESP
Detect Leakages in APH

6.2.9.2 Frequency

Time based, typically after every year before and after the unit
overhaul, but the other triggers can take precedence:

High Fan Current


Detoriation in ESP Performance

6.2.10 Air Pre Heater Performance Test

6.2.10.1 Purpose

Monitoring of air pre heater performance involves measurement of


several critical parameters:
To determine air pre heater leakage rate (the amount of air that
leaks to the gas side), which affects station service (fan power) and
affects the indicated exit gas temperature used in heat rate
deviation calculations
To determine air heater x-ratio (which is an indication of boiler air
infiltration, and a driver of APH efficiency)
To determine air heater gas side efficiency (how well the APH is
transferring heat from the gas side to the air side)
To validate the station instrument readings like oxygen.

6.2.10.2 Frequency

Time base once in a month, but the other triggers can take
precedence
Prior to unit outages to determine whether corrective action
is required to maintain optimum air heater performance

6-6
AH tests are done following outages to assess improvement
in air heater performance on account of work done on the air
heater.

6.2.11 Boiler efficiency Test

6.2.11.1 Purpose

To determine the looses in the boiler during operation. To provide


inputs to the maintenance engineer for scheduling maintenance
activities and evaluating them after completion.

6.2.11.2 Frequency

Time base once in a month, but the other triggers can take
precedence

Prior to or following major outages or whenever major


maintenance work or modifications are carried out in the
boiler to ensure that performance levels have been
established during outage or to develop a work out a new
expected level of performance.

6.2.12 Cooling Tower Test

6.2.12.1 Purpose

To determine the Capability of cooling tower by periodic


measurement of CW Flow, Range, Approach, fan power etc.

6.2.12.2 Frequency

Time base twice in a year and one of them in the period between
July to September, but the other triggers can take precedence
High condenser pressure
Increase in CW temperature

6-7
6.3 TESTING FREQUENCY

S. TEST ON LINE OFF LINE Remarks


N TEST TEST
FREQUENCY FREQUENCY
1 HP/IP cylinder Efficiency 6 monthly Once in a Year Additional
Test As per
requirement
2 Condenser Test Monthly Once in a Year Additional
Test As per
requirement
3 Feed Water Heater Monthly Once in a Year Additional
Performance Test Test As per
requirement
4 BFP Performance Test --- ---- Test As per
MDBFP & TDBFP requirement
5 Turbine Pressure Survey 6 monthly Pre & Post Additional
along with Capital O/H Test As per
HP/IP cylinder requirement
efficiency
6 Turbine Cycle Heat rate Monthly Additional
Test Test As per
requirement
7 Primary Air Flow --- --- Test As per
Calibration requirement
8 Dirty Air Flow Test --- Pre & Post Additional
O/H Test As per
requirement
9 APH Performance Test Quarterly Post Mill O/H Additional
& After Half Test As per
running hrs of requirement
Mills
10 FG Path Oxygen --- Pre & Post Additional
Mapping O/H and Six Test As per
Monthly requirement
11 Boiler Efficiency Test Monthly Pre & Post Additional
O/H Test As per
requirement
12 Cooling tower Test Once in a Year for NDCT / IDCT Additional
Test As per
requirement

6-8
7. INSTRUMENTATION
In order to operate power plants efficiently, the operators must
have reliable and accurate information on the unit. Small errors in
sensors can result in large unaccountable heat rate deviations.
For example, if the unit is expected to operate at 538C steam
temperature at the turbine stop valves, but the instrumentation is
indicating 3C higher than the actual temperature, the unit will
operate with the steam temperature 3C low, resulting in a heat
rate deviation of around 2.5 kcal/kWh. Same is applicable to the
reliability of the test results if accuracy of the instrument that is
used to collect the raw data is not up to the mark. In fact the
standard codes emphasize this to the point that pre and post test
calibrations are required for many instruments. Another
important part of an instrument calibration program is the quality
of the calibration facility and the personnel who work there. This
must also be considered in the calibration procedure.

7.1 Pressure Transmitters

Calibration of pressure transmitters involved in on line


performance test is very critical. The priority of calibration should
be decided based on the drift observed during subsequent
calibration. The Pressure transmitters should be upgraded
progressively for performance testing and for high priority
parameter, as shown in the list of process parameter indicators.

Locations such as the condenser should use absolute pressure


transmitters. An advantage of using an absolute pressure
transmitter for condenser pressure over vacuum gauge pressure
transmitters is that no correction is to be applied for variations in
barometric pressure.

Pressure transmitters should be calibrated at least once a year.

7.2 Temperature

Temperature Measurement

Thermocouples are more used because of their low cost and high
reliability. RTDs, while much more accurate, have not been used
widely (until recently) due to their higher cost and poorer
reliability.

7-1
In recent years, the reliability of RTDs has improved greatly and,
while still not as durable as a thermocouple, the higher accuracy
has made the higher cost acceptable.

7.2.1 Thermocouples

For boiler testing, the temperatures in large ducts are required to


be measured at several locations. For the air heater exit
temperature measurement, several thermocouples should be
installed due to the size and stratification in the duct. The
thermocouples should be installed a few meters downstream of the
air heater to allow some mixing. Accuracy of thermocouple should
as per current engineering specification being implemented at new
projects/stations and instruments should be upgraded
progressively as per high priority parameter parameters shown in
the list of process parameter
Thermocouples should be annually checked for calibration.
However, thermocouples that are cycled to elevated temperatures
repeatedly (type E >400 C, type K>1100 C, type J > 700 C) may
need more frequent calibration.

7.2.2 RTDs

At the places where RTDs are being used for measurement of


performance test parameters, the accuracy of RTD should be
upgraded progressively to current engineering specifications being
implemented at new projects/stations.

The priority of calibration should be decided based on the drift


observed during subsequent calibration. However Resistance
Temperature Detectors (RTDs) should be calibrated once in a year.

7.3 Flow

7.3.1 Flow Measurement

7.3.1.1 Air Flow

For measuring airflows, a plant should have S-type and L type


pitot of suitable length depending upon the requirement of the
station.

L type pitots are used for measuring clean airflows in small


ducts or pipes (such as is done in a pulverizer clean air tests, etc.).

7-2
For measuring air or gas flows in large ducts (or in small ducts
with large concentrations of particulates) S type pitots should are
used.

For measuring Dirty air flow through mill, checking burner to


burner balancing, collecting isokinetic PF samples fineness
analysis, plant should have Dirty air pitot , rotary probe etc.

Pitot tubes should be inspected prior to each use, looking for


mechanical damage (a dent or burr, etc.) or pluggage. If the pitot
is damaged, it is usually discarded.

7.3.1.2 Water Flow

For measuring cooling water flow such as CW flow through


condenser, CW flow through Cooling tower, a plant should have
calibrated pitot tubes of required length.

7.3.1.3 Feed Flow

One of the most important parameters measured in any power


plant is the fluid flow rate in the various system and components.
For Feed water flow there are flow nozzles/orifice, the DP
measurement across the device is further used for flow
computation.
The flow nozzles/orifice data is an important data for flow
computation as such it should be placed in side the feed flow panel
as it is very useful at the time of carrying out offline instrument
test.

Flow measuring devices dp transmitter should be calibrated every


year.

7.4 Gas Analyzers

7.4.1 Flue Gas Analysis

For performance testing, the gases that are measured in flue gas
are carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and carbon monoxide (CO).
Accurate, reliable, and fast gas analyzers are necessary to analyze
for these gases. For many years, the use of an Orsat was the
standard, and Orsats are still used today for checking single point
measurements. However, when running a test, an Orsat is not
sufficient to perform the number of analyses necessary in a
reasonable amount of time. Various types of portable electronic

7-3
analyzers are available. Chemical cell analyzers are frequently
used, but they must be used with caution, as the cell must be
replaced periodically as it exhausts. More accurate analyzers,
which use a paramagnetic sensor for O2 and infrared sensors for
CO2 and CO, are better choices. (Portability aspect may be
reviewed.)

Gas analyzers for CO, O2 and CO2 etc. should be checked with
standard gases of different concentration every year.
However, the gas analyzers need to be checked for calibration
before the start of the test for correcting the drifts if any.

Accuracy of analyzer should be +/-2% including linearity and


repeatability or better.

7.4.2 Calibration Gases

For the purpose of regular calibration of the gas analyzers, the


following calibration gases of known standard composition should
be available with the station
It should be ensured the calibration gases are within the stability
period as mentioned by the supplier.
Nitrogen Purity grade (99.9 %) for calibration of zero.
Oxygen
CO2
CO

7.5 Energy Meters

Several performance tests require that the instantaneous power or


integrated energy produced by the unit, or consumed by auxiliary
equipment, be measured. This requires high accuracy power
meters that can measure the power in all three phases. At present
accuracy requirement of energy meter used for performance test is
0.2 Class. Current engineering specification being implemented at
new projects/stations should be used for up gradation of Energy
meters
The necessary arrangement for on-line connection of external
energy meters shall be provided for periodic testing and
validation of the information where this provision does not exits.
Energy meters have a direct bearing on the heat rate
assessment thus have a critical role in performance test these
should be calibrated every year against the standards, to
validate the authenticity.

7-4
7.6 Additional Equipment

A no of instruments are helpful for correct diagnosing,


measurement and monitoring of parameters such as portable He
Leak Detector, portable Infrared temperature indicator, Ultrasonic
flow measuring instrument, Hand held temperature readout with
probe etc. and other instrument as and when recommended by
CenPEEP/OS.

7-5
8.

8-1
9. HEATRATE ACTION PLAN
9.1 Preparation of action Plan

The first step in developing a Heat Rate Action Plan is to know


where deviations exist between the current actual performance and
the achievable performance. Wherever there are gaps between the
actual and expected parameters values, there are heat rate
deviations, which are opportunities for improvement.

The second step is to rank all known areas where heat rate
deviations exist from the largest to the smallest, and calculate the
cost of each.

The third step is to determine the root cause of each significant


heat rate deviation. Too often, instead of eliminating the root
cause of problems, only symptoms are addressed.

Determining the root cause of heat rate deviations is sometimes a


complicated process. The Logic Trees in Appendix are one
resource that can be used to investigate deficiencies. Another
practice is to compare data from similar units if a deviation exists
on one unit but not another. Having good quality data from the
performance guarantee test time period is also valuable to compare
to current conditions. Regardless of the method(s) that is/are
used, it is critical that the root cause be determined.

The fourth step, taken after the root cause is determined, is to list
what options are possible, calculate the cost and benefits of each,
and determine the best course of action. For example if the
efficiency of a turbine section is down, there are several options
available, each option will cost a different amount, and each option
will have different benefits.

Frequently, the plan will include a field titled Activity Selected. If


an engineering analysis has been performed, which identified the
best course of action, but the activity is not scheduled, or is
uneconomical at the present time, the activity can still be listed in
the plan, but marked No under Activity Selected.

Under each parameter for which heat rate deviations are


calculated, each planned activity that will affect that parameter
should be listed. For example, under Exit Gas Temperature, the
activities Replace Air Heater Seals, and Set to Design Clearances,

9-1
In addition to the description of the activity, a measurable process
indicator should be listed with its current value, the anticipated
change or target value, and the method of verification. For
example, for the activity Replace Air Heater Seals, and Set to
Design Clearances, the process indicator might be Air Heater
Leakage. The current value might be 20% and the target (post
replacement) value might be 12%, and this would be verified by a
post outage test.

Each activity must also list a schedule i.e. as a minimum a start


date and a completion date. Each activity should list a single
individual who is responsible for ensuring that the activity is
carried out, and the results verified.

Each activity should also indicate what type of activity it is. A


good heat rate action plan should consist primarily of I or
Improvement/Degradation activities. These are activities that
affect the heat rate, these activities are intended to return the
performance to the current expected levels.

E or Expected activities are activities that will result in changes


to the unit heat rate and changes to one or more parameters
expected level, such as replacing the HP turbine rotor with a new-
high efficiency design or retubing feed water heaters using a
material with a poorer heat transmittance.

A or Accounting activities are activities that do not change the


actual heat rate of the unit, just the bookkeeping. If the reported
heat rate is projected to change due to correcting a problem with
coal scales, this would be an A activity.

D or Degradation is used under some parameters to account for


normal deterioration of a parameter. Usually this is only used to
account for turbine efficiency.

A last type of activity is an S or Study. If a parameter has a


significant heat rate deviation, but the appropriate corrective
action has not been determined, a study should be initiated, and
assigned to a responsible person

9.2 Calculation of Unit & Station HR

Once the plan is developed for each unit, roll-ups can be made to
determine target heat rates for groups of units. For example if a
plant is composed of both 200 and 500MW units, in addition to the
target heat rate for each unit, a target heat rate for the 200 MW

9-2
units and a target heat rate for the 500 MW units can be
calculated by weight averaging the individual heat rates by the
projected net generation for each unit. A target heat rate can be
calculated in a similar fashion for the entire plant.

If each plant in a region or if all plants in a utility follow the same


process, then a target heat rate for the region or system can be
calculated. Another advantage of this process, is that it is quick
and easy to see the effect on the unit, plant and system heat rate
(and therefore fuel cost and production cost) of postponing an
activity at any plant, or if additional money is allocated to do
additional activities, etc.

9.3 Review of Plan

Preparing and maintaining the plan is only part of the process. It


is vital to hold periodic reviews of the plan. Monthly, or at least
quarterly, there should be a formal review of the plan by the plant,
region, corporate.

9.4 Annual Targeting

Targets are goals, to be set once each financial year. It should be


aggressive, but achievable with effort. Targets are used during the
year and at the year-end to see how well the plant team is
managing its resources. Targets are used primarily by the plant
staff as a goal to be strived for, and with diligence, achieved.

Each station is to fix heat rate for the financial years. This target
document should include action plan for likely improvement in
heat rate at the start of the year.

9-3
10. REPORTING SYSTEM AND FORMATS
10.1 Information Flow

Like any other programme, key ingredient to the success of any efficiency
improvement activity is continuous and free information flow within the
utility structure. Communication must occur from Top down as well as
from the bottom up in the organization. Corporate objective must be
translated into specific goal, which plant personnel can understand and
provide clear guidance for achieving these performance improvement
goals.
EEMG has a responsibility to ensure the information flows from the plant
to region and to corporate management. Performance related data should
be consolidated and reported regularly to higher management in a format
which can be readily interpreted. The following mechanism of
communication can be effective in enhancing information flow.

10.1.1 Periodic Review Meeting at Station

10.1.1.1 Daily Review

Heat Rate deviations are to be discussed in daily plant planning meeting


and corrective actions to be planned for controllable parameters for
which shut down is not required. The actions to be recorded in the daily
planning meeting minutes and action taken should be reported in next
day meeting.
Daily Heat Rate deviation report will be stored in the station Server
located at EDP. This data will be captured by CC and Regional-HQR as
per the requirement of higher management or as per the format finalized
for management review.

10.1.1.2 Monthly Efficiency Meeting

The purpose of monthly meeting is to review the progress towards


achieving the stations performance related goals and discuss the results
of tests carried out during the month. Action plans prepared for the long
term and short-term are also reviewed. The meeting should be chaired by
head of the station and attended by operation, maintenance, planning,
technical services staff and other concerned area executives.

Minutes of the meeting should be sent to Regional HQ for update about


station performance activities and further interaction/follow up with CC.
Test results to be sent to Regions in the given format. POG activities are
to be discussed in this meeting.
The report developed on the basis of tests carried out during the month
will be stored in the station server. This data will be captured by CC and

10-1
Regional-HQ as per the requirement or as well as to produce to the MIS
reports for the management.

10.1.2 Periodic Review Meeting at Region

Regional PPB will review the monthly Heat rate Deviation Reports, Result
of tests carried out at the stations and the action plan of stations of the
region. After review, region will put up the exception report to regional
ED and Concerned group at corporate center. Regional ORT coordinator
will discuss the action plan during ORT.

10.1.3 Periodic Review : - Corporate

Corporate CenPEEP will review the exception reports of all the regions
and after review a report will be put up to the management for their
consideration.

10-2
MONTHLY EFFICIENCY REPORT FORMAT NO-10.1
STATION : MONTH : DATE Of Report
S.N Test PG / Design UNIT Unit--1 Unit-2 Unit-3 Unit-4 Unit-5 Unit-6 Unit-7
1 Boiler Efficiency Test Test Date
Boiler %

Dry Flue Gas Loss %

Wet Flue Gas Loss %

Un burnt C Loss %

2 Turbine Cycle HR Test Date


Gross Turbine Cycle HR Kcal/kWh

3 Condenser Performance Test Date


Dev. due to Condenser Vacuum Kcal/kWh
Dev. due to Dirty Tube/Air ingress Kcal/kWh
Dev due to CW inlet temp Kcal/kWh
Dev due to CW Flow Kcal/kWh
4 HPH Performance Test Date
TTD C
DCA C
5 Turbine Efficiency Test Date
HPT Cylinder (%)
IPT Cylinder (%)
6 APH Performance Test Date
PAPH Leakage ( A / B ) (%)
PAPH Gas Side ( A / B ) (%)
SAPH Leakage ( A / B ) (%)
SAPH Gas Side ( A / B ) (%)

7 Cooling Tower Performance Test Date


Range C
Approach C
Effectiveness (%)
Predicted CT Outlet Temperature C
Tower Capability (%)

10-3
MONTHLY EFFICIENCY REPORT
ACTION PLAN FOR HEAT RATE DEVIATION DUE TO EQUIPMENT & SYSTEM

STATION: MONTH:

DATE:

Sr. TEST DEVIATION FOUND IN TEST ROOT CAUSE ACTION TO BE SCHEDULE


No NAME ANALYSIS TAKEN
Unit Deviation

Boiler
Efficiency START END
Test
Turbine
Heat rate
Test
Condense
r
Performa
nce test
APH
Performa
nce Test
Turbine
Efficiency
Test
CT
Performa
nce Test

Format no-10.2

10-4
Regional Exception Reports

REGION:

REPORT OF MONTH:

DATED:

S. STATIO UNIT & AREA OF DEVIATION ACTION REMARKS


N N (BOILER / TURBINE ETC.)

Format no 10.3

10-5
11. EEMG STRUCTURE AND RESPONSIBILITY
The activities related to performance improvement & monitoring shall be
looked after by Centre of Excellence for Efficiency (CEE) group
within Corporate CenPEEP. The structure & responsibilities of
performance related activities at Station, Region and Corporate Centre
shall be as given below.

11.1 EEMG SETUP STATION

It is proposed to create two separate groups for the existing functions


being executed by EEMG. Out of this, one group shall look after
Performance & Plant Betterment (PPB) and Center for Energy
Efficient Technology & Energy Management (CEETEM) and other
group shall take care of MIS and commercial aspect (as shown in the
structure). The in charge of respective groups shall report to head of
O&M.

Splitting the present responsibilities assigned to the EEMG into two


groups will help in effectively executing the various activities related to
performance improvement proposed under PPB. It will also allow to have
proper interface between PPB and CEETEM in carrying out various
activities and in avoiding duplication of work.

EEMG Structure at Station

Station Head

SMSG at Region O&M Head


(For MIS)

MIS & Commercial EEMG PPB at Region

PPB CEETEM

SMSG Station Monitoring Support Group

11-1
11.1.1 EEMG Responsibilities PPB at Station

Following are the activities proposed to be carried out:

Parameter monitoring, trending and analysis


On-line & Off-line performance test of Systems & Equipments (like
Boiler, Turbine, Mills, and Cooling Tower etc.)
Daily / Monthly heat rate deviation reports and follow up of
corrective actions
Pre / Post Overhaul performance test
Pre overhaul system survey (Valve passing, Duct leakage etc.)
Coordination for POGs (HR, Condenser, Mills etc.)
Effect of modifications / mode of operation
Use of Math modeling for diagnosis and analysis
Critical instrument performance, defect list and replacement
Calibration of On-line / Off-line performance test instruments
Implementation of efficiency related work during overhauling
Involvement in efficiency related proposals
Auxiliary Power Consumption Monitoring and measures for
reduction
Monitoring of unit light up activities
Monitoring and reduction of specific oil and make up consumption
Other issues related to Plant performance.

11.1.2 Responsibilities MIS at Station

Following are the activities proposed to be carried out:


ORT, RMCM, ROPR, MCM coordination
Coordination with Corporate Centre , OS, Region , CEA , REB etc.

11-2
Trip analysis
Oil , Coal Accounting & Survey
MIS Reports

11.2 SETUP AT REGION

At each region the PPB function is proposed to be with regional CenPEEP


and MIS function will be with Station Monitoring & Support Group
(SMSG), recently created under head of OS.

At present there is no separate group at regional level focusing on plant


betterment activities of EEMG for monitoring & periodically reviewing the
efficiency improvement activities. The creation of regional PPB group (as
shown in the structure) will meet the objective of having effective
coordination with the stations in providing technical support.

For regions where Regional CenPEEP is yet to be formed, responsibilities


of Regional PPB shall be taken care by Performance Management
System Group (PMSG)

Structure at Region

ED (Region)

Head of OS

Regional
CenPEEP

Station Performance
Monitoring Management
and Support Systems
Group Group Regional CenPEEP
(SMSG) (PMSG) PPB Activites

MIS
related
to EEMG

11-3
11.2.1 Responsibilities PPB at Region

Following are the activities proposed to be carried out for all the Stations
in the region:

Support for Off - line Performance tests such as Boiler Performance


Optimization, Gross Turbine Cycle Heat Rate etc (as per the need
of station).
Performance monitoring, trending and analysis
Plant performance audit
Review of Heat rate deviation reports
Follow up of action plans
Monthly exception report on EEMG to CC
Training to EEMG Executives
Follow up and interactions with POGs.
Software support to station
Other Issues related to plant performance

11.2.2 Responsibilities MIS at Region

Area coverd under station MIS responsibilities will be taken care by


Regional SMSG.

11.3 SETUP AT CORPORATE CENTER

At corporate the PPB function shall be looked after by Centre of


Excellence for Efficiency (CEE) group within CenPEEP and the
function of MIS to be continued with corporate OS (as shown in the
structure).

11-4
Structure at Corporate

D(O)

Regional
OS

Knowledge
Operation CenPEEP team for
Services
EEMG

Technical
Support & CenPEEP Centre of
MIS related Activities Excellence for
to EEMG Efficiency (CEE)

11.3.1 Responsibilities CEE at CenPEEP

Following are the activities proposed to be carried out:

To ensure uniform practice for performance improvement across


NTPC plants
Developing standardized testing and reporting procedures
Providing Guidelines for Computation of Performance of
Equipments & Systems
Providing software support
Providing Standard Reporting Formats
Technical support to Regions and stations
Data bank at CenPEEP of equipments / system of NTPC Stations
Off line performance test like Gross Turbine Cycle HR, Boiler
Combustion Optimization etc. on need basis.
Performance monitoring, trending and analysis of critical problems
Review of implementation of action plan

11-5
Training to executives
Follow up and interaction with POGs
Issues to be taken up with Engg. (Like test instruments, test ports
etc.)
New techniques and systems
Plant performance audit

11.3.2 Responsibilities Technical Support & MIS related to EEMG

Coordination for PG testing of identified packages


Review of HR deviation reports
Fixing Performance Targets for NTPC Stations
Follow up of action plan
Ensuring inclusion of Efficiency related activities in overhauling
plan
Technical Support
Other issues related MIS

11-6
12. TOOLS
12.1 Introduction

This section discusses the tools that should be readily available with
PPB group, who are responsible for monitoring the thermal performance
of a unit. Many of the necessary tools have already been discussed in
detail in other sections of this manual, such as detailed test procedures
for major equipment, generic heat rate logic trees, calculation procedures
for determining the impacts of various parameters on unit performance,
etc. This section discusses additional tools that should be at the
disposal of the performance engineer. Some of this information is
contained in Technical Diaries or Plant Detail Books that are developed
for a particular project, but for detailed analysis of thermal performance,
additional data must be available.

12.2 Comprehensive Thermal Kit

One of the most valuable sources of information on the turbine cycle is


the thermal kit. The turbo-generator supplier usually supplies it. It is
a collection of curves primarily, with some data that describes the
operating characteristics of the turbo-generator.

12.2.1 Heat Rate/Load Correction Curves

The turbine supplier usually provides a group of curves that describes


the effect on the turbine cycle heat rate and gross load, of changes in
various external parameters or boundary conditions, such as main
steam temperature and pressure, hot reheat steam temperature at the
intercept valves, pressure drop through the reheater, and condenser
pressure. Occasionally, other curves will be provided for attemperation
flows, feedwater heater TTDs and DCAs, etc. Sometimes, for a
parameter, multiple curves will be given, with each curve for a specified
steam flow, or for a specified control valve opening.

12.2.2 Generator Loss Curves

Another curve (or family of curves) that is given is the generator loss
curves. These curves represent the amount of energy loss in the
generator. The turbine produces a certain torque on the shaft, and the
generator converts 98-99% of that energy to electrical energy. The other
1-2% is generator losses, which includes both mechanical and electrical
losses. The amount of loss is given in different formats
Sometimes the fixed losses are included in the curve, and sometimes it is
tabulated.

12-1
Since the losses also vary with the hydrogen pressure, sometimes a
family of curves is given for various hydrogen pressures, sometimes an
additional curve is given with a correction factor as a function of the
hydrogen pressure.

12.2.3 Exhaust Loss Curves

When the steam passes through the last row of rotating blades in the LP
turbine, it has a very high velocity (kinetic energy). As it turns down and
slows, this kinetic energy is converted to an increase in enthalpy. The
enthalpy of the steam leaving the last row of blades is called the
Expansion Line End Point (ELEP). The enthalpy of the steam that is
condensed in the condenser is the Used Energy End Point (UEEP). The
difference between these two is the exhaust loss. (It also includes losses
due to friction, and for very low velocities a rotational loss.)

These curves are usually plotted one of two ways. First, as a single curve
as a function of the velocity of the steam (the velocity must be calculated
using the mass flow, and the specific volume of the steam and the
annular area). The second type of plot is of a family of curves versus
exhaust flow, with each curve for a different condenser pressure.

12.2.4 Mollier Diagram Showing Turbine Expansion Lines

Another drawing that should be included in the thermal kit is a large


Mollier diagram (enthalpy versus entropy plot) showing the anticipated
turbine expansion lines for the entire turbine (HP and IP-LP). There
should be multiple curves for several main steam flows. (Note that the
end of each curve is the ELEP, not the UEEP.)

12.2.5 Turbine Packing Leakoff Curves or Constants

To determine the flow from turbine gland leakages and from valve stem
leakages. For each gland or valve stem leakage, a packing constant is
usually given, again where the leakage flow is calculated by multiplying
the constant by the square root of the pressure divided by the specific
volume Q = C * (p/v). Occasionally, instead of specifying packing
constants, these flows will be given as a curve as a function of the
pressure ahead of the leakage.

12.2.6 Plant Technical Information

In addition to the technical information provided in the thermal kit by


the turbo-generator provider, there are other specifications and technical
data that should be collected, made readily available, and kept current
as equipment is replaced or refurbished. Preferably, the items listed

12-2
below, along with the information from the thermal kit, should be
collected into a single notebook.

12.2.7 Heat Balance Diagrams

Usually, several heat balance diagrams are provided for a range of steam
flows and condenser pressures. Occasionally, some additional heat
balance diagrams are also provided to some special conditions, such as
the HP heater out of service, or over pressure. Additionally, if a
thermodynamic model is built for the plant, additional diagrams will be
generated. All these should be kept together.

12.2.8 Flow Diagrams/Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID)

The performance engineer should have a full set of flow or P&ID drawings
showing all steam, water, air and flue gas streams. These drawings
should include pipe sizes, locations of station instruments and test
points.

One set should be marked up showing which valves/traps/etc. are in


each cycle isolation checklist.

Another set of drawings should be marked up showing potential sources


for condenser air in leakage. These potential in leakage locations would
be marked one of two ways: locations that are always under vacuum,
and locations that are under vacuum only at reduced load.

12.2.9 Pump and Fan Curves

In order to evaluate the performance of large pumps and fans, the curves
of head, power and efficiency versus flow should be provided, along with
supplemental data such as the speed(s) for which the curve(s) were
drawn, the temperature, pressure and density for the fluid, impeller size,
etc. It is preferable to have curves based on tests, but that is not always
possible, especially for large pumps. The pumps and fans for which
curves should be available include:

Pumps Fans
Boiler Feed water Forced Draft
Boiler Feedwater Booster Primary Air
Condensate Extraction Induced Draft
CW pump

12-3
Some boiler feedwater pumps have a balancing drum leakoff that
includes an orifice for measuring the leakoff flow. If the pumps have this
design, there should be a curve provided showing the relationship
between the differential pressure and the flow rate.

12.2.10 Primary Flow Elements (Nozzle/Orifice) Specification Sheets

In order to properly convert the differential pressure across a nozzle or


orifice to a flow rate the following characteristics are required:

Pipe internal diameter (ID) at nozzle (cold condition)


Pipe material (and, therefore, coefficient of thermal expansion)
Flow element type (ISA nozzle, long radius nozzle, standard orifice
plate, square edge orifice, etc.)
Flow element (Nozzle or Orifice) ID
Flow element material (and therefore coefficient of thermal
expansion)
Type of pressure taps (for orifices) such as corner, flange or D &
D/2 taps

This information should be collected and tabulated in one location for all
flow elements such as:

Total feedwater flow


Feed water flow through individual pumps
Condensate flow
Attemperation flows
Makeup flows
Main steam flow
Reheat steam flow
IP turbine cooling steam flow

12.2.11 Specification Sheets and Drawings on Heat Exchangers

Each heat exchanger in the plant (especially condensers, feedwater


heaters, external drain coolers, gland steam condensers) should have a
detailed specification sheet, with the following information:
Tube material(s)
Tube actual and effective tube length
Tube ID or wall thickness
Number of passes
Heat transfer rate(s) (for feed water heaters a rate should be
specified for each zone, desuperheating, condensing and drain
cooling)

12-4
Effective surface area(s)
Design conditions (temperature, pressure and flow rates) of each
stream in and out
Design Performance (TTDs, DCA, temperature rises, LMTDs, etc.)
Pressure drop on the water side ands in each zone on the shell side

Drawings showing the tube map should be provided, as well as


sectional drawings showing the locations of baffles, shrouds, vents, sight
glasses and normal water level marks.

12.2.12 Water Leg Measurements

Most local pressure gauges and pressure transmitters do not read the
true pressure of the steam/water. Instead, they read slightly higher, due
to the water that fills the impulse tubing between the pipe and the
instrument. For normal operation, the difference usually is not
significant, but for high accuracy measurements, it can be. In order to
be able to correct for these water legs, a table should be maintained
that lists either:

the elevation of the pipe taps (and the floor elevation), or


the distance from the pipe tap to the floor, or
the distances from the pipe to the local gauge/transmitter and the
elevation of the local pressure gauge.

At some plants, the gauges/transmitter are calibrated to take into


account the water leg. Whether the calibration includes the water leg or
not should be identified, so that test measurements, which almost
always must be corrected for water legs, can be compared to the station
readings.

12.2.13 Boiler and Air Pre Heater Guaranteed Performance Sheets

The performance engineer should have detailed predicted performance


sheets on the boiler/air pre heater. This would include data such as air
and gas, temperatures and pressures, entering and leaving the air pre
heater, flue gas and steam/water, temperatures and pressures in and
out of each section of the boiler (economizer, waterwall, secondary
superheater, reheater, and primary superheater), excess air requirement,
proximate and ultimate analysis, grindability, ash analysis, reducing and
oxidizing ash fusion temperatures of the coal, boiler efficiency loss
calculations, number of mills in service, air temperature entering mills,
coal-air temperature leaving mills, mill fineness, material, surface area
and tube spacing details of each section, etc.

12-5
12.2.14 Control System Logic Diagrams/Controller Set Points

A set of drawings should be maintained and available for the


performance engineer showing the logic diagrams and set points for the
unit controls. This data is especially critical as more equipment is being
controlled by complex logic.

12.2.15 Performance Guarantee and Other Tests Reports

The previous information has all been design data. While it is useful, it
does not represent the actual initial condition and operating
characteristics of the unit. That is why it is imperative that the
performance guarantee tests should do much more than just settle
contractual issues. It is the best opportunity to collect high quality data
on the unit, to which future operating data and performance will be
compared.

Also, any time a test is run on the unit, a test report with not only a
summary of the results and recommendations, but also containing all
data, should be issued and kept. In addition, a computer database can
be made for storing and trending the results of routine performance
tests, such as turbine efficiency, condenser performance, auxiliary power
usage, air heater leakage, pulverizer fineness, etc.

12.2.16 Historical Operating Statistics

In addition to high quality test data and results, it is advantageous to


retain operating data from the station instruments.

12.2.17 Data from Initial Operation: Record of all Control Room,


DAS, etc.

A valuable resource for future years is to record data from every station
instrument, at various loads, immediately after the unit achieves steady
operation. This includes all points on the DAS (if applicable), as well as
local gauges.

One use of such data is when there are any very slow, gradual changes
in the performance of the unit, that may not be noticed. However, when
current data is compared to the data when the unit was new, any
gradual changes in performance will become apparent.

12.2.18 Retention of Key Indicators

With the advent of low cost computers and storage media, it is cost
effective to collect and retain large amounts of operating data. A detailed

12-6
data storage strategy should be developed. For example some critical
DAS data might be kept complete (every value from every scan) for 6
months, then reduced to hourly average/maximum/minimum, and these
three hourly values retained for 2 years, then only daily averages
retained after that. Other data might be reduced to daily averages each
day, and those might be retained for a few months only.

The primary process indicators (see Section 3.1) should be considered


along with the requirements of other departments, and an appropriate
data storage plan developed.

12.2.19 Historical Load Patterns

If important indicators are stored, then many types of analyses are


possible. One such type is the generation of a load pattern. This shows
how much time a unit (or group of similar units) spends in various load
ranges. This information is required for determining the economic
benefits for many potential heat rate improvement projects. For some
projects, the benefits may only occur when the unit is operating in some
narrow load range, or the benefit may vary with the load.

12.2.20 Maintenance Data

Along with operating data, maintenance data is very useful to the


performance engineer.

12.2.21 Boiler Inspection Reports

Each time the boiler is inspected (wall thickness readings taken, tube
samples cut out, etc.) the reports on what was found, recommendations,
etc., should be published and made available to the performance
engineer.

12.2.22 Air Pre Heater Inspection Reports

The performance engineer should have access to the as-found and as-left
seal clearances of the air heater, for comparison to the results of leakage
tests.

12.2.23 History of Cycle Isolation Problems

With the large number of valves that can contribute to cycle isolation
problems, having a database of which valves have caused problems in
the past is useful to help determine where to look first, or which valves
should be monitored continuously (because they frequently leak) and
which may only require periodic monitoring. Also, if the database

12-7
includes the type of valve, then there may be some correlation between
the valve type (or manufacturer) and frequency of leaks.

12.2.24 Heat Exchanger Tube Pluggage History

The performance engineer should have a record of the number and


location of tubes plugged in all heat exchangers.

12.3 Thermodynamic Model of the Plant

Every station PPB group should develop computer programs for


performing heat balance calculations. These programs will give accurate
results in a matter of seconds after validation. Some of the uses include:

Generating heat rate correction factors for various parameters


such as attemperation flows, makeup flow, auxiliary steam usage,
final feedwater heater temperature, etc.
Confirming the accuracy of heat rate correction factors provided by
vendors, (i.e. main steam temperature and pressure, hot reheat
temperature, reheater pressure drop, condenser pressure, etc.).
Analyzing test data (correcting results to some contract or design
boundary conditions, estimating LP turbine performance, etc.).
Determining the impacts of abnormal operating conditions, such
as feedwater heaters out of service, leaking high energy drains,
running two vacuum pumps/steam ejectors instead of one, etc.
Determining the impacts of equipment degradation, such as poor
turbine efficiency, subcooling in the condenser hotwell, high
feedwater heater TTDs or DCAs, etc.
Determining the impacts of potential equipment modifications,
such as retubing feedwater heaters or condensers with a different
material, adding or removing surface in the superheater or
reheater, changing the source of the superheater spray water from
BFP outlet to final feedwater, etc.
Determining the impacts of potential equipment modifications
such as changing from full pressure to variable pressure, changing
set points on controls, etc.

12-8
13. (Appendix-E) HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE
HEAT RATE
LOSSES

PERFORMANCE FACTOR

BOILER TURBINE CYCLE COOLING WATER TURBINE


LOSSES LOSSES CYCLE LOSSES LOSSES

A B C D

CONDENSER HP/IP/LP
FEEDWATER TEMPERATURE
BOILER EFFICIENCY BACKPRESSURE EFFICIENCIES
DIFFERENCE
EXIT GAS TEMPERATURE CIRCULATING WATER INLET STEAM FLOW
AIR HEATER TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE GENERATOR
DIFFERENCE OUTPUT'
EXCESS AIR W/ P/v

ELECTRICAL STEAM AUXILIARY FUEL HANDLING


HEAT LOSSES CYCLE ISOLATION
AUXILIARY LOSSES LOSSES LOSSES

E F I G H

STATION LOAD BOILER FEEDPUMP EFFICIENCY SYSTEM WALKDOWN SYSTEM WALKDOWN SYSTEM WALKDOWN
VACUUM PUMP FLOW FUEL INVENTORY CHECKS PYROMETER HIGH PIPE WALL
TEMPERATURES
DOWNSTREAM OF ISOLATION
VALVES
STEAM TRAP CHECKS

FIGURE E-1. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - MAIN DIAGRAM

13-1
BOILER LOSSES A

BOILER EFFICIENCY
EXIT GAS TEMPERATURE
AIR HEATER TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE
EXCESS AIR

MOISTURE INCOMPLETE CARBON LOSS RADIATION HEAT STACK GAS


DRY GAS LOSSES LOSSES
LOSSES COMBUSTION LOSSES

CHANGE IN STACK GAS


DECREASED O 2 2A TEMPERATURE
X INCREASED EXIT
INCREASED C O INCREASED O 2 GAS TEMPERATURE
INCREASED CARBON IN
ASH

EXCESSIVE SOOT CHANGE IN BURNER TIPS INCORRECT INCORRECT GAS FOULED HEAT
AMBIENT CHANGE IN COAL BYPASS DAMPER TRANSFER
BLOWING PLUGGED FUEL-TO-AIR
CONDITIONS QUALITY SETTING SURFACES
RATIO
DECREASED EXIT GAS TEMP CHANGE IN RELATIVE COAL COMPOSITION BYPASS DAMPER POSITION
INCREASED MAIN STEAM TEMP HUMIDITY ANALYSIS
INCREASED SUPERHEATER SPRAY
FLOW
INCREASED CONDENSATE MAKE-UP

INCREASE IN COAL CHANGE IN COAL INCREASED MILL CHANGE IN MILL


CHANGE IN COAL IMPROPER BURNER EXCESSIVE
TUBE LEAKS SURFACE QUALITY TAILINGS FINENESS
QUALITY DAMPER SETTING FOULING
MOISTURE

INCREASED MAKEUP FLOW DECREASED MILL OUTLET INCREASED H 2 CHANGE IN COAL DECREASE IN PRIMARY AIR SIEVE TEST DECREASED O 2 1
TEMPERATURE INCREASE IN INTERNAL CARBON CONTENT FLOW INCREASED WIND BOX
DECREASED STACK
INCREASED MILL MOISTURE PRESSURE
TEMPERATURE
CURRENT DRAW INCREASED STACK GAS INCREASED STACK GAS
PRECIPITATOR EFFICIENCY
INCREASED PRIMARY AIR TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE
PRECIPITATOR CURRENT
TEMPERATURE INCREASED FURNACE
DRAW
DECREASED STACK GAS PRESSURE DROP
STACK OPACITY
TEMPERATURE EXCESS 0 2 (NORMAL)

CLASSIFIER VANES LOSS OF ROLLER RING OR ROLLER CLASSIFIER VANE


IMPROPERLY TENSION WEAR WEAR
ADJUSTED
CLASSIFIER VANE
POSITION

BOILER WATER
WALLS SUPERHEATER AIR PREHEATER REHEATER ECONOMIZER

INCREASED MAIN STEAM DECREASED MAIN STEAM LOW EXIT AIR DECREASED ECONOMIZER
TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE DECREASED HOT REHEAT OUTLET TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE
INCREASED SUPERHEATER DECREASED SUPERHEATER TEMPERATURE INCREASED MAIN STEAM
NORMAL INLET AIR AND
SPRAY FLOW SPRAY FLOW DECREASED REHEAT SPRAY FLOW TEMPERATURE
GAS TEMPERATURES
INCREASE IN AIR HEATER INCREASED SUPERHEATER
DELTA-P (PLUGGAGE) SPRAY FLOW
DECREASE IN AIR HEATER
DELTA-P (EROSION)

FIGURE E-2. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - BOILER LOSSES

13-2
DRY GAS LOSSES 2A

CHANGE IN STACK GAS


TEMPERATURE
INCREASED O2

IMPROPER INCORRECT
BOILER CASING AIR BURNER DAMPER AIR PREHEATER
IN-LEAKAGE LEAKAGE FUEL-TO-AIR RATIO
SETTINGS

DECREASED WIND BOX HIGH O2 AT THE BOILER EXIT


DECREASED STACK GAS
PRESSURE HIGH EXCESS AIR
DECREASED FURNACE EXIT TEMPERATURE
INCREASED BOILER EXIT MEASUREMENT
TEMPERATURE INCREASED O2 AT AIR
GAS TEMPERATURE
HIGH O 2 AT THE BOILER EXIT HEATER EXIT
NORMAL EXCESS AIR DECREASED CO2 AT AIR
MEASUREMENT HEATER EXIT
INCREASED BOILER EXIT NORMAL O2 AT THE BOILER
TEMPERATURE EXIT
INCREASED DESUPERHEAT
SPRAY FLOW

FIGURE E-3. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - DRY GAS


LOSSES

13-3
TURBINE CYCLE
B
LOSSES

INCREASE IN TTD
INCREASE IN DCA
DECREASED FEEDWATER
TEMPERATURE RISE

NONCONDENSIBLE TUBE LEAKS TUBES FOULED


TUBES PLUGGED
GASES IN SHELL SIDE INTERNALLY

CHANGE IN FEEDWATER
INCREASED TUBE
DECREASED FEEDWATER HEATER LEVEL
INCREASED TUBE BUNDLE BUNDLE PRESSURE DROP
OUTLET TEMPERATURE DECREASED FEEDWATER
PRESSURE DROP DECREASED EXTRACTION
DECREASED EXTRACTION OUTLET TEMPERATURE
DECREASED EXTRACTION PRESSURE DROP
PRESSURE DROP CYCLING OF EMERGENCY DRAIN
PRESSURE DROP GRADUAL CHANGE IN
VALVES
STEP CHANGE IN FEEDWATER FEEDWATER OUTLET
OUTLET TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE

FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER


EXCESSIVE VENTING FEEDWATER HEATER
HIGH LEVEL OUT OF SERVICE BAFFLE OR BYPASS
OR STEAM LEAKS LOW LEVEL
VALVE LEAKS

INCREASED DRAIN
INCREASED EXTRACTION DECREASED FEEDWATER OUTLET DECREASED DECREASED FEEDWATER
COOLER OUTLET
PRESSURE DROP TEMPERATURE ECONOMIZER INLET OUTLET TEMPERATURE
TEMPERATURE
DECREASED FEEDWATER HIGH FEEDWATER HEATER LEVEL TEMPERATURE DECREASED TUBE
LOW FEEDWATER
OUTLET TEMPERATURE DECREASED DRAIN COOLER OUTLET BUNDLE PRESSURE
HEATER LEVEL
TEMPERATURE DROP
INCREASED DRAIN COOLER OUTLET
PRESSURE

FIGURE E-4. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - TURBINE CYCLE LOSSES

13-4
COOLING WATER
C
CYCLE LOSSES

CONDENSER BACKPRESSURE
CIRCULATING WATER INLET TEMPERATURE

INCREASED HEAT
CHANGE IN AMBIENT LOW CIRCULATING
AIR IN-LEAKAGE TUBE CLEANLINESS LOAD ON
CONDITIONS WATER FLOW
CONDENSER

HIGH TEMPERATURE INCREASED CIRCULATING WATER


DIFFERENTIAL 11
CHANGE IN CONDENSER TTD OUTLET
CIRCULATING WATER BETWEEN EXHAUST TUBE BUNDLE TEMPERATURE
INLET TEMPERATURE AND CONDENSATE PRESSURE DROP DECREASE IN TURBINE
CIRCULATING WATER
WET BULB INCREASED VACUUM EFFICIENCY
PUMP DISCHARGE
TEMPERATURE PUMP FLOW RATE CYCLE ISOLATION
PRESSURE
PROBLEMS
TUBE BUNDLE
PRESSURE DROP
CIRCULATING WATER
COOLING TOWER PUMP CURRENT
LOSSES DRAW

WET BULB TEMPERATURE


COOLING TOWER RANGE
COOLING TOWER APPROACH

DEGRADATION OF CHANGE IN AMBIENT UNEQUAL FLOW IMPROPER FILL INADEQUATE FAN INADEQUATE DECREASED FAN
INADEQUATE CELLS RECIRCULATION
FILL MATERIAL CONDITIONS DISTRIBUTION MATERIAL CAPACITY CHEMICAL CONTROL EFFICIENCY

WIND DIRECTION WET BULB FAN CURRENT DRAW WATER ANALYSIS


LAPSE RATE TEMPERATURE
A4

SPRAY VALVES STRUCTURAL


SPRAY VALVES FILL MATERIAL
IMPROPERLY DAMAGE TO UPPER
BLOCKS PLUGGED
ADJUSTED BASIN

FIGURE E-5. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - COOLING WATER CYCLE LOSSES

13-5
TURBINE LOSSES D

DECREASE IN HP/ IP /LP


STAGE EFFICIENCY

MECHANICAL LEAKAGE PAST EXCESS REHEATER FLOW AREA INADEQUATE HEAT


FOULED HEAT EXCESS GAS BYPASS FLOW AREA BYPASS
DAMAGE CLOSED GOVERNOR SPRAY DECREASE TRANSFER SURFACE
TRANSFER SURFACES
VALVES
DECREASE IN RATIO OF STAGE
LOW MAIN STEAM TEMP. DECREASED MAIN STEAM
SUDDEN CHANGE PRESSURE IN STEAM DOWNSTREAM TO UPSTREAM
2 LOW REHEAT TEMP. TEMP.
IN STAGE INLET PIPE GREATER PRESSURES HIGH EXIT GAS TEMP DECREASED HOT REHEAT
EFFICIENCIES THAN FIRST STAGE GRADUAL DECREASE IN STAGE
LOW FEEDWATER TEMP. AT TEMP.
PRESSURE LOW REHEAT TEMPERATURE EFFICIENCY
ECONOMIZER EXIT INCREASED EXIT GAS TEMP.
REHEAT SPRAY FLOW GRADUAL DECREASE IN
REHEAT SPRAY CONTROL W/
P/V
VALVE POSITION

TURBINE LOSSES TURBINE LOSSES LEAKING REHEAT


IP-2 END PACKING IP-1 END PACKING DUMMY SEAL HP - IP2 DUMMY SEAL HP-IP1
BYPASS VALVE

DECREASE IN LP POWER DECREASE IN REHEAT DECREASE IN HP EFFICIENCY DECREASE IN REHEAT REHEATER PRESSURE DROP
OUTPUT TURBINE EFFICIENCY DECREASE IN REHEAT FLOW PRESSURE DROP CHANGE IN REHEAT
DECREASE IN IP-2 DECREASE IN REHEAT DECREASE IN REHEAT TURBINE EFFICIENCY
SECTION EFFICIENCY IP PRESSURE DROP TURBINE EFFICIENCY INCREASED EXIT GAS TEMP.
DECREASE IN REHEAT FLOW

HIGH SUPERHEATER FLOW AREA


SPRAY FLOW 2 INCREASE

INCREASE IN RATIO OR STAGE


SUPERHEATER DOWNSTREAM TO UPSTREAM
SPRAY FLOW PRESSURE

IMPROPER SPRAY LEAKING SPRAY SOLID PARTICLE


SPILL STRIP OR EROSION OF TURBINE BLADE MECHANICAL
CONTROL ISOLATION VALVE EROSION OF NOZZLE 5
PACKING LEAKAGE STAGE BLADES DAMAGE
BLOCKS

LOW MAIN STEAM SPRAY VALVE POSITION INCREASE IN RATION OF


TEMPERATURE SUDDEN DECREASE IN STAGE FIRST STAGE TO THROTTLE
EFFICIENCY PRESSURE 5 SUDDEN DECREASE IN
NO CHANGE IN P/V
INCREASE IN PRESSURES STAGE EFFICIENCY
INCREASED DOWNSTREAM DOWNSTREAM OF FIRST GRADUAL DECREASE IN STAGE SUDDEN DECREASE IN
EXTRACTION TEMPERATURES STAGE EFFICIENCY W/
P/V P/V
GRADUAL DECREASE IN W /
INCREASE IN DOWNSTERAM
PRESSURES

OPERATING
THERMAL STRESS RUBBING VIBRATION EXFOLIATION CYCLING
PRACTICES 3

CONDENSER POOR WATER


LEAKAGE CHEMISTRY

CONDENSER HOTWELL LEVEL WATER QUALITY


WATER QUALITY

FIGURE E-6. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - TURBINE LOSSES

13-6
LOSS DUE TO
E
ELECTRICAL
AUXILIARIES

CONTINUOUS
PRECIPITATOR RUNNING OF
PUMP EFFICIENCY MILL PERFORMANCE
PERFORMANCE NONCONTINUOUS
LOADS

EMITTER ASH EXCESSIVE RAPPING CLASSIFIER SETTING


IMPELLER WEAR SHAFT RUB COAL QUALITY
DEPOSITS INCORRECT

PUMP DISCHARGE FLOW VIBRATION MONITORING HIGH VOLTAGE MILL FINENESS COAL MOISTURE
PUMP CURRENT DRAW COAL GRINDABILITY

CHANGE IN FLOW CHANGE IN COAL MILL SKID LOW PRIMARY AIR


PATH RESISTANCE QUALITY FLOW

PRESSURE DROP HIGH ASH CHANGE IN FAN MILL TEMPERATURE


EFFICIENCY MILL TAILINGS

INCREASED CURRENT DRAW

CHANGE IN COOLING CHANGE IN FD FAN


TOWER FAN CHANGE IN ID FAN CHANGE IN PA FAN
E EFFICIENCY
EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY EFFICIENCY

BLADE PITCH INCREASED FLOW CHANGE IN AMBIENT OUTLET DAMPER EXCESSIVE AIR
EXCESSIVE DRIFT EXCESSIVE AIR SHAFT RUB
INCORRECT PATH RESISTANCE AIR CONDITIONS SETTINGS LEAKAGE
IN-LEAKAGE
INCORRECT
MAKEUP INCREASED WET BULB TEMPERATURE VIBRATION MONITORING
RELATIVE HUMIDITY O2MEASUREMENTS DAMPER POSITION

INLET DAMPER
SHAFT RUB SETTINGS SHAFT RUB BLADE EROSION SHAFT RUB
INCORRECT

VIBRATION MONITORING DAMPER POSITION VIBRATION MONITORING VIBRATION MONITORING

CHANGE IN FLOW
EXCESSIVE AIR PATH RESISTANCE
HEATER LEAKAGE
FURNACE PRESSURE DROP
AIRHEATER PRESSURE DROP
O2 MEASUREMENTS PRECIPITATOR PRESSURE DROP

FIGURE E-7. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - ELECTRICAL AUXILIARY LOSSES

13-7
LOSSES DUE TO
STEAM AUXILIARIES F

EXCESSIVE SOOT EXCESSIVE STEAM


DECREASE IN BFPT
BLOWING FLOW THROUGH
EFFICIENCY
VACUUM PUMPS

INCREASED MAKE-UP FLOW INCREASED HIGH PRESSURE VACUUM PUMP FLOW


DECREASED EXIT GAS STEAM SUPPLY FLOW
TEMPERATURE

BFP EXTRACTION
INCREASE IN
RECIRCULATION LINE EXCESSIVE SHAFT LOW INLET STEAM INCREASE IN REHEAT HIGH EXHAUST BACK DAMAGED TURBINE LINE CHECK VALVES
SUPERHEATER
OPEN LEAKAGE TEMPERATURE SPRAY FLOW PRESSURE BLADES OR NOZZLES STUCK OR PARTIALLY
SPRAY FLOW
OPEN

LOW REHEAT TEMPERATURE


HIGH CONDENSER DECREASED TURBINE DECREASE IN BFP INLET
FUEL HANDLING PRESSURE EFFICIENCY PRESSURE
LOSSES I INCREASE IN EXTRATION LINE
PRESSURE DROP

SPILLAGE FROM THE MEASUREMENT


COAL SAMPLING COAL PILE EROSION COAL PILE FIRE
BELTS INACCURACIES

WIND EROSION WATER EROSION

HEAT LOSSES
G

HEAT LOSS FROM


HEAT LOSS THROUGH INSULATION MISSING INSULATION MISSING INSULATION MISSING DEAREATOR OR
INSULATION MISSING INSULATION MISSING
CYCLE ISOLATION FROM CONDENSATE FROM BOILER FROM FLUE OR AIR FEEDWATER
FROM STEAM LINES FROM TURBINE
RETURN LINES CASING DUCT HEATERS

FIGURE E-8. HEAT RATE LOGIC TREE - STEAM AUXILIARY, FUEL HANDLING, AND HEAT LOSSES

13-8
CYCLE ISOLATION H

RECOVERABLE NON-RECOVERABLE
LOSSES LOSSES

3 INCREASED MAKE-UP

LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE FROM DEAERATOR LEAKAGE THROUGH
HEATER TO HEATER LEAKS TO THE CONSTANT FEEDWATER HEATER BOILER FEED PUMP LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKS TO THE
THROUGH BYPASS CONDENSER PRESSURE STEAM BYPASS LINES SEAL INJECTION BYPASS LINES
DEARATOR
LINE SUPPLY LINE
INCREASED BFP OUTLET
TEMPERATURE

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


EROSION OF LEAKS TO THE HIGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE OF LEAKS DIRECTLY TO FEEDWATER HEATER EXHAUST HOOO
HEATER VENT PRESSURE MANIFOLD FEEDWATER HEATER BOILER START-UP
HEATER VENT THE CONDENSER #2 BYPASS LINES SPRAY CONTROL
ORIFICE #1 BYPASS LINES BYPASS LINE
VALVE BYPASS

A1 B1

LEAKAGE THROUGH
BFP 1 GLAND STEAM LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE TO THE #1 LEAKS TO THE #2 I.P. DESUPERHEATER SPILLOVER CONTROL
BFP A MINIMUM BFP B MINIMUM FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER
I.P. MANIFOLD MANIFOLD CONTROL VALVE VALVE BYPASS
FLOW FLOW #3 BYPASS LINES #5 LINES
BYPASS

C1 D1

LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE TO THE LEAKAGE TO THE LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
GLAND STEAM HP
LOW PRESSURE TURBINE DRAIN FEEDWATER HEATER SPILLOVER CONTROL
SUPPLY CONTROL
MANIFOLD MANIFOLD #6 BYPASS LINES VALVE BYPASS
VALVE BYPASS

E1 F1

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


HOTWELL MAKEUP CONSTANT CONDENSATE RECIRC
CONTROL VALVE PRESSURE STEAM CONTROL VALVE
BYPASS CONTROL VALVE BYPASS
BYPASS

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


GLAND STEAM CONDENSATE GL STM CONDENSER
CONDENSATE CONTROL VALVE CONDENSATE DRAIN
BYPASS BYPASS TRAP BYPASS
FIGURE E-9. CYCLE ISOLATION

13-9
NON-RECOVERABLE
3 LOSSES

LEAKAGE THTROUGH
LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
VALVE PACKING LEAKAGE THROUGH GLAND STEAM
CONDENSER VACUUM 2" DRAIN LINE FROM 2" DRAIN LINE FROM 2" DRAIN LINE FROM HOT REHEAT SAFETY COLD REHEAT
LEAKS CONDENSER DRAINS HEADER SAFETY
BREAKER #1 HEATER HEATERS 5 & 6 HEATERS 2 & 3 VALVE SAFETY VALVES
VALVES

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
PENDANT SUPERHTR SOOTBLOWER STEAM
HOTWELL LEVEL HOTWELL MAKEUP FEEDWATER HEATER MAIN STEAM LINE MAIN STEAM LINE MAIN STEAM LINE SH SPRAY CONTROL
SPRAY CONTROL SUPPLY SAFETY
CONTROL DRAIN DRAIN ATMOSPHERIC VENTS DRAIN LEFT SIDE DRAIN RIGHT SIDE DRAIN HEADER VENTS
HEADER VENTS VALVE

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH EXCESSIVE FLOW LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE THROUGH DEAERATOR HIGH SOOTBLOWER STEAM MAIN STEAM POWER
BOILER DRUM SAFETY DEAERATOR DEAERATOR WATER THROUGH DEAERATOR SAFETY
ECONOMIZER VENT LEVEL CONTROL SUPPLY SAFETY CONTROL RELIEF
VALVES EMERGENCY DRAIN GAUGE DRAIN DEAERATOR VENTS VALVES
VALVE VALVE VALVE

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THORUGH
CONSTANT BOILER DRAIN VENT CONDENSATE TO
MAIN STEAM SAFETY PIPING LEAKS FLANGE LEAKS REHEATER OUTLET BFB A DISCHARGE BFB B DISCHARGE
PRESSURE STEAM LEAKS BOILER STARTUP
VALVE VENT LINE DRAIN LINE DRAIN
SAFETY VALVE RELIEF VALVE

LEAKAGEH THROUGH LEAKAGEH THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER FEEDWATER HEATER LEAKAGE TO BOILER LEAKAGE THROUGH
BFP A SEAL DRAIN BFP B SEAL DRAIN
#1 VENTS AND #2 VENTS AND #3 VENTS AND #5 VENTS AND #6 VENTS AND BLOWDOWN TANK STEAM TRAP DRAINS
LINE DRAIN LINE DRAIN
DRAINS DRAINS DRAINS DRAINS DRAINS

H1 H1 H1 H1 H1 G1 H1 H1 H1

LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE THROUGH
EMERGENCY DRAIN LEAKAGE THROUGH
CONDENSATE,
LINE DRAINS AND COLD REHEAT DRAIN
DRAINS
VENTS

FIGURE E-9 (continued). CYCLE ISOLATION

13-10
LEAKS DIRECTLY TO
THE CONDENSER A1

LEAKAGE OR LEAKAGE OR LEAKAGE OR


EXCESSIVE FLOW LEAKAGE THROUGH CYCLING OF HEATER CYCLING OF HEATER CYCLING OF HEATER
THROUGH HEATER #1 THE CONDENSATE #1 EMERGENCY #2 EMERGENCY #3 EMERGENCY
VENT ORIFICE RECIRCULATION LINE DRAIN DRAIN DRAIN

LEAKAGE OR LEAKAGE OR
EXCESSIVE FLOW EXCESSIVE FLOW LEAKAGE THROUGH
CYCLING OF HEATER CYCLING OF HEATER
THROUGH HEATER #2 THROUGH HEATER #3 BFP A GLAND STEAM
#5 EMERGENCY #6 EMERGENCY
VENT ORIFICE VENT ORIFICE SUPPLY DRAIN TRAP
DRAIN DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
BFP A GLAND STEAM BFP B GLAND STEAM
BFP B GLAND STEAM BFP A DRAIN FLOAT BFP B DRAIN FLOAT BFP A AND B
LEAK-OFF DRAIN LEAK-OFF DRAIN
SUPPLY DRAIN TRAP VALVE VALVE EMERGENCY DUMP
TRAP TRAP

LEAKS TO THE HIGH


PRESSURE MANIFOLD B1

LEAKS THROUGH LEAKS THROUGH


STEAM INLET PIPE STEAM INLET PIPE LEAK THROUGH
DRAIN LINE ON RIGHT DRAIN LINE ON LEFT IMPULSE CHAMBER
SIDE SIDE DRAIN LINE

FIGURE E-9 (continued). CYCLE ISOLATION

13-11
LEAKAGE
TO LOW PRESSURE
E1
MANIFOLD

EXCESSIVE FLOW EXCESSIVE FLOW LEAKING STEAM TRAP LEAKAGE THROUGH


THROUGH H.P. GLAND THROUGH L.P. GLAND IN #2 EXTRACTION EXTRACTION LINE #2
SEAL STEAM DRAIN SEAL STEAM DRAIN LINE ISOLATION ISO VALVE STEAM
ORIFICE ORIFICE VALVE DRAIN TRAP BYPASS VALVE

LEAKING STEAM TRAP


LEAKING STEAM TRAP LEAKING STEAM TRAP LEAKING STEAM TRAP
IN #3 EXTRACTION
IN #1 EXTRACTION IN #2 EXTRACTION IN #3 EXTRACTION
LINE ISOLATION
LINE DRAIN LINE DRAIN LINE DRAIN
VALVE DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE TO


EXTRACTION LINE #1 EXTRACTION LINE #2 EXTRACTION LINE #3 EXTRACTION LINE #3 TURBINE DRAIN
STEAM TRAP STEAM TRAP STEAM TRAP ISO VALVE STEAM F1
MANIFOLD
BYPASS VALVE BYPASS VALVE BYPASS VALVE TRAP BYPASS VALVE

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


HOT REHEAT INLET HOT REHEAT INLET OUTER CYLINDER OUTER CYLINDER
PIPE LEFT SIDE DRAIN PIPE RIGHT SIDE DOWN NON-ORIFICE DRAIN ORIFICE DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH
FEEDWATER HEATER H1
VENTS AND DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEVEL CONTROL SHELL RELIEF CHANNEL
START-UP
SLAP DRAIN CHANNEL VENT DRAIN VALVE RELIEF VALVE
SHELL VENT

FIGURE E-9 (CONTINUED). CYCLE ISOLATION

13-12
LEAKAGE
TO BOILER
BLOWDOWN TANK G1

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEFT SIDE RIGHT SIDE LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH PRIMARY CONVECTION
SUPERHEATER LEFT SIDE WALL
DIVISION WALL INLET DIVISION WALL INLET STEAM DRAIN RIGHT SIDE WALL SUPERHEATER
OUTLET HOT REHEAT DRAIN
HEADER DRAIN HEADER DRAIN WATER GAUGE DRAIN HOT REHEAT DRAIN HEADER DRAIN
HEADER DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH EXCESSIVE


LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
RIGHT SIDE LOWER LEFT SIDE LOWER ECONOMIZER INLET STEAM DRUM
RIGHT LOWER REAR LEFT LOWER REAR
PARTITION DRAIN PARTITION DRAIN HEADER DRAIN BLOWDOWN
W.W. HEADER DRAIN W. W. HEADER DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


RIGHT LOWER FRONT LEFT LOWER FRONT RIGHT LOWER LEFT LOWER
W. W. HEADER DRAIN W.W. HEADER DRAIN SIDE WALL DRAIN SIDE WALL DRAIN

FIGURE E-9 (CONTINUED). CYCLE ISOLATION

13-13
LEAKAGE TO
LP. #1
MANIFOLD C1

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
BFP 6A H.P. STEAM BFP 6B H.P. STEAM BFP 6A LP STEAM BFP 6B LP STEAM COLD REHEAT DRAIN
SUPPLY DRAIN SUPPLY DRAIN SUPPLY DRAIN SUPPLY DRAIN

STEAM TRAP LEAK IN STEAM TRAP LEAK IN EXCESSIVE FLOW EXCESSIVE FLOW LEAKAGE THROUGH
DEAERATOR DEAERATOR THROUGH H.P. SEAL THROUGH L.P. SEAL BFP 6A
EXTRACTION LINE ISOLATION LINE STEAM SUPPLY STEAM SUPPLY L.P. STEAM TRAP
DRAIN DRAIN ORIFICE ORIFICE BYPASS VALVE

LEAKAGE THROUGH
LEAKAGE THROUGH STEAM TRAP LEAK IN DEAERATOR EXTR. STEAM TRAP LEAK IN LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH
LINE #6 EXTRACTION LINE STEAM TRAP LEAK DEAERATOR #5 EXTRACTION LINE #6 EXTRACTION LINE COLD REHEAT DRAIN
BFP 6B #5 EXTRACTION LINE
STEAM TRAP ISOLATION VALVE IN COLD REHEAT ISO VALVE STEAM STEAM TRAP STEAM TRAP LINE STEAM TRAP
LP, STEAM TRAP ISOLATION VALVE
BYPASS VALVE DRAIN BYPASS VALVE TRAP BYPASS VALVE BYPASS VALVE BYPASS VALVE BYPASS VALVE
BYPASS VALVE DRAIN

LEAKAGE TO
LP. #2 D1
MANIFOLD

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH HOT REHEAT
HOT REHEAT HOT REHEAT
BOILER DRAINS RIGHT SIDE DRAIN
MAIN DRAIN LINE LEFT SIDE DRAIN

LEAKAGE THROUGH LEAKAGE THROUGH


LEAKAGE THROUGH
REHEAT REHEAT
REHEAT OUTLET
INLET HEADER INLET HEADER
HEADER DRAIN
RIGHT SIDE DRAIN LEFT SIDE DRAIN

FIGURE E-9 (CONTINUED). CYCLE ISOLATION

13-14
15