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Philippine GDP

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Philippines was worth 291.97 billion US dollars in 2015. The GDP
value of Philippines represents 0.47 percent of the world economy. GDP in Philippines averaged 69.01 USD
Billion from 1960 until 2015, reaching an all time high of 291.97 USD Billion in 2015 and a record low of
4.40 USD Billion in 1962. GDP in Philippines is reported by the World Bank.

Philippines GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit

GDP Growth Rate 1.20 2.10 3.40 -2.30 percent [+]
GDP Annual Growth Rate 7.10 7.00 12.40 -11.10 percent [+]
GDP 291.97 284.78 291.97 4.40 USD Billion [+]
GDP Constant Prices 2039955.00 2011857.00 2039955.00 825496.00 PHP Million [+]
Gross National Product 2442142.00 2417063.00 2442142.00 944320.00 PHP Million [+]
Gross Fixed Capital Formation 529415.83 514040.43 529415.83 163357.69 PHP Million [+]
GDP per capita 2635.04 2529.66 2635.04 1059.33 USD [+]
GDP per capita PPP 6925.52 6648.55 6925.52 3796.61 USD [+]
GDP From Agriculture 128819.17 135287.70 175788.62 114778.44 PHP Million [+]
GDP From Construction 193310.28 213768.39 213768.39 85502.67 PHP Million [+]
GDP From Manufacturing 428371.89 461712.83 501178.30 252377.26 PHP Million [+]
GDP From Mining 16378.55 25028.78 30306.94 10394.10 PHP Million [+]
Gdp From Public 75637.54 87977.98 87977.98 43289.41 PHP Million [+]
GDP From Transport 56984.47 71482.79 71482.79 34827.71 PHP Million [+]
GDP From Utilities 75660.94 69504.84 75660.94 42117.43 PHP Million [+]
Philippines GDP Last Previous Highest Lowest Unit

Philippines GDP Notes

The gross domestic product (GDP) measures of national income and output for a given country's economy. The
gross domestic product (GDP) is equal to the total expenditures for all final goods and services produced within
the country in a stipulated period of time. This page provides - Philippines GDP - actual values, historical data,
forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news. Philippines GDP - actual data, historical chart and
calendar of releases - was last updated on November of 2016.

Actual Previous Highest Lowest Dates Unit Frequency

291.97 284.78 291.97 4.40 1960 - 2015 USD Billion Yearly Current USD

Philippine Export

Exports from Philippines increased by 5.1 percent from a year earlier to USD 5.21 billion in September of
2016, following a 3.0 percent fall in August. It was the first growth since March 2015, mainly driven by other
mineral products (+97.5 percent), electronic equipment (+66.3 percent) and metal components (+18.2
percent). Sales of electronic products, the country's top export revenues, also went up 3.6 percent. In contrast,
exports fell for: woodcrafts and furniture (-7.1 percent) and macchinery and transport equipment (-3.0
percent). Outbound shipments to Japan, the country's top export destination rose 2.9 percent to USD 1.12
billion. Those to China also increased by 32.8 percent to USD 633.36 million, followed by the US (+1.5 percent
to USD 737.30 million), the ASEAN countries (+13.1 percent to USD 748.63 million) and the EU countries
(+17.4 percent to USD 690.62 million). In contrast, exports fell to Hong Kong (-6.5 percent to USD 590.94
million). Exports in Philippines averaged 1459928.29 USD Thousand from 1957 until 2016, reaching an all
time high of 5931591.34 USD Thousand in May of 2014 and a record low of 23000 USD Thousand in October
of 1957. Exports in Philippines is reported by the National Statistics Office of Philippines.
Philippines Exports Notes
Exports in Philippines account for nearly a third of GDP. Major exports are: electronic products (42
percent), other manufactures (10 percent) and woodcrafts and furniture (6 percent). Philippines is also
the worlds largest producer of coconut, pineapple and abaca. Philippines's main export partners are: Japan
(21 percent), the United States (15 percent), China (12 percent) and Hong Kong (8 percent). This page
provides - Philippines Exports - actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar
and news. Philippines Exports - actual data, historical chart and calendar of releases - was last updated on
November of 2016.

Actual Previous Highest Lowest Dates Unit Frequency

5210680.00 4903950.00 5931591.34 23000.00 1957 - 2016 USD Thousand Monthly

Philippine Import

Imports to Philippines rose 13.5 percent year-on-year to USD 7.10 billion in September of 2016, following
a 12.2 percent rise in the preceding month. It was the highest rise since June, as purchases rose for most
categories, including: cereals and cereal preparations (+61.8 percent), iron and steel (+56.1 percent),
plastics in primary and non-primary forms (+51.8 percent) and other food and live animals (+44.8
percent). In contrast, imports of electronic products fell 10.1 percent. Purchases increased from: China
(+52.3 percent to USD 1.40 billion), Japan (+28.5 percent to USD 857.53 million) and the ASEAN countries
(+25.8 percent to USD 1.91 billion). In contrast, imports declined from the US (-8.2 percent to USD 644.92
million) and the EU countries (-19.9 percent to USD 505.12 million). Imports in Philippines averaged
1727171.25 USD Thousand from 1957 until 2016, reaching an all time high of 7100650 USD Thousand in
September of 2016 and a record low of 37084.30 USD Thousand in February of 1963. Imports in
Philippines is reported by the National Statistics Office of Philippines.

Philippines Imports Notes

Philippines major imports are: electronic products (25 percent), mineral fuels (21 percent) and transport
equipment (10 percent). Philippines's main import partners are: China (13 percent), the United States (11
percent), Japan (8 percent) and Taiwan (8 percent). This page provides the latest reported value for -
Philippines Imports - plus previous releases, historical high and low, short-term forecast and long-term
prediction, economic calendar, survey consensus and news. Philippines Imports - actual data, historical
chart and calendar of releases - was last updated on November of 2016.

Actual Previous Highest Lowest Dates Unit Frequency

7100650.00 6926520.00 7100650.00 37084.30 1957 - 2016 USD Thousand Monthly

Reference: www.tradingeconomics.com

Philippine Crude Birth rate

200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 201 201 201 201 201
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4
Philippine 27.8 27.3 26.8 25.3 24.8 24.4 26.4 26.0 25.6 25.3 24.9 24.6 24.2
26.3 25.8
s 5 7 8 1 9 8 2 1 8 4 8 2 4

Definition of Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per
1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually
the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of
fertility and the age structure of the population.

Philippine Life Expectancy

Philippine Health Care System
Strengthening Peso In Relation to United States (U.S.) Dollar
The current market price for which one currency can be traded for another is called an exchange
rate[1]. For example, if the U.S. Dollar exchange rate for the Philippine Peso of 44.38 means that 1 U.S.
Dollar can be exchanged for 44.38 Philippine Peso. Though it is challenging to understand the changes in
foreign exchange market rates, it stays as one of the most analysed and forecasted economic indicators as
exchange rates play an important role in determining the level of competitiveness of a country.

According to TradingEconomics.com, the USD-PHP spot exchange rate has appreciated 0.6200 or
1.42 percent during the last 30 days. During the period from 1998 to 2013, this exchange rate averaged
47.2700 pesos to a dollar reaching an all-time high of 56.3400 in October 2004 and a record low of 37.8400
in May 1999. According to the BangkoSentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the average monthly Peso per U.S. Dollar
rate for 2013 is at 42.2954[2]

Earlier in October this year, the Philippine Peso was expected to significantly appreciate next year to
40-to-a-dollar and would be among the strongest in the region as forecasted by the investment bank
Goldman Sachs due to increase in investments, continuous inflow of foreign exchange from Overseas
Filipino Workers, and the strengthening of business process outsourcing (BPO).[3] Though the peso fell to
its lowest since September last December 20,,2013 at 44.50:$1 due to the US Federal Reserves unexpected
announcement of its intent to taper its monetary stimulus through quantitative easing (QE) on January
2014, the BSP remains untroubled and still expects the peso to gain its strength back as remittances from
overseas workers continue to increase[4]. The following table shows a positive outlook by the Economist
Intelligence Unit for the Philippine currency in the coming years:

Table 2. USD-PhP Exchange Rate

USD-PHP Exchange
Year Rate
2013 43.00
2014 42.50
2015 42.00

Stable Interest Rates

In 2012, the countrys key policy interest rate was at 3.5%.[5] In 2013, the said BSPs rate for the
overnight borrowing or reverse repurchase (RRP) facility was kept at 3.5% by the Monetary Board and
5.50 % for the overnight lending or repurchases (RP) facility[6]. The decision to maintain these rates
stems from the BSPs assessment that inflation stays non-threatening and domestic economic activity
continues to show solid growth. Moreover, lending to the productive sectors of the economy has also been
growing in strength, thus, contributing to the minimization of price pressures. Comparatively three years
ago, rates for the RRP and RP facilities were at 6.00 and 4.00, respectively, which means that current rates
are lower.

To further support this positive outlook, Table 3 shows a forecast for the next few years on this
economic factor.

Table 3. Interest Rate Forecast 2013-2015[7]

Year Interest Rate

2013 3.5
2014 3.5
2015 3.5

Lower and stable interest rates may mean an opportunity for the government and through it the hospitals,
to improve its capability for the enhancement of its facilities through expansion projects and opens the
option of financing these through long-term borrowings. Interest rates affect hospitals financially as it
determines the level of costs the government incurs from its existing loans through interest expenses and
repayments. With stable interest rates, the government will, in part, be able to efficiently control its
financial health in terms of its current and future long-term borrowings for its capital
investments. Additional hospital capital investments will consequently result to better delivery of health
care services.

Low and Stable Inflation

With the strength of domestic economic activity and increasing capacity of domestic productivity,
the BSP remains unruffled as it deems inflation as manageable over the next few years[8]. Forecasts
support this stance as it shows that inflation will stay within the target range over policy horizon. In
general, mean inflation is expected to decrease but still within-target for 2013 to 2015. For 2013 and 2014,
forecast showed the decrease to 2.9% and 3.5%, respectively, and a stable 3.6% for the year 2015. With
stable global commodity prices, price pressures in the country are expected to be unthreatening as
well. Good demand indicators and manageable supply conditions are also anticipated to maintain the
current robust domestic economic activity. The following fan chart demonstrates that risks to BSPs
positive outlook on inflation, through careful assessment of price trends and future inflation, appear to be
positive as well. The fan chart illustrates the probability of different inflation outcomes and risks based on
a central projection. The relatively larger bands above this central projection, the BSPs baseline forecast,
confirms that its position is indeed on the upside.

Inflation affects the hospital in terms of its costs of operation such as wages, repair and maintenance
costs, supplies and equipment. Irregular fluctuations or fast increases in prices can cause the hospitals
inability to catch up in its adjustment of prices of services it offers or in its request for additional budget
and may also therefore mean higher cost of operations and lesser profits. Low and stable inflation rates in
the next few years shall present the hospital with more control in its costs of operations, prices of medical
services it offers, and generation of revenues as well. Moreover, low and stable inflation also means more
peso for people to spend and thus, increases their capability to pay for health services as well. This,
therefore, presents an opportunity for the hospital.

Upward Trend of GDP Growth Rate

The domestic economy accelerated in the third quarter of 2013 by 7.5 percent from 7.3 percent
recorded the previous year boosting the 2013 first nine months growth to 7.4 percent from 6.7 percent in
2012[9]. The third quarter growth is the fifth consecutive GDP growth of at least 7.0 percent under the
Aquino Administration. This is the result of strong performance in the real estate, renting, and business
activities, trade and financial intermediation. This growth is backed up by the Industry sectors robust
growth as well.
It even surpassed the World Bankss expectation of 6.2% for 2013 and the forecast made by the
Economy Watch that shows an expected GDP annual growth rate of 6.3-6.9 percent from 2012 to 2016 and
will reach US$ 514 billion by the end of 2016[10].

Philippine GDP, 1980-2015

Source: Economy Watch. http://www.economywatch.com/economic-

According to World Bank, shall the country sustain a high GDP of at least 5%, around 2.2 million
Filipinos can be provided with good jobs from 2013 to 2016[11]. The following table shows a positive
viewpoint for the countrys annual GDP growth rate in the next few years.

Table 4. GDP Annual Growth Rate Forecast 2013-2015[12]

GDP Annual Growth

Year Rate
2013 4.50
2014 7.25
2015 7.17

An important component of GDP is consumption and government expenditure. The steady growth of
economy may mean an increase in private and government expenditure on health. With private
consumption as a basic driver of the countrys GDP growth, people could be spending more not only for
non-medical items such as food but also for medical services offered in hospitals as well. Government
spending for the provision of health services could also be increasing, and thus, may increase the number
of Filipinos with health coverage. This has a positive effect on hospitals as continuous and increased
spending on health care services would result to the hospitals improved financial position and
consequently improved quality of services.

Migration of Experienced Health Care Professionals

In the global labor market, the Philippines has become a source of a great number of professional
workers especially for the first world countries; health workers are not left behind by this migration
trend. Nurses comprise the largest number of health workers leaving the country followed by midwives
and doctors. In 2010, the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA) reported a total number of
12,082 nurses and 266 midwives deployed to other countries[13]. Next to India, the Philippines is already
the largest source of doctors in hospitals abroad. The country also supplies 25 percent of all overseas
nurses worldwide[14] and 83 per cent of foreign nurses in the United States[15]. This loss of skilled
manpower in the local health sector is attributed to the countrys deeper issues on employment
opportunities and inadequate wages to sustain a decent living. Our professionals continue to leave our
country to seek more opportunities for career development and higher living standards.
According to a report of POEA, Nurse Professionals ranked second among the top ten deployed land-
based Overseas Filipino Workers by Occupational Categories. From 2008 to 2012, the number of nurse
professionals deployed abroad shows an increasing trend. The year 2011 marked the highest number at
17,236 deployed nurses.
Because the migrating nurses are usually the ones with training, experience and skills, patients in
hospitals and other health institutions in the Philippines can expect a higher incidence of cross-infections,
adverse events after surgery, accidents, injuries and even increased violence against the staff.
Moreover, with the best among nursing students often leaving as soon as they graduate, the less
skilled are taking the place of senior or relatively more experienced nurses who have also left for other
shores. In a year or two, they too would be gone. The void would be filled once more by fresh graduates
who would repeat the same cycle: get a few years experience in a local hospital, apply for work abroad and
then leave. It is say many health professionals, a cycle that leaves local hospitals in a state of perpetual
displacementand patients in constant danger. With staff usually composed of trainees, quality of service
may deteriorate. This would also contribute to higher costs of operation as hospitals continuously spend
for the training of newly hired medical staff. This poses a threat to hospitals.

High Poverty Incidence Among Families

In 2012 full year official poverty statistics report made by the Philippine Statistical System in early
December 2013, statistics show that extreme poverty remains at 1.6 million in the previous year[17]. This
refers to the subsistence incidence or the proportion of Filipino families under extreme poverty. This is
estimated at 7.5 per cent in 2012 with no significant increase since 2009.
Poverty incidence refers to the percentage of poor families to the total number of families in an
area. The latest NSCB report shows that the poverty incidence in the country was at 19.7 per cent in 2012,
a significant decrease since 1991. This means that about one (1) out of every five (5) Filipino families was
poor in that year. Since 2006, with the continuing growing population of the country, no significant
changes in poverty incidence were observed. Despite this fact, however, the number of poor families
increased to 4.2 million in 2012 from 3.8 million in 2006.

Table 6. Annual Poverty Incidence in the Philippines[18]

Poverty Incidence
Year Among Families (%)
1991 29.7
2006 21.0
2009 20.5
2012 19.7

Table 7. Annual Magnitude of Poor Families in the Philippines[19]

Year No. of Poor Families

1991 3,554,878
2006 3,809,283
2009 4,036,915
2012 4,214,921

With the basic needs as the priority of expenditure of families, persistence of poverty incidence in the
country could mean lesser spending of people for health or medical services. The increasing number of
poor families also means an increasing number of patients for government hospitals whose main thrust is
to serve people who belong to poor families. More people will seek medical care from government
hospitals that offers medical services subsidized by the National Government. This presents an
opportunity for the QMMC to be able to serve more people.

Increasing Philhealth Coverage Through the Implementation of Case Rate System and No Balance
Billing Policy
In September 2011, the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation implemented the New Case Rate
System that standardized the cost of payment of medical services and surgical procedures. The case rate
system assigns fixed rates that Philhealth reimburses for specific cases; thus, members will be able to know
just how much Philhealth will be subsidizing for the medical services they have availed of. Moreover, this
new system provides faster reimbursement of fees to health care providers such as government hospitals
with significant reduction in the processing time of claim documents from 60 days to as fast as 10 days or
less. The following table shows the rates for medical cases and surgical procedures in the new system.

Table 8.Medical Case and Surgical Procedures Case Rates[20]

Medical Cases Case Rate in Pesos

Dengue I (Dengue fever, DHF
grades I & II) 8,000
Dengue II (DHF grades III & IV) 16,000
Pneumonia I (moderate risk) 15,000
Pneumonia II (high risk) 32,000
Essential Hypertension 9,000
Cerebral Infarction (CVA-I) 28,000
Cerebral Hemorrhage (CVA-II) 38,000
Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) 6,000
Asthma 9,000
Typhoid Fever 14,000
Newborn Care Package in
Hospitals and Lying in Clinics 1,750
Surgical Procedures
Radiotherapy 3,000
Hemodialysis 4,000
Maternity Care Package (MCP) 8,000
NSD Package in Level I Hospitals 8,000
NSD Package in Levels 2 to 4
Hospitals 6,500
Caesarean Section 19,000
Appendectomy 24,000
Cholecystectomy 31,000
Dilatation and Curettage 11,000
Thyroidectomy 31,000
Herniorrhaphy 21,000
Mastectomy 22,000
Hysterectomy 30,000
Cataract Surgery 16,000

The No Balance Billing (NBB) Policy is another benefit for sponsored members who are admitted
in government hospitals. Philhealths insurance coverage includes expenditures as per the benefits
schedule up to a limit. Shall a patient-member exceed the ceiling; he or she shall cover for the additional
costs. Under the NBB policy, however, the patient-member will not be charged with any fees or expenses
beyond the stated package rate thereby providing financial risk protection to Filipinos especially those
from poor families.

NSCB Statistics also show that between 2000 and 2008, the number of Philhealth beneficiaries,
comprising of members and their dependents, have significantly increased from 29,597 in 2000 to 68,869
in 2008. This increasing number of beneficiaries is reflected in the upward trend of NHIP coverage rate in
the country from only 38.5% to 76.2% of the total Philippine Population in 2008.

Table 9. Number of active Philhealth Beneficiaries (Members & Dependents)[21]

Total NHIP
Beneficaries in
Year Thousands
2000 29,597
2001 36,744
2002 43,565
2003 42,401
2004 69,506
2005 54,599
2006 68,403
2007 64,467
2008 68,669
2009 81,178
2010 69,984
2011 78,386
2012 77,669*

The upward trend of Philhealth coverage among Filipinos and Philhealths target of 100% will
positively change the behavior of people towards seeking for medical services. As people get well-
informed of the benefits they could get from being a Philhealth member, more Filipinos especially the poor
will take advantage of its utilization. This is further enhanced by the implementation of the case rate
system and the no balance billing policy that allows people to estimate the amount that Philhealth shall
cover for the medical expenses provided to them, thereby protecting them from financial risks. More
people seeking medical services and availing Philhealth benefits means more patients for government
hospitals like the QMMC; thus, an opportunity for the hospital as well.

Increasing Govt Budget Appropriation for the Department of Health (DOH)

Annually, the DOH Budget is developed initially with the Department of Budget Managements (DBM)
issuance of the budget call during the first quarter of the year. The DBM sets budget ceilings based on the
availability of funds in the treasury and its estimated income for the year. The DOH, then, together with all
other line agencies formulates their budget for the year based on the issued ceilings. The line agencies
proposals will then be consolidated into a National Expenditure Program (NEP) and converted into a
General Appropriations Bill that will undergo a deliberation by both the House of Representatives and the
Senate. The budget appropriated for DOH has significantly increased for the past five years from P18 billion
in 2008 to P50 billion in 2013. This is even expected to increase as the proposed budget for 2014 is at P80
billion indicated in the 2014 NEP[22].

Table 9. Department of Health Annual Approriations[23]

Annual Appropriation
Year in Peso
2008 18,912,010,000
2009 23,666,655,000
2010 24,649,765,000
2011 31,828,616,000
2012 42,155,963,000
2013 50,442,299,000
2014 80,171,300,000*

Note: *Proposed DOH budget for 2014

The increasing trend of government budget for DOH means more resources for government
hospitals. Greater resources will mean more and better health services to be offered for the
people. Greater subsidy received from the government will allow for more capital spending on equipment
and other facilities, and therefore, better quality of services. It is, thus, necessary that the DOH is able to
maximize the spending of available resources provided for by the National Government.


Implementation of Health Facilities Enhancement Program (HFEP)

The Health Facilities Enhancement Program (HFEP) is one of the banner programs of the Aquino
Administration. Its main goal is to improve basic and specialized health services providing trainings for
health professionals and upgrading health facilities, thereby providing better quality health
care[24]. Primary health care facilities will be strengthened to become more responsive to the needs of
the communities in their respective areas and be able to provide Basic Emergency Obstetric and Newborn
Care (BEmONC) and Comprehensive Emergency and Newborn Care (CEmONC) services.

In 2007, the program started to receive a separate line budget item with P10 million allotted for
Capital Outlay (CO) with continual significant increases. The CO budget increased from P1.6 billion to P3.2
billion in 2010 and even reached P7 billion in 2011[25]. Moreover, its budget for DOH hospitals alone was
at P6.6 billion for the year 2013[26].

The HFEP, with its thrust to upgrade health care facilities such as Barangay Health Stations (BHSs)
and Regional Health Units (RHUs) including government hospitals nation-wide, will be able to enhance the
countrys health facility network. Expansion of services could be achieved in tertiary hospitals enabling
them to achieve higher quality level of service delivery. This program, therefore, presents an opportunity.

The Growing Trend of IT in Health Industry

Globally, the application of Information and Communications Technology in the operations of health
institutions has been the norm in the more developed countries for more than 2 decades. Hospital
operations are supported in terms of health record systems management, inventory management, and
accounting and financial management and inter-operational communications. Over the years, this trend
has made available useful technologies for the health industry such as electronic health record software
(EHR), personal health gadgets, telemedicine, clinical and billing software, health information exchange,
and cloud services[27].

IT innovations will also improve population health management through which chronic conditions in
patients in a hospital may be determined and related readmissions may be reduced thereby leading to cost
savings and improved services for both patients and health care providers.


Increasing Population
Latest data from the National Statistics Office (NSO) show that the Philippine population is 92.34
million based on the 2010 census results and is expected to continue to grow in the coming years[28]. The
number shows that the population has increased to almost 16 million from the 2000 result of 76.5 million
at a growth rate of 1.89% down from 2.34%. Using this growth rate recorded in 2010, it is estimated that
the country has a population of around 98.73 million in 2013[29].

According to the projections made by the NSO, the population will continue to increase and will
reach around 141 million by the year 2014 at growth rate of 0.92%. This projection shows that 65 million
people would be added to the Philippine population from 2000 to 2040, on the account that there will be a
significant decrease in the average annual growth rate to 1% in 2030 to 2040 from 2.34% in 1990 to 2000.

Table 10. Summary of Projected Philippine Population, by Five Year Interval: 2000-2040[30]

Projected Philippine
Year Population
2000 76,946,500
2005 85,261,000
2010 94,013,200
2015 102,965,300
2020 111,784,600
2025 120,224,500
2030 128,110,000
2035 135,301,100
2040 141,669,900

The increasing trend of Philippine population presents an opportunity for the hospital
industry. The increasing population means more people will be needing medical or health services from
health care providers such as government hospitals. Since the main thrust of government hospitals like
the QMMC is to deliver medical services to the people, more Filipinos will be served and therefore
utilization of such institutions is maximized.

Health Seeking Behavior of Adolescents in the Philippines

Of the total population of the Philippines, it is estimated that around 20% is comprised of
adolescents[31]. In 2010, young people aged 10 to 24 years old accounts for an estimated 30.5% of the
said total.

Table 11. Number and Percentage of Young People by Age and Sex, Philippines 2010

Year Total Number % of Total Population

10-14 10,168,219 11.0
15-19 9,676,359 10.5
20-24 8,370,398 10.0
Total 28,214,976 30.5

On the account of the total Philippine population, the number of young people in 2010 showed an
increase since 2000. Its size, however, had slightly declined from 31.3% in the 2000 census[32]. This
proportion to the total population is expected to further decrease by the year 2025 to 27% with a total of
approximately 32 million[33].

On the health seeking behaviour of adolescents in the country, latest report of the World Health
Organization about the Philippines indicate that adolescents and young people are likely to care less in
seeking medical or health care. This is due to the fact that they have already surpassed childhood diseases
and are not yet affected by the health problems that usually occur among the older
population[34]. According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey in the Philippines, young
people who seek primary care visited RHUs and BHSs more than other types of health facilities due to
illness and injury and medical check up, the top two reasons of visits at 67.6% and 28.1%,
respectively[35]. The study also showed that those surveyed mentioned at least one problem in accessing
health care with lack of money as the top reason at 56.8% among 15 to 19 year old women. This is further
supported by a survey conducted on health living of Filipinos by a large independent life insurance group.
Results of the survey show that among the Filipino adults who were surveyed, only 53% have had a medical
check up in the past 12 months. Moreover, according to the same study, their decision to visit health care
providers was mainly influenced by the price of health care services that are perceived to be expensive[36].
If this trend will continue to increase in the future, diseases among this age group may not be detected and
treated early and therefore lead to increases in the incidence of such diseases in the latter years. The
following restrictions to the use of health services were also identified: lack of financial resources to pay
for medicines and medical fees, lack of information on availment process of health benefits offered by the
government and perception of poor quality of health services in the country[37].


Persistence of Climate Change causing Increased Incidence of Diseases

It is undeniable that the weather and climate affect our health as changes in weather/climate
factors such as temperature, precipitation patterns and weather conditions could increase and spread
diseases especially the climate-sensitive ones[38]. Higher temperature not only increases mortality rates
but also leads to higher levels of air and water pollutants that are dangerous to human health. In a report
made by an environmentally concerned organization, global temperature is expected to increase to 4.9
degrees Celsius by the year 2100 if no action (business as usual) is taken to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions as shown in the graph below[39]. Moreover, climate change leads to the occurrence of frequent
extreme weather conditions such as stronger typhoons that poses threats to people with flash floods,
extremely high winds and landslides among others.

Factors of climate have an impact on human health because these are critical determinants of various
diseases. Climate change could affect transmitters of diseases through food, water and even
animals. Because bacteria grow more rapidly in higher air temperatures, this could lead to higher
incidence of food-borne diseases such as salmonella and bacteria-related food poisoning. With frequent
heavy rainfall or flooding, contamination of water bodies with bacteria can causes disease such as
gastroenteritis and infections.The effects of climate change also increase the incidence of diseases such as
Dengue, Malaria and even Leptospirosis transmitted by mosquitoes that thrive in stagnant waters and rats
whose feces may contain pathogens.[40] Increasing incidence of diseases also means an increase in the
number of patients in hospitals; thus, providing an opportunity for hospitals to serve greater number of

A. Positive and Negative Aspects

Positive Aspects

1. Economic Growth This means more people can afford healthcare, more taxes paid and more revenues
for the government for its health programs, health infrastructure and staffing pattern increase. This also
spells additional funds for medical research and development.
2. National Health Insurance Program (NHIP) Philhealth is nearing its 100% coverage. That means the
No Balance Billing for the greater percentage of Filipinos
3. Technology The widening use of Electronic Medical Records (EMR), Telehealth and new generation
equipment in hospitals and healthcare centers lead to efficient healthcare delivery and healthcare
operations. Telemedicine offers wider dissemination of information and diagnosis and treatments for
patients particularly in far-flung areas.

Negative Aspects

1. Climate Change Climate Change leads to the increase of diseases that are not endemic in other areas
before such as Dengue and other water-borne diseases.
2. Population Growth The increase in population strains the healthcare infrastructure of the government
in meeting the healthcare demand of the people. Also, population pressure leads to a higher population
density wherein poor areas are the most vulnerable to diseases that are easily spread due to proximity.
Also, these areas are the most prone to climate change related diseases.

[1]Philippine Peso.Trading Economics.http://www.tradingeconomics.com/philippines/currency.

Accessed on December 22, 2013.
[2] Peso Per US Dollar Rate. BangkoSentral ng
Pilipinas.http://www.bsp.gov.ph/statistics/spei_pub/Table%2024.pdf. Accessed on December 27, 2013.
[3]Montecillo, Paolo.Peso seen appreciating to 40 to $1 in 2014. The Philippine Inquirer.October 10,2013.
[4]Montecillo, Paolo.Peso seen to strengthen against US Dollar. Philippine Inquirer.December 22,2013
[5]Central Bank Rates.http://www.cbrates.com/ Accessed on December 27, 2013.
[6]Inflation Report Third Quarter: 2013.Bangko Central ng Pilipinas.www.bsp.gov.ph.
[7]Philippines Economic Forecast. 2013-2015 Outlook. Trading
Economics.http://www.tradingeconomics.com/philippines/forecast. Accessed on December 27, 2013.
[8]Inflation Report Third Quarter: 2013.Bangko Central ng Pilipinas.www.bsp.gov.ph.

[9]Source: National Statistical Coordination Board. 2013: Philippine Economy Posts 7.0 % GDP Growth in
Q3 2013. http://www.nscb.gov.ph/sna/. Accessed on December 28, 2013.
[10]Philippines Economic
Accessed on December 28, 2013.
[11]The World Bank.Philippine Economic Update. May 2013
[12]Philippines Economic Forecast. 2013-2015 Outlook. Trading
Economics.http://www.tradingeconomics.com/philippines/forecast. Accessed on December 27, 2013.
[13] POEA: OFW Deployment by Occupation, Country and Sex New Hires Full Year 2010.
[14]Matsuno, Ayaka. Nurse Migration: the Asian Perspective. International Labor
bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_160629.pdf. Accessed on December 29, 2013.
[15]NCLEX in Manila open by mid-year.The Philippine STAR. 12 February 2007.
[16]Philippine Overseas Employment Administration.2008-2012 Overseas Employment
Statistics.http://www.poea.gov.ph/stats/2012_stats.pdf. Accessed on December 29, 2013.
[17]National Statistical Coordination Board.Poverty Statistics-Press
December 9, 2013. Accessed on December 31, 2013.
[18]National Statistical Coordination Board.Poverty Statistics. December 9, 2013. Accessed on December
31, 2013
[19]National Statistical Coordination Board.Poverty Statistics. December 9, 2013. Accessed on December
31, 2013

[20]Philippine Health Insurance Corporation. Special Benefit Packages:Case

Rates. http://www.philhealth.gov.ph/members/special_package/case_rates.htm. Accessed on December
31, 2013.
[21]National Statistical Coordination Board.Philippine National Health Accounts.
[22]Department of Budget Management.National Expenditure Program 2014.
[23]Department of Budget Management.General Appropriations Act 2008-2013.

[24]DOH Department Order no. 2008-0162 entitled, Guidelines and Procedures for the Implementation
of the Government Hospital Upgrading Project under the CY2008 Health Facilities Enhancement Program
Funds of the DOH dated 7 July 2008.

[25]Improvement of the Implementation Procedures and Management Systems for Health Facilities
Enhancement Grant of the DOH

[26]Health Facilities Enhancement Program.Department of Health.www.doh.gov.ph. Accessed on

November 24, 2013.
[27]CIO.13 Healthcare and IT Trends and Predictions in
2013.http://www.cio.com/slideshow/detail/83055#slide13. Accessed on December 29, 2013.
[28]National Statistics Office.www.nso.gov.ph.
[29]World Population Review.The Philippine Population
2013.http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/the-philippines-population/. Accessed on January 2,
[30]National Statistics Office.Population Projections.www.nso.gov.ph
[31]United Nations Statistics Division.Demographic Yearbook 2008.
[32]National Statistics Office.Philippine Census 2000 and 2010.
[33]Inter-Agency Working Group on Population Projections. Republic of the Philippines: National
%252001/TAB1-3.PDF. Accessed on October 5, 2012.
[34]World Health Organization.Health of Adolescents in the
Philippines.http://www.wpro.who.int/topics/adolescent_health/philippines_fs.pdf. Accessed on January
2, 2014.
[35]Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2008.
[36]Philam Life Insurance. AIA's Healthy Living Index Survey Uncovers: Filipinos Very Concerned About
Modern Day Health Hazards Such as Pollution, Obesity and Food Safety. Media Release dated November
8, 2013.

[37]Cetrangolo, Oscar. Health Care In the Philippines: Challenges and Ways Forward. Friedrich Ebert
Stiftung 2013.
[38] United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human
Health.http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html. Accessed on January 2,
[39]Climate Interactive.Climate Scoreboard.http://climateinteractive.org/scoreboard. Accessed on
January 2, 2014.
[40] United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human
Health.http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html. Accessed on January 2,