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1 Why bridge rectifier is preferred over simple full wave rectifier?

2 Why the capacitor used in power supply is of such high value?
3 What is the current rating of a transformer?
4 What is the current output of the power supply?
5 What is the need of voltage regulator? What is the series of regulators used?
6 Why a 12-0-12 transformer is used and not a 5-6v transformer in the power supply?
7 What can be other alternatives to the power supply?
8 Why is a resister used in series with a LED, what value?
9 What is the model number of the diodes used?


1 What are the source and the sink currents for the pins of microcontroller?
2 Why is the reset circuit used?
3 What is the need of clipping capacitors across the crystal oscillator?
4 What can be the range of the frequency for the oscillator used?
5 Why the crystal of frequency 11.0592 MHz is used?
6 How does a part of controller made to act as an input port?
Why is it preferred to transmit a ‘1’ on the pin of a port of the controller to make it an
input pin?

7 What is the role of 29, 30, 31 pin of microcontroller?

8 What is the internet configuration of various microcontrollers?
9 Compares between various microcontrollers?
10 What is the difference between a microprocessor and a microcontroller?
11 Why is ATMEL’s AT89C51 preferred over INTEL’s 8051?
12 What are internet and external pull up resistors?
13 Why is a base used to fix the IC on the PCB?
14 What is the width of the data bus and the address bus of the microcontroller 8051?


1 What is the Phenomenon of operation of a LED, material used?

2 How to determine the ‘P’ and ‘n’ terminal of the LED?
3 Why are LEDs preferred to be connected in active low/common anode configuration?
4 What are the current and voltage ratings of a LED?
5 Why do we connect a resistance in series with the LED?
6 Why the other end of a switches in series with the LED?
7 What are various types of switches?

1 Why are 7 segments preferred to be connected in common anode configuration?
2 How to determine which pin corresponds to which segment in the 7 segment display
3 What is the current rating of a 7 segment?
4 What is the driver IC for the 7 segment?


1 What is the need of an opto coupler IC, what is the model number of the opto coupler
2 What is the role of power transistor?
3 How isolation between a controller and a high load device is achieved using drive


1 What are NO and NC points? Which of them is connected to the normal pin when the
relay is off?
2 Why relay is called an electrical switch?
3 What are the various types of relays?
4 What is the current and voltage rating of a relay?
5 What is the role of diode, how can it be used to avoid back emf?
6 What is the phenomenon behind the working of a relay?

1 What are the differences between the DC motor and the stepper motor?
2 What are rotor and stator?
3 What is a permanent magnet?
4 What is a temporary magnet?
5 What is the step angle o a stepper motor?
6 How can we control the speed and direction of both the motors?
7 What are the voltage and current requirements of the motors?
8 Why is a separate power supply used for the stepper motor?

1 What is the phenomenon of working of a LCD?
2 What are the roles of Pin4, Pin5, Pin6 of the LCD?
3 What is busy flag?
4 What is the model number of the LCD?
5 Why two separate pairs of ground and Vcc used in the LCD? Or
What is the role of 15th and 16th pin of the LCD?

1 Why is KEIL called a cross compiler?
2 What was the version of the KEIL software used?
3 What do we mean by an IDE, is KEIL an IDE?
4 What does a linker do?
5 What are the header files, what do they contain?
6 What is the role of a compiler and an assembler?
7 What is a debugger for?
8 What are the differences between a high level and a low level language?
9 What is an embedded system?
10 Why hex number system is a preferred for representation?
11 What are the model numbers for pnp and npn transistors?
12 What are DIP, SIP and QIP?