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RUSSIAN GRAMMAR IN TABLES


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2016
811.161.1'36(0.054.6)
81.2-2-96
89

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89 Russian Grammar in Tables.
[ ] : . / .. . 7- ., .
. : , 2016. 101 . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-9765-0966-5
The textbook is constructed as a reference book focusing on the difficult items of
Russian grammar in an easy and understandable form. The tables of the book include
the meaning, formation and changing of different parts of speech.
This textbook is designed for foreign students learning Russian language from
any level. It can be used both by students and teachers for explaining, learning and
revision of grammar material, for systematization of knowledges, and for preparing
for exams as well.

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811.161.1'36(0.054.6)
81.2-2-96

ISBN 978-5-9765-0966-5 . ., 2016


, 2016
CONTENTS

The gender of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


Nouns in - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

The uses of cases:


1) The Prepositional case ( 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2) The Accusative case ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3) The Dative case ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4) The Genitive case ( 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5) The Accusative or the Genitive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6) The Instrumental case ( 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

The declension of nouns:


1) The endings of nouns according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2) Questions according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3) Genitive plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4) Special endings in the Prepositional singular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
5) Nouns ending in - / - / - (singular) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6) Special endings of masculine nouns in the Genitive singular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7) Three types of the declension of nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8) Irregular declension of some nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9) Indeclinable nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Mobile vowels in nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Formation of nouns in the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


Special cases of formation of nouns in the plural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Nouns with the singular or plural form only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

The use of prepositions and in the Prepositional expressing place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27


Where? Where to? Where from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Generic endings of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

The declension of adjectives:


1) The endings of qualitative and relative adjectives according to the case . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2) Types of the declension of qualitative and relative adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3) Adjectives with the stem in the soft consonant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4) The declension of possessive adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

The declension of nouns and adjectives (general table) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33


The declension of nouns, adjectives and possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

Personal pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

The declension of pronouns:


1) The declension of personal pronouns and reflexive pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2) The declension of possessive pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3) The declension of interrogative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4) The declension of demonstrative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5) The declension of determinative pronouns , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6) The declension of indefinite pronoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Formation of interrogative, negative and indefinite pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Indefinite pronouns and adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


Negative pronouns and adverbs with the particle - intensifying the negative constructions . . 39
Negative pronouns and adverbs with the particle - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Pronouns , , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3
Numerals: cardinal, ordinal, collective, fractions, decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

The declension of numerals:


1) The declension of cardinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2) The declension of ordinal numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3) The declension of collective numerals 2 - 7, / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4) The declension of fractions and decimals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Formation of degrees of comparison of qualitative adjectives and adverbs of manner . . . . . 48


Special cases of formation of degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs . . . . . . . . . 49

Complete and Short-form adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50


Formation of short-form of qualitative adjectives and passive participles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Special cases of formation of short-form of adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Verb forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

The conjugation of verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Consonant interchange in verb stems in the present tense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


Special cases of verb conjugation and past tense formation (irregular verbs) . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Aspects of the verb:


1) Formation of the aspectual pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2) The use of the aspects of the verb in the present tense, past tense and future tense . . . 58
3) General table: the use of the aspects of the verb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4) The use of the aspects of the verb in the infinitive form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5) The use of the aspects of the verb in the imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6) Verbs which have no aspectual counterpart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Formation of the imperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Verbs of motion:
1) Verbs of motion without prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2) The use of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3) Tense and mood forms of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4) Verbs of motion with prefixes indicating spatial relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5) Verbs of motion with non-spatial prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6) Synonymous constructions of verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7) Figurative meaning of verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8) Aspects of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9) Formation of the aspectual pairs of the verbs of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Verbs with the particle - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

The participle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

The verbal adverb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Passive constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Indefinite Personal constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Constructions of time (when?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Direct and Indirect speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Complex sentences with conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

The main meanings of prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

:
1) ( 6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2) ( 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3) ( 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4) ( 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5) ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6) ( 5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3) . . . . . . 19
4) . 20
5) - / - / - . . . . 20
6)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . 25
, 26

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
? ? ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
:
1) . . . . . . . . . . 29
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
, . . . . . 34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5) , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
, . . . . . 37
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
- ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
, , , , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5
: , , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
3) 2 - 7, / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

. 48
. . . . . . . 49

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
. . . . 51
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55


( ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2) , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

:
1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
9) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

(?) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

6
/ The gender of nouns
1)

masculine: o - he feminine: - she neuter: - it


hard soft hard soft hard soft
consonant /
, ,
window sea

brother hero sister family letter sun

boy museum small girl week ring field

person tram girl village matter, business happiness

engineer tea woman land, earth word misfortune

husband hockey wife song number, date health

son case, occasion daughter idea place, seat heart

friend May (girl)friend article face Sunday

house nightingale flat cherry coat dress

university sparrow school tower armchair towel

concert serpent; kite exhibition bedroom mirror college

theatre stream car nanny, nurse apple monster

office harvest work, job statue milk desire
,
shop battle, fight hotel surname wine beer building

pencil custom pen station egg attention

suitcase sanatorium bag organization summer name, title

magazine cafeteria newspaper profession sky decision, solution

table commentary book army tree occupation; lesson

chair script cup lecture lake meeting

document planetarium paper line embassy timetable

agreement jockey meeting lecture hall state announcement

lane system, structure street history government report, message

plant layer factory accident society reading

2) masculine ( - ):

- father, - grandfather, - uncle; - men, - young men


short male names: (), (), (), ()

3) neuter (-):

- time, - name, - banner, - flame, - tribe, - seed

7
4) - / Nouns in -

masculine feminine
- car - performance - package - oil, petroleum
- ensemble - coal - illness - news
- nail - level - pain - night
- hospital - festival - eyebrow - footwear
- guest - lamp, torch - thing - autumn
- day - power - queue, line
- rain - chest - memory
- animal months: - sadness - square
- calendar - January - dirt - short novel
- stone - February - distance - help
- potatoes - April - door - bedding
- cough - June - detail
- control - July - daughter - industry
- ship - September - life - dust
- the Kremlin - October - record, entry - joy
- bear - November - bed - speech
- cloister - December - blood - role
- finger-nail - laziness - connection
- zero - horse - table-cloth
- fire suffix - / - - love - speed
- midday - teacher - mother - boldness
- brief-case - teacher - furniture - death
- way - writer - small change; - conscience
- strap - reader trifle - salt
- piano - inhabitant - snowstorm
- rouble - spectator - youth - profession
- steering wheel - switch - - exercise-book
- style - secretary youthfulness - fabric
- dictionary - librarian - carrot - purpose
- thought - part
- hatred - wool

- brother
m o - he consonant
- museum
- sister
f - she /
- family
- window
n - it /
- sea
- dictionary
m/f
- door
/ - father, - uncle
m - grandfather,
exception

8
/ The uses of cases

/ The Prepositional case ( 6) ? ?

MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES


1. The place of an action - ?
/ - ,
? where? .
verbs:
- to live .
- to be
- to be situated .
- to work ,
- to study .
- to have a lesson
- to rest .
- to stroll .
- to stand, - to sit
- to lie, - to hang .
2. The object of speech or - ?
thought / , - .

- ?
? ? -
about whom / what? .
verbs: 1) verb + noun
- to speak, to say .
- to tell
- to ask a question
- to think .
- to write, - to read .
- to inform
- to remember about
2) noun + noun .
- to dream .
3. Time / / - ?
- .
? - ? / 2009-
when? - ? / .
- ?
- ?
- ? I- /
- 1799 .
, ,
.
4. Transport / - () ?
- .
? / ? : , , ,
by what? / how? , , ,
,
verbs of motion
: ,
: (,
),
5. Clothes / .
-
?
-
6. The musical instrument :
(),
? to play , , .

9
/ The Accusative case ( 4) ? ?

MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES


1. An object / - ?
without a preposition
? ? - .
transitive verbs:
- ?
- to see
- .
- to love
- to know
- to understand
- to wait
- to meet
- to remember
- to lose
- to find
- to forget
- to buy
- to read
- to write
/ - to take
- to receive

2. Introduction ? - .
, .
.

3. Direction of motion (action) / - in, at, on


- ? - ?
? where to? - across, through - . - .
, - behind
() .
1) verbs of motion .

2) verbs: verb + ? + ? .
/ - to put
.
/ - to put
/ - to hang .

3) other verbs .
.
.
.

10
MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES
4. Time /
1) ? when? - on + : - ?
- () .
.

.

- in future tense .
+ , , .
, ,
2) A certain period of time

a) How long time? all - ( )
, , ?
?
? - .
whole
, .
process - imperfect .
) ? - within -
?
+ , , ,
result - perfect - .
, ,

) ? - to stay for -
( ?) ?
- .

3) Recurrence of action every -


, , ?
-
? how often? .

5. Space (a part of the way)


( ) + / .

()? .

6. Weight /
+ / .
()?

7. Price / +
Acc. .
? to cost verb + number

8. Game /
, ,
? to play
, ,
9. Cause / .
- for
? .

11
/ The Dative case ( 3) ? ?

MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES


1. The recipient / - ?
? - .
verbs: Acc.
- to give ? + ? .
- to buy
() - to write
() - to give a present
- to show
- to bring
- to pass
- to send
Prep.
- to say ? + ?
- to tell .
- to inform
() - to write

() - to advise ? + inf
- to help .
- to allow (permit) to do
() - to promise
() - to disturb
2. verb to like Nom. .
1) + + (thing)
() .
+ ? / ?
2) + + inf (action) M .
.
3. Age / + number + (a) / - ?
- ,
(, , ) ?
.

4. in Impersonal sentences:
the person (object) experiencing + inf .
a certain state or condition
:
(),
- .

m Nom.
f +

n
(thing)
pl.

( )
Instr.
-.
+ inf (+ )


.
+ 1) adverb (condition) .
2) impersonal verb .

.
+ inf
.

12
MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES
5. The person who is the aim - () ?
of the motion - to - / .
? (?) .
verbs of motion

. .

6. An object or a place to .
which motion is directed - to
? ? .
verbs of motion
(), .

7. Motion along a surface - ( ) ?


- along - .

verbs of motion .
and their synonyms .
.
.

8. The attributes formed from



the subjects of education

,
noun + noun

()
,

? ( ?)

9. Way (means) of communication



() - by, on
to send


to watch

to show

to search for

to call

to speak


to listen

to broadcast
to telecast

to inform, report


to perform


to tell

13
/ The Genitive case ( 2) ? ?

MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES


1. Negation / / .
positive: / .
Nom.
Possessor: ? Gen.

/
(-, -, -) .
(-) /
negation: Gen. .
/ .
/ .
/
.
2. Possession / ? - .
- - - ? whose? name of owner - Gen. ? - .
? - .
3. Relation: - ? ( ?)
an object is defined by means of Nom. + Gen. - .
another object, related to the first
or including it as part of a whole
? ?
:
,


4. Comparison / simple comparative degree .
of adjective (adverb) + Gen. .
.
5. Measure and quantity 1 , , , ,
2, 3, 4 , , , ,
5 , , , ,
1) Exact number of persons or ardinal numerals + Gen. Nom. Gen.
objects (more than one)


singular: 2, 3, 4 - ,

( ) plural: 5 ... - ,
2) Relative number of objects -
or persons + plural ?
() -
() .
verb:

present - 3 person, singular .

past - 3 person, singular, neuter .
3) Part of the whole ,


4) A certain amount, quantity () .
of something
,
- 100
uncountable noun: singular ,
countable noun: plural ,
5) A set of objects or persons ,
() Gen. plural ,
,

14
6. Time or date /
1) ? + - ?
What date is it today? -
.
2) Date of the action ordinal - ?
number - 1978
+ + () .
? when? / ?
3) The beginning and the end ... - from ... to
of the time interval /
.

.
? =
?

4) ? = ? - before - ?
? - during - (
? - after , ) .
7. The place from where the / /
action is directed (the starting from: .
point of motion) - ?
() - / -
, .
(
) - - from behind .
.
? / ? .
- ?
- .
8. Place where a person (object) - at / by, near - () ?
is, or where an action takes place near - .
; () - (not) far from - ?
- behind - .
,
- in front of
()
- opposite
.
? / ? - in the middle of
- around .

Place of motion / - past .


verbs of motion - along .
9. The place where the action - .
is directed to reach
? where to? .
verbs of motion (with prefix )
,
10. A part of the way ... - from to
?
11. Cause /

?
- - because of
- ?
-
12. Purpose / - for
/ ?
13. Exception / - apart from, except , .
/ ? , .
14. Absence /
/ ? - without .
?

15
? / The Accusative or the Genitive?

verbs Accusative case Genitive case


I. after the verbs: if the speaker means if the speaker means
a definite person or object an abstract or non-specific object
() - to ask for
- to want
() . .
- to demand, to require
. .
- to look for
- to wait 3. .
(
- direction)
imperfect , , decision, ,
permission,
imperfect , , happiness, freedom,
independence, peace,
rest, peace
imperfect , defence, protection,
justice, fairness,
sympathy
() pass, attention,
() excuse, help
II. after the verbs: if the action involves if the action involves
the whole object part of the object
- to pour
- to put , - jug () , ()
- to slice
, , () , , ()
- to pick
- to buy , () , ()
- to bring - grapes () ( - bunch of)
- to give , () , (some amount)
- to take
buying some individual items, buying provisions (),
- to drink
people say: people say:
- to eat
, , (,
( , ). , ).
(, , ). (, ).

III. if the transitive verb the object the object


is preceded by a specific person or thing an abstract or unspecified thing
negation
. .
+ verb . .
. .
- to meet sympathy
mutual understanding
- to know , ,
- to love , noise, heat
- to see , sense
- to feel cold, ache, hunger
- to find support

: (), ()

16
/ The Instrumental case ( 5) ? ?
MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES
1. Together with /
1) Joint action
C -
verbs: - with ?
verbs of motion, - to be - ()
- to speak
- to talk to
/ - to meet .
() - to introduce
() - to say hello to
() - to say good-bye to
() - to consult
2) Emotional state (condition) words: - ?
accompanying an action - with pleasure - .
, - with interest
- with pride
- with wonder .
? How? - with joy
- with difficult .
3) The presence of the quality of .
an object: - with .
:
- appearance () .
- food () .
- architecture of building
( )
- ontent ()

4) The question about the health ? - .


of a person - with - ?
- .
2. Profession and rank / ,
compound predicate with the verbs: Nom.
- to be present: - .
- to become + Instr. (there is no verb )
- to be () .
- () ?
past: + + - () .
future: + + .

? - ?
- . / .
3. The object /
1) Interests and occupation verbs: - ?
- to be occupied (with) - ().
? - to be keen on smth.
- to be interested / /
.
2) The object of the emotional state words:
- to be delighted
- to be indignant
- to admire .
- enjoy, take pleasure
- to be satisfied (with)
3) another verbs

17
MEANING CONSTRUCTION EXAMPLES
4. The instrument of action ?- .
there is no preposition .
.

5. Place / prepositions: - ?
- .
? - above
.

in front of between behind, after .

- under .

.
- near to, close by
.

6. Passive constructions Nom. perfect - ?


+ + -
.
short past passive participle

.
Nom. imperfect .
+ +

7. Time /

? .

- seasons .
.

Not long ago from the action


- just before .
?
8. The means and manner of action .
there is no preposition
(
? ).
(= ).

9. Purpose / ,
- for . =
? what for?

.

10. Congratulations Acc.


/ ()
- with I congratulate you with
! Happy birthday!
! holiday, celebration
! Merry Christmas!
! Happy New Year!
! Happy Easter!

: ! Same to you!

18
/ The Declension of Nouns
SINGULAR
PLURAL
CASE m n m n f+m
f
h a r d s o f t hard soft hard soft
1 - Nominative
onsonant
? / ?
2 - Genitive no ending

? / ?
3 - Dative

? / ?
4 - Accusative inan. = Nom. inan. = Nom. inanimate = Nom.

? / ? anim. = Gen. anim. = Gen. animate = Gen.
5 - Instrumental
()
? / ? ()
6 - Prepositional
? / ?

/ Questions according to the case


CASE ANIMATE OBJECT INANIMATE OBJECT
1 Nominative ? who? ? what?
2 Genitive ? of whom? ? of what?
3 Dative ? to whom? ? to what?
4 Accusative ? whom? ? what?
5 Instrumental ? by whom? with whom? ? by what? with what?
6 Prepositional ? about whom? ? about what?

/ Genitive plural
CASE MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER

onsonant , -
, , ,

1- thousand

Nom. museum
news apple sea
hour day
singular
sanatorium (girl)friend
thing business field
teacher
word
question month week mother

floor
boy seat
stop daughter
doctor
window
girl
letter
no ending no ending
+ unstable + unstable
vowel / vowel /
2-

Gen.

plural







1. after sibilants - , , , ,
unstable vowel :
2. instead of ,

19
/ Genitive plural

feminine - station
Special case:
neuter - building

Exceptions:

1. () / - neighbours
- / - friends, - / - sons
2. / - children, / - parents, / - people
3. / - watch, / - glasses; / - money
4. - / - brothers, - / - chairs
- / - tree, - / - leaves
5. - times, - persons; - / - eyes
() / - soldiers, - / - boots


Speial endings in the Prepositional singular

? / Where?
- in the wood - on the bridge / - in / on the nose
- in the port - on ice - in the eye
- in the airport / - on / in snow - in the mouth
() - in the corner () - at the corner - on the forehead
- in the garden - on the floor - in the battle
/ - in / on the cupboard - in the meadow - in smoke
- on the bank - on the edge - in the Crimea
? / When?
2015 - year - hour

- / - / -
Nouns ending in - / - / - (singular)

gender 1 - Nominative 6 - Prepositional (?) 3 - Dative


masculine -
neuter -
feminine



Speial endings of masculine nouns in the Genitive singular

masculine nouns meaning: part of the whole endings


- soup (-) - plate of soup
- tea (-) - cup of tea
- sugar (-) - piece of sugar
-
- cheese 200 () (-)
or
- honey (-) - jar of honey -
- chocolate (-) - bar of chocolate
- poison (-) - a little poison
- grapes (-)
- people (-) - many people

20
/ Three types of the declension of nouns

Declension I: feminine + masculine nouns ending in A -


SINGULAR
consonant + A
consonant + , , +
case (except , , , , , , , ) -
animate inanimate animate inanimate animate inanimate
Nom. - mother - mountain - land - dog - book - line
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.
PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.
SINGULAR
case , , , + + vowel (except ) +
ending
animate inanimate animate inanimate animate inanimate



Nom.
wifes mother rain cloud she-wolf street fairy statue -
Gen. -
Dat.
Acc. -
Instr. - ()
Prep.
PLURAL
Nom. -
Gen. no ending
Dat. -
Acc. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
Instr. -
Prep. -
Declension II: 1) masculine nouns without any ending in the Nominative
SINGULAR
consonant
, ,
case (except , , , , , , , ) -
animate inanimate animate inanimate animate inanimate
Nom.

artist table teacher dictionary grandson sunflower sanatorium
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.
PLURAL
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Instr.
Prep.

21
SINGULAR
, , , (except -)
case ending
animate inanimate animate inanimate animate inanimate
1 - knife - prince
-
Nom. friend, comrade - march month hero occasion, case
2
-
Gen.
3
-
Dat.
4 anim. = Gen.
Acc. inan. = Nom.
5
- ()
Instr.
6

Prep.
PLURAL
1
- , -
Nom.
2
- ,
Gen.
3
-
Dat.
4 anim. = Gen.
Acc. inan. = Nom.
5
-
Instr.
6
-
Prep.
Declension II: 2) neuter nouns ending in - ()
SINGULAR
consonant + E
consonant + O , , , , +
case (except , , , , ) - ending
animate inanimate animate
Nom. - word - sea - monster - building -
Gen. -
Dat. -
Acc. - = Nom.
Instr. -
Prep.
PLURAL
Nom. -
Gen. no ending /
Dat. -
Acc. - = Nom.
Instr. -
Prep. -
Declension III: feminine nouns ending in -
case SINGULAR PLURAL
animate inanimate ending animate inanimate ending
1 - Nom. , ,
daughter, mother exercise book
2 - Gen. , ,
3 - Dat. , ,
an. = Gen.
4 - Acc. , ,
in. = Nom.
5 - Instr. , ,
6 - Prep. , ,

22
/ Irregular declension of some nouns

case SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL


= declension III = declension III = declension II: 2
masculine neuter: ending -
1 - Nom.
- way - time
2 - Gen.
3 - Dat.
4 - Acc.
5 - Instr.
6 - Prep.

ending - time, - name, - banner, - flame


- - tribe, - seed, - burden

/ Indeclinable nouns

- bureau, office - underground, subway


- jury - overcoat All inanimate nouns are neuter,
- interview - piano but the word is masculine.
- cafe - radio
- cinema, movie - taxi
- coffee - hobby
- compartment - highway

23
/ Mobile vowels in nouns

1 - Nom., singular, masculine 2 - Gen., plural, feminine / neuter

nouns ending in: nouns ending in:


-() /- (-) /- /- /- /- /- /- - /- /- /- /- /- /- /- /- /-


- call, bell, ring - log
- piece - oar
- sock - village
- gift - small girl
- lane - girl
- ambassador - land
- drawing - toy
- baby, child - kopeck
- machine(tool) - ring
- corner - armchair
- coal - spoon
- flower - sheep
in words of one syllable / - song
- day - letter
- forehead - towel
- moss - shirt
- mouth - heart
- sleep, dream - bench
() - match
- wind - pine (tree)
- foreigner - cup
- stone masculine (nouns ending in -)
- end - grandfather
- light - boy
- eagle (stem ends in -)
- singer - artist(e), actress
- seller, (shop)assistant - jar, tin, can
- - roll, loaf
- ice - bottle
- lion - branch
- stream - fork
- nightingale - board, plank
- - fir (tree)
- soldier - note
- boat
- stamp
- window
- stop
- postcard
- mark, note
- fairy tale

24

Formation of nouns in the plural

NUMBER masculine: - he feminine: - she neuter: - it



lesson week
table window sea
briefcase

car

station
question museum
business dress
SINGULAR newspaper
pen
script building
month
towel
thing
floor
, ,
consonant
, , , +
, , , , +

PLURAL:

- they




Special cases of formation of nouns in the plural

- - - - - citizen
friend mother time -
- cook
- - - - peasant
brother daughter name
-
-
- - foreman - Englishman
son () banner -
- teacher
- -
person - people - city
husband () tribe
- house
- -
- - -
child - children owner, host
chair seed - -
()
- - train gentleman, Mr.
leaf () - shore
- island -
- - evening Tatar
- -
tree - voice
kitten sky -
- - colour Bulgarian
ear (of corn) - - - eye
wolf-cub miracle - number
-
wing
- forest
- meadow
- - snow
feather - - - cold
flower apple - century
- sort
- edge, land
- side

25
,
Nouns with the plural form only

1) Objects consisting of two or more identical parts - scissors - scales


- glasses - money
, - trousers - clock, watch
- shorts, pants - chess
- cream
2) Some substances and foodstuffs - perfume
- canned goods
- cabbage soup
- ink
- elections
3) Some abstract ideas - finance
- negotiations
- funeral
- twenty-four hour
- week days
- holidays

,
Nouns with the singular form only

- iron - oxygen
1) Substances and medicines - copper - nitrogen
- aluminium - hydrogen
- aspirin - iodine
- meat - fish
2) Food - butter - cheese
- sugar - rice
- salt - flour
- milk
3) Sets of objects or persons - clothes
(collective nouns) - footwear - young people
- tableware - humankind
(c ) - furniture
() - potatoes
() - carrots
4) Certain vegetables and berries - cabbage
- onions - vine, grapes
- pea - raspberries
- parsley
- reading
5) Certain actions - swimming
- harvesting / cleaning up
- hunting
- struggle
6) Feelings and some abstract ideas - love
- youth
- hatred
- darkness
- health
- radio - metro, subway
7) Borrowed nouns (neuter, indeclinable)
- cinema - main road
c - coat - taxi
( ) - cafe - jury
- menu - interview

26
( 6)
The use of prepositions and in the Prepositional expressing place
verbs: - to be, - to be situated, - to live, - to work, - to study
- to walk, - to rest; - to stand, - to lie, - to sit, - to hang
verbs of motion are not used!
1. the position of the subject ? - (on the table) / (in, inside the table)
relating to its surface - country, - city, - village, - center
- region, - oblast, region

- house, - entrance, - flat, - room
, , , ,
? Where? open space: - street, - square, - avenue
- main road, - road ! - lane
, = in / at / on
- north, - south, - east, - west
- floor
2. buildings - - theatre, - cinema, - museum, - club
, - restaurant, , , - hospital

, , - school, - university
- hotel, - shop, - pharmacy, - bank
3. events, shows - - performance, - concert, - exhibition
, - discotheque, - party, - ballet
- work, - meeting, - meeting
- lesson, - lecture, , - excursion
4. remember exceptions - stadium, - market, - holiday cottage in the country
- post office, - factory, - plant
- homeland, - island
- railway station, - station, - stop
, ! - airport
- business trip, - on holiday
? ? ?
inanimate
? where? [in, at, on] ? where to? ? where from?
place direction from the place
() / / - I (will) go to /
I was / will be in (at) / - I went to I came from
6 - Prepositional case 4 - Accusative case 2 - Genitive case
m m - m - / -
-
f f - / - f - / -
- at home - home - from home

animate (person)
? = ? [at] ? = ? ? = ?
2 - Genitive case 3 - Dative case 2 - Genitive case
m - / - m - / - m - / -

f - / - f - f - / -
adverbs
- here - to here - from here
- there - to there - from there
/ - on the right / left / - to the right / left / - from the right / left
- below - down - from below
, - above , - up - from above
- in front - forward - from the front
, - behind - back - from behind

27
? where? ? where to? ? where from?
1 - Nominative place direction from the place
6 - Prepositional 4 - Accusative 2 - Genitive
/ city / / /
/ f country / / /
/ north / south / / /
/ east / west / / /
/ sea / lake / / /
- pl. mountain(s) - - -
village
street
f square
lane
house // home // //
entrance
floor
flat
room
hotel
center
school
university
museum
, theatre, circus , , ,
swimming pool
club
park
/ wood, garden / / /
pl. guests at sbs house
exhibition
conert
f excursion
performance
party
lesson
, factory, plant , , ,
airport
railway station
f station
market
shop
drycleaners
pharmacy
bank
embassy
clinic
business trip
f, church , , ,
holiday
work
firm / / /
office
f company
meeting
/ restaurant, pub / / /

28
/ Generic endings of adjectives

S I N G U L A R
Stem ending PLURAL
in: masculine feminine neuter
? ? ? ?
- new
a hard
- red
consonant
- young
- small
, ,
- bad
- good
- fresh
, , , - hot
- common
- big
a soft
- blue
consonant

C
The declension of qualitative and relative adjectives
1) Stem ending in a hard and soft consonant

S I N G U L A R
PLURAL
CASE m n m n feminine
hard soft hard soft hard soft
1
/
Nom.
4 inan. = Nom.
inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
Acc. anim. = Gen.
2

Gen.
3

Dat.

5

Instr.
6

Prep.
= declension = declension

2) Stem ending in , ,

S I N G U L A R
CASE PLURAL
masculine neuter feminine

1 - Nominative /
inan. = Nom.
4 - Accusative inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
anim. = Gen.
2 - Genitive

3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental

6 - Prepositional
= declension = declension

29

Types of the declension of qualitative and relative adjectives

S I N G U L A R
PLURAL
CASE masculine neuter feminine
m n ?
? ? ?
1) Stem ending in a hard consonant
1

Nom.
4 inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
Acc. animate = Gen.
2

Gen.
3

Dat.

5

Instr.
6

Prep.
2) Stem ending in the soft consonant
Nom.
Acc. inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen. inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.
Gen.
Dat.

Instr.
Prep.
3) Stem ending in the soft consonant ,
1

Nom.
4 inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
Acc. animate = Gen.
2

Gen.
3

Dat.

5

Instr.
6

Prep.
4) Stem ending in , ,
1

Nom.
4 inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
Acc. animate = Gen.
2

Gen.
3

Dat.

5

Instr.
6

Prep.

30
S I N G U L A R PLURAL
CASE masculine neuter feminine
m n ?
? ? ?
5) Stem ending in , (spell , pronounce )
1

Nom.
4 inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
Acc. animate = Gen.
2

Gen.
3

Dat.

5

Instr.
6

Prep.
1

Nom.
4 inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
Acc. animate = Gen.
2

Gen.
3

Dat.

5

Instr.
6

Prep.


Adjectives with the stem in the soft consonant

- blue - last - old


- autumn - last years - extreme
- winter - superfluous - of those days
- spring - New Years - sincere - former
- summer - upper - five-year - present
- lower - present
- yesterdays - front - three-year
- todays - middle - internal - unilateral
- rear - external
- tomorrows - distant - versatile
- morning - near - of this place, local
- evening - multilateral
- early - neighbouring - of that place, local
- late - ancient - all-round
c - Saturday - domestic - outside, extraneous - habitual

31
/ The declension of possessive adjectives

S I N G U L A R PLURAL
CASE masculine neuter feminine
m n ?
? ? ?
1) suffix
Nom.
Acc. inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen. inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.
Gen.
Dat.

Instr.
Prep.
2) suffix
Nom. -
Acc. inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen. inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.
Gen.
Dat.

Instr.
Prep.
3) suffix /
Nom. -
Acc. inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen. inan. = Nom. / an. = Gen.
Gen.
Dat.

Instr.
Prep.
4) Surnames - : suffix / ,
CASE masculine feminine plural

1
no ending
Nom.


4
animate = Genitive animate = Genitive
Acc.


2

Gen.


3

Dat.



5

Instr.


6

Prep.

suffix suffix suffix /


, , , ,
, ,
,
, ,
( )

32
( )
The Declension of Nouns and Adjectives (general table)

S I N G U L A R
NOUNS ADJECTIVES
CASE feminine + masculine neuter feminine
masculine neuter feminine
masculine ? ? ?
1 - Nominative
consonant - - -
? / ? -
-
4 - Accusative inan. = Nom. inanimate = Nom.
- -
? / ? anim.= Gen. animate = Gen.
2 - Genitive
- - -
? / ?

3 - Dative
- -
? / ?
-
5 - Instrumental - () - -
? / ? ()
6 - Prepositional
-
? / ?
= declension

P L U R A L
CASE
ADJECTIVES
NOUNS
?
1 - Nominative
- , - -
? / ?
2 - Genitive
no ending, , - -
? / ?
3 - Dative
- -
? / ?
4 - Accusative
? / ? inanimate = Nom. / animate = Gen.
5 - Instrumental
- -
? / ?
6 - Prepositional
- -
? / ?
= declension

33
,
The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns

I. the DECLENSION of Nouns (singular)

QUESTIONS EXAMPLES
CASE MEANING
animate inanimate masculine feminine
1 - Nominative ? ?
who? what?

2 - Genitive ? ?
of whom? of what?

3 - Dative ? ?
to whom? to what?
? ?
4 - Accusative whom? what?
m = Gen. m = Nom.
5 - Instrumental () ? () ?
with whom? with what?

6 - Prepositional ? ?
about whom? about what?

II. the DECLENSION of Nouns, Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns

QUESTIONS EXAMPLES: singular


CASE
masculine feminine
1
? / ?
Nominative
2
? / ?
Genitive
3
? / ?
Dative
animate: ?

4 m = Gen.

Accusative inanimate: ?

m = Nom.
5
? / ?
Instrumental
6
? / ?
Prepositional

CASE EXAMPLES: plural


1 - Nominative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

4- animate = Gen.

Accusative
inanim. = Nom.
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

34
/ Possessive pronouns

1- SINGULAR
PLURAL
Nominative masculine feminine neuter

Personal pronouns ? ? ? ?
whose? [chy] [ch-y] [ch-y] [ch-ye]

I my
[my] [may] [may] [maye]

singular
you your
he his
[yeev]
it its
she her [yeey]
we our
plural you your
they their
own


The declension of personal pronouns and reflexive pronoun

1 - Nom. 2 - Gen. 3 - Dat. 4 - Acc. 5 - Instr. 6 - Prep.

I me () ()
s
i
n you you
g
u he him
l it it ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
a
r she her /
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
p we us
l
u you you
r
a they them
l ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

- oneself

35
/ The declension of possessive pronouns

SINGULAR
CASE PLURAL
masculine neuter feminine
, , , ,
1 - Nominative
, , , , , , , ,


2 - Genitive + +




3 - Dative + +


+

5 - Instrumental + +



+
6 - Prepositional +

+

animate = Gen. / animate = Gen. /


+
4 - Accusative inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom.
= declension
= declension +

all cases - his - her - their

/ The declension of interrogative pronouns

1 - Nominative m: n: f: pl: whose?


4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional
m: n: f: pl: what?
1 - Nominative
which?
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
2 - Genitive / /
3 - Dative / /
5 - Instrumental / /
6 - Prepositional / /

/ The declension of demonstrative pronouns

1 - Nominative m: / n: / f: / pl: / this / that


4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. / an. = Gen. / in. = Nom. these / those
2 - Genitive / /
?
3 - Dative / / / ?
5 - Instrumental / /
6 - Prepositional / /

36
/ The declension of demonstrative pronouns

1 - Nominative m: n: f: pl: such


4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

/ The declension of determinative pronouns

1 - Nominative m: n: f: pl: all


4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional
1 - Nominative m: n: f: pl: myself
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom. yourself
2 - Genitive himself
3 - Dative ourselves

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional
1 - Nominative m: n: f: pl: the most
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom. the same
2 - Genitive the very
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

/ The declension of indefinite pronoun

1 - Nominative - several, a few


2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

,
Formation of interrogative, negative and indefinite pronouns

Interrogative Negative Indefinite


? - - -
who? nobody Nom. somebody -
? - - -
what? nothing Nom. something -
? - - -
whose? nobodys anyones -
? - - -
what? which? none, whatever any, some -
?
which? some
? - -
how much? (not) at all some several, a few

37
/ Indefinite Pronouns and Adverbs

- // with
- - meaning
- prepositions
- - - someone, somebody -
- - - something -
pronouns - - - any, some
- - - anyones
- - some /
- - - somewhere
- - - to somewhere
- - from somewhere
adverbs - - once ever, one day
- - for some reason
- - for some reason or other
- - - somehow

suffix / prefix meaning examples


- ? ( , .)
-.
1) I dont mind,
It is all the same to someone, - !
It doesnt matter, - ? ( , .)
Its not important - .
( , .)
, - .
-
( , .)
(-) ? - - .
2) question: I absolutely - ? - , .
dont know, I have no idea ( , .)
:
- ?

3) May be, probably , , -


, .

- . ( , .)
- .
It happened, ( , .)
but I dont know what,
I dont remember ? - - .
- ( , .)
, / - . -
.
- .
( , .)
, ? - - .
- .
I know, - .
but I dont want to tell you !
I dont have time for details - .
-
, , -
.
( , ,
.)

38
-
,
Negative Pronouns and Adverbs with the particle -
Intensifying the Negative Constructions

Double negation:

1) particle + verb - to express the negative constructions

2) particle - to intensify the negative constructions

particle examples
preposition () .
- nobody + pronoun
() - nothing .
negative - none, whatever
.
pronouns - nobodys
.

.

.

- never
.
- no way
negative
- nowhere .
adverbs
- nowhere (to)
- from nowhere

+ verb - not once = .


construction
+ noun Gen. .
- not one, not a single .

,
conjunction ..., ... - neither ... nor ...
.

.
completely
adverbs of
absolutely
degree .

not at all .

39
-
Negative Pronouns and Adverbs with the particle -

Meaning: there is no person / object / time / place / reason to do smth.

pronouns
adverbs
2- 3- 4- 5- 6-
Gen. Dat. Acc. Instr. Prep. nowhere
nobody no where to
nothing from no where
theres no reason to do
there is no time, busy

impersonal sentence
subject = 3 Dat. 3 Dat. + inf.
direct object = 2 Gen. ()

examples meaning
, :
. = , .
, . = ,
.
- ?
- , . = ().
, :
. = , .
, = ,
. .
- ? = ,
- , . .
. = , .
- - ? = ,
- , . .
, . :
= , .

. = (),
.
(). = , .

, . = , .

, . = .

. = ,
.
. = , .
. = , .
, ( ) = ,
. (reason) , .

Compare:
. 1 Nom. + + + verb He doesnt do anything.
. 3 Dat. + + inf. He doesnt have anything to do.

40
/ Pronouns , , , , , ,

pronouns meaning examples


m , .
f
- ?
n C is used with the verb (before or - , .
pl after it) in Nominative case and
shows that the action was done by . Its her fault.
determinative
pronoun the subject of the sentence .
without anybodys help.
oneself () .
It is closely connected to the verb and
does not answer the question "?. .
In other cases it is used after nouns .
and pronouns to emphasize them
(similar to English oneself, personally). ,
.
myself / yourself / himself / itself
.
ourselves / yourselves / themselves
Nom. - is used to replace the subject 1. , .
Gen. / Acc. and to show that the subject of the for himself
Dat. sentence is also the object of its own . about himself
Instr. action. .
Prep. This pronoun cannot be used as the .
subject of the sentence.
reflexive pronoun 2.
myself / yourself / himself / itself
oneself
= .
ourselves / yourselves / themselves
.

3. - expressions:
(, ) (). - he is at home / in his office : - pull / - push
(). - they go home .
? - How do you feel? - to rely on
- ? - to have - to imagine
- , . () - to behave
! - surprise: well, I never! - to think about yourself
? - . - so-so - to ones taste
- to come out of oneself, fly off the handle () () . - nice-looking
- to come to ones senses . - he blames himself
- to keep oneself in hand . - to dissatisfied
- to take oneself in ones hands () . - to be confident
, () - to praise
- smb. is beside oneself with fury, anger; one is nearly out of ones mind . - Im my own master.
m 1) + adjective
.
f complex superlative degree: the most
n 2) + pronouns / : the same
pl ,
clarification, identity .
determinative ,
pronoun 3) + noun (place / time): the very .
.
exact limit of time and space
,

.
()
- right at the beginning (end)
- in actual fact

41
m 1. attribute .
f
n all, the whole .
pl ,
determinative - all over the town
pronoun - dirty all over
- wet through
2. subject / object:
1) (pl.) - group of people 1) .
everybody, everyone .
2) - subjects and events 2) , .
, ,
everything, all .
.
. - He told her all.
:
- the image of his father
- at the top of ones voice
()!
- Good-bye! All the best!
- without anything
- anything can happen
- thats all (the end)
, .
- Alls well that ends well.
m two identical or similar subjects .
f .
n ,
such = the same
pl ().
demonstrative ,
pronoun . ( )
this that It is used like an adjective preceding 1. .
m nouns and declines as an adjective, thus This is an interesting book.
f having three genders and plural forms. (a statement that the book is interesting)
n In the construction (This is ) ().
pl the word o never changes. When in This book is interesting.
English you use this and is together, in (This book is interesting compared to others,
demonstrative I recommend it.)
pronouns Russian you need to use the pronoun
o. . - This is a new film.
? . - I love this film.
When in English you separate this and
? 2. - , , .
is, in Russian you use the pronoun
o. In both English and Russian the - ?
adjective is placed behind the noun. - , () .
m 1) the same thing: that - ?
f - , ,
n . ( )
pl 2) = .
demonstrative the same = (
pronoun , ,
).

pronouns / / / + noun, adjective


!
adverb (degree) + verb, adverb
!

42
/ NUMERALS

ARDINAL O R D I N A L (= adjective) COLLECTIVE



? ? (- / - / -) ?
m m
1 f f
n n
pl pl
m/n m
2
f f
3 / / /
4
5 -
6
7
8 + animate nouns
9 2 Gen. pl:
10 ,
11
12
13
14
15 -
16
17
18
19
20
21 -
30
40
50
60 -
70
80
90
-
100
200 -
300
-
400
500
600
700 -
800
900
1000 () 1 Nom.
2, 3, 4 000 2 Gen. sing
5 - 20 000 2 Gen. pl
1 000 000 () 1 Nom.
2, 3, 4 000 000 2 Gen. sing
5 - 20 000 000 2 Gen. pl
1 000 000 000

43
rouble dollar kopeck year day hour person time
1 / 21, 31 Nom.
2, 3, 4 / 22, 43 Gen. sing
5 20, Gen. pl
- indeclinable exceptions

/ ? 1 Nom. - How much does the house / the book cost?

1 / 21, 31 2, 3, 4 / 22, 43 5 20 / 30, 40


, , ()
Acc. + Acc. + Gen. pl Acc. + Gen. sing + Gen. pl Acc. + Gen. pl + Gen. pl
()
() 7
Acc. + Acc. Acc. + Gen. sing Acc. + Gen. pl
() / / 5 /
21 ( ) 22 ( ) 50

4 Acc. + 4 Acc. 4 Acc. + 2 Gen. sing 4 Acc. + 2 Gen. pl


f () 5
() pl 6
m
give me
n () O / / 7

/ Mathematical operations

+ / 15 + 23 = 38
- / 578 34 = 544
6 7 = 42
: 81 : 9 = 9
= / 15 5 : 3 = 25

/ FRACTIONS

The numerator () a cardinal numeral 1 Nom.


The denominator () an ordinal numeral 2 Gen. pl

f f, Nom. sing f Gen. pl Nom. Gen. pl


= 1/2 = 2/2 3 = 3/5
1- 2-
= 1/3 = 2/3 and higher = 5/8

/ DECIMALS

f 1,6 =
1 - Nom. sing 3,1 =
4, 61 =
0 - 0,3 =
2 - Gen. pl 2,5 =
3 7,34 =

= 1/2 + 5 Instr. 2,5 = 2 =


;
= 1/3
= 1/4 + 2 Gen. sing ; (= 16 15 )
m / n , , ,
= 1,5
f ,

44
/ The declension of numerals

I. / The declension of cardinal numerals


1) , , , = , , ,

SINGULAR
CASE PLURAL
masculine neuter feminine
1 - Nominative
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. an. = Gen. / in. = Nom.
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

2) 2, 3, 4

1 - Nominative m f
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom. animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

3) 5 - 30 =
50 - 80 = both parts decline like the noun ( )

5 - 10 11 - 20, 30 50 - 80
CASE
( -) ( -)
1 - Nominative

4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
6 - Prepositional
5 - Instrumental

4) 40, 90, 100

1 - Nominative

4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

5) 200, 300, 400 = the first part of these numerals declines like , ,
( , , )
500 - 900 = both parts decline, the first part of these numerals declines like
( , )
500 - 900 ( -)
1 - Nominative

4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

45
6) (f) =
(m) =

7) In complex cardinal numerals each part declines separately.


.

. 345 = 5 Instr.

II. / The declension of ordinal numerals

1) Ordinal numerals = adjectives with the hard stem (, )

exception: = ,

SINGULAR
CASE PLURAL
masculine neuter feminine

1
Nominative


4 animate = Gen.
Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
inanimate = Nom.


2
Genitive


3
Dative


5
Instrumental


6
Prepositional

2) In complex ordinal numerals only the final word has the form of an ordinal numeral.
We decline the final word only.

. .
Prep.
2009-o ( ).
Gen. Gen.
25-o 1978-o ( ).

III. / The declension of collective numerals

Collective numerals = adjective plural

2, 3 4-7 both
1 - Nominative m: f:
4 - Accusative animate = Gen. / inanimate = Nom.
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative
5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

46
IV. / The declension of fractions

In fractions, both parts decline: the numerator and the denominator.


The numerator = cardinal numeral
The denominator = a hard-stem adjective

: .
=
=

1/2 2/5 3/8


1 - Nominative

4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

V. / The declension of decimals

1,.. 2,..
and higher 0,..



1 - Nominative

4 - Accusative Gen. pl
2 - Genitive
+
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

- =

- / (f) =

= 1,5 = 150
1 - Nominative
m: f:
4 - Accusative
2 - Genitive
3 - Dative

5 - Instrumental
6 - Prepositional

47
O
Formation of degrees of comparison of qualitative adjectives and adverbs of manner
COMPARATIVE DEGREE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE

SIMPLE COMPLEX COMPLEX COMPLEX SIMPLE
1) stem of adjective - more simple comparative 1) suffix:
adjective + suffix: - less degree of adjective (- / - / -)

+ noun () + adjective + the most
(after , , , , )
of all + adjective (after , , , )
[ - than]
2) prefix 2) prefix
- /
()
beautiful
1) stem of adverb - more simple comparative
adverb + suffix - less degree of adverb
+ verb + - animate
2) prefix + some adverbs
- inanimate
is used seldom in all
-
()
quickly /

SUFFIX interchange of consonants EXAMPLES


- - bright, light
- / - - - kind
- - () strong
- - cheerful
- - expensive
-
- - strict
- - young
-
- - solid, hard
- - loud
- - short
- - light, easy
- - - bright
- - hot
- - - soft
- - strong
- - clean
- - - often
- - thick, fat
- - dense, thick
- - simple, easy, ordinary
- - rich
-
- - steep, sharp
- - dry
-
- - - quiet
- - - cheap
- - narrow
- - - - close
- - low
drop suffix -, -
- - - high
- - - rare
- - - wide, extensive
- -- - - distant, far-off
- -- - - thin
drop suffix -, -
-- - - long

48

Special cases of formation of degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs

comparative
superlative degree
degree
simple complex / simple complex
, ()
good better the best
, ()
bad worse the worst
,
small smaller the smallest
adjective ,
big, large bigger, larger the biggest, the largest
/
late later the latest

deep deeper the deepest

sweet sweeter
()
well better the best
()
badly worse the worst
adverb ()
little, not much less the least
()
many, much more the most
()
early earlier the earliest

+ noun

simple comparative degree of adjective Gen. 2 .

- simple comparative degree of adjective , .


- than
- complex comparative degree of adjective , .
Nom. 1
- comparison of two infinitives , .

only Complex Comparative Degree of adjectives


- salted - early
- bitter - proud
:
- fried - tired , + adjective
taste
- boiled - friendly
- smoked - efficient, businesslike

Simple Superlative Degree of adjectives


suffix - suffix -
- strong (hard) - high, tall
- old - great
- simple, easy / ordinary - - thin, slender
- rich - rare
- kind - light, easy
- new - - strict
- difficult - - close
- tasty, delicious - - quiet

49
/ Complete and Short-form Adjectives

COMPLETE-FORM adjectives: attribute -

1) The adjective is placed before the noun - predicate.


+ ( / ) + adjective + noun Nom. 1.
In the construction (This is ) the word o never changes. When in English you use this
and is together, in Russian you need to use the pronoun o:
. - This is an interesting book. (a statement that the book is interesting)

m .
f .
n .
pl .

2) The adjective is placed before the noun - object.


The adjectives and the pronoun change for gender, number and case and agree with the noun
they qualify in gender, number and case.
.

COMPLETE-FORM adjectives SHORT-FORM adjectives


predicate -
The adjective is placed behind the noun - subject.
+ noun Nom. 1 + ( / ) + adjective.
The auxiliary verb is omitted in the present tense.
When in English you separate this and is, in Russian you use the pronoun o:
(). - This book is interesting. (This book is interesting compared to others, I recommend it.)
The pronoun is used like an adjective preceding nouns and declines as an adjective, thus having
three genders and plural forms.
m . .
f . .
n . .
pl . .
The adjectives agree with the noun they qualify in The adjectives are not declined, but agree with the
gender, number (and case). noun they qualify in gender and number.

past / future tense: Nom. 1 or Instr. 5


/ .
/ .

The Predicate is only a Short-form Adjective

1. subject: , , , , , , , .
.

2. attribute of the subject: .


.
, , , ,
.

50


Formation of short-form of qualitative adjectives and past passive participles

SHORT-FORM
SINGULAR
COMPLETE-FORM PLURAL
masculine feminine neuter
-
- beautiful
- tall, high
- written
- open

Some present participles passive have a short-form (bookish language):

- to love (-, -, -)
- to respect
- to value
- to keep
- to torture
- to oppress

Short-form Adjectives that we use often:

masculine feminine: -A plural: - neuter: -O


open
closed
to be right
glad
happy
enjoyed
busy
free
healthy
ill, sick
agree
ready
to be sure, confident
similar (to), someone looks like
familiar (with)
need
it is necessary
must, have to
it is possible
obligatory
grateful
faithful, sure; correct
visible
audible
full, filled with
worthy, fitting
indifferent (to)
typical (of)
characteristic (of)

51

Special cases of formation of short-form of adjectives

1. Mobile vowel ( ) masculine


(near) - (short) -
(low) - (short, brief) -
+ (strong) - (narrow) -
(easy) - (adroit) -
(thin) - (sharp, harsh) -
(sweet) -
(long) - (funny) -

(full) - (wicked, evil) -
- (harmful) -
(black) - (useful) -
() + (clever) - (necessary) -
(difficult) - (reliable) -
(poor) - (faithful) -
(pale) - (dirty) -
(bitter) - (sick) -
drop or + () + / (sharp) - c (strong) -
(staunch) - (shapely) -
(sharp) - (light) -
()
(sly) -
(frank) -
(sincere) -
(light-headed) -
complete form ends in - (limited) -
(ordinary) -
-
(invariable) -
- (long) -
- (valuable) -
- (stressed) (inclined, disposed) -
(modern) -
(constant) -
! (sure) -
(remote) -
(well-bred) -
(reserved) -
2. The adjectives and have no short forms.
in their place, we use the short forms , - (-, -, -)
of the adjectives and , - (-, -, -)
3. The adjectives which have no short-form
- - , ,
ending in: -, - - , , ,
-, -, - - , ,
, , , , ,
colours
, , ,
prefix - / - , ,
4. The adjectives used only in the short-form
, , - be glad .
, , - must .
, , - obliged .
, ,
- responsible, guilty, to blame
, ?
(), ,
( ),
, ,

52
/ Verb forms

INFINITIVE
- after vowels - after consonants - after vowels (a few)
- to read - to carry - to be able to do
- to speak - to go - to help
- to draw / paint - to grow - to lie down
- to laugh - to lead / drive - to take care of / to be careful with

IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT PERFECTIVE ASPECT


VERB FORMS

verbs have a onjugation (I and II):
PRESENT TENSE
change in person and number
?
singular plural
What are you doing now?


/

() + / / () + / /
PAST TENSE
? m , ,
What did you do yesterday? f , ,
pl , ,

COMPOUND: SIMPLE
FUTURE TENSE
+ inf.
?
verb has the I st conjugation verbs have a onjugation (I and II)
What will you do tomorrow?
singular singular plural


/ /
plural


past tense +
THE CONDITIONAL MOOD

consonant + / vowel +
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD singular plural (+ ) singular plural (+ )

53
/ The conjugation of verbs

I CONJUGATION: II CONJUGATION:

inf. in inf. in -
-, -, -, -,
NUMBER PERSON -, -, -

,
,
, ,
I - -
SINGULAR you -
(-, -) he / she / it -
we -
PLURAL you -
they - -

, - after vowels , - after vowels and


, - after consonants soft consonants
, , - unstressed
, , - stressed , - after , , ,

infinitive
to work to walk to be ill to draw, paint to rest to go can
drop +


/


infinitive -
to speak to study to give to get up
consonant +

vowel +


/


EXCEPTIONS:
Verbs ending in - and -, - Verbs ending in -
II conjugation I conjugation
c - to look, - to see, - to hate - to live
- to depend, - to offend - to shave
- to suffer, - to turn round - to sew
- to drive, - to knock - to drink
- to shout, - to be silent, c - to hear - to beat
- to breathe, - to hold - to pour
- to sleep, - to fly
- to sit, - to lie, - to stand

54

Consonant interchange in verb stems in the present tense

- - - - -
- - - - -
- - -
-

I conjugation

infinitive to write to cry to cut to look for to speak to can to help
to slice to search for to say, to tell to be able to do
interchange - - - - - - -


/


II conjugation

infinitive to go to see to translate to love to prepare to fly to go
(by transport) (on foot)
interchange - - - - - - -


/


II conjugation

infinitive to ask to sit to pay to clean to feed to suffer to carry
to tolerate to wear
interchange - - - - - - -


/


55

( )
Special cases of verb conjugation and past tense formation (irregular verbs)

PRESENT TENSE (imperfect) or FUTURE TENSE (perfect)


PAST TENSE
VERBS SINGULAR PLURAL
(, , )
()


to take
perf.

to take


to be


to live
perf.

to give

, ,
to eat


to drink


to sing


to go / drive

, ,
to go
, ,

to carry


to run
perf. , ,

to lie down
perf. , ,

to sit
, ,

to be able to do
perf. , ,

to help
perf.

to understand


to want
, ,

to put
perf. , ,

to die


to wait


to wash
, ,

to grow

56
/ Aspects of the verb

/ Formation of the aspectual pairs

imperfective aspect perfective aspect


1. without a prefix prefix
the verb with prefix and without it must have the same
meaning otherwise it is not an aspectual pair
to read
to write
to draw
to have lunch
to do
to sing
to play
to grow
without the suffix
2. suffix - / -
- / -
to rewrite, to copy
to write down, to record
to order, to book
to finish
3. suffix - without the suffix -
to give
to pass
to stand up, to get up
4. suffix - suffix -
to decide, to solve
to study
to end, finish
to turn on
to answer
5. suffix - suffix -
to cry, to shout
to rest
without /
6. / in the root
in the root
() () to start, begin
to understand
to occupy, to have a lesson
() () to pick up, to lift, to go up
7. different words
to speak, to say, to tell
to take, to borrow
to buy
to put
to sit down, to set
to lie down, to go to bed
to look for - to find
to catch
to hang (up)
to return, to give back
to turn

57
/ ASPECTS OF THE VERB

imperfective: The action is (will be) named only, the result is unimportant.
, .
1. Find a fact: the action in general. The General fact
: , .
1) / / ?
What did you do yesterday? What will you do tomorrow?
What are you doing now?
What were you doing? What are you going to do?
present past compound future
- ? - ? - ?
- . - . - .
2) / / ?
Are you doing something or not? Was there any action or not? Will there be any action or not?
present past compound future
- ? - ? - ?
- , . / , . - , . / , . - , () ( ). /
- , () ( ).
2. The specification of the details of the action (as a fact, person, place, time),
which had already been or it will be. The Individual fact
( , , , ), .

: ? / ? / ?

imperfective: perfective:
1. The action continued (will continue) for The action is (will be) completed and finished.
some time. The process. The result (limit) of the action.
. . , . .
. .
The process went on for (in)definite time: The result is achieved within some definite time:
- all day 4 Acc. + 4 Acc. - within
- whole evening
- during a week ?
2 - hours / 3 - days / 4 - years + - already
+ + + verb - yet
+ past, future - for a long time
= + present
( + past - a long time ago / - recently)

- ? / present there is no present tense


- ?
How long ...?
- () / 3 .

- ? / past - () ? past
- ? - , () . /
- . - , () .

- , . present - ?
+ + verb - still - 2 . past

- ? / - ? simple future
- ? - / / .
- 2 .
compound future - ?
- 3 . simple future

58
imperfective: perfective:
2. The action was (will be) repeated many times. The action is single, not repeated.
, ,
( ). ( ).

- usually / /
- always / / /
- sometimes
- often
- seldom
- never
- many times
() - every time (day)
- every Sunday
- previously, used to

- ?
- .
present
- , .
. past
- . past

- .
? compound future simple future
- .

(to get up) . past . past

3. Both actions took place simultaneously. One action which produced a result took place
. after another, which was also completed with
a result.
.
,
. present

, . .
past .
past

, , .
. .
compound future simple future

[ ]
imperfect - compound future
finish
1 2
- to return

4. , .
imperfect
past The action which began and finished while the
other action was taken place has perfective aspect.
perfect - to call
, ,
, .

59
imperfective perfective
5. The result of the action is no longer valid The result of the action is still valid at the
at the moment of speech. (past) moment of speech. (past)
,
. .
verbs:

1) verbs of motion with prefixes -, -, -


+ / , /
/ , /

2) / - to take
/ - to give
/ - to open
/ - to close
/ - to turn on
/ - to turn off
/ - to put on
/ - to take off
/ - to put
/ - to put
/ - to tidy

3) () - to love,
() - to like

- ? ?
- . (= + ) (= , )

. .
(= , ; (= )
+ )

6. IN THE NEGATIVE
The absolute absence of an action The action was (will be), but there is no result
(no action at all). of the action.

: (),
( , ). .

= he did not do smth. / wont do smth. = he couldnt do it / will not be able to do it


/ /

. ( .) present

() . past . past

. 2 .
compound future simple future

imperfective perfective

present
past past
compound future: + inf. simple future

60

The use of the ASPECTS OF THE VERB (general table)

imperfect perfect
1. :
___
1) / ?
2) / ( )
3) (? ?)

2. : :
, 2 ,
? ?

3. :
, , ,
, ;

4. : :

_________ perfect + (im)perfect


_________
1 2
finish

past: perfect + perfect

future: 1) perfect + perfect


2) perfect + imperfect

IMPERATIVE:
positive perfect
negative imperfect

+ INFINITIVE perfect
+ INFINITIVE imperfect

61

The use of aspects of the verb in the infinitive form
modal word / verb + inf. to express the necessity, desire, possibility, intention or advice
, , , ,
modal words verbs
, - it is necessary, need - to want
- must, have to - to be able to do / can
- it is possible / may? - to ask
- it is impossible / it is not allowed - to advise
- to recommend

imperfective perfective
1. The action without indication of its limit. 1. The main thing is the result of the action.
By the meaning it is near the general fact. .
.
.
. .
.
, .
2. The action as a process /
.
3. The repetition of the action. 2. A single, non-repeated action.
. , ().
. .
. .
. .
, , . its stuffy
. to air
-.
4. Start of the action with the meaning
its time to do smth.
.
with the modal words:
- its time to
, - it is necessary, need
- it is possible
.
! () !
. () ! ? May I come in?
5. After verbs expressing: 3. After perfective verbs:
1) The beginning, continuation or the end of action. - to have enough time / to be (make) it in time
, , . - to forget
- - to begin, to start - to manage, succeed
(= ) - to begin ( , )
- - to continue - to be left
- - to finish ( , )
- - to finish
- - to stop .
- - to stop .
- - to give up doing .
. .

62
imperfective
5. After verbs expressing:
2) The ability, the skill, the habit and the practice to realization of action.
, , , .
- to be able / to know how to do
() - to learn
- - to get into the habit of doing .
3) Feelings /
() - to love / () - to like .
- to hate .
4) The exhaustion or the negative attitude to an action.
. .
- - to get tired - to no longer want to do
- - to get tired - to decide not to do
- - to bore - to change ones mind
( , - to be fed up) - to forget how to do
- to avoid - - to grow out of the habit of
- love no longer (stop loving) , - to dissuade
6. With the words meaning the general permission, the right for action:
, , :
- - to be allowed .
- may .
- to have the right (to)
- duty (responsibility) .

infinitive in the negative:


with the word (it is impossible, it is not allowed) and without it
imperfective perfective
The action is not allowed, not recommended or Physical impossibility to fulfill an action.
not necessary to do. .
,
( ).
, . , .
, . , .
. ,
.
, . , .
. () , .
= , , = , ,
after words:
/ - need not (one should not) = it is impossible
- should not, ought not /
- is not worth / - its not time
- not necessarily
- it is useless / - it is harmful
- it makes no sense
- one must not / - one ought not
- I dont suggest you
() - to have no wish
() - I would not like
- /
not be allowed, to forbid .
/ / - it is enough
.

63

The use of the aspects of the verb in the imperative
Imperative forms may express: a request to do something, advice, a recommendation,
an inducement to an action, a command, a demand, an invitation.
(, , , , , , )

imperfective perfective
1. The speakers attention is centered on the 1. The main thing is the result of the action.
action itself, on the process: how? - ? .

, ( ). :
- , , ?
, , / . - , .
. , , .

2. The action was repeated; 2. The action is single, not repeated;


expresses recommendations. expresses a request to do something,
. . a demand, a command or advice.
, .
- At the doctors: , , , .
, ,
. , , .
. , , . (request)
. , . (advice)
. / , , . (request)

3. An inducement to an action. , .
. , .

1) The invitation to make an action. .


. , .

! , , 10 .
- Having visitors: : (command)
, , , , - , , .
; , . - / .
- .
2) The permission to make an action. - , .
. - .
- , , .
? - .
? - . - At home:
- (), , .
3) The suggestion to begin or continue an action - () .
immediately: do it now! - () () .
( ) - () .
. - () .

(), . () .
(), . , .
, , .
.
. . .

64
IMPERATIVE IN THE NEGATIVE
imperfective perfective
as a rule imperfective The exception: the situations when the speaker
The request not to make an action or the is afraid that an undesirable action may occur.
prohibition to make an action. :
. .

. + words: , - look out!

()! - Dont talk! ()! - Dont forget!

() ! - Dont open the window! , ()! - Dont break!


() !
! - Dont worry!
, ! - Dont fall down!

, .
Dont catch a cold!

()! - Dont get sick!

() ! - Dont be late!

() ! - Dont lose the keys!

, !
Dont fall asleep!

65

Verbs which have no aspectual counterpart

1) imperfective aspect


to be to love to sit to call to work to be different from

to be situated to be glad to stand to be called to study to cost

to have to be bored to lie to have a name to serve to weight

to possess to feel very sad to grow to teach

to belong to to miss to command

to be to want

2) perfective aspect

1. The starting point of an action



verbs of motion (group I):
to start walking
prefix - to start driving
to start flying
to start to fall in love
to feel
to like
to start pouring
to blow

verbs of motion (group II):


= to begin to walk; to pace the room
prefix - to begin bustle
to begin to speak
= to begin to sing
to begin to do to begin rustling
to begin shouting
to stop talking
to begin laughing
to begin weeping
to fall ill
to become / grow sad
to become interested
to begin to work / start working

to get angry
prefix - (... -) to burst into tears
to start laughing

66
2. The actions of short duration (the actions are limited in time)

verbs of motion (group II):
to walk
prefix - to run about
to fly
= / to swim
for a short while to go for a (short) walk
to sleep
to sit
to lie
to stand
to play
to read
have a talk/ talk a little/ talk for a while
make a bit of a noise
to keep silent
to stay (for a short time)
to stay (for a while)
3. A certain period of time was taken up with the action

verbs of motion (group II):
prefix - to spend the time in walking / to walk
to run about
for a certain time: to be swimming / to be sailing
- for a long time to spend / to run through
- all day to stay / to remain
- whole evening to speak / to talk
2 - hours / 3 - days to spend the time sitting / to sit
4 - years to spend the time lying / to lie
- during a week to spend the time working / to work
- until evening to spend the time reading / to read
to sleep
to be ill
4. Single actions, actions, performed on one occasion only
, ( )
to jump
suffix - to wave
to cry / to shout
- once
to knock / to bang
5. The result (limit) of the action
()
to finish reading
to finish writing
prefix - to finish playing
to fry
to finish to eat up
to drink up
to smoke

67
/ Formation of the Imperative

I. SECOND PERSON

singular plural
(polite form) +

stem of the verb () ending in:

VOWEL CONSONANT 2 CONSONANTS


form of the verb ()
- - - - - -
() to read () to remember

accent in the ending accent in the stem



- - - - - - - - - -
() to write () to get up

Special cases /

singular plural
1) / / + suffix -

- / to give
- / to get up
- / to recognize
2) --

- / to beat
- / to pour
- / to drink
- / to sew
3) - / to eat
4) - / to lie
5) verb with prefixes from the stem -
/ / / / / /

6) - - / to go out +
- - / to study

! - - / to take out +

after consonant -
after vowel -

- - - - / to get dressed
- - / to get undressed
- - - - / to study
- - / to wash

no imperative
verbs: ____ ____
, , ,

68
II. Joint action: the speaker invites one or several persons to do something together
: ( )
-

forms singular: plural:

1) - lets

imperfect - infinitive perfect - verb , future


! () !
! !
! () !
() ! !
() ! !
! !
! !
! !
/ / !
!

2) verbs of motion (group I):


-
verb , present -

3) verb , future, perfect -


-
()

4) verbs with the meaning !


to start, to begin: ____
!
verb , past !

III. 3rd PERSON: a command or permission is addressed to some third person


-

1)
- let him, her, them + verb: imperfect - present
( ) perfect - simple future

()

() . () .
() . ()
.

2) appeals and congratulations


( / )
!
is used in journalistic writings
( ) Long live to peace!

69
/ Verbs of motion without prefixes
Group I Group II
Verbs of unidirectional Verbs of non-directed or
motion variously directed motion imperfective

to go, to walk

( - on foot)
to go, to drive
- by vehicle:
, ,
, , ,
, ,

to run

to fly
- by plane
- by helicopter
to swim, to sail
, - on a ship
, , - on a boat

to carry (in ones hands)

to carry (in a vehicle)

to lead

to drive a car
to trudge, to drag oneself along

to roam, to wander

to climb

to crawl

to carry, to drag (a heavy thing)


() ()
to trudge along (-)
to drive fast, to drive (animals)
() ()
to pursue (-)
to roll, to wheel (-)
() to pull a sledge, to push a pram
to take smb. for a drive (for pleasure)
to go for a ride
( , ) - to ski

, - to skate
leisure activities - to toboggan
not for the purpose of - to cycle

- to ride a motorcycle
transportation
- to ride a horse
- to go for a drive
, , - to go boating

If there are wheels () you must use the verbs - and - .

70
/ The use of the Verbs of motion

past present future


group I: - (verbs of unidirectional motion) imperfective
() , ,
() (imperfect) . / . (imperfect) .
() , process: movement in ,
() (perfect) . - was going (perfect) .
one definite direction
movement in one direction at the moment of speech movement in one direction
while the other action takes place while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time) (2 actions at the same time)
- / - ( ) - ( )
? How long did it take you to get to ? / ? / ?
- () / 20 . - / 25 . - / 30 .
period of time period of time period of time
group II: - (verbs of non-directed or variously directed motion) imperfective
- previously, used to / /
( () ) - every day ,
() / () . - usually
repeated movement - always repeated movement
there and back - often there and back
() / () . - seldom
single movement there and back: - sometimes
- never
? direction - Acc. - went
= () . repeated movement
? place - Prep. - was there and back
() / () . / . .
round: the non-directed action the non-directed action the non-directed action
(different directions) (different directions) (different directions)
group I: - (start of motion) perfective
- ( )? subject (-, -) subject , / .
- / . [past verb] / .
start of motion + ?- set off ! intention to go somewhere
() () / () / (). /
() . / . . - will go
2 actions: one after another in speech 2 actions: one after another
(result - perfect + start of motion) start of motion in a minute: (result - perfect + start of motion)
, I am (we are) leaving.
. Bye! Im off.
,
.
beginning of a new stage of movement

group I: - (to come, to arrive) perfective


/ /
8 . 9 .
group II: - (to come, to arrive) imperfective
() /
() 10 . / /
/ 9 . 9 .
. = .
.

71
/ The use of the Verbs of motion

past present future


group I: - - (verbs of unidirectional motion) imperfective
. /
. .
.
. , .
/ ,
(perfect) . - was taking process: movement in
movement in one direction one definite direction movement in one direction
while the other action takes place at the moment of speech while the other action takes place
(2 actions at the same time) (2 actions at the same time)
group II: - - imperfective
(verbs of non-directed or variously directed motion)
- previously, used to / /
( () )
() / () .
- every day ,
. - usually
repeated movement - always repeated movement
there and back - often there and back
() / () - seldom
. - took - sometimes
- never
.
repeated movement
single movement there and back there and back
/ / /
. . .
round: the non-directed action the non-directed action the non-directed action
(different directions) (different directions) (different directions)
group I: - - / - - perfective
- ()? subject (-, -) 8 :
- / . - /
-
- .
start of motion
start of motion + ?- has taken - /
- .
- will take
to take something or someone
to the required place
group I: - - (to bring, to carry, to take) perfective
/ /
. .
. .

group II: - - (to bring, to carry, to take) imperfective


/
/ /
.
. .

12 .
/ 15 . 15 .
.
= ,
.
.

72
/ The use of the Verbs of motion

verbs of motion without prefixes - group II


, , .
. Ability, skill, usual means of locomotion.
. .
.
. Movement as a persons permanent occupation.
.

INFINITIVE
.
. , , (), + group II
.
. the name of the movement
. (without concrete movement): group II
/ .
positive - intention: + prefix /
/ .
/ .
negative: + without prefix /
/ .
/ present: now or plans (without prefix )
.
/ future: prefix

IMPERATIVE
/ () !
positive - group I: Go!
/ ! Bring it!
/ ! Take it!
(* ) / .
/ . negative - group II: Dont go!
Dont bring it!
/ ! // / ! Dont take it!
/ ! // / !

* / ! (special case) invitation: Come to see me! - group II

! / ! [past verb: ]
Lets go! now; We are off.
= ()!
+ / ! [future verb: ] suggestion: Lets go somewhere together.

73
/ TENSE AND MOOD FORMS OF THE VERBS OF MOTION

I II I II

infinitive (-) (-)
to go on foot to go by transport to arrive to come to go, set off
imperfect imperfect perfect
present: / / future:


()



past:


imperative:
/

I II I II I II

infinitive (-)
to run to fly to swim, to sail arrival by swimming

imperfect imperfect
present:


()



past:


imperative:
/

I II I II I II

infinitive to carry in (ones) hands to carry in a vehicle to lead; to drive a car
imperfect
present: / / /


()



past:


imperative:
/

74
I II I II I II

infinitive (-)
to climb to climb into to crawl to roam, to wander
imperfect
present:


()



past:


imperative:
/

I II I II I II
/
infinitive (-) (-)
to carry, to drag to drag in(to) to drive to roll, to drive / to skate
imperfect
present:
/
/
() /
/
/
/
past: /
/
/
imperative: /
/ /

future imperfect: + infinitive

group I: group II:


+ +
tense
+ +
+ +

+ +
present
+ +
()
+ +

() + () () + ()
past
() () + () () + ()
() + () () + ()

75
,
Verbs of motion , with prefixes indicating spatial relations

prefix meaning examples


Movement into smth. entrance
-
The distance is not far from the entrance. / . - Acc. He came into the house / room.
(-)
. to enter . The car drove into the garage.
? .
? - ! May I come in? - Come in!
Movement from within: exit
- - for not a long distance Gen. Acc.
He went out of the house /
- for a short while. / . to the balcony.
?
, :
: ? Are you getting off (out)?
? The doctor is not in, he is out,
- , , . wait for him please.
- .
Arrival: ( - ) . - Acc. We came to Moscow.
- . Acc. Dat. He came to the office / to the
/ . doctors.
? different areas / : . - Gen. I came from England.
?
m m / ? When is he going to come?
/ ! Come to see us! Come to visit!
Departure: ( - ) Gen. Gen.
- for a long distance / for a long time. / . He left the office / the doctors.
Acc. My brother is not in, he has left
Its not necessary to say the purpose of the
? movement. , ( ). to work.
? Acc.
, :
. He left on a business trip.
/ .
. / ? When is he going to leave?

Approaching (near, close by). Dat. I went (up) to the cash desk
- . and bought a ticket.
,
(-) The teacher approached the
.
(). blackboard.
? . The bus approached the bus
same area / : stop.
Dat.
m m / . Come here / to me.

Moving away from an object for a short Gen. The teacher stepped aside from
- . the blackboard.
distance.
(-) The bus went away from the
.
(). bus stop.
?
The moment of departure of a means of departure
? transport. () 19 The train (the bus) leaves at 7
. . oclock p.m.
5

A short visit to smb. (some place). . We called on you for a moment.


Movement performed while on the way Acc.
somewhere. We popped (dropped) into a
. shop on the way home.

Instr.
.
( I fetched my friend (and we left
- ). together).
Dat.
? ( ). I called on my friend (and left alone).
? Movement into smth. = prefix - / . He came into the house / room.
. I will come to you tomorrow.
Arrival = prefix - / Come to see us (me)!
( , ) ! Come to visit!
Movement behind smth. Acc.
. . He turned the corner of the house.

Movement deep into smth. - Acc. to walk far into the wood
(inside, upwards / downwards). to climb a tree /
/ , / . /
to get under the cupboard

76
prefix meaning examples
Movement past smth. - Gen.
We walked past the theatre.
. . - Acc.
Movement through smth. - passage
() -. () . - Acc. We went through the forest.
- () - Acc. to drive through a tunnel
! Let me pass!
/ . Go into the room.
Movement over a definite distance. 15 . We drove / covered 15 kilometres.
/ How much is a journey on the
. ?
metro.
Movement across smth. () . - Acc. We crossed the street.
- . We crossed to other side of the
. street.
- crossing
Movement from one place to another. Acc. My friend moved to another city /
() /
. to a new flat.
. move
Movement up to a definite place or object. Gen.
= Reaching a limit. We reached (walked as far as)
. . the theatre and stopped.

Characterisation of the manner in which . We reached the park by car.


the distance was covered.
- ? - How do you get to the office?
( - - You have to go on the metro
). . to Arbatskaya station.
-
- ? - . - How was your journey? - Fine.
(Did you reach us alright?)
() ? How was your flight?
He reached (by car) the corner
. of the street and turned left.
Indication of the time needed to cover it.
, . We reached (on foot) our home
. in half an hour.
- Movement round smth. - Gen.
We walked round the theatre.
(-) . . - Acc.
Movement round an object obstructing (, ) - Acc. to drive round the mountain
the way. (hole, puddle)
,
detour
.
Movement over the whole of the object
or over all the places. - Acc. plural to tour all the shops
.
- Upwards movement. - Acc. to drive uphill
()-
- . to go up to the second floor
? to run upstairs

- - Gen. to drive downhill


Downwards movement.
(-) to come down from the second floor
.
? to run downstairs
( )
()- Diverging movement. () to go, to run
-
+ particle
() to ones respective homes /
- . / in different directions
()- Converging movement. ()
+ particle
() to come, to run to one place
-
? .

77
, ,
Verbs of motion , , with prefixes indicating spatial relations

prefix meaning examples


Arrival: . He brought me a book.
He brought the groceries from the
.
to bring shop.
- to deliver - . He brought his son from school.
, , . Please, bring me sugar.
, , . Please, bring me some souvenir.
. Bring him to me.
() . Put everything in order. / Tidy yourself up.
Departure: . He took my book with him.
- for a long distance . He took old things to the dacha.
- for a long time In the summer he took his family out of
.
- town.
to take away
to lead off (away) , It started the rain and the father took
. the children home.
, , . Take the dishes away, please.
1. Movement into smth.: The removal men carried the sofa into
.
the distance is not far from the room.
the entrance. Suppliers imported the goods into the
.
country.
to carry (bring, take) in
- The secretary led me into the
2. to pay money . directors office.
3. to introduce new rules The client paid (put) money into
.
customers account.
The government introduced new tariffs
(, ). (taxes, rules).
Movement from within: The removal men carried the sofa out
.
- for not a long distance of the room.
- - for a short while . They took away unimportant things.
to carry (take) out . He took the dog for a walk.
, , . Please, take out the rubbish.
Approaching (near, close by) . He carried things up to the car.
- to bring up to (). He gave me a lift to work (home).
-
to take up , . Give me a lift, please.
- to give a lift ( ). He walked me to him (to the car).
1. Taking an object or a . He took the things to the car.
person to the required . He took the shoes to be repaired.
place: . Take the clothes to the cleaners.
to take smb. (smth.) to (). He drove me to the airport (home).
- . Take these documents to the office.
2. Moving away from an
object for a short distance: ( ). He walked his son to school (to the doctor).

to take (lead) smb. aside He took me to the side.


( ).
to lead away He moved me away from the window.
Movement up to a definite . He carried the things home.
place or object: to reach . He walked him to where he needed to go.
-
to take smb. (smth.) to / (). He drove me to the metro (to work).
as far as , . Drive me to the metro, please.
1. to take into = () . They took the sofa into the house.
2. to bring = The porter took the luggage into the
(). room (upstairs).
3. Movement performed
/ , Bring me the documents, please.
while on the way
- somewhere:
.
(). He delivered the groceries to mum.
to drop smth. off to smb.
/ . He did not take us to the right place.
4. Movement deep into He led them deep into the forest (a
smth. ( ).
swamp).
5. Movement behind smth. . They put things round the corner.

78
prefix meaning examples
1. Movement across smth. . He took (led) his son across the road.
to take (transport) smth. He took the computer into another
or smb. over / across . room.
. He moved the sofa to another flat.
2. Movement from one
place to another: , . Move my things, please.
- ()? Can you reschedule the lesson?
to move
. We transfered money into your
3. to reschedule account.
4. to transfer money . The translator translated the letter.
5. to translate - translation
! Translate these documents, please!
1. Movement past smth. / He walked / drove us past the
. monument.
2. Movement through smth.
He carried the things through the
to carry (take) .
turnstile (gate).
- past / across / along 20 He carried 20 kilograms of goods on
3. : ( ). the plane (across the border).
to see smb. off (). He walked him through the park.
, . Show him around the office, please.
4. to spend time
( , ). I will see you off (home, to the caf).
How did you spend your holiday
?
(vocation)?
Diverging movement: / The courier delivered the orders to the
1. to deliver (, ) . clients.
to serve (up) () The school bus took the children
. home.
- 2. to separate
The negotiations should help to
3. to get divorced . separate warring sides (opposites).
(= ). They got divorced.
- divorce
Converging movement: The world summit gathered (brought)
. the leaders together.
- to gather
( He brought all the goods to one
). warehouse.
Upwards movement / He took things upstairs / to the second
-
. floor.
Downwards movement: / He took things downstairs / from the
-
to take (drive, lead) down . second floor.

- / Prefixes - antonyms: - , - , - , () - (), -

79

Verbs of motion with non-spatial prefixes (perfective)

prefix MEANING EXAMPLES


The start of motion.
Its necessary to say the purpose of the Acc.
movement.
Dat.
. .
.
group I - -
An intention to do smth.
(future tense) .
, . .
( )

The start of motion Dat.


- .
He began pacing the room.
The movements are limited in time.
= Dat.
- .

(- ).

A certain period of time was


completely taken up with movement.
. Dat.


(- ).
- .
- for a long time
- all day
- whole evening
- during the week
group II - 2 - 2 hours

A single brief movement there and back



.
Instr.
1) With the purpose to get (to receive) .
smth.
.
-.
-
Acc.
2) With the purpose to be somewhere. .
-. - ()?
- .
()
.

The achieving of the intensity of motion


- ,
= .
(... - )
.

, , , .
The prefixes , , , may have spatial or non-spatial meanings.

80

Synonymous constructions of verbs of motion

present imperfect = future perfect


- / ? - When are you leaving?
- / . - I am leaving tomorrow.
- / ? - When is he coming / arriving?
- / . - He is coming / arriving on Friday.

prefix EXAMPLES
Tomorrow Im leaving (going) on a
/ .
business trip.
=
/ . He went (left) on a trip.

/ ( , ). He came into the house (flat, room).


/ ( ), . Please, come in.
=
/ . The car drove into the garage.
The removal men carried the things
/ .
into the room.
/
, / ! Come to see me (us)! Come to visit!
/

= / . I will come to you tomorrow.



/ , . Please, bring me the documents.

/ , , . Please, bring me the report.

- ? - How is it possible to reach Arbat?


= = ? - You need to go on the metro to
- () . Arbatskaya station.
You need to take your son to the
/ .
doctor.
=
/ I want to take the children on holiday to

. St. Petersburg.


Figurative meaning of verbs of motion

(, ). () (). - to suit
() . () / / .
(). (, ) ?
(). (, )?
. (, ).
. .
() . .
. .
() (). .
(, ) . ().

81
/ Figurative meaning of verbs of motion


to behave / .
- to hold a conversation - to keep a diary - to conduct a war
- to carry on an dialogue - to keep notes - to lead a fight
- to conduct (lead, hold) a debate - to run a business - to issue propaganda
- to correspond - to run a household
() / -
- to chair a meeting - to lead (teach) a course - to conduct research
- to chair a session , - to give (teach) a lesson - to make an observation
- to work - to conduct a campaign - to carry on (hold) negotiations
- to hold a rehearsal - to carry out a policy - to conduct elections
- to built a road - to carry out an operation - to implement a reform
+ Acc. / + Prep.
to wear () (). = () ( ).
()
to be lucky Dat. (, , , ) + - present / () - past / - future

to mislead smb.
- to bring smb. up-to-date with events
to marry, get married to ()
- to lose ones temper . =
smb. cant bear (stand) someone / , .
- He cant take difficulties. .
to fly out .
- smth. has slipped my mind .
- () / .
- - to drive smb. mad .
to exasperate smb.
to start . () / .
- to get (all) wound up . =
to get .
to carry through to the scandal .
- to see smth. through to the end -
to reduce smb. to tears -
to let down , .
- to sum up
to treat
- to take ,
What did he think of your suggestion? ?
to suffer from an illness , -
- to under go an operation
smb. cant stand smb. / smth. . / .
to react badly to - antibiotics, - flying
to convert ,
- to change the subject
to pass =
- All troubles will come to an end. - .
This too will pass. , .
- to demolish , =
- to go mad
- to drive smb. mad
to give
- to horrify .
- to be in use / to harm /

82

ASPECTS OF THE VERBS OF MOTION with prefixes indicating spatial relations

- / - / - / - / (...) - (...) / / / / /

imperfective: The action is (will be) named only, the result is unimportant.
, .
1. Find a fact: the action in general. The general fact
: , .
/ ?
Was there any action or not? Will there be any action or not?
past compound future
- ? - ?
- , . / , . - , () ( ). /
- , () ( ).
2. The specification of the details of the action (as a fact, person, place, time),
which had already been or will be. The individual fact
( , , , ), .

- / ? - 15 . present future
- ? - , .
perfective: The action in a definite situation. The definite / concrete fact
. -
- ? - . past
- ? - 9 .
imperfective: group II perfective: group I
/ + prefix / + prefix
/ / / /
/ /
1. The action continued (will continue) for The action is (will be) completed and finished.
some time. The process. The result (limit) of the action.
( - , .
). . .
? / + - already / + + () - yet, still
- ? present - ?
- , () . / , . - , . past
- ?
- , 20 . simple future
2. The action was (will be) repeated many times. The action is single, not repeated.
, ,
( ). ( ).
- usually / - always
- sometimes
- often / - seldom
- many times
/ - every time / day
- on Sundays (every Sunday)
- previously, used to
. present
7 . present
, 8 . past
9 . past
, 9 .
8 . compound future simple future

83
imperfective: group II perfective: group I
/ + prefix / + prefix
3. Both actions take place simultaneously. One action which produced a result took
. place after another, which was also
completed with a result.
, .
. present 1 2 3
,
. past
1 2 3
finish

4. , . past

, , , . imperative
compound future
imperfect The action which began and finished while
/ the other action was taking place has
perfect / perfective aspect.
, ,
, .

5. The result of the action is no longer valid at The result of the action is still valid at the
the moment of speech. (past) moment of speech. (past)
,
. .

-, -, - + - , -
- , -

. ( + ) .
(= , ) (= )

- ?
- , , 6 .

6. IN THE NEGATIVE /
The absolute absence of an action. 1. Physical impossibility to fulfill an action.
:
( ). .

= (past) + inf.

, . , .

, .
2. The absence of the result of an action.
.

, .

.
Prefix does not have the meaning of the process of an action.

84

Formation of the aspectual pairs of the Verbs of motion

imperfective: group II () + prefix perfective: group I () + prefix


- / - / - / - / - / -

- / - / - / - / -
- / - + suffixes -, - / -

imperfective perfective imperfective perfective


group II + prefix group I + prefix group II + prefix group I + prefix

present present


/ /



past past



future future
compound: + inf simple compound: + inf simple


/ / / /



85
- / Verbs with the particle -

All these verbs are intransitive: they are never followed by an Accusative noun or pronoun without a
preposition.
: ()
( 4) .
MEANING VERBS EXAMPLES
1. Truly reflexive verbs. () - to wash (oneself)
. / - to wash (hands and face) (= ).
- to bathe
The action is directed at the agent
(it reflects on the subject). () - to shave (= ).
/ - to dry oneself
/ - to comb ones hair
( ). (= ).
/ - to dress
/ - to undress
subject = object
.
() - to prepare
- = (myself, himself ...) / - to get ready to do;
to assemble, gather .
/ - to defend oneself .
2. Reciprocal-reflexive verbs. () - to introduce, make the acquaintance
- . / - to meet
() - to meet, see each other .
One action is being done by two or (= ,
/ - to part
several persons together, with each

.)
person being the agent and at the () - to greet
same time the object of action. () - to say good bye (to)
.
/ - to embrace
. (= ,
() - to kiss .)

. - to correspond
() - to consult
? 5 Instr. - to whisper
() - to quarrel
() - to swear
() - to be reconciled, make up
/ - to arrange matters
? - agreed?
- to fight
- to compete
- to trade, haggle
/ - to unite, join hands

some verbs - to be friends .


5 Instr.
with the meaning of reciprocity - to speak
do not have the particle -C ?
- to talk with somebody

- to argue
-
- to know
4 Acc. .
- to love
- to hate
each other
- to respect

- to trust
- to help 3 Dat. .
- to disturb
- to write

86
3. Generally reflexive verbs.
.
The particle -, while making the -, ,
verb intransitive, does not change .
its principal meaning.

1) Various changes in motion, - to move


condition or state. / - to set off; start; leave .
/ - to stop, pause
/ - to rise
, / - to descend, go down 9 .
. / - to land
/ - to open
/ - to close, shut .
/ - to return
/ - to turn
/ - to turn to look at smth. .
/ - to bend
/ - to increase
/ - to decrease 5 .
/ - to shorten, reduce
/ - to gain strength () /
/ - to weaken .
expense / income
/ - to improve
/ - to worsen
/ - to change
.
() - to hide, conceal oneself

Involuntary actions, which take / - to catch cold .


place under the influence of outer () - to break
reasons.
/ - to hit, strike (against) .
, / - to burn oneself
.
/ - to break
. () - to break, burst, tear .

nly animate subject - to have a good time


() - to be glad / happy .
/ - to be pained, to grieve
- to be sad ,
/ - to be confused, .
to be embarrassed

- to be worried
.
- to worry
- to get anxious
/ - to calm down .
/ - to be surprised
- to be irritated
- to be angry .
/ - to be indignant
/ - to admire .
- to be interested
() - to learn, study .

2) The beginning, continuation / - to begin 10


and end of action. / - to continue .
/ - to end
, / - to finish
. 2 .
/ - to stop
/ - to conclude 7 .

87
3) Permanent characteristic of an - to bite .
object. - to scratch .
. - to bend .
- to prick, sting .
4. Verbs that are never used / - to smile at .
without -. () - to laugh
- to admire :
, / .
-. - to fall in love
- to be .
/ - to appear
- to become
- to need 12 .
() - to take care
- to treat .
() () - to hope (for)
- to be proud of
- to doubt
/ - to agree
- to be afraid
() - to try
() - to try
- to strive
/ - to be occupied
- to work
- to be
- to lie down
/ - to stay
5. Impersonal verbs denoting - it happens () .
condition that does not depend on - it gets dark (ompare:
any person.
, .)
+ 3 Dat.:
: .
, . - he thinks, it seems to him .
- want, would like I cant sleep.
() - to like .
Sleep is sound toward the morning.
- he feels unwell (ompare: ,
() .)
.
() Work is going well today.
.
She did not feel like working.
.
He hates staying at home.
.
He cant stay long in one place.
6. Imperfective verbs with passive
meaning. Nom. Instr. .
+ +
.
.
7. Intensity of subjects action, - to knock - .
often taking place with some aim. - to aim (at)
.
(?) - to threaten
,
- . /
- to scrutinize, to take a good look .
/ .
- to fall to thinking, to be / become thoughtful

88
/ PARTICIPLE (bookish construction) ?
- adjective: gender, number, case / verb: time (present - past), aspect (perfect - imperfect), active - passive
- it expresses some temporary quality of an object linked with a certain action
1 Nom.
Active Participle = (- / - / -) + verb
? present - imperfect - - to read
- - to write
verb []
, -
(= ) suffix - to have a lesson
. / - I conjugation - - to love
/ - II conjugation - - to hear
- - to study
? past - (im)perfect () - () ()
- to read
verb []:
, -
(= ) - - suffix - - to die
. - - suffix ! () - to come
4 Acc.
Passive Participle = + verb (transitive)
? present - imperfect
- - to read
verb []
,
suffix - I conjugation - - to love
(= ). - II conjugation
? past - perfect -
- - to see
suffix , ,
, -
- to finish
(= ). verb []: - to open
- to close
Instr. - suffix
- to kill
person, who is doing smth. / - suffix - to forget
- to start
- to take

- - to meet
- - to return
- - to find
- - to hurt, offend
- to win
-
- to liberate, vacate
- - to depict, portray
- to invite
Interchange of consonants: -
- to throw
- - to lower
- - to look for
- - to use
- - to buy
- to put
-
- to leave
- - to rule in columns
- - to crush

drop / + to paint - - , to dance - -


verbs with roots / / : drop to sell - - , to get up - -

89
/ VERBAL ADVERB

- adverb: does not change for gender, number and case; has no tenses / verb: aspects
- predicate (verb) - the principal action, verbal adverb - the action of secondary importance
- predicate and verbal adverb relate to one and the same agent

/ Formation of the verbal adverb

the RULE
stem of present: verb [] - - - to read
- - - to sit
verbal adverb suffix
- - - to go
imperfect suffix - after , , , - - - to hear
suffix / - verb with - -
stem of inf. perfect - - to read
verbal adverb - - to write
suffix
perfect - - to put
suffix - verb with - - to start laughing
EXCEPTIONS
verbal adverb perfect stem of future: - - -
verbs of motion with prefixes: verb [] - - -
, , , suffix - - -
verb - being + 5 Instr. ()
- -
2 forms of verbal adverb perfect - - to see
- - to hear
verbs imperfect:
there is no verbal adverb
, , , ,
verbs with roots -, -, - - to give
suffix + - to find out, to learn
and suffix -
- to get up
imperfect verbs - - - ,
- - - ,

MEANING: 1) TIME (?)


verbal adverb imperfect + verb imperfect ,
.
verbal adverb imperfect + verb perfect ,
.
1 2

finish
verbal adverb perfect + verb perfect , .
verbal adverb (im)perfect + verb imperfect () , .

2) Cause (?) , .
= = , .
3) Condition , .
= = , .
4) Despite the fact that , .
= = , .
5) ? = , .

90
/ PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

Active construction Passive construction


1 Nom. (subject) 5 Instr. (person, who is doing smth.)
4 Acc. (object) 1 Nom. (subject)

1.
Nom. verb imperfect Instr.
Nom. Acc. Nom. Instr.
. .

2.
short past passive Acc.
Nom. Instr.
participle .
Nom.
( / ) .
Acc. Nom.

.
perfect verb [] + Nom. Instr.
suffix - / - (- /- /-) .

- / Indefinite Personal Constructions

1. no subject
2. verb - form

:
, - they say, it is said
(),

(),
(),

(), - it was reported (informed)


(), on the radio / on TV + 3 Dat.

, - I was told that + ? 3 Dat.


- I was asked + ? 4 Acc.

? + 6 Prep.
.
.
.

91
/ Constructions of time (? - When?)

hour minute day week month year time


Nom.
1
Acc.
Gen.
2, 3, 4
singular
5 - 20, Gen.

plural exception

nouns - 2 Gen. - of
1) () ?
time: adverbs:
nouns - 1 Nom. ? - fact
What time is it now? ? - in
2) ? = ? - event
? At what time?
morning 4 - 11 in the morning
() a.m.
afternoon 12 - 4 in the daytime
evening at 5 - 11 in the evening
night 1 - 12 12 - 3
p.m. at night

() ? What time is it now? informal style: 1 - 12


Nom. + + ordinal numeral (Gen.) + Gen. + Nom.
16.05 16.10 16.15 16.20 16.55 16.50 16.45 16.40



() ()
16.30 = ()

ordinal numerals (neuter)


1 Nom. 2 Gen.
fact: ? event: ? = / ?
What date is it today? On what date?
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
/ 2014 -

1 Nom. 2 Gen.: of 6 Prep.: in


fact: ? / event: ? =
What month is it? ? ? In which month?
January [v]
February [f]
March [v]
April [v]
May date + [v]
June 1 - 31 in [v]
July [v]
August [v]
September [f]
October [v]
November [v]
December [v]

92
fact: adverbs
nouns - 1 Nom. event: ? - in
? ?
What season is it? In which season?
autumn in autumn
winter in winter
spring in spring
summer in summer

? In which ? event: ?
6 Prep. m 6 Prep. / 5 Instr. f
this
() last

next
future
2015 ()

fact: - 1 Nom. event: ? - 4 Acc.


? ? - on
What day (of the week) is it today? On which day of the week?
Monday [f]
Tuesday [va]
Wednesday [f]
Thursday () [f]
Friday on [f]
Saturday [f]
Sunday [v]
- day(s) off - week-end [v] -

this last next ? - 4 Acc.


m , , /
f , ,
on n
pl
- this day / - the next day

all whole every without a preposition - 4 Acc.


m , , , / , ,
f / , , / , ,
n // /
pl

prepositions
in, within + 4 Acc. / / / / /
after + 2 Gen. / / / /
just before + 5 Instr. / / /
before + 2 Gen. /
till, until + 2 Gen. /
during + 2 Gen. /
/
from ... to + Gen. ... + Gen. ()
, , , , , , , ,
, , ,
within: result + 4 Acc. 2 /
for: to stay + 4 Acc. / 3

93
/ Direct and Indirect Speech

type of the sentence DIRECT speech INDIRECT speech


conjunction
Affirmative sentence : ,
. .
Question with a question word Direct Question Indirect Question
conjunctive words: , , ,
/ - to ask?
, , , ,
? + 4 Acc.
, , , ,
/ - to answer
: ,
? + 3 Dat.
? .
Question particle - whether
without a question word The word containing the question
takes the initial position.
alternative: The particle is placed immediately
2 answers - or after that word (verb).
: ,
? .
(= or )
: ,
? .
(): , .
?
doubt, uncertainty:
, .
,
().
,
.
, .
I wonder, if
Dont use the conjunction .
Request / Advice / Command conjunction
predicate - imperative predicate - past tense (2 subjects)
() : ,
. .
: ,
. .
: ,
. .
verb / ()
to advise smb to do
() + inf.
to ask to do
/
to order smb to do

( ) .
: / / words are dropped

94
/ COMPLEX SENTENCES WITH CONJUNCTIONS
meaning conjunction examples
post position ,
cause - because . result + cause
? - why? pre position or post position ,
- since . cause + result

result - therefore
. cause + result
..., () - if then ,
condition: 1) real
+ future / present () .
? , ,
- on what condition? 2) unreal .
+ past
- although, ( - but) , ()
despite the fact that ( - even though) .
,
? .
- in spite of, despite the fact that
- in spite of what?
words which intensify the construction: , -
/ - / .
- still, all the same, nevertheless
1) , .
time
2) , .
- when
? - when? 3) ,
1 2 .
- while ,
.
- until ,
.
before:
, .
,
.
,
.
,
- after
.
- as soon as , .
, ()
purpose + infinitive - in order to
.
1 subject ,
? - what for?
? .
? + past - so that , .
2 different subjects , .
in the indirect speech
I want smb. to do smth. ,
(instead of imperative): verbs: () - to want .
- a wish () - to ask to do, to request =
- a request () - to command .
- a command / - to tell , ()
- a demand () - to demand .
- advice () - to advise = ()
- necessity / - need, necessary .
predicate + () , , 10 .
information: that what
verbs: / - to say ( ),
speech, thoughts,
/ - to answer .
knowledge, emotions () - to know, find out
? / ? - about what? () - to think , .
() - to remember it seems to me
() - to feel
() - to see
/ - to understand

95
, , , () ,
question
, , ? / ? /
with a question word
, , ? / ? / ?
, that - what , .
explanation + attribute inanimate
, .
, that - who
animate
, .
,
attribute m - - which / who -
f - -
? - what? -
n - - 2
pl - -

- .

gender / number case


,
-
noun, verb -
-
- 2
-
- .
,
-
-
- 3
- 3
-
- .
,
-
-
-
-
-
- .
1) indirect question 1) : ?
without a question word , .
(= )
alternative: particle - whether : ?
2 answers - or
= - or , .
The word containing the question (= )
takes the initial position. 2) , .
is impossible to use
The particle is placed = , .
immediately after that word (verb). : , .
2) doubt, uncertainty , .
[degree of comparison of adj. / adv] , .
comparison - than , .
, - as , .
to join /
1) simultaneous actions - 1subject 1) .

2) consecutive actions - and
2) , .

3) cause + consequence 3) .
+ , .
to contrast - - but , .
(II part - unexpected result)
to juxtapose (compare) - , .

a - but
, .
to join two sentences:
a - and ? ?
A begins a question
, , .
- not only but also , .

96
/ The main meanings of prepositions

preposition meaning question case examples



place: in, at ? where? 6 Prep.

location of an object:
? where? 6 Prep.
in
time: / / / 2015-
? when? 6 Prep.
in / I-
time: - on ? when? 4 Acc. /
direction of movement:
? where to? 4 Acc.
to
clothes ? 6 Prep. ()
game ? 4 Acc. ()

place: in, at ? where? 6 Prep.

location of an object:
? where? 6 Prep.
on
direction of movement:
? where to? 4 Acc.
to
? / ? ()
transport: by 6 Prep.
to go by what? / how?
/
time: ? when? 6 Prep.

a certain period of time ? 4 Acc. 2
(to stay some time): for
musical instrument ? 6 Prep. ()
starting point
? where from? 2 Gen.
of movement: from
starting point of ? where from? 2 Gen. -
movement: from behind -
- bad cause: -
because of - ? why? 2 Gen. -
-
starting point of ? where from?
movement is a person: = 2 Gen.
from ? from whom?
moving away from an
object for a short distance: ? where from? 2 Gen.
from
cause (not under control):
? why? 2 Gen.
because of
...
a part of the way:
2 Gen.

from to ... ... ? 700
together with:

1) joint action ? with whom?

2) emotional state ? how?

- appearance 5 Instr. -
- food -
3) (-, -, -)?
- buildings architecture -
- content -
4) question about the - ?
/ ?
health of a person - .

97
()
starting point of ? 2 Gen.
()
movement: from where from?


? when? 2 Gen.
... time: from ... to
? ()
time: within ? when? 4 Acc. (, , )
? where to? ()
movement across smth. 4 Acc.
? ()
movement through smth. ? 4 Acc. () /
()
movement through smth. ? 4 Acc.

object of speech or ? ? 6 Prep.

() thought: about about whom / what?
time: in ? 4 Acc.
2
verb perfect ? / / / /
place:
1) behind 1)
? where? 5 Instr. ( )
2) outside 2) ()
3) at 3)
direction of movement:

1) behind 1)
? where to? 4 Acc.
2) out (of) 2)
()
3) at 3)

cause: for ? 4 Acc.
()
purpose of motion (to
? what for? 5 Instr.
bring, receive smth.): for
? where? = 2 Gen.
place (person): at (, )
? at whom?

place: by, near ? where? 2 Gen.

possessor of smth. ? 2 Gen. /
/ ? 2 Gen.

absence: without
?
/ ? 2 Gen.

purpose: for what for?
? where? 2 Gen.

place: near
?
direction of movement ? where to? 3 Dat.
()
is a person: to ? to whom?

approaching: to ()
? where to? 3 Dat.
(same area)
()
motion along a surface ? where? 3 Dat. ()
()
attributes formed from ? 3 Dat. , , ,
the subjects of education ? noun + noun ( )
(e-mail)
means (way) of
communication: ? how? 3 Dat.
by, on

98
time: before ? when? 2 Gen. ()
?
movement: to reach to 2 Gen.
how to reach (get) to?

time: just before ? when? 5 Instr.


? where?
place: in front of 5 Instr. (, )
?
time: during ? when? 2 Gen. ()

2 Gen.

time: after ? when?

place: above ? where? 5 Instr.
place: //
? where? 5 Instr.
under // near ()

direction of movement
? where to? 4 Acc.
(, )
starting point of -
- movement: ? 2 Gen. -
from near, from under where from?
(, , ) -
()
place: between ? where? 5 Instr.

place:
? where? 5 Instr.
near to, close by
place: around ? where? 2 Gen.
/
movement around smth. 2 Gen.
?
place:
? where? 2 Gen.
to the right (left) of
place: opposite ? where? 2 Gen.

place: not far from ? where? 2 Gen.

place: near, close to ? where? 2 Gen.



place: in front of ? where? 2 Gen.


place: behind ? where? 2 Gen.


place: ? where? 2 Gen.

in the middle of

movement past smth. ? 2 Gen.
place of motion:
? 2 Gen. ()
along

?
4 Acc.

despite the fact that in spite of what? .

comparison: 2 Gen.

unlike / ? .
good cause: (why?) (, )
3 Dat.
thanks to / ?
object of speech or / ?
4 Acc.
thought: about = () about whom / what? ()
to oneself (silently) 4 Acc. ()

99

Kuzmina Natalia

RUSSIAN GRAMMAR IN TABLES


__________________________________

Please contact the author with any comments and questions by e-mail at knatalya@list.ru
www.russianforeveryday.ru

Special thanks to Mrs. Wendy Soucy


30.11.2015.
.

, 117342, . , . , . 17- , . 324.


./ : (495)334-82-65; . (495)336-03-11.
E-mail: flinta@mail.ru; WebSite: www.flinta.ru
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Russian Grammar in Tables






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Natalia Kuzmina
RUSSIAN GRAMMAR
In 1991, Natalia graduated with Honors in Russian Language and Literature
from the Lenin Moscow State Pedagogical University.
IN TABLES
In 1992, she completed a course in Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language at
the Pushkin Institute of Russian Language.
Natalia has considerable experience in teaching foreign students and businessmen.
Since 1993 she has taught adult students at the Gnesins Russian Academy of Music
as well as at the British International Language Academy, Polyglot.
She also has extensive experience through her association with the following

international companies: Philips, Mars, Merloni, Procter&Gamble,
Danone-Bolshevik, TNK-BP, BP, and Baker Hughes.

Russian for foreigners