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BIOLOGY

Biologi

Revision Questions
Soalan Ulangkaji

Week 4
Minggu 4

bijakspm.com
SECTION A

1. Diagram 1 shows the structure of a cell.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur satu sel.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1

(a) Based on the information given in diagram 8, label the parts in the spaces provided.
Berdasarkan maklumat yang diberikan pada Rajah 8, label bahagian-bahagian itu dalam
ruangan yang disediakan.
[2 marks/markah]
(b) State the functions of the organelles labeled
(i) X:
___________________________________________________________________
Y:
___________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]

(c) Predict what will happen when the cell is immersed in


Ramalkan apa yang berlaku apabila sel itu direndamkan di dalam
(i) distilled water / air suling :
___________________________________________________________________
(ii) 5% sodium chloride solution / larutan natrium klorida 5% :
___________________________________________________________________
(iii)0.85% sodium chloride solution / larutan natrium klorida 0.85% :
___________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]

1
(d) Based on your answer 1 (c), explain the movement of the molecules of water in each case.
Berdasarkan jawapan anda di 1 (c), terangkan pergerakan molekul air bagi setiap
kejadian.
(i) distilled water / air suling :
___________________________________________________________________
(ii) 5% sodium chloride solution / larutan natrium klorida 5% :
___________________________________________________________________
(iii) 0.85% sodium chloride solution / larutan natrium klorida 0.85% :
___________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]

(e) Give a reason to explain why a plant cell that is immersed in distilled water will not
undergo the same process as a red blood cell.
Berikan satu sebab untuk menerangkan mengapa sel tumbuhan yang direndam di dalam
air suling tidak mengalami proses yang sama seperti sel darah merah.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]

2
2. Diagram 2.1 shows a nucleotide from a DNA molecule.
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan nukleotida daripada satu molekul DNA

Diagram 2.1 / Rajah 2.1

(a) Name the structures labelled P and Q.


Namakan struktur berlabel P dan Q.
P : ______________________________________________________________
Q: ______________________________________________________________
[2 marks/marks]

(b) Complete Diagram 102.2 to form a DNA molecule. Part of one of the nucleotide
chains has been drawn.
Lengkapkan Rajah 2.2 untuk menujukkan satu molekul DNA. Sebahagian daripada
satu rantai nukleotida telah dilukis.

Diagram 2.2 / Rajah 2.2


[3 marks/marks]

3
(c) In Diagram 2.3, a, b, c, d, e, f and g represent the genes on a chromosome. After a
certain treatment, gene a is found missing.
Pada Rajah 2.3, a, b, c, d, e, f dan g mewakili gen pada kromosom. Selepas satu
rawatan, gen a telah hilang.

Diagram 2.3 / Rajah 2.3

(i) Name the process that has taken place on the chromosome.
Namakan proses yang berlaku pada kromosom.
__________________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(ii) State one factor that causes the process in (c) (i).
Nyatakan satu factor yang menyebabkan proses di (c) (i).
__________________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

4
(d) Diagram 2.4 shows the karyotype of individual Q.
Rajah 2.4 menunjukkan kariotip individu Q.

Diagram 2.4 / Rajah 2.4

(i) Determine the sex of individual Q.


Tentukan jantina individu Q.
_____________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]
(ii) Name the genetic disease suffered by individual Q. State one reason.
Namakan penyakit genetic yang dialami oleh individu Q. Nyatakan satu sebab.
_____________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(e) A cross between a homozygous male mouse with black fur and a homozygous female
mouse with white fur produces all offspring with black fur. Explain why all offspring
have black fur.
Satu kacukan antara tikus jantan homozigot berbulu hitam dengan tikus betina
homozigot berbulu putih menghasilkan semua anak berbulu hitam. Huraikan
mengapa semua anak mempunyai bulu hitam.
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[ 3 marks/marks]

5
3. Diagram 3 shows the regulatory mechanism of oxygen and carbon dioxide contents in the
body.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan mekanisme pengawalaturan kandungan oksigen dalam karbon
dioksida di dalam badan.

Diagram 3 /Rajah 3

(a) (i) Which part of the brain contains the central chemoreceptors and respiratory centre?
Bahagian otak yang manakah mengandungi kemoreseptor pusat dan pusat respirasi?
____________________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(b) P and Q are the two peripheral chemoreceptors that detect changes in carbon dioxide
concentration and the drop-in pH. Name the two chemoreceptors.
P dan Q ialah dua kemoreseptor periferi yang mengesan perubahan kepekatan karbon
dioksida dan penurunan pH. Nyatakan kedua-dua kemoreseptor tersebut.

P : _______________________________________________________________

Q : ______________________________________________________________

[2 marks/marks]

6
(c) (i) An athlete had just finised running a 100m race. Explain the effect of an increased
concentration of carbon dioxide in his blood.
Seorang atlet baru cahaja tamat larian 100m. Huraikan kesan peningkatan kepekatan
karbon dioksida dalam darahnya.
________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/marks]

(d) (ii) Based on diagram 3, describe the regulatory mechanism in the body of the athlete to
remove the excess carbon dioxide in his blood.
Berdasarkan Rajah 3, huraikan mekanisme pengawalaturan dalam badan seorang atlet
untuk menyingkirkan karbon dioksida berlebihan dalam darahnya.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

[3 marks/marks]

(e) Explain why an athlete chooses to train high altitudes before competing in a race.
Terangkan mengapa seorang atlet memilih untuk menjalankan latihan di altitude tinggi
sebelum bertanding dalam satu perlumbaan.

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

[3 marks/marks]

7
4. Diagram 4.1 shows the human digestive system.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan sistem pencernaan manusia.

Diagram 4.1 / Rajah 4.1

(a) What are the part labeled R, S and T?


Apakah bahagian yang berlabel R, S dan T?
R: _________________________________________________________________
S: _________________________________________________________________
T: _________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/marks]

(b) State two substances apart from enzymes in the gastric juice secreted at R.
Nyatakan dua bahan selaim enzim dalam jus gatrik yang dirembes di R.
1.____________________________________________________________________
2.____________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/marks]

(c) Write the word equation of one of the digestion of food substance that occur at
structure T.
Tulis persamaan perkataan bagi satu pencernaan bahan makanan yang berlaku di T.
_____________________________________________________________________
[3 marks/marks]

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(d) Diagram 4.2 shows the cross section of a structure found in T.
Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan keratan rentas satu struktur yang terdapat dalam T.

Diagram 4.2 / Rajah 4.2

(i) State one characteristic of the structure that increases the absorption rate of
nutrients.
Nyatakan satu struktur itu yang meningkatkan kadar penyerapan nutrien.
_________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(ii) Explain the absorption of digested food through the structure.


Terangkan penyerapan makanan tercerna melalui struktur itu.
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________
[3 marks/marks]

9
5. Diagram 5 shows a plant cell.
Rajah 5 menunjukka satu sel tumbuhan.

Diagram 5 / Rajah 5

(a) (i) Name organelle X.


Namakan organel X.
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]

(ii) State one function of organelle X


Nyatakan satu fungsi organel X.
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(b) (i) Name organelle Y.
Namakan organel Y.
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]

(ii) In which part of organelle Y does the dark reaction of photosynthesis occur?
Dalam bahagian manakah pada organel Y berlakunya tindak balas gelap
fotosintesis.

________________________________________________________________
[1 mark/markah]
(iii) Explain briefly the function of organelle Y in photosynthesis.
Huraikan secara ringkas fungsi organel Y dalam fotosintesis.
________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/marks]

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(c) A pineapple is cut into cubes which are then immersed in a concentrated sugar solution
for a length of time.
Sebiji nenas dipotong berbentuk kubus yang kemudiannya direndam di dalam larutam
gula pekat untuk suatu tempoh masa.

(i) Draw a labeled diagram to show the condition of one of the cells in a pineapple
cube after it has been immersed in the concentrated sugar solution for some time.
Lukis satu rajah berlabel untuk menunjukkan keadaan satu daripasa sel dalam
kubus nanas itu selepas direndam di dalam larutan gula pekat untuk seketika.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]

(ii) Explain why the cell is in this condition after it has been immersed in the
concentrated sugar solution.
Terangkan mengapa sel itu berada dalam keadaan ini selepas direndam di dalam
larutan gula tepu.
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
[4 marks/markah]

11
6. Diagram 6 shows cross section of the stems of two plants, X and Y.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan keratan rentas batang dua tumbuhan, X dan Y.

Diagram 6 / Rajah 6

(a) (i) State two differences between the stems of plant X and plant Y.
Nyatakan dua perbezaan antara batang tumbuhan X dengan tumbuhan Y.
1._____________________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________________
[2 marks/marks]

(ii) Give a reason for each difference stated in 6(a)(i).


Berikan satu sebab bagi setiap perbezaan yang dinyatakan di 3(a)(i).

1._____________________________________________________________
2._____________________________________________________________
[2 marks/marks]

(b) (i) What is the function of the xylem in both plant X and plant Y.
Apakah fungsi xylem dalam kedua-dua tumbuhan X dan Y?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]

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(ii) Name two komponen xylem and two components of the phloem.
Namakan dua komponen xylem dan dua komponen floem.

Xylem / Xilem Phloem / Floem

1.______________________________ 1._____________________________

2.______________________________ 2._____________________________

(iii)
The vascular cambium is fpound between the xylem and the phloem of the stem of a
woody plant. A type of cell division occurs in the vascular cambium.
Kambium vascular terdapat di antara xylem dengan floem dalam batang pokok
berkayu. Sejenis pembahagian sel berlaku dalam kambium vascular ini.

What type of cell division is it and why is it important to the woody plant?
Apakah jenis pembahagian sel ini dan mengapakah pembahagian sel ini penting
pada pokok berkayu?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks/markah]

(c) Cactus can grow in deserts although most other plant cannot. How do cacti adapt to the
hot and dry desert condition?
Kaktus boleh tumbuh di gurun walaupun kebanyakan tumbuhan lain tidak boleh.
Bagaimanakah kaktus menyesuaikan diri dengan keadaan panas dan kering di gurun?
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
[3 marks/markah]

13
7. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of light on the growth of young oat
seedlings. The seedlings are given different treatments and exposed to light from one
direction as shown in Diagram 7.1
Satu eksperimen dijalankan untuk menyiasat kesan cahaya terhadap pertumbuhan anak
benih oat. Anak benih diberi rawatan yang berbeza dan didedahkan kepada sumber
cahaya dari satu arah seperti yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 7.1

Diagram 7.1 / Rajah 7.1

(a) Draw the response of each seedling after two days in Diagram 7.2
Lukis geras balas setiap anak pokok selepas dua hari dalam Rajah 7.2

Diagram 7.2 / Rajah 7.2

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(b) (i) What is the chemical substance responsible for the growth of the seedlings in the
experiment?
Apakah bahan kimia yang bertanggungjawab untuk pertumbuhan anak benih dalam
eksperimen ini?
_______________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(ii) Where is the chemical substance produced in a plant?


Di manakah bahan kimia ini dihasilkan dalam tumbuhan?

_______________________________________________________________
[3 marks/marks]

(i) Based on the growth response of the oats seedlings, state two characteristics of
the chemical substance.
Berdasarkan gerak balas anak benih, nyatakan dua ciri bahan kimia tersebut.
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks/marks]

(c) Explain the difference in the results obtained for the seedlings numbered 3 and 5.
Terangkan perbezaan dalam keputusan yang diperoleh untuk anak benih bernombor 3
dan 5.
_______________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(d) Which part of the oat seedling is affected by the chemical substance?
Bahagian anak benih oat yang manakah dipengaruhi ooleh bahan kimia?
_______________________________________________________________
[1 marks/marks]

(e) Predict the responses of the oat seedlings numbered 1 and 4 of the source of light is
moved from the side to directly above the seedlings.
Ramalkan gerak balas anak benih oat yang bernombor 1 dan 4 sekiranya sumber
cahaya digerakkah dari sisi ke bahagian atas anak benih.
_______________________________________________________________
[2 marks/marks]

15
SECTION B

1. Diagram 1 shows an enzymatic reaction.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu tindak balas enzim.

Diagram 1 / Rajah 1

(a) Based on Diagram 1,


Berdasarkan Rajah 1,
(i) identify the substances labeled P, Q, R and S.
kenal pasti bahan-bahan yang berlabel P, Q, R dan S.
[4 marks/markah]

(ii) explain the characteristics of an enzyme


terangkan ciri-ciri enzim.
[6 marks/markah]

(b) Explain the site of enzyme synthesis and the production of extracellular enzymes
in the specific organelles.
Terangkan tapak sintesis enzim dan penghasilan enzim luar sel dalam organel-
organel khusus.
[10 marks/markah]

16
2. (a) Diagram 8 shows self-pollination in a flower.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan pendebungaan sediri pada sekuntum bunga.

Diagram 2 / Rajah 2

Starting from pollination, describe how fertilization occurs in a flowering plant.


Bermula daripada pendebungaan, huraikan bagaimana persenyawaan berlaku dalam
tumbuhan berbunga.
[10 marks/markah]

(b) The menstrual cycle is regulated by several hormones.


Describe how the different hormones play their roles in regulating the menstrual
cycle. Kitar haid dikawal atur oleh beberapa jenis hormone. huraikan bagaimana
hormone berlainan memainkan peranan dalam pengawalaturan kitar haid.
[10 marks/markah]

17
3. Diagram 3 shows a graph of the level of antibody against time for artificial passive
immunity.
Rajah 3 menunjukkan satu graf paras antibodi melawan masa bagi keimunan pasif
buatan.

Diagram 3 / Rajah 3

(a) Explain the primary response and the secondary response in Diagram 3.
Terangkan gerak balas pertama dan gerak balas kedua pada Rajah 3.

(b)
Immunity is the ability of the human body to recognize and fight against the
invasion of virus and bacteria. There is more than one type of immunity.
Keimunan ialah keupayaan badan manusia untuk mengenal pasti dan menentang
kemasukan virus dan bakteria. Terdapat lebih daripada satu jenis keimunan.

Explain each type of immunity and give examples.


Terangkan setiap jenis keimunan dan berikan contoh.
[10 marks/markah]

18
4. Diagram 4.1 shows the profile of a mangrove swamp in Malaysia.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan profil hutan paya bakau di Malaysia.

Diagram 4.1 / Rajah 4.1

(a) Explain the colonization and succession in the mangrove swamp.


Terangkan pengkolonian dan sasaran yang berlaku di paya bakau.
[10 marks/markah]

19
(b) Diagram 4.2 shows a dead turtle.
Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan seekor penyu yang telah mati.

Diagram 4.2 / Rajah 4.2

(i) Discuss human activities cause the death of the turtle.


Bincangkan bagaimana aktiviti manusia menyebabkan kematian penyu itu.
[6 marks/markah]

(ii) Suggest steps that can be taken to overcome this problem.


Cadangkan cara yang boleh diambil untuk mengatasi masalah ini.
[4 marks/markah]

20
5. (a) Diagram 5 shows the condition of a potted plant when it is placed in the shade and in
the sun.
Rajah 5 menunjukkan keadaan tumbuhan dalam pasu semasa diletakkan di tempat dan
dideahkan pada cahaya matahari.

Diagram 5 / Rajah 5

(i) The condition of this plant in the shade is different from its condition in the Sun
because a certain process occurs faster in the sun than in the shade. What is the
process?
Keadaan tumbuhana ini di tempat teduh adalah berbeza daripada keadaannya
semasa terdedah pada Matahari kerana satu proses tertentu berlaku lebih cepat
di bawah matahari daripada di tempat teduh. Apakah proses ini?
[1 marks/markah]

(ii) Explain how this process occurs.


Terangkan bagaimana proses ini berlaku.
[4 marks/markah]

(iii) Explain why the process named in 14(a)(i) is essential to the plant.
Terangkan mengapa proses yang dinamakan di 14(a)(i) adalah sangat penting
kepada tumbuhan.
[5 marks/markah]

21
(b) Diagram 5.2 shows the movement of soil water into a root of a plant.
Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan pergerakan air tanah ke dalam akar tumbuhan.

Diagram 5.2 / Rajah 5.2

Explain how water moves from the roots to the leaves of the plant, and then out into the
atmosphere.
Terangkan bagaimana air bergerak dari akar ke daun tumbuhan itu, dan kemudian
keluar ke atmosfera.
[10 marks/markah]

22
6. Diagram 6 shows the organelles involved in the synthesis and secretion of an extracellular
enzyme in an animal cell.
Rajah 6 menunjukkan organel yang terlibat dalam sintesis dan rembesan enzim luar sel
dalam sel haiwan.

Diagram 6 / Rajah 6

(a) Based on the diagram, explain the processes involved in the production of
extracellular enzymes.
Berdasarkan rajah, terangkan proses yang terlibat dalam penghasilan enzim luar sel.
[6 marks/markah]

(b) Biological washing powder contains enzymes that help in removing food stains.
Suggest two suitable enzymes that can be used for this purpose.
Serbuk pencuci biologi mengandungi enzim yang membantu menghilangkan kesan
makanan. Cadangkan dua enzim yang sesuai digunakan untuk tujuan ini.
[4 marks/markah]

(c) Based in the factore that affect the activity of enzymes, explain to a housewife how to
use biological washing powder effectively.
Berdasarkan factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi aktiviti enzim, terangkan kepada
seorang suri rumah bagaimana menggunakan serbuk pencuci biologi secara berkesan.
[10 marks/markah]

23
7. Diagram 7.1 shows a green plant.
Diagram 7.1 menunjukkan satu tumbuhan hijau.

Diagram 7.1 / Rajah 7.1

(a) State the adaptation characteristics of the leaves of the plant for photosynthesis.
Nyatakan ciri-ciri penyesuaian daun tumbuhan itu untuk fotosintesis.
[6 marks/markah]

(b) Explain the mechanism of photosynthesis.


Terangkan mekanisme fotosintesis.
[10 marks/markah]

(c) Diagram 7.2 shows cactus plants that also undergo photosynthesis.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan kaktus yang juga menjalankan fotosintesis.

Diagram 7.2 /Rajah 7.2

Explain the adaptations of the plants which enable the plant to carry out
photosynthesis effectively.
Terangkan penyesuaian tumbuhan itu yang membolehkannya menjalankan
fotosintesis dengan berkesan.
[4 marks/markah]

24
8. (a)
(i) Describe what happens to the glucose molecule when aerobic respiration takes
place.
Huraikan apa yang akan berlaku kepada molekul glukosa apabila respirasi aerob
berlaku.
[3 marks/markah]

(ii) Explain, by giving examples, how the energy released from aerobic respiration is
used in the human body.
Terangkan, dengan memberi contoh, bagaimana tenaga daripada respirasi aerob
digunakan dalam badan manusia.
[7 marks/markah]
(c) Diagram 8 shows the parts labeled J to P, which are associated with breathing and
gaseous exchange.
Rajah 8 menunjukkan bahagian yang berlabel J hingga P, yang terlibat dengan
pernafasan dan pertukaran gas.

Diagram 8 / Rajah 8

Based on Diagram 8, explain the functions of the parts labeled J to P when air enters
through the nose until it ends up in the bloodstream.
Berdasarkan Rajah 8, terangkan fungsi struktur J hingga P bermula ketika udara
memasuki hidung sehingga berakhir dalam aliran darah.
[10 marks/markah]

25
26
ANSWER BIOLOGY SET 4

SECTION A

1. (a)

(b) (i) X : Generally for storage, digestion and waste removal.


Y : Carries heredity information (genes)
(c) (i) Expands and undergoes cellular lysis.
(ii) Undergoes crenation
(iii) Remains the same
(d) (i) The net flow of water into the cell by osmosis causes the sell to swell and rupture.
(ii) The net flow of water out of the cell by osmosis.
(iii) The net flow of water in and out of the cell is the same.
(e) The cell wall of the plant cell prevents it from bursting.

2. (a) P : Phospate group


Q: Nitrogenous base
(b)

(c) (i) Chromosomal mutation/deletion


(ii) Exposure to radiation
(d) (i) Male
(ii) Downs syndrome
There are three chromosomes number 21.
(e) The allele for black fur is dominant over white fur. Each offspring receives one allele
from every parent. Hence, each offspring produced is heterozygous and has black fur.

27
3. (a) (i) medulla oblongata
(ii) P: carotid body
Q: aortic body
(b)
i. Carbon dioxide dissolves in blood plasma to form carbonic acid which dissociates
into bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen (H+) ions. The increases the acidity of the
blood and results in a drop-in blood pH.
ii. The dropn in pH stimulates the central chemoreceptors to send nerve impulses to the
respiratory centre, which in turn sends nerve impulses to the diaphragm and
intercostals muscles to contract and relax faster. This increases the breathing rate and
removal of carbon dioxide.
(d) High altitude has lower partial pressure of oxygen. The body produces more red blood
cells/haemoglobin to transport more oxygen to muscle tissues. the additional red
blood cell / haemoglobin remain for some time when the athlete returns to sea level.
This allow aerobic respiration to continue longer when the athlete competes, delays
oxygen debt and reduces the production of lactic acid.

4. (a) R: Stomach
S: Pancrease
T: Small intestines
(b) 1. Hydrochloric acid
2. Mucus
enzyme

(c) Peptide + water amino acids


erepsin

(d) (i) Has network of blood capillaries.


(ii) The absorption of nutrients occurs through diffusion and active transport. Glucose,
amino acid, vitamin and water soluble mineral diffuse into the epithelial cell and absorbed
in the blood capillaries. Fat-soluble vitamins diffuse into the epithelial cell and combine with
lipid droplets before diffusing into the lacteal.

28
5. (a) (i) Golgi apparatus
(ii) Converts the proteins produced by the endoplasmic reticulum into glycoproteins
by adding carbohydrate molecules to them.
(b) (i) Chloroplast
(ii) Stroma
(iii) The grana in the chloroplast contain the green pigment, chlorophyll, which
captures light energy required for photosynthesis.
- The stroma contains enzymes which convert carbon dioxide into glucose.

(c) (i)

(iii) The concentrated sugar solution is hypertonic to the cell sap contained in the
vacuole. More water diffuses out from the cell by osmosis. The cell becomes
flaccid as it loses water, the cytoplasm shrinks and the plasma membranes
pulls away from the cell wall. This cell is said to have undergone plasmolysis.

6. (a) (i) 1. The xylem and phloem from distinct vascular bundles which are arranged in a
ring in the stem of plant X, but the vascular tissue in the stem of plant Y is small and
indistinct, and found only at the centre.
2. The stem of plant Y has air-filled sacs but the stem of plant X does not.
(ii) 1. The vascular bundles of plant X (a terrestrial plant) provide support and
mechanical strength to the plant, but plant Y (an aquatic plant) does not need vascular
bundles because it is supported by the buoyant force of the water.
2. The air-filled sacs in the stem of plant Y reduce the density of the plant and
enable it to float in water, but plant X is a terrestrial plant which does not need the air-
filled sacs.

29
(c) (i) To transport water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves.
(ii)

Xylem Phloem

1. Xylem vessels 1.Sieve tubes

2. Tracheids 2.Companion
cells
(iii) Mitotic cell division This type of cell division increases diameter of the stem of
the woody plant.

(c)
- The roots of cacti grow deep into the soil to absorb water.
- The stems of cacti are green and succulent because they carry out photosynthesis and
store water.
- The leave of cacti do not carry out photosynthesis but are modified into spines to
reduce to loss of water by transpiration.

7. (a)

(b) (i) Auxin


(ii) Tip of the root or stem
(iii) Auxin is sensitive to light. It will move away from the illuminated side and
accumulate on the shaded side of the shoot tip. Auxin can diffuse through agar.
(c) In seedling numbered as 3, because the shoot is not exposed to light, auxin diffuses
downwards uniformly, causing the shoot tip is grow upwards. In seedling, as 5, auxin is
prevented from diffusing downward by the mica, thus the seedling cannot bend towards
the light source.
(d) Zone of elongation
(e) Both the oat seedlings will grow straight upward.

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SECTION B

1. (a) (i) P: Substrate


Q: Enzyme
R: Product
S: enzyme-substrate complex
(ii)
- Enzyme Q has its own shape and active site to which substrate P fits.
- Enzyme Q can only act on substrate P because the action of the enzyme is based
on the lock and key hypothesis.
- enzyme Q only speed up the reaction and is not destroyed at the end of the
reaction.
- Only a small amount of enzyme Q is needed to produce a large amount of product
R.
- It is because enzyme Q remains unchanged after the reaction.
- An enzyme is sensitive to temperature. At high temperatures, the active site of
enzyme Q is distorted and does not match the shape of substrate P. Therefore, the
enzymatic reaction stops.
(b) There are two types of enzymes:
- Intracellular enzymes are synthesized in the free ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
- Extracellular enzymes are synthesized in the ribosomes attached to the rough
endoplasmic reticulum.
- The organelles involved in the production of extracellular enzymes are the
nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and
ribosomes.
- The DNA in the nucleus stores in the genetic instructions for making enzymes.
- RNA in the nucleus copies the genetic instructions from the DNA.
- The RNA attaches itself to a ribosome on the endoplasmic reticulum.
- The tRNA brings free amino acids in the cytoplasm to the ribosome.
- The ribosome joins the amino acids to forms a long polypeptide chain after
reading the instructions from the mRNA.
- The proteins move to the Golgi apparatus.
- The proteins are modified before being secreted as extracellular enzymes.

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2. (a)
- Pollen grains are transferred from the anther to the stigma by pollinating agents
such as insects.
- The pollen grain germinates and produces a pollen tube.
- The pollen tube grows down the style towards the ovule.
- During growth of the pollen tube, the generative nucleus divides by mitosis to
form two male nuclei.
- The male nuclei move along with the tube nucleus down the pollen tube.
- When the pollen tube reaches the ovule, it penetrates the ovule through the
micropyle.
- Double fertilization occurs.
- One male gamete nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus to from a diploid zygote.
- The other male gamete nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a
triploid nucleus (3n). The triploid nucleus divides to form endosperm.
- The synergid cells and the antipodal cells degenerate.
(b)
- The menstrual cycle is controlled by the secretion of hormones from the endocrine
system.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is secreted (into the bloodstream) by the
pituitary gland.
- FSH, together with luteinizing hormone (LH), stimulates the development of a
Graafian follicle.
- LH is secreted by the pituitary gland and reinforces the effects of FSH.
- As a follicle develops, it begins to secrete oestrogen which stimulates the repair of
the endometrium.
- A peak in the secretion of oestrogen results in a surge of LH and FSH secretion.
- When the level of LH reaches the peak, ovulation occurs.
- The empty follicle turns into a corpus luteum which begins to secrete progesterone
and oeastrogen.
- Progesterone maintains the thickness of the endomatrium.
- Progesterone also inhibits the secretion of FSH or LH by the pituitary gland and
this prevents ovulation.
- If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates and the secretion of
oestrogen and progesterone is halted.
- As a result, the secretion of LH and FSH is no longer stopped.
- The cycle is now complete.

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3. (a) - Primary response is when the pathogen invades the body the first time.
- When pathogen invades the body, immune system of the body will be triggered.
- The white blood cell will quickly recognize the type of pathogen.
- The specific type of lymphocytes will divide by mitosis to grow in numbers.
- These lymphocytes will produce and release antibodies to fight and destroy the
pathogen.
- When all the pathogen has been destroyed by the antibodies, the concentration of
antibodies is reduced.
- Secondary response is when the body is exposed to the same pathogen the second
time.
- Once it encounters the same pathogen, the lymphocyte will remember and
recognice it.
- Thus, immune system will respond quickly and more rapidly.
- The concentration of antibodies increases rapidly to destroy the pathogen.
- A shorter time is taken to kill the pathogen.
(b) - Two types of immunity: active immunity and passive immunity
- Active immunity is when a person produces his/ her own antibodies.
- This type of immunity can last very long and some can last for the whole life.
- There are two types of active immunity: natural active immunity and artificial active
immunity.
- Natural active immunity is when the pathogen invades ones body and the person
produces his/her own antibodies.
Example of natural active immunity is when a person is attacked by flu, his/her
body will produce antibodies to fight against it.
- Artificial active immunity is when a pathogen is purposely introduced to ones body
to trigger his/her immune system to produce antibodies.
- Example of artificial active is vaccination.
- There are two type of passive immunity: natural passive immunity and artificial.
- Passive immunity is when antibodies are passed onto an individual in some ways,
rather than being produced by the individual itself.
- Passive immunity is only temporary.
- There are two types of passive immunity: natural passive immunity and artificial
passive immunity.
- Natural passive immunity is when antibodies are passed from mother to baby via the
placenta and through breastfeeding.
- Artificial passive immunity is when one is injected with serum containing
antibodies extracted from another person.
- Example of artificial passive immunity is the treatment of tetanus.

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4. (a)
- Colonosation is the process whereby living organisms move into a newly formed area
which completely does not contain living things.
- Succession in an area is when the successor species moves into a modified
environment, completes with the pioneer species and finally replaces the pioneer
species.
- In a mangrove swamp, colonization occurs at zone 1 where the initial habitat is a
muddy bank without plants, followed by the pioneer species, namely Avicennia sp.
and Sonneratia sp.
- These two species have vertical aerial roots kwon as pneumatophore which aloow
them to live in the muddy bank. This is because the pneumatophore can trap mud and
organic sediments.
- When more mud and organic sediment are trapped, the soil increases and becomes
more compact and firm. This is zone 2.
- This modified condition of soienables succession by another plant, namely Rizophora
sp.
- Rhizophora sp. has stilt root which helps the plant to support in the soft and unstable
mud.
- This root helps the plant to breathe and trap deposits, wood, sand and mud.
o The condition of the coil is now more suitable for another successor that is
Bruguiera sp.
- Zone 3 has hard clay and is occasionally flooded by tide.
- This species have buttress roots and knee-shapped pneumatophore. These roots
protrude into the soil, making the soil firmer.
- Over time, the soil is further improved and becomes hard and firm. Thus, the
successors are the terrestrial plants like nipah and pandan.
- Later, after many level of succession, the community reaches its climax, which is the
rainforest.
(b) (i)
- Oil spill from the ships pollutes the sea water.
- This can kill aquatic organisms in the area due to lack of oxygen.
- Improper chemical disposal into the sea can also pollutes the sea water.
- This will poison the aquatic organisms living in the sea.
- Irresponsible visitors that litter at the beach causes pollution on the beach.
- The turtle may swallow the plastic waste and dies due to suffocation.
(ii)
- Educate the public on the importance of keeping the environment clean for the better
living of humans and other living things.

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- Enforce law against any individuals that practices improper waste disposal at sea of
the beach area.

5. (a) (i) Transpiration


(ii)
- Transpiration is the loss of water to the atmosphere in the form of water vapour by
evaporation from the surfaces of a plant, especially the leaves.
- Water diffuses from the spongy mesophyll cell of the leaves into the intercellular
spaces which are drier, and from there it diffuses through the stomata to the
atmosphere which is even drier.
- As they spongy mesophyll cell lose water, their cell sap becomes concentrated and
draws water by osmosis from the adjacent cells which in turn water from the xylem of
the leaves by osmosis.
- Since the xylem of the leaves, stems and roots form a continuous tube system, water
is drawn up from the roots through the stems to the leaves because of transpiration.
(iii)
- As a result of transpiration, water is pulled up from the root through the stems to the
leaves.
- Water which is needed by all the plants cell is especially needed by the leaf cells for
the photosynthesis.
- Mineral salts which are essential for the growth of the plant are dissolved in the water
and are also transported from the roots to the leaves.
- Water maintains the turgor pressure in the plant cells and gives support to the plant,
especially if the plant is a non-woody plant.
- Transpiration cools the plant because when water evaporates from the leaves, heat is
removed from the plant in the form of latent heat of vaporization.

(b)
- The root hairs are surrounded by soil particles which are covered by a thin film of
water.
- The cell sap in the vacuoles of the root hair cells is usually hypertonic to the soil
water and therefore, the soil water enters the root hairs by osmosis.
- After water, has entered the root hair cells, these cells become hypotonic to the
adjacent cell and water moves inwards from the cell to cell by osmosis until it reaches
the xylem.
- At the same time, mineral ions which are actively transported from the root hair cells
to the xylem cause the osmotic pressure in the xylem to increase, i.e. the xylem
becomes hypertonic to the adjacent cells.

35
- Therefore, water flows in a continuous column into the xylem and generates a
pressure known as root pressure which pushes water and mineral ion upwards into the
xylem of the stem.
- The upward movement of water in a continuous column through the xylem vessels in
the stem is further assisted by the adhesive and cohesive properties of water
molecules (capillary action) which prevent the water column from breaking apart in
the xylem.
- The movement of water up the stem to the leaves is further assisted by the
transpirational pull which is a pulling force caused by transpiration.
- Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the spongy mesophyll cell of the leaves
into the atmosphere which makes these cells hypertonic to the adjacent cells.
- The spongy mesophyll cells draw water from the adjacent cells which then draw
water from the xylem of the leaves.
- The xylem of the leaves the draws water from xylem of the stem, and water is pulled
up the stem to the leaves.

6. (a)
- After a protein, has been synthesised at the ribosome, the proteins enter the rough
endoplasmic reticulum.
- The protein is transported through the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
- The protein the departs from the endoplasmic reticulum in vesicles that bud from
the sides of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The vesicles are now called
transport vesicles.
- The transport vesicles then travel to the Golgi apparatus.
- The protein is modified, sorted and packed according to its destination in the
Golgi apparatus.
- The enzyme reaches the budding end of the Golgi apparatus and a secretory
vesicle is formed.
- The secretory vesicle travels to the plasma membrane, fuses with the plasma
membrane and then releases the enzyme outside the cell.
(b)
- Proteinase and amylase.
- Proteinase dissolves or remove protein stains from clothes while amylase dissolve
starch stains from clothes.
(c)
- Wash clothes in slightly warm water (between 37-45celcius)
- The is the optimal temperature for the biological enzymes to act.
- Do not use hot water because at high temperature, the bonds that hold the enzyme
molecules together begin to break.
36
- The enzymes lose their activities and are said to be denatured.
- Use more detergent (more enzyme molecule) for stubborn stains.
- The more enzyme molecules used, the more active sites are made available for
catalytic action.
- The rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of the enzyme
present.
- Do not use bleach together with the detergent.
- Bleach changes of pH of the detergent solution, thus altering the charges on the
active sites of enzyme molecules and the substrate surfaces.
- This reduce the ability of both molecules to bind with each other.
7. (a) - The leaves are broad to have larger surface area to trap sunlight.
- The leaves are thin so that the light and carbon dioxide can diffuse easily.
- The palisade mesophyll cell is located below the epidermis in order to absorb
maximum sunlight.
- Cuticle leaves is waterproof to prevent loss of water through transpiration.
- Leaves are thin to allow diffusion of carbon dioxide to occur effectively.
- Contains xylem that transports mineral ions and water to the leaf and phloem that
transports nutrients away from the leaf.
- Guard cells are found on lower epidermis which controls the opening and closing of
stomata allows gaseous exchange the occur.
(b)
- Photosynthesis can be divided into two stages namely light reaction and dark
reaction.
- In light reaction, the presence of light is required.
- Sunlight is trapped by the leaves of a plant causing the electrons of chlorophyll to
leave the chlorophyll molecules.
- At the same time, photolysis of water occurs to split water molecules into
hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions.
- Each hydroxyl ion loses an electron to from a hydroxyl group.
- The electron lost is received by the chlorophyll.
- Combination of hydroxyl groups occurs to form water and oxygen.
- Light reaction occurs in the grana.
- During the dark reaction, hydrogen ions from light reaction are used to fix carbon
dioxide.
- Molecules glucose are formed and they undergo condensation to form starch.
(c) - They have sunken stomata to avoid water loss.
- The leaves are in the form of needles to reduce water loss.
- The stem has many chloroplasts.
- Photosynthesis occurs in the stem which contains chlorophyll and stomata.
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8. (a) (i)
- During aerobic respiration oxygen is used to oxidise the glucose molecule and
breaking it down to release energy.
- C6H12O6 + 6O2 6O2 + 6H2O + energy
- The energy, which is in the form of ATP molecules, can then be directly used by the
cells to do work.

(ii)
- Muscle contractions e.g. in the biceps, ATP is used to contract muscle fibres to flex
the arm.
- Active transport ATP is used in the transport of substances against a concentration
gradient.
- Regulation of body temperature energy is converted to heat to keep the body warm.
- Growth ATP is used during the formation of new protoplasm and metabolism.
- Protein synthesis ATP is used in the formation of peptide from amino acids.
- Cell division ATP is used in the synthesis of cell membranes, chromosome etc.
- Transmission of nerve transmission ATP is used along the axon and for the
transport of sodium ions out of it.

(b)
- When a person breathes in, the external intercostal muscle (K) contract
- Contraction of K raises the ribs upwards and outwards.
- At the same time the diaphragm (J) contracts and flattens out.
- Contractions of J and K serve to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and
lowering the pressure around the lungs.
- Air passes from the pharynx into the trachea (L); the cartilaginous rings in the trachea
keeps the trachea open and prevents it from collapsing inwards.
- From the trachea, air passes into the bronchi, bronchioles and finally the alveoli (N).
- The wall of the alveoli is thin, making it permeable to gases; its walls are lined with
mucus-secreting cells which keep the lining moist (M).
- Oxygen dissolves in the moisture (M) before diffusing into the blood stream.
- The blood capillary (O) around the alveoli has a one-cell thick wall to facilitate
efficient diffusion of oxygen across it.
- Oxygen combines with red blood cells (P) to form oxyhaemoglobin to be transported
away while carbon dioxide diffuses into the alveoli before being exhaled out.

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