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Course 6 – General Plant Equipment 6.1 Mechanical Continuous Conveyors
Course 6 – General Plant Equipment 6.1 Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

Course 6 – General Plant Equipment

6.1 Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

Course 6 – General Plant Equipment 6.1 Mechanical Continuous Conveyors
Course 6 – General Plant Equipment 6.1 Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

Imprint

German Cement Works Association Research Institute of the Cement Industry P.O. box 30 10 63, 40410 Duesseldorf, Germany Tannenstrasse 2, 40476 Duesseldorf, Germany Phone: +49 211 45 78–1 Fax: +49 211 45 78–296 info@vdz-online.de www.vdz-online.de

info@elearning-vdz.de

www.elearning-vdz.de

Issued: 7th January 2013

Contents

1

Introduction

1

2

Construction and Operation

 

2

2.1

Belt Conveyors

2

2.2

Chain Conveyors

5

2.2.1

Scraper Conveyors

5

2.2.2

Troughed Chain Conveyors

 

7

2.2.3

Apron Conveyors

8

2.3

Screw Conveyors

10

2.4

Vibrating Conveyors

 

12

2.5

Bucket Elevators

13

2.6

Roller Conveyors

16

3

Health and Safety Practice Measures

17

4

Factors Affecting

Operation

and Quality

20

5

Maintenance and

Inspection

21

6

Environmental Protection Measures

22

7

Questions on Course LB 6.1-Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

26

Solutions

27

Glossary

29

Index

30

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26 Solutions 27 Glossary 29 Index 30 VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry ii

ii

1

Introduction

Continuous conveyors are mechanical, pneumatic or hydraulic conveying systems in which the material is moved either continuously or intermittently over fixed conveying routes from the feed point to the discharge point, possibly a t variable speeds.

point to the discharge point, possibly a t variable speeds. A wide range of continuous conveyors

A wide range of continuous conveyors are used in works within the cement industry from extraction to loading. They are not directly involved in the production of intermediate and end products, but interconnect the various production units. They move mass flows from a few kg/h (e.g. samplers) up to 3,000 t/h or more (primary cru shing plants). Continuous Conveyours

C o n t i n u o u s C o n v e y

Figure 1.0-1: Overview of Continuous Conveyors .

In this course you will learn more about the various types of m echanical conveyor and their application in a cement works (including belt conveyors , chain conveyors , troughed chain conveyors , apron conveyors , screw conveyors , vibrating conveyors , bucket elevators , roller conveyors ). Particular emphasis will be placed on health and safety practices since continuous conveyors are a source of danger that is not to be underesti- mated.

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source of danger that is not to be underesti- mated. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

Course Summary

source of danger that is not to be underesti- mated. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

11

2 Construction and Operation

2 Construction and Operation

Continuous conveyors are fixed or mobile and are used to convey bulk materials or unit loads.

Unit Load

Bulk Materials

Bagged products

lumpy; particle size > 160 mm medium-sized; particle size 60 – 160 mm small-sized; particle size 10 – 60 mm granular; particle size 0.5 – 10 mm pulverulent; particle size < 0.5 mm

Tyres (fuel)

 

22

Table 2.0-1: Bulk Materials and Unit Loads.

Directions and Types

Feed directions from horizontal to vertical are possible depending on the co ntinuous con- veyor. The material can be conveyed in the following manners:

supported, on the belt surface

in holding containers

sliding in chain conveyors or vibratory trough conveyors

Selection Criteria

Selection of a suitable continuous conveyor depends on the f ollowing factors:

the type of material being conveyed

conveying rate

material properties

local and structural factors

availability

capital costs

energy expenditure

maintenance and repair

Only if all these criteria are taken into account can smooth, economic operation of the entire production plant be ensured.

Standards

The German standard DIN 15201 for example lists 67 mechanical, 6 pneumatic and 2 hydraulic continuous conveyors. The standard symbols are shown in Fig. 2.0-1 .

general continuous conveyor

reversable continuous conveyor

. general continuous conveyor reversable continuous conveyor Course Summary Figure 2.0-1: Standard Symbols for
. general continuous conveyor reversable continuous conveyor Course Summary Figure 2.0-1: Standard Symbols for

Course Summary

conveyor reversable continuous conveyor Course Summary Figure 2.0-1: Standard Symbols for Continuous Conveyors .

Figure 2.0-1: Standard Symbols for Continuous Conveyors .

This course describes only those mechanical continuous conveyors that are normally used in the non-metallic minerals industries.

2.1 Belt Conveyors

Belt conveyors move the material with the aid of a recirculating, endless, r ubber or synthetic belt with fabric or steel-cord inserts. The belt a cts as both the traction element and the carrying unit.

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2.1 Belt Conveyors

Construction and Mode of Operation

The »drive« is achieved by the drive pulley with a gear unit, c oupling and motor. The belt is kept tight by a return pulley with a tensioning device so th at the driving force can be transmitted to the belt. Depending on the specific weight of the material and the length of the belt conveyor, it is necessary for the belt to be of the r equired material thickness, to be supported by additional idler rollers and to be tighten ed using additional tensioning pulleys.

and to be tighten ed using additional tensioning pulleys. Figure 2.1-1: Belt Conveyor . material feed

Figure 2.1-1: Belt Conveyor .

material feed

tail station

conveying direction

drive station

material feed tail station conveying direction drive station t e n s i o n i
material feed tail station conveying direction drive station t e n s i o n i

tensioning device

material discharge

Figure 2.1-2: Schematic View of a Belt Conveyor .

33

The idler rollers are positioned under the upper strand and under the lower str and and are held in place by a supporting frame.

Use

Belt conveyors are used to transport bulk material and unit loads. Conveying capacities between 50 t/h and 1000 t/h are normal in the cement industry, while conveying capacities of 3000 t/h (raw material primary crusher) or more are achieved in larger cement works. The conveying capacity is dependent on belt width, which lies between 0.6 m and 3 m, and on belt speed, which is 0.8 m/s to 3.2 m/s (these values are approximate and may vary for special designs).

When used for bulk materials, the upper strand is troughed, g enerally by 3 idler rollers arranged at an angle to one another (Fig. ??). The conveying capacity of bulk material increases substantially with increasing angle of the outer rollers.

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increases substantially with increasing angle of the outer rollers. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement

2 Construction and Operation

2 Construction and Operation When used for unit loads, the upper strand, like the lower str
2 Construction and Operation When used for unit loads, the upper strand, like the lower str

When used for unit loads, the upper strand, like the lower str and, is supported by continuous rollers.

Conveying distances of more than 10 km are possible depending on the tensile stren gth of the belt material. The maximum angle of slope depends on th e nature of the belt surface and the particle shape of the bulk material. Slopes of up to 15 % are realistic without surface profiling.

44

of up to 15 % are realistic without surface profiling. 44 Figure 2.1-3: Belt Conveyor with

Figure 2.1-3: Belt Conveyor with Straight Path Guidance .

Normally, belt conveyors have a uniform slope/gradient, ar e not curved and must be straight. However, special designs (see below) are curved a nd may rise and fall alternately, and their route can be adapted to almost any type of terrain.

Bends

Normal designs do not include bends and must be completely straight in order to avoid increased wear. A change from the rising to the horizontal direction and from the horizon- tal to the falling direction is possible. A change from the ho rizontal to the rising direction and from the falling to the horizontal direction is only possible to a very limited extent, because when it is not loaded the upper strand lifts off from the rollers and is unguided.

Gradients

Special designs of the conveyor belt with surface profiling a re necessary in order to achieve steep conveying at gradients of more than 15 .

Temperature

The temperature of the material can be another limitation to use. The service life of the belt is reduced to approx. 50 % at a material temperature of 12 0 C. If the material tem-

50 % at a material temperature of 12 0 ◦ C. If the material tem- VDZ

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2.2 Chain Conveyors

2.2 Chain Conveyors Figure 2.1-4: Belt Conveyors with Different Surfaces . perature is higher than 50
2.2 Chain Conveyors Figure 2.1-4: Belt Conveyors with Different Surfaces . perature is higher than 50
2.2 Chain Conveyors Figure 2.1-4: Belt Conveyors with Different Surfaces . perature is higher than 50

Figure 2.1-4: Belt Conveyors with Different Surfaces .

perature is higher than 50 C, a hot material grade should be used that tolerates short-term loading at 200 C.

Conveying Capacity

The

conveying capacity is given by the belt width and belt speed. The belt widths are 60

mm

to > 3,000 mm. The belt speeds lie between 0.8 m/s and > 3 m/s.

55

Tube Conveyors

Tube conveyors have a trough of 360 and are therefore closed systems that not only protect the material against environmental effects (rain, snow), but also ensure dust-free conveying without any spillage. Furthermore, tube conveyo rs are very capable of negoti- ating curves and, with conveying speeds of up to 4 m/s, easily exceed the capabilities of the other conveying systems.

2.2 Chain Conveyors

Chain conveyors are continuous conveyors with a single-strand or multi-str and chain as the traction elements and different types of carrying mem ber for horizontal, vertical or inclined conveying.

and chain as the traction elements and different types of carrying mem ber for horizontal, vertical

Basic Operating Principle

Plate-link chains and round-link chains are used as the traction element . The drive is achieved by the chain starwheel, gear unit, coupling and motor. The pitch of the chain starwheel must corresponded exactly to the length of the cha in links. The chain is ten- sioned in such a way that the starwheel is always engaged in th e chain.

Use

Depending on design, chain conveyors can be used to convey bu lk material and unit loads. There is no limit for temperature of the material.

 

2.2.1

Scraper Conveyors

The scraper conveyor (Fig. 2.2-2 ) is the simplest chain conveyor design. The traction element may consist of a chain with superimposed flights or of a double chain strand with flights between them.

element may consist of a chain with superimposed flights or of a double chain strand with

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flights or of a double chain strand with flights between them. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of

2 Construction and Operation

66

2 Construction and Operation 66 Figure 2.2-1: Chain Starwheel . Operating Principle In its simplest form,

Figure 2.2-1: Chain Starwheel .

Operating Principle

In its simplest form, the scraper conveyor drags the materia l along a channel without a base and the chain slides on a guide rail. Energy consumption is co nsiderably higher than with other conveyor types owing to the high level of friction. The entirely frictional conveying causes high levels of wear, especially of the traction eleme nts.

high levels of wear, especially of the traction eleme nts. Use Normal conveying distances extend to

Use

Normal conveying distances extend to 100 m with an angle of in clination of 40 . Scraper conveyors having a single chain strand are curved. With a double chain strand the conveyor must follow a straight path. The chain strands w ill be loaded unequally if laid in a curved manner, which will cause the chain to skip ove r the drive star on one side. Scraper conveyors are not sensitive to temperature and can convey hot material.

It is not possible to overfill scraper conveyors since, even w ith a fairly deep layer of ma- terial, only the material at the level of the flight is drawn ou t from underneath. Scraper conveyors are therefore suitable for use as discharge devic es under hoppers and silos.

Conveying Capacity

The conveying speed is dependent on the particle size of the m aterial and varies from 0.2 m/s for lumpy material to 0.8 m/s for fine material. The conveying capacity is dependent on width, flight height, flight spacing, filling level and conveying speed. The dragging mode of material transport and the resulting fr iction require increased energy expenditure. If the material is not conveyed on itself, but instead on the steel base of the scraper conveyor then the energy consumption is reduced con siderably (by approx. 30 %).

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2.2 Chain Conveyors

2.2 Chain Conveyors Figure 2.2-2: Scraper Conveyor . 2.2.2 Troughed Chain Conveyors Operating Principle and Construction

Figure 2.2-2: Scraper Conveyor .

2.2.2 Troughed Chain Conveyors

Operating Principle and Construction

Troughed chain conveyors are bulk material conveyors used predominantly for hori- zontal or inclined conveying, but also for vertical conveying with the chain running in the material in a closed trough.

The material fills the cross-section of the troughed chain co nveyor, either completely or to a great extent, and is therefore moved as a continuous laye r rather than piecemeal. The relative movement between the chain and the material is ther efore substantially less than with simple scraper conveyors.

The conveying is carried out in an enclosed, dust-tight and, if necessary, gastight housing . The material is discharged via slide gates at the desired loc ations.

Use

Troughed chain conveyors are suitable for the transport of p ulverulent to medium-sized material.

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for the transport of p ulverulent to medium-sized material. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement

77

2 Construction and Operation

88

2 Construction and Operation 88 Figure 2.2-3: Troughed Chain Conveyor . material feed enclosed trough tail

Figure 2.2-3: Troughed Chain Conveyor .

material feed

enclosed trough

tail station
tail station

conveying direction

drive station

tensioning device

feed discharge

Figure 2.2-4: Schematic Diagram of a Troughed Chain Conveyor .

Output

The conveying speed lies between 0.1 m/s and 0.4 m/s. Conveying capacities of up to 1000 t/h and conveying distances of 60 m are possible. The conveying capacity is determined by conveying width, flight height, flight spacing and conveying speed. The material can be fed in and removed at any location. The field of application is limited to material temperatures up to 200 , since higher tem- peratures in the closed system lead to warping caused by a build-up of heat and there is an increase in material wear. Energy consumption and repair costs are considerably lower with troughed chain con- veyors than with simple chain conveyors owing to the smooth trough walls and, above all, owing to the fine consistency of the material.

2.2.3 Apron Conveyors

Operating Principle and Construction

2.2.3 Apron Conveyors Operating Principle and Construction The apron conveyor (Fig. 2.2-5 ) is a chain

The apron conveyor (Fig. 2.2-5 ) is a chain conveyor with one or more chains as traction elements with touching or overlapping plates, troughs or bo xes connected to the chains as the carrying units. It is also possible to dispense with th e chains by direct coupling of the carrying units.

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2.2 Chain Conveyors

2.2 Chain Conveyors Figure 2.2-5: Apron Conveyor . 99 The main components of an apron conveyor

Figure 2.2-5: Apron Conveyor .

99

The main components of an apron conveyor are the drive statio n, the tail station, the plate- link chains with rollers placed at a certain spacing, and the supporting frame with the track for the chain rollers. With the same basic components, the ap ron conveyor can be fitted with a wide range of carrying units. The design of the carryin g devices determines the maximum angle of inclination of the conveyor.

tail station material feed conveying direction Antriebstation tensioning device material discharge
tail station
material feed
conveying direction
Antriebstation
tensioning device
material discharge

Figure 2.2-6: Schematic Diagram of an Apron Conveyor .

Use

Apron conveyors are suitable for direct hopper discharge. T hey can also be used for con- veying up an incline. Owing to their robustness, low maintenance and long service life, apron conveyors have proved to be the best method in the cement and lime industries for transporting abrasive and hot materials.

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and lime industries for transporting abrasive and hot materials. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement

2 Construction and Operation

Advantages

2 Construction and Operation Advantages Output The conveying speed lies between 0.2 m/s and 1.5 m/s

Output

The conveying speed lies between 0.2 m/s and 1.5 m/s dependin g on the size of the system.

The rolling friction and supported transport in apron conveyors form the basic require- ments for favourable energy consumption and low maintenance costs.

2.3 Screw Conveyors

A

screw conveyor (Fig. 2.3-1 ) is a continuous conveyor with a stationary tube or trough

as

the supporting element in which a conveying screw rotates as the transport device.

Operating Principle and Construction

The construction is very simple and only consists of the drive, trough and conveying screw.

1010

material feed drive
material feed
drive

material discharge

Figure 2.3-1: Schematic Diagram of a Screw Conveyor .

Figure 2.3-1: Schematic Diagram of a Screw Conveyor . Energy Demand Figure 2.3-2: Screw Conveyor .

Energy Demand

Schematic Diagram of a Screw Conveyor . Energy Demand Figure 2.3-2: Screw Conveyor . As with

Figure 2.3-2: Screw Conveyor .

As with the scraper conveyor, the material is pushed along. T he simultaneous relative movement between the conveyor and the material must overcom e not only the friction of the material on the trough, but also along the screw spiral. The energy demand is therefore greater than with scraper conveyors.

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2.3 Screw Conveyors

Use

Screw conveyors are used to convey pulverulent and gritty bulk materials in a horizon- tal or inclined direction. A screw conveyor can also be used f or vertical conveying over short distances. Screw conveyors are preferably only used for conveying capa cities up to 1000 m 3 /h and over conveying distances of up to 60 m owing to the wear caused by friction. The compact and enclosed construction is particularly suitable for transporting pulveru- lent and explosive materials. The screw shaft may be equippe d with conveying paddles for transporting sticky or moist materials and slurries. Some drawbacks that should be mentioned include the high level of wear and the high en- ergy demand. The simultaneous relative movement between th e conveyor and the material must overcome not only the friction of the material on the tro ugh, but also along the screw spiral.

Output

The conveying capacity is given by the diameter of the screw a nd the trough, the screw fittings and the screw speed. The screw speed generally range s between 16 rpm and 140 rpm.

At this point in the online course you would get additional in formation on conveying screw design.

The most important component of the screw conveyor is the conveying screw , of which there are three different designs:

1 Full Screw The screw spiral is attached directly to the screw shaft. This design is suitable for conveying pulverulent to granular materials.

is suitable for conveying pulverulent to granular materials. 2 Ribbon Screw The screw spiral consists of

2 Ribbon Screw The screw spiral consists of a strip that is attached to the sc rew shaft. This design is suitable for conveying slightly sticky and small-sized materials.

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1111

2 Construction and Operation

2 Construction and Operation 3 Mixing Screw ’Mixing paddles’ that mix and convey the material are

3 Mixing Screw ’Mixing paddles’ that mix and convey the material are bolted to the screw shaft. An improved mixing effect is achieved by using two mixing screw s in one trough (twin- shaft mixer). This design is suitable for mixing and conveying very sticky materials that tend to form coatings.

1212

very sticky materials that tend to form coatings. 1212 2.4 Vibrating Conveyors The vibrating conveyor is
very sticky materials that tend to form coatings. 1212 2.4 Vibrating Conveyors The vibrating conveyor is

2.4 Vibrating Conveyors

The vibrating conveyor is a mechanical continuous conveyor that uses inertial forc es to convey the material in a horizontal or slightly rising or falling direction.

Operating Principle and Construction

Vibrating conveyors operate on the »throwing principle«. D uring the forward movement the material is picked up and carried forward. When it travels backwards the trough is low- ered, which reduces the pressure of the material against the trough surface. The reduced pressure means that the material is not carried back again ow ing to the inertia of the mass.

The drive is achieved by unbalance motors or electromagnetic vibrators.

achieved by unbalance motors or electromagnetic vibrators. Figure 2.4-1: Principle of the Vibrating Conveyor

Figure 2.4-1: Principle of the Vibrating Conveyor (Schematic View) .

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2.5 Bucket Elevators

Use

Vibrating conveyors are suitable for transporting materia l up to a size of 600 mm. The material temperatures may reach up to 700 C. If the grains are too fine or the material is too moist, the use is limited owing to the formation of coatin g.

A disadvantage of the vibrating conveyor is a damping of the vibrating amplitude with direct hopper discharge owing to the height of the material c olumn. Sticky materials also reduce the vibrating amplitude. A vibrating amplitude control system (target – actual comparison) can overcome this drawback.

Disadvantages

Output

With downward inclined vibrating conveyors the conveying c apacity can be increased, depending on the length of the trough, by 2 – 6 % per degree of in clination. It should be noted that trough wear increases with increasing inclina tion. With ascending vibrating conveyors the conveying capacity falls by 2 – 3 % per degree of ascent.

2.5 Bucket Elevators

Bucket elevators are continuous conveyors in which chains or belts are used as the traction elements and buckets are used as the carrying units.

elements and buckets are used as the carrying units. 1313 Operating Principle and Construction The drive

1313

Operating Principle and Construction

The drive is achieved by the head station roller, gear unit, c oupling and motor. In many cases an additional auxiliary drive is installed for checking and repairing the bucket ele- vator. The conveying strand is tensioned by the bottom pulley with internal gravity takeup.

Bucket elevators must be provided with an anti-runback device. Otherwise, during down- time the loaded strand would be pulled downwards. In this case both the coupling and the gear unit might rotate too quickly. Excessively high speeds, up to 10,000 rpm depending on gear ratio, would cause these machine parts to rupture. In this case there is a very high risk of accidents or even fatal injury.

Reverse Locks

There are various options for filling and emptying the buckets. The correct choice is determined by the particle size of the material.

Filling

Fine Material

The material is guided into the foot of the bucket elevator an d is scooped up by the buckets. The filling level of the buckets is 80 %. The material is discharged at the head of the bucket elevator by centrifugal force, which requ ires a conveying speed of at least 1.5 m/s. Coarse Material The material is fed directly into the buckets on the upward-travelling conveying strand . The filling level of the buckets is 70 %. At the head of the bucket elevator the material is discharged centrally between the conveying strands. For a bucket elevator that dis- charges on the gravity principle the conveying speed is appr ox. 0.5 m/s. Moist material or material that tends to form coatings is also discharged on the gravity principle.

Use

Bucket elevators are used in the cement industry for vertical conveying of bulk materials up to 400 mm. Special designs are used to convey hot material a t a temperature > 100 C.

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are used to convey hot material a t a temperature > 100 ◦ C. VDZ gGmbH

2 Construction and Operation

1414

Figure 2.5-1: Bucket Elevator .

and Operation 1414 Figure 2.5-1: Bucket Elevator . The maximum possible conveying capacity is approx. 1000

The maximum possible conveying capacity is approx. 1000 t/h . Conveying heights of up to 100 m can be achieved depending on the traction element.

Bucket elevators can be divided further, depending on the de sign of the traction element, into belt bucket elevators and chain bucket elevators.

Design: Belt Bucket Elevator

In belt bucket elevators (Fig. 2.5-2 ) a belt is used as the traction element and the buck- ets are fixed to this. Belt bucket elevators are predominantly used for pulverulent and fine- grained materials. The use of steel cable inserts to strengthen the belt means that belt bucket elevators can now be subjected to greater loadings. T he conveying speed of up 3.5 m/s is considerably greater than that of chain bucket elevators. The possible conveying capacities are also considerably greater than those of chain bucket elevators owing to the greater conveying speed. The tensile strength of the belt co mpared with its low inher-

speed. The tensile strength of the belt co mpared with its low inher- VDZ gGmbH Research

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2.5 Bucket Elevators

2.5 Bucket Elevators Figure 2.5-2: Belt Bucket Elevator . ent weight, achieved by using woven or

Figure 2.5-2: Belt Bucket Elevator .

ent weight, achieved by using woven or steel cable inserts, m akes it possible to achieve conveying heights of up to approx. 100 m.

Disadvantages of belt bucket elevators are the sensitivity to material temperatures greater Disadvantages than 100 C. The particle size of the material should not exceed 50 mm an d the fraction that is greater than 25 mm should be less than 50 %. A weak point of the belt bucket elevator is the clamped connection of the belt. The rubber be lt must be inspected regularly for hardening.

Design: Chain Bucket Elevator

The chain bucket elevator (Fig. 2.5-3 ) is suitable for almost all particle sizes and can also be used to convey hot material. Twin-strand plate-link or else round-link chains are used as the traction elements. The buckets are bolted to the chain s.

At this point of the online course, in place of this image, you could watch a video showing use during clinker transport.

could watch a video showing use during clinker transport. The conveying speed lies between 0.3 m/s
could watch a video showing use during clinker transport. The conveying speed lies between 0.3 m/s

The conveying speed lies between 0.3 m/s (gravity emptying) and 1.5 m/s (centrif ugal emptying). Conveying heights of up to only 55 m are possible owing to the heavy inherent weight of the chains. As well as plate-link chains (Fig. ??), round-link chains (Fig. ??) have also proved to be effective. Their advantage lies in the small chain pitch, which ensures quiet movement around the chain wheels. Chain bucke t elevators are suitable for

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1515

2 Construction and Operation

1616

2 Construction and Operation 1616 Disadvantages Types Figure 2.5-3: Chain Bucket Elevator . moving differing material

Disadvantages

2 Construction and Operation 1616 Disadvantages Types Figure 2.5-3: Chain Bucket Elevator . moving differing material

Types

2 Construction and Operation 1616 Disadvantages Types Figure 2.5-3: Chain Bucket Elevator . moving differing material

Figure 2.5-3: Chain Bucket Elevator .

moving differing material flows because the conveying capac ity can be varied by changing the conveying speed using an adjustable drive.

The relatively high level of wear of the chains and their heav y inherent weight should be mentioned as disadvantages.

Chain wear must be checked regularly.

2.6 Roller Conveyors

The roller conveyor is a unit load conveyor with rollers arranged at right angles to the direction of conveying as the means of support. If the roller s are arranged radially, the material may be guided round bends.

Operating Principle and Construction

A distinction is made between driven and non-driven roller c onveyors.

Roller conveyors with no drive operate by gravity and require an inclination of 1.5 to 5 .

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Roller conveyors with drive are used for horizontal or slightly ascending distnances up to 40 m long.

horizontal or slightly ascending distnances up to 40 m long. Figure 2.6-1: Roller Conveyor . 1717

Figure 2.6-1: Roller Conveyor .

1717

A change between inclined, horizontal and ascending convey ing is possible. In this in-

stance only the rollers of the horizontal and ascending stre tches are driven. All other rollers operate by gravity.

Use

Roller conveyors are currently used in the cement and lime in dustries in the packing plants for transporting pallets and for transporting and separating rubber tyres for combustion.

3 Health and Safety Practice Measures

All mechanical continuous conveyors operate with moving traction or carrying elements and fixed parts, resulting in an increased risk of accidents. It is therefore necessary to install safety equipment and to take measures that will minimize the risk of any accidents. There are numerous pinching, shearing and nip points between moving and fixed parts

in continuous conveyors.

Every worker must strictly observe the relevant accident-prevention regulations.

Regulation

Regulation

In

addition, there is a general obligation to check continuous conveyors (e.g. belt con-

veyors) in accordance with the APR (»accident-prevention r egulation«) »Prevention Prin- ciples« (BGV A1). Before continuous conveyors are first star ted up, they must be checked

 

at

suitable intervals, as well as after alterations or servicing, for their safe condition or at

least for externally visible signs of damage and defects.

 

Every continuous conveyor must have a name plate displaying the following information:

Identification

manufacturer or supplier

year of construction

model

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manufacturer or supplier year of construction model VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

3 Health and Safety Practice Measures

In continuous conveyors, the pulleys, wheels and rollers at which the traction elements are returned or deflected and the chain wheels must be protected in such a way that individuals cannot gain access to the moving parts. Nip points that are pr oduced at the return of the traction or carrying units or by the movement of pushing comp onents must be avoided or protected so that individuals cannot reach them.3 Health and Safety Practice Measures 1818 Figure 3.0-1: Protected Return Roller of a Belt Conveyor

1818

or protected so that individuals cannot reach them. 1818 Figure 3.0-1: Protected Return Roller of a

Figure 3.0-1: Protected Return Roller of a Belt Conveyor .

Figure 3.0-1: Protected Return Roller of a Belt Conveyor . Figure 3.0-2: Protected Idler Roller of

Figure 3.0-2: Protected Idler Roller of a Belt Conveyor .

Belt conveyors must have pull cords fitted along the side of the supporting structure. Belt conveyors must have pull cords

All inspection or filling openings in enclosed continuous co nveyors must be provided with a safety grate . This prevents any accidental access to the inside of the conveying system during operation.

Pull Cords

inside of the conveying system during operation. Pull Cords Safety Grate VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of

Safety Grate

of the conveying system during operation. Pull Cords Safety Grate VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

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Figure 3.0-3: Pull Cord with Switch . 1919 Figure 3.0-4: Inspection Opening in a Screw

Figure 3.0-3: Pull Cord with Switch .

1919

Figure 3.0-3: Pull Cord with Switch . 1919 Figure 3.0-4: Inspection Opening in a Screw Conveyor

Figure 3.0-4: Inspection Opening in a Screw Conveyor with Safety Grate .

The safety equipment must be fitted up to a reach height of 2.5 m in order to prevent any body parts, clothing or tools (e.g. shovels) being caught an d drawn in.

Continuous conveyors must be switched off and secured again st accidental reconnection during repair or cleaning works. Switching off the power sup ply is not sufficient; the load current must be disconnected from the mains supply at all poles.

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

must be disconnected from the mains supply at all poles. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

Repairs

must be disconnected from the mains supply at all poles. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

4 Factors Affecting Operation and Quality

2020

4 Factors Affecting Operation and Quality 2020 Figure 3.0-5: Repair Switch Protected Against Being Switched On

Figure 3.0-5: Repair Switch Protected Against Being Switched On .

Further Health and Safety Measures

If there is a risk of the continuous conveyor moving with no dr ive when work is being

carried out then additional measures must be taken to preven t this. The employer or an authorised representative must give clea r operating and working

instructions for dealing with machines during operation an d repair. The employer or an authorised representative, generally th e operative supervisor, must

educate employees about the risks. Workers must be provided with personal protective equipmen t.

Suction off-takes must be provided for continuous conveyor s when transporting dusty materials. The evacuated air must be cleaned. Transfer poin ts at continuous conveyors that are used to transport dusty materials must be connected to a dedusting system.

4

Factors Affecting Operation and Quality

Continuous conveyors are connecting links in the productio n chain. Any interruption or breakdown of these connecting links generally causes a comp lete stoppage of the respec- tive production stage and therefore has a direct effect on th e production operation.

stage and therefore has a direct effect on th e production operation. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

It is necessary to keep the downtime of continuous conveyors to a minimum by carry- ing out preventive maintenance and regular servicing . Replacement and wearing parts should be kept in stock so as to minimize repair time.

5 Maintenance and Inspection

In order to achieve operation that is as free as possible from interruptions, the maintenance and inspection must be carried out at fixed intervals. The wor k to be carried out should be specified in a maintenance and inspection schedule . The maintenance work carried out and the results of inspections must be recorded in this sched ule.

Inspection

visual inspection

assessment of the running noise

assessment of the material flow

checking of the oil levels in gear units, bearings and hydrau lic couplings

checking of the lubrication equipment

checking of the safety equipment, including the anti-runba ck devices

checking of the dedusting and noise protection equipment

checking of the seals of enclosed conveyors

checking of the measuring and control equipment

checking of the tensioning of the traction elements

checking of the power consumption

checking of the wear of the traction, carrying and conveying elements

Maintenance

2121

cleaning of the conveyor and drives

replenishment of oil and lubricants

tensioning of the traction elements

replacement of small mechnical parts in accordance with instructions or as required

wear measurements

Replacements

For replacing major mechanical parts, such as the traction, carrying or conveying elements, it is necessary to schedule a repair. The schedule must inclu de:

time of repair

time required

personnel requirement

replacement parts required

tools

organisation

responsibility

Repair and maintenance as well as some inspection measures r equire the conveyor to Switch Off!

be shut down. The conveyor must be disconnected from the mains supply at all poles and secured against accidental reconnection. Standardized and lockable safety switches for each drive are now state of the art and must be used.

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

switches for each drive are now state of the art and must be used. VDZ gGmbH

6 Environmental Protection Measures

In the case of inclined or vertical conveyors, the traction e lement must be secured by

suitable equipment against running backwards. The relevant accident-prevention regulations and the operating instructions must

be observed. The workers must be advised about the progress of the repair, safety measures and

the necessary tools. Every worker involved in carrying out maintenance and inspe ction work should be trained for this work. An understanding of the mode of operation of the machinery from a mechanical and process engineering point of view will allow workers to carry out their work efficiently.

2222

Wear of the Different Types

Influencing Factors

Wear

Belt Conveyor Does not traverse bends in the normal design and must be absolutely straight in order to avoid increased wear. Temperature-sensitive; a material temperature of 120 C halves

the service life of the belt. Scraper Conveyor

Serious wear, above all of the feed chains, caused by frictio nal conveying. Troughed Chain Conveyor

Considerably lower wear than for simple chain conveyors owing to the smooth trough walls. Apron Conveyor

Low wear as a result of rolling friction and supported transp ort. Screw Conveyor Screw speed influences wear; manufacturer’s recommendatio ns should be observed.

The following factors have a considerable effect on the wear of continuous conveyors:

correct tensioning of the transport belts and drive chains

lubrication of the system parts in accordance with a lubrica tion schedule

avoidance of dirt deposits and abrasive points

use of wear-resistant materials during repair work

avoidance of overloading of the system

repair work avoidance of overloading of the system The wear and repair costs of the system

The wear and repair costs of the system will rise sharply if th ese points are ignored.

6 Environmental Protection Measures

Continuous conveyors may have a negative effect on the envir onment. In particular, dust and noise emissions may be produced during the operation of c ontinuous conveyors.

Noise

during the operation of c ontinuous conveyors. Noise Emissions The noise emission produced by continuous

Emissions

The noise emission produced by continuous conveyors must be prevented or reduc ed by structural measures.

In particular, continuous conveyors may produce loud screeching and grinding noises when running empty. Coarse material falling back from bucke t elevators may cause noise emissions. Conveyors of this type should not be used ou tside.

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2323 The transfer points of belt conveyors must be provided with suction hoods that are

2323

The transfer points of belt conveyors must be provided with suction hoods that are Dust connected to a dedusting system when transporting dry materials.

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

connected to a dedusting system when transporting dry materials. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement

6 Environmental Protection Measures

2424

6 Environmental Protection Measures 2424 Belts that are placed outside must be protected against the effects
Belts that are placed outside must be protected against the effects of wind. Adhering material
Belts that are placed outside must be protected against the effects of wind.
Adhering material can fall from the lower strand of a belt conveyor and lead to dust
emissions. This can be avoided by arranging an effective scraper directly beneath the
drive drum.
by arranging an effective scraper directly beneath the drive drum. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

2525 All enclosed conveyors, such as troughed chain conveyors, screw conveyors and bucket elevators that

2525

All enclosed conveyors, such as troughed chain conveyors, screw conveyors and bucket elevators that are used to convey dry materials should be con nected to a dedusting sys- tem.

Energy Consumption

Belt Conveyors

Supporting the belt on idler rollers (rolling friction) lea ds to favourable energy con- sumption. Scraper Conveyors

Transporting the material by dragging, and the friction thu s produced, requires in- creased energy expenditure. If the material is not conveyed on itself, but instead on the steel base of the scraper conveyor, then the energy consumption will decrease consid- erably (by approx. 30 %). Troughed Chain Conveyors

Considerably lower consumption than with simple chain conveyors owing to the smooth trough walls. Apron Conveyors

Low consumption by rolling friction and supported transpor t. Screw Conveyors Greater consumption than with scraper conveyors because th e material must overcome the friction both on the trough and on the screw.

Inadequately maintained or lubricated systems increase th e current and power consump- Warning! tion of the drive motors.

power consump- W a r n i n g ! tion of the drive motors. VDZ

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

power consump- W a r n i n g ! tion of the drive motors. VDZ

7 Questions on Course LB 6.1- Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

7 Questions on Course LB 6.1- Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

You can test your knowledge by answering the following questions.

2626

Question 7.0 A:

1.

What is a continuous conveyor?

2.

Name the types of mechanical continuous conveyor.

3.

What is a traction element?

4.

What is a carrying unit?

5.

Describe the construction of a belt conveyor.

6.

How hot may the material be for a belt conveyor?

7.

What belt widths can a belt conveyor have?

8.

At what speeds do belt conveyors operate?

9.

Describe a chain conveyor.

10.

Name the different types of chain conveyor.

11.

Which chain conveyor has the greatest energy consumption?

12.

At what speeds does a troughed chain conveyor operate?

13.

Name the key components of an apron conveyor.

14.

What is a screw conveyor?

15.

Describe the most important components of a screw conveyor.

16.

Within what speed range does a screw conveyor operate?

17.

How might a screw be equipped for moist material?

18.

Which materials are most commonly conveyed by screw conveyo rs?

19.

How does a vibrating conveyor operate?

20.

Describe the construction of a bucket elevator.

21.

How is the bucket elevator filled?

22.

Name the different types of bucket elevator discharge.

23.

Name the different types of bucket elevator.

24.

Give the conveying heights and speeds of these bucket elevators.

25.

What is a roller conveyor?

26.

When does a roller conveyor require a drive?

27.

Where are roller conveyors used in our industry?

28.

How might the risk of an accident arise with continuous conveyors?

29.

Which accident-prevention regulation applies to continuo us conveyors?

30.

What information must the name plate on continuous conveyor s contain?

31.

What points of continuous conveyors must be protected?

32.

How is emergency shutdown of belt conveyors ensured?

33.

During which work must continuous conveyors be shut down?

34.

How must continuous conveyors be disconnected during clean ing and repairs?

35.

When must additional measures be taken during shutdown for r epair?

36.

Where must the air drawn off from continuous conveyors be taken?

37.

Who must compile the operating instructions?

38.

What environmental effects can be produced by continuous co nveyors?

39.

What must be borne in mind with regard to dust avoidance in belt conveyors?

40.

How are noise emissions produced in continuous conveyors?

How are noise emissions produced in continuous conveyors? Solutions see p. 27 VDZ gGmbH Research Institute

Solutions see p. 27

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

Solutions

Solution for 7.0 A:

1.

Continuous conveyors are conveying systems in which the material can be moved either continuously or intermittently over a fixed conveyin g path from the feed point to the discharge point, possibly at varying speed.

2.

Belt conveyors, chain conveyors, screw conveyors, vibrating conveyors, bucket el- evators, roller conveyors

3.

The traction element moves the material.

4.

The carrying unit carries the material

5.

An endless belt travels over a drive roller and return roller. In between, the belt is supported on idler rollers.

6.

Maximum of 50 C. Higher temperatures only with a hot-material belt.

7.

Between 0.6 m and 3 m.

8.

Between 0.8 m/s and 3.2 m/s.

9.

A single-strand or multi-strand chain, to which the carryin g units are fixed, is used as the traction element and is driven by a chain starwheel.

10.

Scraper conveyor, troughed chain conveyor, apron conveyor

11.

Scraper conveyor

12.

At conveying speeds between 0.1 m/s and 0.4 m/s.

13.

Drive station, return station, plate-link chains, rollers and supporting frame

14.

Screw conveyors are bulk material conveyors with a stationa ry trough as the support device and a driven conveying screw as the transport element.

15.

The construction basically consists of a drive, the trough a nd the conveying screw

16.

Generally between 16 rpm and 140 rpm.

17.

It has paddles bolted to the screw shaft.

18.

Pulverulent to small-sized materials.

19.

The vibrating conveyor moves the material by the throwing pr inciple.

20.

A bucket elevator consists of a bucket elevator foot, a bucke t elevator head, chains or belts as the traction element, and buckets as the carrying units.

21.

Fine material is guided into the bucket elevator foot and sco oped up by the buckets. Coarse material is fed directly into the buckets on the stran d travelling upwards.

22.

The centrifugal method and the gravity method.

23.

Belt bucket elevators and chain bucket elevators

24.

Belt bucket elevators allow conveying heights of up to 100 m a nd operate at con- veying speeds of up to 3.5 m/s. With chain bucket elevators a c onveying height of up to 55 m is possible, at a conveying speed between 0.3 m/s and 1.5 m/s

25.

A unit load conveyor with rollers arranged at right angles to the direction of con- veying.

26.

For horizontal or ascending conveying.

27.

In the packing plant for transporting palettes and for transporting and separating tyres for combustion.

28.

From the interaction between fixed and moving parts.

29.

»10.1 Continuous Conveyors«

30.

Manufacturer or supplier, year of construction and model.

31.

Pulleys, wheels, rollers and chain wheels.

32.

By a pull cord at the supporting structure.

33.

During repair and cleaning work.

34.

The continuous conveyor must be disconnected from the mains supply at all poles and secured against reconnection.

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

the mains supply at all poles and secured against reconnection. VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the

2727

7 Questions on Course LB 6.1- Mechanical Continuous Conveyors

35. When there is a possibility that the conveyor will start to move with no drive.

36. The air that has been drawn off must be cleaned by a dedusting system

37. The employer or an authorised representative

38. Dust and noise emissions

39. The generation of dust can be avoided by attaching a scraper u nder the drive pulley.

40. Screeching and grinding noises may be produced when running empty. Coarse material falling back from bucket elevators leads to noise e mission.

Questions see p. 26

2828

bucket elevators leads to noise e mission. Questions see p. 26 2828 VDZ gGmbH Research Institute

VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement Industry

Glossary

apron conveyors Chain conveyor with one or more chains as the traction element and associated touching plates, troughs or boxes as carrying units.

belt conveyors The belt conveyor moves the material with the aid of a recirculating, endless rubber or synthetic belt with fabric or steel-cord inserts. The belt acts as both the traction element and the carrying unit.

bucket elevators Continuous conveyor in which chains or belts act as the traction element and buckets act as carrier units

chain conveyors Chain conveyors are continuous conveyors with a single- or m ulti-strand chain as the traction element and dif- ferent types of carrying unit for horizontal, vertical or inclined conveying.

continuous conveyor Mechanical, pneumatic or hydraulic conveying system, in which the material is moved either continuously or intermittently from the feed point to the discharge point, possibly at variable speed (e.g. a belt conveyor)

DIN 15201 Standard »Continuous Conveyors; Ancillary Equipment; Des ignations, Graphic Examples«

roller conveyors Unit load conveyor with rollers arranged at right angles to the direction of conveying as the support units

screw conveyors Continuous conveyor with a stationary tube or trough as the carrying device, in which a screw conveyor rotates as the propelling device.

troughed chain conveyors Troughed chain conveyors are bulk conveyors for predominantly horizontal or inclined, but also vertical convey- ing with a chain running in the material in an enclosed trough.

vibrating conveyors Mechanical continuous conveyor that conveys the material by inertia forces in a horizontal, slightly rising or inclined direction

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forces in a horizontal, slightly rising or inclined direction VDZ gGmbH Research Institute of the Cement

2929

3030

3030 Index A apron conveyors 1 B belt conveyors 1 bucket elevators 1 C chain conveyors

Index

A

apron conveyors 1

B

belt conveyors 1 bucket elevators 1

C

chain conveyors 1 continuous conveyor 1 , 17

D

DIN 15201 2

R

roller conveyors 1

S

screw conveyors 1

T

troughed chain conveyors 1

V

vibrating conveyors 1

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