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ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

Lecture 1

derived from a large piece of paper that accountants used for business finances
The accountant would spread information like costs, payments, taxes, income, etc out on a single, big,
oversized sheet of paper to get a complete financial overview
a document that contains rows and columns of text and numbers

a book of spreadsheets containing accounts to which debits and credits are posted from books of
original entry

Spreadsheet program
is an application that helps the user to create spreadsheets commonly used for budgets, forecasting,
and other finance-related tasks

Electronic Spreadsheet
electronic equivalent of an accounting worksheet, comprised of rows and columns to allow you to do
many tasks in the organization of numbers in a clear, easy to understand format
used in almost every profession to calculate, graph, analyze and store information
used for what-if calculations; change one number in a spreadsheet and all the calculations in a large
spreadsheet will re-calculate, will automatically change
display information used for both simple and complex number crunching.

Examples of Spreadsheet usage:

tracking personal investments numerical modeling
budgeting address books
Invoices telephone books
inventory tracking printing labels
statistical analysis

Advantages of an Electronic Spreadsheet

Support good design and accurate results
Program can quickly edit and format data
Perform calculations and create graphs
Perform what-if analysis by changing independent values in the spreadsheet
Support simultaneous use of multiple sheet

Disadvantages of an Electronic Spreadsheet

Need for specialized software and hardware
Time for planning and practicing

ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

Development of meaningful and useful applications takes energy and effort

Data can be incorrect, and must be reviewed and verified for accuracy
Complexity surrounding formulas and their arguments
Lack of detail in error messages often causes users frustration and wastes time
Aspects of the spreadsheet can be applied incorrectly, due to incorrect assumptions, missing or
inaccurate data

A page organized into rows and columns appearing onscreen
A file containing a number of related worksheets


1978 The worlds first electronic spreadsheet program, VisiCalc, was invented.
Daniel Bricklin is considered to be the Father of Electronic Spreadsheet. He had help from Robert
Daniel Fylstra, founding Associate Editor of Byte Magazine, joined Bricklin and Frankston in developing
1979 VisiCalc was released to the public by Fylstras company, Personal Software (later renamed
VisiCorp). It became the first computer spreadsheet program and the first killer application for PCs.
(killer means, strikingly impressive or effective)
1980 SuperCalc, the first spreadsheet that ran on computers using the CP/M (Control
Program/Monitor) operating system, was introduced. The DIF (data interchange format) was
developed. This format allowed spreadsheet data to be shared and imported into other programs.
1981 Multiplan, the first spreadsheet to handle multiple spreadsheets simultaneously, was released
by Microsoft.
Context MBA, the first spreadsheet program that handled five tasks (spreadsheets, graphs, databases,
word processing, and telecommunications), was invented and released by Context Management
1983 1-2-3, the spreadsheet program that can handle three tasks (spreadsheets, graphs, and
databases), was released by Lotus Development. Lisa Calc, the first spreadsheet program to use a
mouse, was released by Apple Computer, Inc.
1985 Excel, the spreadsheet program that can handle three tasks (spreadsheets, graphs, and
databases) in a graphical environment, was released by Microsoft Corporation. Excel can run on both
PC and Mac.
1987 Quattro Pro, the spreadsheet program that has the combined features of 1-2-3 and Excel and
runs in a graphical environment, was released by Borland. Newer versions of Quattro Pro are now
being developed by Corel Corp.
1987 Up to Present, new spreadsheet programs and updated versions of the old ones have flooded
the market.
2011 - Calc, one of the applications included in the LibreOffice package, is a spreadsheet program,
similar to Microsoft Excel or Lotus 1-2-3. Developed by The Document Foundation, it has a number of

ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

unique features, including a system which automatically defines series of graphs, based on information
available to the user.
Lecture 2

What is Calc?
Calc is the spreadsheet component of LibreOffice. You can enter data (usually numerical) in a
spreadsheet and then manipulate this data to produce certain results.
Alternatively, you can enter data and then use Calc in a What if... manner by changing some of the
data and observing the results without having to retype the entire spreadsheet or sheet.

Other features provided by Calc include:

Functions, which can be used to create formulas to perform complex calculations on data.
Database functions to arrange, store, and filter data.
Dynamic charts giving a wide range of 2D and 3D charts.
Macros for recording and executing repetitive tasks; scripting languages supported include
LibreOffice Basic, Python, BeanShell, and JavaScript.
Ability to open, edit, and save Microsoft Excel spreadsheets.
Import and export of spreadsheets in multiple formats, including HTML, CSV, PDF, and PostScript.

Spreadsheets, Sheets, and Cells

Calc works with elements called spreadsheets. Spreadsheets consist of a number of individual sheets,
each sheet containing cells arranged in rows and columns. A particular cell is identified by its row number and
column letter.
Cells hold the individual elements text, numbers, formulas, and so on that make up the data to
display and manipulate.
Each spreadsheet can have many sheets, and each sheet can have many individual cells. In Calc, each
sheet can have a maximum of 1,048,576 rows and a maximum of 1024 columns.

The Calc Main Window

ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

1. Title bar. It is located at the top, showing the name of the current spreadsheet. When the spreadsheet is
newly created, its name is Untitled X, where X is a number. When you save a spreadsheet for the first time,
you are prompted to enter a name of your choice.

2. Menu bar. It is located under the Title bar. When you choose one of the menus, a sub-menu appears with
other options.
File contains commands that apply to the entire document; for example Open, Save, Wizards,
Export as PDF, Print, Digital Signatures, and so on.
Edit contains commands for editing the document; for example Undo, Copy, Changes, Fill, Plug-
in, and so on.
View contains commands for modifying how the Calc user interface looks; for example Toolbars,
Column & Row Headers, Full Screen, Zoom, and so on.
Insert contains commands for inserting elements into a spreadsheet; for example Cells, Rows,
Columns, Sheets, Picture, and so on.
Format contains commands for modifying the layout of a spreadsheet; for example Cells, Page,
Styles and Formatting, Alignment, and so on.
Tools contains various functions to help you check and customize your spreadsheet, for example
Spelling, Share Document, Gallery, Macros, and so on.
Data contains commands for manipulating data in your spreadsheet; for example Define Range,
Sort, Consolidate, and so on.
Window contains commands for the display window; for example New Window, Split, and so on.
Help contains links to the help system included with the software and other miscellaneous
functions; for example Help, License Information, Check for Updates, and so on.

3. Toolbars. The default setting when Calc opens is for the Standard and Formatting toolbars to be docked at
the top of the workspace.
Calc toolbars can be either docked and fixed in place, or floating allowing you to move a toolbar
into a more convenient position on your workspace. Docked toolbars can be undocked and moved

ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

to different docked position on the workspace or undocked to become a floating toolbar. Toolbars
that are floating when opened can be docked into a fixed position on your workspace.
The default set of icons (sometimes called buttons) on toolbars provide a wide range of common
commands and functions.
Placing the mouse cursor over any of the icons displays a small box called a tooltip. It gives a brief
explanation of the icon function. To close a tooltip, click once away from the icon or press the Esc
key. Tips and extended tips can be turned on or off from Tools > Options > LibreOffice > General on
the main menu bar.

4. Formula Bar. This is located at the top of the sheet in your Calc workspace. It is permanently docked in this
position and cannot be used as a floating toolbar. If the Formula bar is not visible, go to View > Formula Bar
on the main menu bar.

Going from left to right, the Formula bar consists of the following:
Name Box gives the cell reference using a combination of a letter and number, for example A1.
The letter indicates the column and the number indicates the row of the selected cell.
Function Wizard opens a dialog from which you can search through a list of available functions.
This can be very useful because it also shows how the functions are formatted.
Sum clicking on the Sum icon totals the numbers in the cells above the selected cell and then
places the total in the selected cell. If there are no numbers above the selected cell, then the cells
to the left are totaled.
Function clicking on the Function icon inserts an equals (=) sign into the selected cell and the
input line allowing a formula to be entered.
Input line displays the contents of the selected cell (data, formula, or function) and allows you to
edit the cell contents. To edit inside the Input line area, click in the area, then type your changes.
To edit within the current cell, just double-click in the cell.
You can also edit the contents of a cell directly in the cell itself by double-clicking on the cell.
When you enter new data into a cell, the Sum and Function icons change to Cancel and Accept

5. Individual cells. The main section of the screen displays the cells in the form of a grid, with each cell being
at the intersection of a column and a row.
At the top of the columns and the left end of the rows are a series of header boxes containing
letters and numbers. The column headers use an alpha character starting at A and go on to the
right. The row headers use a numerical character starting at 1 and go down.
These column and row headers form the cell references that appear in the Name Box on the
Formula Bar.
If the headers are not visible on your spreadsheet, go to View > Column & Row Headers on the
main menu bar

6. Sheet tabs. At the bottom of the grid of cells in a spreadsheet are sheet tabs indicating how many sheets
there are in your spreadsheet. Clicking on a tab enables access to each individual sheet and displays that
sheet. An active sheet is indicated with a white tab (default Calc setup). You can also select multiple sheets
by holding down the Ctrl key while you click on the sheet tabs.

To change the default name for a sheet (Sheet1, Sheet2, and so on):

ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

1) Right-click on the sheet tab and select Rename Sheet from the context menu. A dialog opens
allowing you to type in a new name for the sheet.
2) Click OK when finished to close the dialog.

To change the color of a sheet tab:

1) Right-click on the sheet tab and select Tab Color from the context menu to open the Tab Color
2) Select your color and click OK when finished to close the dialog.

7. Status bar. This provides information about the spreadsheet and convenient ways to quickly change some
of its features.

The various fields on the Status Bar, from left to right, are as follows.

Sheet sequence number. Shows the sequence number of the current sheet and the total number of
sheets in the spreadsheet. The sequence number may not be the same as the name on the sheet tab if
sheets have been moved. Double-click on this zone to open the Navigator.

Page style. Shows the page style of the current sheet. To edit the page style, double-click on this field
and the Page Style dialog opens.

Insert mode. Shows the type of insert mode the program is in. Press the Ins key to change modes. This
field is blank if the program is in insert mode and Overwrite shows when in overwrite mode.

Selection mode. Click to open a context menu and toggle between Standard selection, Extended
selection, Adding selection or Block selection. The icon does not change when different selection modes
are selected, but the tooltip shows the current status.
o Standard selection click in text or cell where you want to position the cursor and make the cell
active. Any other selection is then deselected.
o Extend selection clicking in the text either extends or crops the current selection.
o Adding selection a new selection is added to an existing selection. The result is a multiple
o Block selection a block of text can be selected.

Unsaved changes. This icon indicates if there are any unsaved changes that have not been saved.
Double-click this icon or use File > Save to save the spreadsheet.

Digital signature. If the document has been digitally signed, an icon shows here. You can double-click
the icon to view the certificate. See Chapter 6 Printing, Exporting, and E-mailing in this guide for more
information about digital signatures. A document can only be digitally signed after it has been saved.
ITEC 2 Computer Application 2015-2016

Cell or object information. Displays information relevant to the position of the cursor or the selected
element of the spreadsheet. When a group of cells is selected, the sum of the contents is displayed by
default. Right-click on this field and select other functions, such as the average value, maximum value,
minimum value, or count (number of items selected).

Zoom slider. Drag the zoom slider, or click the + and signs to change the view magnification.

Zoom percentage. Indicates the magnification level of the document. Right-click on the percentage
figure to open a list of magnification values from which to choose. Double-clicking on this percentage
figure opens the Zoom & View Layout dialog.