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Journal of Composite Materials

Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite Plates

Umut Topal and Ümit Uzman Journal of Composite Materials 2008 42: 1731 DOI: 10.1177/0021998308093368

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Journal of Composite M <a href=ate ri a l s http://jcm.sagepub.com/ Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite Plates Umut Topal and Ümit Uzman Journal of Composite Materials 2008 42: 1731 DOI: 10.1177/0021998308093368 T he online version of this article can be found a t: http://jcm.sagepub.com/content/42/17/1731 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: American Society for Composites Additional services and information for Journal of Composite Materials can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jcm.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jcm.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://jcm.sagepub.com/content/42/17/1731.refs.html >> Version of Record - Aug 15, 2008 What is This? Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at BUBU Reims Champagne-Ardenne onon December 5, 2014 Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at Reims Champagne-Ardenne December 5, 2014 " id="pdf-obj-0-27" src="pdf-obj-0-27.jpg">

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Journal of Composite M <a href=ate ri a l s http://jcm.sagepub.com/ Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite Plates Umut Topal and Ümit Uzman Journal of Composite Materials 2008 42: 1731 DOI: 10.1177/0021998308093368 T he online version of this article can be found a t: http://jcm.sagepub.com/content/42/17/1731 Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: American Society for Composites Additional services and information for Journal of Composite Materials can be found at: Email Alerts: http://jcm.sagepub.com/cgi/alerts Subscriptions: http://jcm.sagepub.com/subscriptions Reprints: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsReprints.nav Permissions: http://www.sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav Citations: http://jcm.sagepub.com/content/42/17/1731.refs.html >> Version of Record - Aug 15, 2008 What is This? Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at BUBU Reims Champagne-Ardenne onon December 5, 2014 Downloaded from jcm.sagepub.com at Reims Champagne-Ardenne December 5, 2014 " id="pdf-obj-0-33" src="pdf-obj-0-33.jpg">

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite Plates

¨

UMUT TOPAL* AND U MIT UZMAN

Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering 29000, Gu¨ mu¨ s hane, Turkey

ABSTRACT: A procedure to select the optimum fiber orientations and determine the maximum load-bearing capacity of the simply supported symmetrically laminated plates combined the bidirectional tension loads and bending moments is described. The fiber orientation is considered a design variable. The optimization problem consists of two stages. The objective of the first stage is to maximize the strength of the laminated plates by determining the fiber orientations optimally while the objective of the second stage is to maximize each of the bidirectional tension loads and bending moments subject to the Tsai–Wu failure criterion for the optimum fiber orientations obtained from the first stage. The modified feasible direction method (MFD) is used as an optimization procedure. Therefore, a FORTRAN program is used for the finite element analysis and optimization routine. Also, the optimum fiber orientations are obtained using the golden section (GS) method to compare the results. Finally, the effect of the different plate aspect ratio, width-to thickness ratio, the uncertainties in the material properties and the uncertainties in the fiber orientations on the optimum results is investigated and the results are compared.

KEY WORDS: laminated composite plates, modified feasible direction method, Tsai–Wu failure criterion, strength optimization.

INTRODUCTION

L AMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES are extensively used in the construction of aerospace, civil, marine, automotive, and other high performance structures due to their high

specific stiffness and strength, excellent fatigue resistance, long durability, and many other superior properties compared to the conventional metallic materials. In general, the prediction of the maximum load that the composite structures can withstand is very crucial. Due to the anisotropy of the composite laminates and non-uniform distribution of the stresses in the laminae under several types of static/dynamic loading, the failure process of the laminates is very complex.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: umut@ktu.edu.tr

Journal of COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Vol. 42, No. 17/2008

0021-9983/08/17 1731–16 $10.00/0

DOI: 10.1177/0021998308093368

1731

SAGE Publications 2008 Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore

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U. TOPAL AND U

. UZMAN

In the past, various researchers have investigated the strength of the laminated plates. Strizhalo and Zemtsov [1] described a method for estimating the strength and rigidity of the carbon-fiber reinforced anisotropic laminated plates in tension and compression loads. The strength of the multilayered plates with various schemes of the fibers was estimated on the basis of known mechanical characteristics. Parhi et al. [2] studied the first ply failure analysis of the laminated composite plates with arbitrarily located multiple delaminations subjected to the transverse static load as well as impact. The Tsai–Wu failure criterion was used to check the failure of the laminate for all load cases. Srivastava [3] presented a modified point stress criterion for predicting the notched strength of the glass and carbon fiber laminated composites containing centrally located through-the-thickness circular or elliptical holes as well as a center crack. Jeong and Shenoi [4] performed a probabilistic strength analysis of the simply supported rectangular anti-symmetric cross-ply and angle- ply fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates by applying the Monte Carlo simulation method. Xu et al. [5] investigated the laminated composite plates with multiple elliptical holes based on the classical laminated plate theory. The laminate strength was predicted using the concept of a characteristic curve and the Yamada–Sun failure criterion. Chen and Sun [6] presented a study of the residual compressive strength in the delaminated laminates. A finite element (FE) analysis of the residual compressive strength was conducted on the basis of the Von Karman’s non-linearity assumption and the first-order shear deformation plate theory was combined with a stiffness degradation scheme. Yan et al. [7] performed an experimental study to assess the effects of clamp-up on the net- tension failure of the laminated composite plates with bolt-filled holes. The tensile strength and failure response of the specimens with an open hole and a bolt-filled hole were evaluated. Kam and Lai [8] presented the experimental and theoretical methods to study the first-ply failure strength of the laminated composite plates under different load conditions. A FE analysis was constructed on the basis of the layerwise linear displacement theory and the Tsai–Wu failure criterion was used to predict the first-ply failure strength of the plates. Strength optimization of the laminated plates are found in some articles. Liu et al. [9] presented a newly developed fixed grid evolutionary structural optimization method to explore the shape optimization of multiple cut-outs in the composite structures based on the Tsai–Hill failure criterion. Different design cases with varying number of cut-outs, ply orientations, and lay-up configurations were taken into account. Callahan and Weeks [10] used a genetic algorithm (GA) to maximize the strength and stiffness of the laminates under in-plane and flexural loads. Kam et al. [11] studied the optimum design of the laminated composite sandwich plates with both continuous and discrete design variables subject to a strength constraint via a two-level optimization technique. The strength of the sandwich plate was determined in a failure analysis using the Tsai–Wu failure criterion and the FE method was formulated on the basis of the layerwise linear displacement theory. Adali et al. [12] used a shear deformable laminated theory to study the optimal design of the laminated rectangular plates under biaxial compressive loads. The fiber orientations were used as design variable. Kolpakov and Kalamkarov [13] presented a new approach to the problem of the discrete design of the laminated composite plates taking account of strength. The solution of the design problem for a laminated plate possessing the required set of stiffness and strength was developed. Adali et al. [14] presented an approach for the optimization of the symmetrically laminated cylindrical pressure vessels. The optimization was carried out with respect to the fiber orientations and thickness distributions subject to the Tsai–Wu failure criterion. Fukunaga and Vanderplaats [15] investigated the strength

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite

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optimization problem of the laminated composites under in-plane loading based upon the mathematical programming method. Design variables were the layer orientation angles as well as the layer thicknesses. On the other hand, the MFD method has not been applied to the strength optimization of the laminated composite plates by the authors until now. Also, the researches men- tioned above did not discuss the effect of the uncertainties in the material properties and fiber orientations on the strength optimization. Therefore, the present study is investigated the effect of the uncertainties in the material properties and fiber orientations on the strength optimization for the laminates to fill this gap. Also, this article shows the appli- cability of the MFD method to the strength optimization of the laminated composite plates. A procedure to select the optimal fiber orientations and determine the maximum load-bearing capacity of the simply supported symmetrically laminated plates combined the bidirectional tension loads and bending moments is described. The fiber orientation is considered a design variable. The optimization problem consists of two stages. The objective of the first stage is to maximize the strength of the laminated plates by deter- mining the fiber orientations optimally while the objective of the second stage is to maxi- mize each of the bidirectional tension loads and bending moments subject to the Tsai–Wu failure criterion for the optimum fiber orientations obtained from the first stage. The modified feasible direction method (MFD) is used as an optimization procedure. Therefore, a FORTRAN program is used for the FE analysis and optimization routine. Also the optimum fiber orientations are obtained using the golden section (GS) method to compare the results. Finally, the effect of the different plate aspect ratio, width- to-thickness ratio, the uncertainties in the material properties and the uncertainties in the fiber orientations on the optimum results is investigated and the results are compared.

BASIC EQUATIONS

Consider a laminated composite plate of uniform thickness h, having a rectangular plan a b as shown in Figure 1. The individual layers are assumed to be homogeneous

y z M b x N x M y x N y
y
z
M
b
x
N x
M
y
x
N y
2 1 y θ x z h/2 x h/2
2
1
y
θ
x
z
h/2
x
h/2

a Figure 1. Geometry and loading of a laminated plate.

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¨

U. TOPAL AND U

. UZMAN

and orthotropic. Perfect bonding is assumed between the layers of the laminated

composite plates.

The displacement field based on the first-order shear deformation theory [16] takes

the form:

uðx, y, zÞ

¼

u o ðx,

yÞ

þ

z

x ðx, yÞ

vðx, y, zÞ

¼

v o ðx,

yÞ

þ

z

y ðx,

yÞ

wðx, y, zÞ ¼ wðx, yÞ

 

ð1Þ

where u 0 and 0 are the displacements of u and v on the mid-plane. Because the vertical

line to the mid-plane of the laminates is not necessarily perpendicular to the deformed

mid-plane, the terms C x and C y are independent of @w/@x and @w/@y.

The displacement–strain relations, taking Equation (1) into account are:

8

< " x

:

"

y

xy

9

=

;

¼

@u o

@x

@v o

@y

@u o þ @v o

@y

@x

z

@

@y

@ x

@x

@ y

@y

x

þ @

y

@x

,

0

x

1

0

Q 11

Q 12

Q

16

B

@ y

xy

C

A ðkÞ

¼

B

@

Q 12

Q 16

Q 22

Q

26

Q 26

Q

66

 

55 ! ðkÞ

Q 45

Q

yz

xz

ðkÞ

¼

Q

44

Q

45

< N x =

:

N y

N xy

;

8

9

¼

h=2

Z

h=2

< x =

:

y

xy

;

8

9

dz,

< M x =

:

M

y

M

xy

;

8

9

N n

N n

u o e ¼ X

i¼1

u e N e ,

i

i

v o e ¼ X

i¼1

v e N e ,

i

i

 

N n

N n

x ¼ X

e

e xi N i e

,

y ¼ X

e

e yi N i e

i¼1

i¼1

 

@w

 

yz

xz

¼

@y

@w

@x

1

C

A ðkÞ

0

"

x

@ " y

" xy

B

1

C

A

yz

xz

:

y

  • x

ð2Þ

The constitutive relations for a laminated plate can be written as:

ð3Þ

ð4Þ

The stress resultants {N}, stress couples {M} and transverse shear stress resultants {Q} are:

¼

h=2

Z

h=2

< x =

:

y

xy

;

8

9

zdz:

ð5Þ

The C 8-continuity element with fives degrees of u 0 , 0 , w 0 , x , and y is used for the finite

element analysis of the laminated plates. Interpolation functions can be assumed as:

N n

w o e ¼ X

i¼1

w e N e

i

i

ð6Þ

where N i represents the element interpolation functions and N n is the number of nodes per

element. In this study, four-node Lagrangian FE approach is used for the analysis of the

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite

1735

laminated plates. When the FE analysis based on the Reissner–Mindlin plate theory is

applied to the thin plates, shear locking may occur. Reduced/selective integration

technique is adopted for the element matrices in order to avoid possible shear locking.

MODIFIED FEASIBLE DIRECTION METHOD

The modified feasible direction method (MFD) takes into account not only the gra-

dients of the objective function and constraints, but also the search direction in the former

iteration. Let x 0 be an initial x vector. The design is updated according to the equation:

x q ¼ x q 1 þ S q

ð7Þ

where S q is the search direction. l is a scalar whose value is determined through a

one-dimensional search. Different optimization methods are characterized by different

methods to determine the search direction. For this method, the search direction is deter-

mined using the Fletcher–Reeves conjugate direction method when there is no active

or violated constraint:

S q ¼ r FðX q 1 Þ þ S q 1

where:

¼

r

FðXÞ q 1

2

r

FðXÞ q 2

2 :

ð8Þ

ð9Þ

Figure 2 shows the iterative process within each optimization process [17–20].

Where X q and X q þ 1 are the design variable vectors in two consecutive cycles of the

iteration. The procedure starts with an initial design vector, X 0 , i.e., q ¼ 0. For q ¼ q þ 1,

the objective function, F(X i ), and the constraints, g j (Xq), are evaluated. A set of critical or

active constraints, J, are identified and the gradients of the objective function, r F(X i ), and

the gradients of the constraints, r g k (X i ), are calculated. A search direction, S q , is deter-

mined and a one-dimensional search is made to find . The above procedure is repeated

with the new design vectors, until the design satisfies the optimality conditions or some

other termination criterion.

The objective function F(X i ) is accurately modeled as a quadratic polynomial

approximation around the current iterate X i as in Equation (10):

N d

N d

FðX i Þ ¼ a o þ X a i X i þ X b i X 2

i

i¼1

i¼1

ð10Þ

where N d and X i are the number of design variables and ith design variable, respectively.

a i and b i are the coefficients of the polynomial function determined by the least squares

regression. After the objective function is approximated, their gradients with respect to the

design variables are calculated using the finite difference method. The solving process

is iterated until the convergence is achieved.

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¨

U. TOPAL AND U

. UZMAN

  • 1. q=0, X q = X m

  • 2. q=q+1

MFD

  • 3. Evaluate the objective function F(X i ) and behavior constraints g j (X j ) 0 where j=1, 2, …, N c

  • 4. Identify the critical and potentially critical constraints, N c

  • 5. Calculate gradient of the objective function F(X i ) and behavior constraints g k (X i )

where k=1, 2, …, N c

  • 6. Find the usable-feasible direction S q

  • 7. Perform a one-dimensional search X q = X q1 + α S q

  • 8. Check the convergence. If satisfied, go to 9. Otherwise go to 2

  • 9. X m+1 = X q

Figure 2. The modified feasible direction method.

Convergence or termination checks are performed at the end of each optimization loop.

The optimization process continues until either convergence or termination occurs.

The process may be terminated before the convergence in two cases:

. The number of design sets so far exceeds the maximum number of optimization loops.

. If the initial design is infeasible and the allowed number of consecutive infeasible

designs has been exceeded.

The optimization problem is considered converged if all of the following conditions are

satisfied:

. The current design is feasible,

. Changes in the objective function F :

  • (a) The difference between the current value and the best design so far is less than the tolerance F :

j

F current F best

j F :

  • (b) The difference between the current value and the previous design is less than the tolerance:

j

F current F current 1

j F :

. Changes in the design variables X i :

  • (a) The difference between the current value of each design variable and the best design so far is less than the respective tolerance i :

current X best i

i

X

i :

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite

1737

(b) The difference between the current value of each design variable and the previous

design is less than the respective tolerance:

current X current i 1

i

X

F :
F :

The optimization process was solved to obtain a global minimum from different initial

points to check if the other solutions were possible. The convergence tolerance ratio was

considered 0.01 for the objective function.

OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM

The objective of the design problem is first to design for the maximum strength of the

laminated plates by selecting the fiber orientations optimally. The strength of the lami-

nated plate is reflected by the value of a failure index (FI), viz. the lower the failure index,

the stronger the laminated plate for a given load scenario. The first part of the optimi-

zation problem is formally expressed as:

where:

FI min ¼ min ½

FI

max

ð Þ

0 k 90

FI max ð Þ ¼ max FIðx, yÞ:

x, y

ð11Þ

ð12Þ

The most commonly used model taking account of failure mode interaction is the Tsai–Wu

failure criterion. Because of its general nature, this theory contains almost all other

polynomial theories as special cases. This criterion can be written as:

FIð Þ ¼ F 11 ðkÞ

1

ðkÞ

1

ðkÞ

þ F 22

2

ðkÞ

2
2

þ F 66 ðkÞ

12

ðkÞ

12

þ 2F 12 ðkÞ

1

ðkÞ

2

þ F 1 ðkÞ

1

ðkÞ

þ F 2

2

1

ð13Þ

where F 11 , F 22 , F 66 , F 1 , F 2 , and F 12 are the strength parameters which can be calculated as:

F 11 ¼

1

ðX t =X c Þ ,

F 2 ¼

1

1

Y t

Y c

,

F 22

¼

1

ðY t =Y c Þ ,

F 66 ¼

1

G 2 ,

F 12 ¼

1

2

p ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

F 11 F 22

F 1 ¼

1

1

X t
X
t

X c
X
c

ð14Þ

where X t , X c , Y t , and Y c are the tensile and compressive strengths in the fiber and

transverse directions, respectively and G is the in-plane shear strength.

The second part of the optimization problem is to maximize the load-bearing capacity of

the laminated plates at opt subject to the constraint of Equation (13). This step may be

described explicitly as:

min

N x , N y , M x , M y

FIð opt Þ 1

ð15Þ

in order to maximize each of the bidirectional tensile loads and bending moments

(viz. FI(N x ) ¼ 1, FI(N y ) ¼ 1, FI(M x ) ¼ 1 and FI(M y ) ¼ 1, respectively).

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1738

¨

U. TOPAL AND U

. UZMAN

The failure index FI is determined from the FE solution of the laminated plates.

The first optimization procedure involves the stages of determining the maximum failure

index FI max for a given and improving the fiber orientation to minimize FI max .

The second optimization stage involves evaluating FI ( opt ) for a given N x , N y , M x , and M y

and maximizing each of the bidirectional tension loads and bending moments subject

to the Tsai–Wu failure criterion.

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this study, four layered, symmetric, angle ply ( / / / ), simply supported

laminated plates subjected to the bidirectional tensile loads and bending moments are

investigated. The laminated plate is constructed of four equal thickness. Numerical results

are given for a graphite/epoxy T300/5208 composite with the properties:

E 1 ¼ 181 GPa,

E 2 ¼ 10:3 GPa,

G 12 ¼ 7:17 GPa,

12 ¼ 0:28,

X t ¼ X c ¼ 1500 MPa,

Y c ¼ 246 MPa

and

S ¼ 68 MPa:

To show

the optimization problem, Nx ¼ N y ¼ 1 10 5 N and M x ¼ M y ¼ 1 10 2 Nm are

considered. The dimensionless bidirectional tensile loads (N bx , N by ) and bending moments

(M bx , M by ) are defined as:

N b ¼

N

N o

,

M b ¼

  • M ð16Þ

M

o

where N 0 and M 0 are taken as 1 10 6 N and 1 10 4 Nm, respectively.

EFFECT OF PLATE ASPECT RATIO AND WIDTH-TO-THICKNESS RATIO

In Table 1, the effect of the plate aspect ratio (a/b (a ¼ constant)) and width-to-thickness

ratio (a/h) on the optimum fiber orientations is illustrated using the MFD and GS methods

for four-layered plates under the bidirectional tensile loads and bending moments.

As seen from Table 1, as a/b ratio increases, the optimum fiber orientation increases.

The agreement between the two different optimization methods is excellent.

Table 1. Effects of a/b and a/h ratios on the optimum fiber orientations using the MFD and GS methods.

MFD (GS)

1

1.5

2

2.5

a/b

h opt (8)

20

25

50

75

100

45.0 (45.0) 45.0)

45.0 (45.0) (45.0)

45.0 (45.0) (45.0)

45.0 (45.0) (45.0)

45.0 (45.0) (45.0)

47.7 (48.6) (48.6)

47.9 (48.6) (48.6)

48.0 (48.6) (48.6)

48.0 (48.6) (48.6)

48.1 (48.6) (48.6)

50.1 (50.4) (50.4)

50.2 (50.4) (50.4)

50.4 (50.4) (50.4)

50.5 (50.4) (50.4)

50.6 (50.4) (50.4)

51.7 (51.5) (51.5) 51.8 (51.5) (51.5) 52.1 (51.5) (51.5) 52.3 (51.5) (51.5) 52.4 (51.5) (51.5)

Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite

1739

In Figures 3 and 4, the maximized bidirectional tensile loads and bending moments are

illustrated for a/b and a/h ratios.

As seen from Figures 3 and 4, as a/b ratio increases, the maximum load-bearing capacity

of the laminated plates increases because of decrease in the failure index (or increase in the

rigidity of the plates). However, as a/h ratio increases, the maximum load-bearing capacity

of the laminated plates decreases because of increase in the failure index. The maximum

increase in the loads is obtained for a/b ¼ 2.5 vs. a/h ¼ 20, whereas the minimum increase is

(a) (b) N bx 1.2 1.2 1 1 a/b=1 0.8 0.8 a/b=1.5 a/b=2 0.6 a/b=2.5 0.6
(a)
(b)
N bx
1.2
1.2
1
1
a/b=1
0.8
0.8
a/b=1.5
a/b=2
0.6
a/b=2.5
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
a/h
N by a/b=1 a/b=1.5 a/b=2 a/b=2.5 20 40 60 80 100
N by
a/b=1
a/b=1.5
a/b=2
a/b=2.5
20
40
60
80
100

Figure 3. Effects of a/b and a/h ratios on the maximized bidirectional tensile loads.

(a)

M

bx

3.2 2.4 a/b=1 1.6 a/b=1.5 a/b=2 a/b=2.5 0.8 0 20 40 60 80 100
3.2
2.4
a/b=1
1.6
a/b=1.5
a/b=2
a/b=2.5
0.8
0
20
40
60
80
100

(b)

M

by

1.6 1.2 a/b=1 0.8 a/b=1.5 a/b=2 a/b=2.5 0.4 0 20 40 60 80 100
1.6
1.2
a/b=1
0.8
a/b=1.5
a/b=2
a/b=2.5
0.4
0
20
40
60
80
100

a/h

Figure 4. Effects of a/b and a/h ratios on the maximized bidirectional bending moments.

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U. TOPAL AND U

. UZMAN

obtained for a/b ¼ 1 vs. a/h ¼ 100. The maximized loads are almost the same for all a/b

ratios for larger a/h ratios.

EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTIES IN MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Because the uncertainties are always encountered in the composite materials, they need

to be taken into account in design of the laminated composite structures. Such uncer-

tainties may be due to many factors, such as the misalignment of the fibers or imperfect

bonding between the fibers and the matrix, and their influence upon the strength of the

laminate. In this study, the convex modeling is used to consider the bounded uncertainty

of the material properties.

The vector of the uncertain elastic moduli E of the laminate can be expressed as a sum

of deterministic and uncertain parts such that:

E

¼

E o þ E ~

E 1 ¼ E o þ E ~ 1 ,

1

E 2 ¼ E o 2 þ

E ~ 2 ,

G 12 ¼ G o

12 þ

G ~ 12 ,

12 ¼ o 12
12 ¼ o
12

þ ~ 12

ð17Þ

ð18Þ

where the superscripts ‘8’ and ‘ ’ refer to the deterministic and uncertain components,

respectively. It is assumed that the elastic moduli vary slightly around their average values

inside an ellipsoidal set C with semi-axes e ¼ (e 1 , e 2 , e 3 , e 4 ) so that:

C ¼

(

4

E ~ : X

i¼1

E ~ 2

i

e 2

i

) :

ð19Þ

According to Equation (13), the failure index FI, is a function of E. Assuming that the

semi-axes of the uncertainty ellipsoid Equation (19) is small enough, the failure index

FI(E) of a laminate with scatter in the material properties can be linearized with respect to

the uncertain quantities E as:

FIðE Þ ¼ FIðE o Þ þ ðr FIðE o Þ, E ~ Þ:

ð20Þ

The problem for the uncertainty analysis is formulated as follows: given an ellipsoid of the

uncertain parts of elastic moduli find the maximum failure index, viz:

FI max ðE o , eÞ ¼ max FIðE Þ:

E, ~ C

ð21Þ

Since the failure index given by Equation (20) is a linear function of the uncertain com-

ponents E, ~ the maximum of failure index on the boundary of the set C, i.e., the following

condition should be satisfied:

4

X ~

i¼1

E 2

i

e 2

i

ð22Þ

and the uncertainty analysis problem Equation (21) can be stated as:

FI max ðE o , eÞ ¼ max FIðEÞ:

E2@C ~

ð23Þ

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite

1741

Table 2. Optimum fiber orientations with uncertainties in the material properties.

d ^ Q5%

d ^ R5%

d ^ Q10%

d ^ R10%

a/b

h opt (8)

1

1.5

2

2.5

45.0

47.8

50.1

51.8

45.0

47.7

50.1

51.7

45.0

47.8

50.1

51.8

45.0

47.7

50.0

51.7

The method of Lagrange multipliers is employed to solve Equation (23) with Lagrangian

given by:

Lð EÞ ~ ¼ ðrF max ðE o Þ, EÞ ~ þ

4

X

j¼1

E 2

i

e 2

i

2 !

where l is the Lagrange multiplier.

Finally the optimization problem becomes:

FI min ¼ min

2

4

FIðE o Þ þ

v ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 3

4

u

u X

t

i¼1

@FIðE o Þ

e i

@E i

2

5 :

ð24Þ

ð25Þ

In this study, the uncertainties in the material properties i are arbitrarily set at 5% and

10% of the nominal values for the laminated plates.

The optimum fiber orientations are given in Table 2 with the uncertainties in the

material properties for the symmetrically laminated plates for a/b ratios (N ¼ 4, b/h ¼ 20).

As seen from Table 2, the optimum stacking sequences are the same as those obtained

from the nominal values of the material properties.

The maximized bidirectional tensile loads and bending moments are illustrated in

Figures 5 and 6.

As seen from Figures 5 and 6, it is observed that there is a little difference between

the optimal solutions with and without the uncertainties in the material properties.

For example, the maximum and minimum changes in the maximized N x loads are

1.14% and 0.03% for ¼ 10% and ¼ þ10% for a/b ¼ 1, respectively. On the other

hand, the maximum and minimum changes in the maximized M x bending moments

are 2 and 0.11% for ¼ 10% and ¼ þ10% for a/b ¼ 1 and a/b ¼ 1.5, respectively.

It means that the effect of the uncertainties in the material properties on the optimal

results is small. But this situation may be considered for larger uncertainties in the

material properties.

EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTIES IN FIBER ORIENTATION

When engineering structures are manufactured, the design parameters may deviate from

their intended design values. These deviations are usually referred to as manufacturing

tolerances. Though the deviations can be relatively small, their impact on the overall

performance of the structure can be significant. Thus, determining the optimal design with

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1742 ¨ U. TOPAL AND U . UZMAN (a) (b) N bx N by 1.2 1.2
1742
¨
U. TOPAL AND U
. UZMAN
(a)
(b)
N bx
N by
1.2
1.2
Ignored
1.1
1.1
Ignored
d
= +5%
d
= +5%
d
= −5%
d
= −5%
d
= +10%
1
d
= +10%
1
d
= −10%
d
= −10%
0.9
0.9
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.7
1
1.5
2
2.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
a/b
Figure 5. Effect of the uncertainites in the material properties on the maximized bidirectional tensile loads.
M
M
bx
by
(a)
2.8
(b)
1.6
1.5
2.4
Ignored
Ignored
d
= +5%
d
= +5%
d
= −5%
1.4
d
= −5%
d
= +10%
d
= +10%
2
d
= −10%
d
= −10%
1.3
1.6
1.2
1.2
1.1
0.8
1
1
1.5
2
2.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

a/b

Figure 6. Effect of the uncertainites in the material properties on the maximized bidirectional bending moments.

the manufacturing tolerances accounted for can help to predict accurately optimal

characteristics of the laminates. Assumed that the interval 08 908 is divided into i sub-

intervals [0 A] 1 , [A B] 2 , [B C] 3 , [Y Z] i and that for each, a manufac-

turing tolerance in the lay-up angle is incurred, and must be accounted for during

the design stage, if the optimal performance is required. For example for the interval

[0 A] 1 , the desired fiber orientations may deviate form its intended design value by

þv1 or –v2 which are upper and lower tolerances, respectively (08 1, 2 908). In this

case, there are three trend lines and these represent the nominal failure index (viz. the FI at

), along with the upper and lower bounds (viz., the FI at the values þv1 and v2).

Finally, the intersection point of the upper and lower tolerance trend lines clearly indicates

the new value of the angle which must be chosen instead of the nominal value of the fiber

angle when the laminated plate is manufactured.

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite

1743

(a) (FI) max (b) (FI) max 0.5 0.5 Nominal Nominal Lower tolerance Lower tolerance Upper tolerance
(a)
(FI) max
(b)
(FI) max
0.5
0.5
Nominal
Nominal
Lower tolerance
Lower tolerance
Upper tolerance
Upper tolerance
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0
0

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

 

First tolerance

 

θ

Second tolerance

 
 

(c)

(FI) max

0.5 Nominal Lower tolerance 0.4 Upper tolerance 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 15 30 45 60
0.5
Nominal
Lower tolerance
0.4
Upper tolerance
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
15
30
45
60
75
90
θ
Third tolerance

Figure 7. Effect of the manufacturing tolerances on the optimum design for square laminated plates.

In this study, three different tolerance scenarios are used for the purpose of illustrating

the optimization problem. In the first tolerance scenario, it was assumed that on the interval

[0 22] 1 , the tolerance

is 7 þ 13, on the interval [22 35] 2 , the tolerance is

12 þ 6, on the interval [35 70] 3 , the tolerance is 17 þ 17, on the

interval [70 90] 4 , the tolerance is 15 þ 5. In the second tolerance scenario,

on the interval [0 40] 1 the tolerance is 7 þ 13, on the interval [40 90] 2

the tolerance is 8 þ 16.

In the third tolerance scenario, on the interval

[0 40] 1 the tolerance is 3 þ 17, on the interval [40 90] 2 the tolerance

is 10 þ 5. As an example, the maximum failure index is illustrated in Figure 7

for nominal, lower tolerance and upper values of the fiber angles for three different

tolerance scenarios for square laminated plates (b/h ¼ 20, N ¼ 4).

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1744

¨

U. TOPAL AND U

. UZMAN

Table 3. Effect of three different manufacturing tolerances on the optimum fiber orientations.

Nominal values First tolerance Second tolerance Third tolerance

a/b

h opt (8)

1

45.0

45.0

41.0

48.0

1.5

47.7

48.9

51.4

55.4

2

50.1

51.4

53.6

57.6

2.5

51.7

53.3

55.3

59.3

N bx

(a) 5 Ignored 1. tolerance 4 2. tolerance 3. tolerance 3 2 1 0 1 1.5
(a)
5
Ignored
1.
tolerance
4
2.
tolerance
3.
tolerance
3
2
1
0
1
1.5
2
2.5

(b)

a/b

N by 1.2 Ignored 1. tolerance 2. tolerance 3. tolerance 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1
N by
1.2
Ignored
1.
tolerance
2.
tolerance
3.
tolerance
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
1
1.5
2
2.5

Figure 8. Effect of the uncertainties in the fiber orientations on the maximized bidirectional tensile loads.

Table 3 shows the effect of three different manufacturing tolerances on the optimum

fiber orientations for a/b ratios (b/h ¼ 20). The differences can be seen between the actual

and nominal optimum fiber orientations and it can be said that the third tolerance scenario

has the most effect on the optimum results.

The effect of three different manufacturing tolerances on the maximized bidirectional

tensile loads and bending moments is given in Figures 8 and 9.

As seen from Figures 8 and 9, the uncertainties in the fiber orientations effect

the maximized loads significantly. There are always relatively large differences between the

maximized results with and without the uncertainties in the fiber orientations. The maxi-

mized loads are the same for the first and second scenarios for a/b 1.5. The maximized

N x and M x loads are always larger than those obtained from neglecting the uncertainties,

whereas the reverse in the case with N y and M y loads. For example, the increases in the

maximized N x loads are 67.68%, 54.04%, and 47.26% for the first, second, and third

scenarios, respectively. The decreases in the maximized N y loads are 53.77, 44.39,

and 39.52% for the first, second, and third scenarios, respectively. Thus, it can be said

that the uncertainties in the fiber orientations must be considered when designing the

laminated plates.

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Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite 1745 M M bx by (a) 3.2 (b) 1.6 Ignored Ignored
Strength Optimization of Laminated Composite
1745
M
M
bx
by
(a)
3.2
(b)
1.6
Ignored
Ignored
1.
tolerance
1.
tolerance
2.8
2.
tolerance
2.
tolerance
3.
tolerance
3.
tolerance
2.4
1.2
2
1.6
0.8
1.2
0.8
0.4
1
1.5
2
2.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

a/b

Figure 9. Effect of the uncertainties in the fiber orientations on the maximized bidirectional bending moments.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, the applicability of the MFD method to the strength optimization of the

laminated plates under the bidirectional tensile loads and bending moments is investigated.

The fiber orientation is considered as a design variable. The optimization problem consists

of two stages. In the first stage, the optimum fiber orientations are obtained for

minimizing the maximum failure index. In the second stage, each of the bidirectional

tensile loads and bending moments are maximized subject to the Tsai–Wu failure criterion

for the optimum fiber orientations obtained from the first stage. It can be said that the

MFD is an efficient and reliable method that can be applied to the strength optimization

of the laminated plates. On the other hand, the small changes in the material properties

have minor effects, whereas the uncertainties in the fiber orientations have major effects on

the optimal designs. This work may be extended to investigate for larger bounds of the

uncertainties in the material properties, number of layers, and different load conditions.

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