load computation

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load computation

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COLUMNS IN THE LAYOUT

is achieved by locating columns at proper and / ideal locations.

(i) Normally the positions of the columns are shown by Architect in his

plans .

and intersection /junction of walls (at beam- beam junctions).

within the property line the column may be shifted inside along a cross

wall to accommodate footings within the property line . Alternatively

trapezoidal footing, eccentric footing can also be adopted.

In residential buildings, generally columns should be located at 3 to

4m.c/c to avoid large spans for beams. This will also control deflection

and cracking .

(iv) While fixing the columns orientation care should be taken that it does

not change architectural elevation. This can be achieved by keeping

the column orientations and side restrictions as proposed in plans by

the Architect .

avoided, unless Architects plans show contrary or same is required as

structural requirement.

(vi) Columns should not obstruct door and window position/s shown in the

Architects plans.

frames from one end to the other end of building in both X and Y

directions are available. This will increase the global stiffness of the

building against horizontal forces .

(viii) When the locations of two columns are near to each other (for e.g. the

corner of the building and intersection of the walls), then as for as

possible only one column should be provided .

(ix) As far as possible, column should not be closer than 2m.c/c to avoid

stripped /combined /continuous footings. Generally the maximum

distance between two column should not be more than 8m.c/c.

(x) Columns should be normally provided around staircases and lift wells.

(xi) Preferably overhead water tank should rest on the columns as shown

in the Architects plan. The height of water tank should be up to 2.0m.

(xii) Twin columns of equal size are desirable at expansion joints from

aesthetic point of view .

directions with beams at each floor level, so as to avoid buckling due

to slenderness effects.

be avoided.

(xv) When columns along with connecting beams from a frame, the

columns should be so orientated that as far as possible the larger

dimension of the column is perpendicular to the major axis of bending.

By this arrangement column section and the reinforcement are utilized

to the best structural advantage.

would have been no problem regarding orientation. Normally circular

columns are provided outside the building for aesthetic point of view.

But in case of rectangular columns the designer must have sufficient

knowledge regarding orientation of the columns. The orientation of the

columns mainly deponds upon two factors. They are (i) Structural

point of view (ii) Functional point of view.

For Structural point of view, a column is oriented in such a manner

that the depth of column is in the plane of the maximum bending. But

sometimes a column oriented to suit the structural requirement may

offset inside the room and may cause inconvenience for the user. In

such cases the designer can orient the column so as to merge into the

wall, provided that the column must have sufficient strength in the

plane of maximum bending. This can be made possible by arranging

the longitudinal steel at the faces in the plane of bending.

for columns:

Load on Column can be calculated based on tributary area method or

reaction from beam method.

STEP 1 :- Calculation of the Influence Area of the Column :

The first step is to find out the Influence Area of the Column to be Designed.

The Influence Area of a column is the area of which load is being transferred

to the column to be designed for. For this purpose in a framed structure small

and medium building the design of column is done for the column whose

Influence Area is the largest hence the load coming on the column will be so

the greater of the any other column in that building hence all the other

column having lesser Influence Area hence lesser Loads if provided with the

same Designed parameters that required for the column having largest

Influence Area, then the whole Structure will automatically become safe

against the Loads.

DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE AREAS FOR LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON

COLUMNS

Influence Area :

In this step the Load Calculation is being done. This is done by calculating all the

loads acting within the influence area.

The Loads acting are broadly classified as Dead Load (DL) and Live Load (LL).

Dead Loads are the load of objects which cannot be moved from on place to

another like the loads of Brick Work, Beams, Slabs etc. and the Live Loads are

the loads coming from movable objects such as Humans, Chair, Table etc.

Thus We Need to Calculate the Dead Loads as well as Live Loads within the

Influence Area, these are as follows in the general case of a Building :-

A)Dead Loads :

I. Due to weight of Slab [25000 N/m3 ]

II. Due to weight of Floor Finish [500 N/m2]

III. Due to weight of Brick Masonry [19200 N/m3]

IV. Due to weight of Beam [25000 N/m3]

V. Due to weight of Self Weight of Column [25000 N/m3]

B) Live Load :

It depends upon the Nature of the Structure, and it values for different structural

nature are given in the concerned Code of Practice, like in India these are given

in I.S.: 875-Part II.

For Residential Buildings it is generally considered @ 2KN/m 2 = 2000 N/m2

Now after correct calculation of above loads the Total Load is Calculated by,

Total Load on each floor = Dead Load + Live Load

Now this the actual load which will be acting on column for each floor, now if the

building say 5 storied, then just multiply the value with the nos. of floors, like for

five storied building multiply the Total Load on each story with 5.

Now thus the Total load acting on column at Column Base is Obtained and it is

denoted with P.

Hence P= Total Load on each Floor X Nos. of Stories = (Dead Load + Live Load)

X Nos. of Stories.

Now we shall move to the actual Designing to determine suitable Column

sections and its Reinforcements so that the above load is safely resisted by the

column Designed.

STEP 3 :- Finding The Gross Cross-Sectional Area Required For The

Column :

This is the one of the most important and main step of the Design of Column.

First in the Limit State Method of Design we must increase the load acting on the

column with a Load Factor so that if there will be any accidental increase of loads

the column will be still safe to resist the load without a failure. The Factor of

Safety for Dead Load + Live Load Combination is 1.5, hence we must multiply

the load action on column (P) with the 1.5 to obtain the Ultimate Load that is the

Factored Load of the Column that is Pu.

Hence Factored Load, Pu = 1.5 X P

For Design we will work with this value of load.

The Ultimate Load of a Column is given by,

Where, Pu = Ultimate Load of the Column in N/mm2

fck= Yield Strength of Concrete in N/mm2

Ac = Area of Concrete (Cross-Sectional Area) of Column in mm 2

fy = Yield Strength Of Steel in N/mm2

Asc = Area of Steel (Cross-Sectional Area) in Column in mm 2

Now the column consists of Concrete and as well as Steel in the form of

Reinforcements hence the Total Cross-Sectional Area of Column is made of Area

of Concrete and Area of Steel.

The Total Cross-Sectional area of Column can be also termed as Gross Cross-

Sectional Area of Column and its denoted by Ag.

Hence, Gross Cross-Sectional Area of Column = C/S Area of Concrete + C/S

Area of Steel

Therefore, Ag = Ac + Asc

And hence, Ac = Ag - Asc

Now putting the above obtained value in the original equation (Equation I) we

get,

Pu = 0.4.fck.(Ag-Asc) + 0.67.fy.Asc [Equation II]

Now Assume the Percentage of Steel you want to use ranging anywhere from

0.8% to 6% with Respect to Gross Cross-Sectional Area of the Column (Ag). Say

Assuming Steel as 1% of Ag it means Area of Steel Asc = 1% of Ag = 0.01Ag

The higher will be the percentage of steel used the lower will be Ag and thus

lesser will be the cross-sectional dimension of the column. But as the Price of

Steel is very high as compared to the Concrete hence it is desirable to use as

less as steel possible to make the structure economical, again if the percentage

of steel is lowered then the Ag will increase at higher rate, about 30% with

decrease of just 1% of steel and so each lateral dimension of the column will

increase and will cause a gigantic section to be provided to resist the load.

Therefore both the factors are to be considered depending upon the amount of

loadings.

It is suggested to use the following Percentage of steel for the Design, Which

will found to be effective and to produce economical and safe section of

Column.

Below 250000 --------------------------------------------0.8%

250,000 to 500,000 --------------------------------------1.0%

500,000 to 750,000 --------------------------------------1.5%

750,000 to 1000,000 -------------------------------------2.0%

1000,000 to 1500,000 -----------------------------------2.5%

1500,000 to 2000,000 -----------------------------------3.0%

And so on, with increase of each 250,000 N increasing the Percentage of Steel as

0.5%.

Now input the value of the Asc in the form of Ag in the Equation I. For example

suppose 1% Steel is used then the equation will be like the one below :-

Pu = 0.4.fck.(Ag-0.01Ag) + 0.67.fy.0.01Ag

Therefore, if we know the Grade of Concrete and Grade of Steel to be used and

Factored Load coming on the Column and Assuming the Percentage of steel

required appropriately then we can Very Easily Calculate the Gross-Sectional

Area (Ag) of the Column required from the above form of the equation.

Now as the Ag is obtained thus the Lateral Dimensions of the Column that are

the sides of the column can be easily determined.

The Ag or Gross-Sectional Area of the Column means that it is the product of the

two lateral sides of a column [i.e. Breadth (b) X Depth (D)], hence reversely

knowing the Ag we can determine the Lateral Dimensions.

For making a Square Section just Determine the Root Value of the A g. Like if the

Value of Ag is 62500 mm2 Then considering square section of a column we can

get each side

Also Rectangular Column Sections Can be made by using different proportion say

b : D = 1 : 2 , Hence D=2b , Therefore, Ag = b X D = b X 2b = 2b2 or b=

Most of the times after calculating the sides of a column it will give results such

as 196.51mm or 323.62 etc. values, which practically cannot be provided at field,

hence we must increase those values to the nearest greater multiple of 25mm

(i.e. 1 inch). For examples a value of 196.51mm may be increased to 200mm or

225mm or 250 mm even, and a value of 323.62mm may be increased to

350mm. more it will be increased the more it will be safer, but it is uneconomical

to increase by a very high amount, it should not be increased more than by

75mm to consider the economical factor.

Depending upon the ratio of Effective Length to the Least Lateral Dimension of a

column, a column may be classified as Long Column and Short Column. If the

value of this ratio is less than 12 then its called as a short column and if the

value is more than 12 then its called as a Long Column. A short column mainly

fails by direct compression and has a lesser chance of failure by buckling. And in

the case of a long column the failure mainly occurs due to the buckling alone.

Long column being slender, that is being thin like stick as compared with its

length it grows a tendency to get bended by deviating from its verticality under

the action of loads. Due to this tendency of long column to get buckled (bended)

a long column of all same properties and dimensions that of a short column will

be able to carry much lesser load safely than that of the short column. Suppose

a 400mmx400mm short column can take a load of 1000KN , then a long column

of 400mmx400mm having same grade of concrete, same amount of

reinforcement and same workmanship will be able to carry a lesser load like say

about 800KN only, hence we get a loss of 200KN which is 20% loss of load

carrying capacity. So the above formula used in Step 3 holds good only for the

Short Column. For using it in long column a little modification is needed. For now

let us concentrate on Short Column. First of all we need to find out the effective

length of a column, which can be obtained by multiplying a factor with the actual

unsupported length of the column. The factor depends upon the end condition of

the column. In most general cases we use a Both End Fixed Column for which

The Factor is 0.65.

Therefore, Effective Length = Effective Length Factor (0.65) x Unsupported

Length (l). suppose a column has a unsupported length of 2.7m = 2700mm,

hence the effective length will be lef = 0.65x2700 = 1755mm. Least lateral

dimension means the shorter of the two dimensions of column that is length and

breadth. But in case of a circular column as there is only diameter, hence we will

use the diameter.

Suppose a column is of 400mmx200mm section and has an unsupported length

of 2700mm, then the Ration of Effective length t the Least Lateral Dimension will

be as follows :-

(Effective Length/Least Lateral Dimension) = (lef/b) = (1755/200) = 8.775 which

is less than 12 and hence is a Short Column.

Eccentricity means deviating from the true axis. Thus an Eccentric Load refers to

a load which is not acting through the line of the axis of the column in case of

column design. The eccentric load cause the column to bend towards the

eccentricity of the loading and hence generates a bending moment in the

column. In case of eccentric loading we have to design the column for both the

Direct Compression and also for the bending moment also. Practically all columns

are eccentric to some extent which may vary from few millimetres to few

centimetres. In practical field it is almost impossible to make a perfectly axially

loaded column, as a reason we have to consider a certain value of eccentricity

for safety even though if we are designing for a axially loaded column. The

conditions of considering eccentricity and its value may differ from code to code

according to the country.As per I.S. : 456-2000 according to it the eccentricity

which we have to consider for design must be taken as the greater of the

followings :-

i) 20mm.

ii) (lef/500) + (b/30)

Where,

lef = Effective Length of the Column

b = Lateral Dimension of the Column (We have to calculate two separate values

for two sides in case of rectangular column)

Permissible Eccentricity :- 0.05b where b is the dimension of a side of a column,

we have to check for two sides separately in case of rectangular column.

The Permissible eccentricity must be greater than or equal to the actual

eccentricity of the column. Or else we have to design it for bending also.

Now the Area of Steel Required Asc is to be calculated from the Ag as the

predetermined percentage of Ag. For example if the Gross-Sectional Area of the

Column is 78600 mm2 and at the starting of calculation of Ag it was assumed

that 1% Steel is used then we get,

Asc = 1% of Ag = 0.01Ag = 0.01 X 78600 = 786 mm2

Now we shall provide such amount of Reinforcements that the Cross-Sectional

Area of the Reinforcement provided is Equal to or Greater than the Cross-

Sectional Area of Steel required above.

Hence in the above case we shall Provide 4 Nos. of 16mm Diameter Bars

Hence, The Actual Area of Steel Provided,

Hence the Area of Steel Provided is Greater than Area Of Steel Required, Hence

the Structure will be Safe.

rectangular or Square Column and minimum diameter of Bars that to be used is

12mm Diameter. Hence 4 Nos. of 12mm Diameter Bars are must in any Column

irrespective of their necessities.

In this step we will Determine the Diameter and the Spacing of the Lateral Ties

or Transverse Links or Binders.

The Diameter of the Ties shall not be lesser than the Greatest of the following

two values

1. 6mm

2. 1/4th of the Diameter of the Largest Diameter Bar

For an example if a Column has 16mm and 20mm both types of bar as

Longitudinal Bars or main Reinforcement then 1/4th of 20mm = 5mm

Hence we shall provide 6mm diameter Ties. Maximum dia :16 mm

The Spacing of Ties shall not exceed the least of the followings three values

1. Least Lateral Dimension

2. 16 Times of the Diameter of the Smallest Diameter Longitudinal Bar

3. 300 mm

[In this case our objective is to minimize the value to reduce the spacing and to

make the structure more stable, hence we shall take least value and suitably in a

multiple of 25mm]

Practical Methods :

1. Estimation of Load on column by thumb rule:

Method 1: (Approximate method)

Load on column =No. of floors xTributary area of column x

Load/m2/Floor.

Residential

building Office/commercial

Column Position

building

Side or end column 17KN/m2 19KN/m2

Corner column 22KN/m2 24KN/m2

For example for residential flats (Silt+4 Floors) for 5m x 4m panel

Load on interior column = 5 x 20 m2 x 12 KN/m2 =1200 KN say 120 tonnes.

Method 2: (Accurate method)

Speedy calculation for Load on column. Following load intensity may be

considered for various types of buildings.

Type of Building Load /m2 per floor in KN/m2

Residential Flats 16

Education/Medical hospitals building 18

Library/Godsons/printing press

22

building

Industrial Building 20

Steel roof Acc sheet building 7

Staircase/ escalators 18

Car parking (Silt Floor) 8

Roof terrace floor 10

influence of the column. This area can be arrived by bisecting the

distance between the columns on all four sides (2 sides on corner columns).

1. Extra load for sit out & Balcony: this can be separately computed

and apportioned to the column concerned.

2. For Lift & Machine room: extra loads can be arrived from the lift &

Machine room data.

3. Overhead Tank: extra load can be easily calculated Dead wt. of

OHT+weight of water to be stored and apportioned to the column

concerned. For example 10,000 litres capacity of OHT the dead

weight of tank may be taken as 100% weight of water i.e 10m3 or

10tonnes. Total weight is 10t+10t =20t. Load on each column

assuming supporting water tank column as 4, =20t/4=5t.

Moment factors to be considered for calculating loads on

columns as per Reynolds hand book:

Position of column Moment factor

Interior Middle column 1.10

Exterior intermediate column 1.30

Corner column 1.80

For example interior intermediate column with 5m x 4m grid with

(silt +4 Floors)

Load on column= Equivalent load x Reynolds moment factor.

Equivalent load = Tributary area x Total load intensity.

Tributary area = (5m x 4m) =20 m2

Total Load intensity=load intensity for silt Floor+ load

intensity for residential flat for 3 Floors +Load intensity for

Roof area

= (8 +3x16+10)=66KN/m2

Equivalent load on interior column =20 x 66=1320KN.

Actual axial Load on interior column= Equivalent load x

Moment Factor =1320 x 1.10=1452KN.

Method 1 : Based on Axial loads

column Load with

moment factor (KN) (mm)

Up to 500 230 x 230

Above 500 to 800 230 x 300

Above 800 to 1200 230 x 450

Above 1200 to 1500 230 x 600

Above 1500 to 1950 300 x 750

Above 1950 300 x 830

As per table for axial load of 1452 KN , approximate size of column =

230 x600. In this method 1 to 2% steel will be assumed.

Ag (Gross area) required = 80 to 100 mm2 per every 1KN ultimate load

carried by the column depending on the grade of concrete used.

Ac= cross sectional area of column

D= large dimension of column =Ac/b

b=width of column.

For 1.5 x 1452= 2178 KN ultimate load, area required= 80x 2178 =174240

mm2

If b=230mm, D=174240/230=758mm say 750mm.

Provide Size of column as 230 x 750mm. Assume 1 to 2% of steel and M20

concrete. If we provide 2% of steel,

Ast required= 2/100 x(230 x750) =3450mm2 .

Provide 8 Nos. 25 dia steel.

Safe Load carrying capacity of column

P=(2.7005p+8)bD/1500=(2.7005x2.275+8)230x750/1500

=1627KN. >1452KN .

Factored Load =1.5x1627=2440.5KN> 2178KN.

Method 3: (Based on tributary area)

Area required is mm2/m2 of area covered by the column

M15

2500 1800

M20

2000 1500

M25 1800 1200

For example for (Silt +4Floors) residential building interior column with M20

concrete with 5m by 4m grid

Area required = (5 storey) x tributary area (5x4)x 1500 mm 2 =150000mm2

Assuming width of column b=230 mm

Depth required D = 150000/230 =652mm say 600mm

The size of column to be adopted is 230 x 600 mm.

Method 4: Based on thumb rule :

Column depth is 3 to 5% of total height of building

For example (Silt +4 Floors) 5 storeyed building with 3m height

The depth of column is (5x3=15m+0.6m(Basement height))= 15.6x3/100=

0.47m say 500mm.

If the beam span is 4.0m, along transverse direction,

width (b) = 1/12 of span of beam

b= 1/12x4.00 =0.333m say 300 mm. Column size is 300 x 500

(ii) Based on storey/ span of beam

If building height is 3 storeys or less:

If beam span is < 6m, D=300mm;

If beam span is between 6.0 to 9m, D=350mm

If the beam span is more than 12.0m, D=400mm.

If the building height is 4 to 9 storeys:

If beam span is < 6m, D=400mm;

If beam span is between 6.0 to 9m, D=500mm

If the beam span is more than 12.0m,D=600mm

In this example, the span of beam is 5.0m and No. of storeys =5

Size of column for this 5 storeyed builing with 5m x 4m( internal column) is

230 x 400mm.

(iii) Based on Seismic and Non seismic areas:

For Seismic areas : Assume Pu/fck bD=0.35 for side column and 0.30 for

corner column. In case of non seismic areas, the ratio will be 0.40 for side

column and 0.35 for corner column.

For example if Pu= 2178KN, fck=20, column area for non seismic zone for

side column=2178x1000/0.40x20=272250mm2 . The size of column is 300 x

900mm. Assume 0.8% of C.S area=2160mm2. Provide 8 Nos. 20mm dia

bars. (2512mm2.2160mm2)

Method 5: Based on formula given in IS 456-2000

The % of steel is based on assumption of satisfactory % of steel

Ultimate Load (Pu) in KN % of steel for satisfactory design

Below 250 0.8

250 to 500 1.0

500 to 750 1.50

750 to 1000 2.0

1000 to 1500 2.50

1500 to 2000 3.0

For every 250KN increase % of steel is 0.5%

In this case the ultimate load on column is P u= 2178KN.

Up to 2000KN p=3.0% for every 250KN, increase in steel is 0.5%

Hence for Pu=2178KN, p=3.5%. As per code more than 4% of steel is not

economical.

Size of column will be arrived based on formula given in IS 456-2000

Pu=0.4 fck As +0.67 f y Asc where Pu is Factored Axial load on the

member

Ac = Area of concrete

Asc =Area of longitudinal reinforcement

Assume p=3.5%

Pu=0.4fck(Ag-0.035Ag)+0.67 fy x0.035Ag

2178 x 1000=0.4x20 (0.965 Ag )+0.67x415x 0.035 Ag

Ag = 2178 x1000/17.45175=124801.24 mm2

Assuming b =230mm D required = 124801.24 =542.61 mm say 500mm.

Provide 230 x 500mm with 8 Nos. 25 mm dia .RTS .

Method 6: Safe load carrying capacity of column based on %

of steel and known column section for various grade of

concrete and Steel.

Steel Grade

Fe 415 Fe 500

Concrete Grade

M20 P=(2.7005 p+ 8) bD/1500 P=(3.27p + 8) bD/1500

M25 P=(2.6805 p+ 10) bD/1500 P=(3.25p +10) bD/1500

M30. P=(2.6605 p+ 12) bD/1500 P=(3.23p + 12) bD/1500

M35 P=(2.6405 p+ 14) bD/1500 P=(3.21p + 14) bD/1500

M40 P=(2.6205 p+ 16) bD/1500 P=(3.19p + 16) bD/1500

Where P is Axial Load carrying capacity of column in KN.

p = % of steel reinforcement (say 2% is 2)

b = Breadth of Column in mm

D = Depth of Column in mm.

For example for column size 230x600 with M20 concrete and Fe415 steel

with 8Nos. 25dia. P=(2.7005p+8)bD/1500=

p=8x491x100/230x600=2.85%

P=(2.7005x2.85+8) 230x600/1500=1444 KN. Approximately = P= 1452KN

Hence O.K.

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