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Noura Nawras

11I
Lab Experiment
Halogens and their compounds
Basic Aim:
To find out some of the properties of the elements chlorine, bromine and iodine
and their compounds.
1. Experiment #1:
a. Research question/idea:
i. Researching or collecting by experiment the solubility, raw data
about the appearances and solubilities in water and hexane of
chlorine, bromine and iodine.
b. Hypothesis:
i. They should be soluble, in both Hexane and water.
c. Input/Output:
i. Inputs: 2ml of both Hexane or water and Halogens
ii. Outputs: A miscible solution of both liquids.
d. Safety Precautions:
i. Wearing gloves since all Halogens are harmful and irritant.
ii. Lab coat in case of spillage.
iii. Eye goggles in case of a vigorous reaction and to avoid contact of
hand with eyes.
iv. Using stoppers to avoid contact of solution with fingers when
shaking test tube.
e. Processing (what did we do):
i. Adding 2 ml of any of the Halogens, then adding the same
amount of water.
f. Results:
{Halogen Result Meaning of result}
i. Adding water:
Chlorine2(aq) Colourless Soluble
Bromine2(aq) Orange Brown Soluble (Decrease in
intensity of colour)
Iodine2(aq) Brown Soluble (Decrease in intensity of
colour)
ii. Adding Hexane: (Special case where in all: Layers where shown
because of water, since theyre aqueous solution)
Chlorine2(aq) Colourless Soluble
Bromine2(aq) Orange Brown Soluble (Darker in
Hexane)
Iodine2(aq) Brown Soluble (Darker in Hexane)
g. Conclusion:
i. Halogens are soluble in both water and hexane but they form
layers in hexane because the halogens were in their aqueous
state and contain water. This accepts the hypothesis.
Noura Nawras
11I
2. Experiment #2:
a. Research question/idea:
i. Collecting Raw data about the appearances and solubilities in
water and hexane of potassium chloride, potassium bromide and
potassium iodide.
b. Hypothesis:
i. Some of the halogen compounds would be more soluble than
others.
c. Input/Output:
i. Inputs: 1ml of water and a pinch of the halogen compounds.
ii. Outputs: A solution with the solid completely or partially
dissolved, or a possibility where the solid is not soluble.
d. Safety Precautions:
i. Wearing gloves since all Halogens are harmful and irritant.
ii. Lab coat in case of spillage.
iii. Eye goggles in case of a vigorous reaction and to avoid contact of
hand with eyes.
iv. Using stoppers to avoid contact of solution with fingers when
shaking test tube.
e. Processing (what did we do):
i. We tried this with both water and hexane.
ii. First, we added 2-3 crystals of solid to a test tube, then added 1ml
of water.
iii. If it did not dissolve, we label it as insoluble (IS); if it did dissolve,
we add another 2-3 crystals.
iv. If it did not dissolve, we label it as slightly soluble (SS); if it did
dissolve, we add a small heap of crystals from the spatula.
v. If some of the crystals are left, we label it as soluble (S); if it
completely dissolved, we label it as very soluble (VS).
f. Results:
i. Adding water:
Potassium Iodide Very soluble
Potassium Chloride Slightly Soluble
Potassium Bromide Very Soluble
ii. Adding hexane:
Potassium Iodide Insoluble
Potassium Chloride Insoluble
Potassium Bromide Insoluble
g. Conclusion:
i. The hypothesis is accepted here where some solids had more
solubility than others, while some had were not soluble.
Noura Nawras
11I
1. Experiment #3:
a. Research question/idea:
i. Researching which halogen would displace another halogen in its
compound.
b. Hypothesis:
i. The elements which are at the bottom of the group will not
displace other elements in the compound which have higher
reactivity than them since reactivity decreases as you go down
the group.
c. Input/Output:
i. Inputs: Halogen (solid crystals) and 1ml of halogen compounds.
ii. Outputs: Colour change or no reaction.
d. Safety Precautions:
i. Wearing gloves since all Halogens are harmful and irritant.
ii. Lab coat in case of spillage.
iii. Eye goggles in case of a vigorous reaction and to avoid contact of
hand with eyes.
iv. Using stoppers to avoid contact of solution with fingers when
shaking test tube.
e. Processing (what did we do):
i. Adding a few drops of the solution to the crystals in a test tube.
ii. Observing the colour change, if any.
f. Results:
Cl2 Water Br2 Water I2 Water
(Colourless) (Orange-Brown) (Red-Brown)
KCl No Reaction No Reaction (Faint No Reaction
All change in colour)
colorless KBr Colourless No Reaction (Faint No Reaction
We add Yellow change in colour)
this first. KI Colourless Colourless No Reaction
Brown Brown

g. Conclusion:
i. As you go down the group, the reactivity of the halides decrease,
which means that they cannot displace elements that are more
reactive than them in other compounds (like Iodine) while other
elements which are on top of the group displace the elements
which are at the bottom of the group.
Noura Nawras
11I
1. Experiment #4:
a. Research question/idea:
i. Observing the reactions of halides ions with silver nitrate
solution.
b. Hypothesis:
i. Silver would be displaced by the halides in the compound and will
form at the bottom of the test tube.
c. Input/Output:
i. Inputs: 2-3 drops of silver nitrate and 2ml of halide compounds.
ii. Outputs: A solution with a deposited solid at the bottom of it.
d. Safety Precautions:
i. Wearing gloves since all Halogens are harmful and irritant.
ii. Lab coat in case of spillage.
iii. Eye goggles in case of a vigorous reaction and to avoid contact of
hand with eyes.
iv. Using stoppers to avoid contact of solution with fingers when
shaking test tube.
e. Processing (what did we do):
i. Adding the halide solution to the test tube first.
ii. Adding 2-3 drops of the silver nitrate.
iii. Waiting for 30 minutes with test tubes near the areas of sunlight.
f. Results:
i. Before adding Silver Nitrate:
Potassium Iodide Pale Yellow
Potassium Chloride White
Potassium Bromide Beige Yellow
ii. After adding Silver Nitrate (after 30 minutes):
Potassium Iodide Almost colourless solution
Potassium Chloride Grey solution
Potassium Bromide Beige yellow solution (Colour
faints)
P.S. All the results had a deposition of a silver grey solid at
the bottom which is silver.
g. Conclusion:

Here the hypothesis is accepted. This is process is part of a larger process for photography since its
a photochemical reaction. This reaction first involves the growth of silver halide crystals from silver
nitrate and halide ions, which is what had been done in the lab. The crystals are then mixed into a
gelatin base. Then the mixture is washed to remove sodium, potassium, and nitrate ions and the
resulting silver halide/gelatin suspension is chilled and allowed to gel. This suspension is both light
and temperature sensitive and must be carefully stored. The emulsion is later melted and the silver
grains are coated with chemical agents to enhance sensitivity to certain wavelengths of light. In its
molten form, the emulsion is coated onto a support structure, usually a polymeric film.