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FLOW COEFICENTS C0MPARE: Manning.Fanning.Hazen-Williams by OP Armstrong P.E.



Three methods are commonly
used to determine flow pressure
losses in conduits. They are
Manning, Hazen-Williams, and
Fanning a.k.a. Moody Chart.
Looking at these equations will
show the similarities and
differences. A comparison of these
methods should yield about the
same friction losses. A small
dataset based on 1-7fps and R
10E4-3E6 was used for checking.
Results are given in chart to right.
The Manning formula gave closer
agreement to Moody % than did HW, 8%. The HW formula was developed from over 2000 points in
of actual works, 1914. HW is a method used by NFPA & other standards agencies. The Manning method
is widely accepted for both closed and open channel flow. Less error, 1.1%, to HW data is had by fitting
a Blasius type friction factor to HW p at C of 130, f=0.148/R0.163 & p=fL/D(V2/2g).

Findings are given below and in above Chart:

Table of Formula, Symbols, and Variables in Common American Units
Comment Hazen Williams Manning
dP: feet fluid/feet of Conduit 10.44(gpm/C)1.85/d4.87 12.75(n*gpm)2/d5.33
dP Modified Fanning Moody dP=f(gpm)2/d5/32.2 f(gpm)2/d5/32.2
f , =0.001 ft D= id, feet = d/12 ((-1.8*log((/D/3.7)1.11+6.9/R))-2)/0.976 ((-1.8*log((/D/3.7)1.11+6.9/R))-2)/0.976
0.0075 0.104 0.187
Less err when fit f@C=130, n C=82.7d /f or 57.5/f n= 0.049(f0.5d0.167)
Reynolds Number, =1.31 centStk R=3163*gpm/d/ R=3163*gpm/d/

The following is a detailed description and analysis of the method.

f*gpm2/d5/32.2 = 10.44*(gpm/C)1.85/d4.87 by (d/d)0.13 & (gpm/gpm)0.15 to get
f/32.2=10.44 C1.85 (gpm/d)-0.14 or
C=23.2/((gpm/d)0.076f0.54) but (gpm/d/v) is Reynolds and f can be expressed in terms a/Rb so call
this term as
C, or C=23.2/f0.46 it close to Chezy Cc, Cc=(8g/f)=16.1(1/f)
When this limited data set is regressed: C=57.5/f0.187 resulted from least squares. The C ranged
117-133. But an improved fit was with C=82.7d0.0075/f0.104
The better compliance with this data set was to modify Fanning Friction by a Blasius (f=0.148/R0.163 )
type friction factor. This complied to within 1% of HW pressure drop at C=130. Note: some
recommend f=a/Rb & p=fL/D(V2/2g).with a: 0.184, 0.216 & b:0.2, 0.2: Smooth pipes, Commercial
steel pipes.