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000 . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
. . . Applicable Law vs Governing
Law Revis (it)ed : ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
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. . R
. :
. . Lynn Visson (USA). Teaching Si multaneous Interpretation
i nto Foreig n Language: Problems a nd Pitfalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
:
. .
: R
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(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
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:
105062, ,

n ., . 2, . 5

./: +7(495) 916-67-0


. . . : ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
.: +7(495) 979-6-91
e-: rvlt@li.u Cum grano salis
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.

ISBN 978-5-93439-270-4

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. . . :
800 .
[ fra n cais Suisse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
N 591


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( 1928-2009 .)

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intemaljin-house regulations , -
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work rules, employee work rules and procedures conclude -
employee conduct and work rules. .
, ( conclude.
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, concludablejconcludible, conclusive,
. conclusory!.

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.2 1 58 :
conclusive Webster's
, ,
Concise College Dictionary
,
:
.
1. serving to settle decide q uestion; decisive.
-
2. tending to terminate; closing .
,

. I

cTB , , 10 conclude, ,
, 10 bring 10 n
- end,jinish; 10 bring 10 decision settlemenl; 10 delermine
www.businessvoc.ru: reasoning, deduce, infer; 10 decide, determine, resolve;
10 arrive at n opinion, judgent decision, decide
,
(\Vebster's Concise Col1ege Dictionary).
,

5

conclusive : - conclusive,
evidence, -n! justified supported all the
/acts. concfusory
. .
t:::i - ,
.. -
: , .

1 . ; . ,
2 . ; ; ,
; . www. languagehat.com:
. (). It' 5 surprising this term is so foreign outside legal
circles. The purpose of Ihe word (and 1 use il often ) is
lack's Law Dictionary
10 poinl l Ihe log ica/ and evidenliay flim5ines5 of
:zs
conclusive Ihe asserlion.
t--
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,

:
,
Shuttin g maller; 5huttin g l 011 furlher
,
evidence; n ol a d m illing of exp l a n a lion
conlradiction; pulling a n end 1 0 inquiry; fina l;
irefutobIe; deci5ive. Beyond question beyond
dispule; monifesl; plain; / ; obvious; visibIe; ,
apparenl; indubilabIe; palpabIe. ,
conclusory, , -
,
www.thefreedictionarv. com.
.
2 : ,
1. Conclusive . ,

2. Law Convincing, l nol 50 m uch 50 Ihal
conlrodiction is impossibIe; nol justified supported
" Ihe facls: "Perfunctory and conclusory findings ,
of the magistrate . . . did n! ! with .
requirements of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure"
National Law Journal.
conclusory Merriam-Webster's
, conclusory Dictionary of Law 1996 :

Consisling of re/ali n g 10 conc/usion
,
assertion for which supporting evidence is offered.
.
conclusive conclusory ,
Oxford English Dictionary. , concfusory alfegations,
concfusory refating tending to
conclusion; conclusive. , .
The American Heritage Dictionary of the Black ' s Law
English Language , Fourth Edition , 2006 , Dictionary ,
, 1999 ,
2 .
expressing

.. (.
/actuaf in/erence without stating the underfying
, arguable /acts which the in/erence is based.
appaet).


conclusory , -- :
; .
, ; , , -
. Multitran , - !2:
, , - r;;;.z.
. , /0 conclude. ..r:::
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, /0 imply, implied.
-
, , Black's -
, : 55

This word is used in law in conlrasl 10 "express",
. i.e. where Ihe inlenlion in regard 10 Ihe subiecl-matter
is l manifesled explicil and direcl words, l is
conclusory galhered implicalion necessay deduclion from
Ihe circumstances, the general language, the ;.; (\)
conduct of Ihe paties.

I
(Mark Liberman) .

. ,
,
, , . ,
,
conclusory ( "It means the message is not implied
justified supported /acts, which it assumes u! n//.
doesn't state"), Oxford Dictionary of Law:
: "Webster's, take heed!", contracl ! created express words ul
inferred Ihe couts either from the conduct of the
paties from some special relationship existing
between Ihem.

. ,
,
.
, implied
http://itre.cis. . edu/ -mylllanguagelog/a contrac/
rchives/004407.html. .
,
, .

. .
lack's Law Dictionary,
2004 , implied n/!
: ,
conclusional conclusionary, ,
conclusory ,
. ,

to conclude (
, - ) .
, , ,

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t:::: conduct.
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imp/ied, .

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implied express : , ,
This warranty is in lieu of other warranties, conduct actions:
express implied. The Contract shall deemed concluded the
Use r . . . . 5ubject to the User d e m onstrating the
, / following conduct: . .. .. , . . , .
The Contract shal l deemed concluded br the
.
implied . User subject to the User performing the
imp/icit, tacit, inferred, - following actions: . . . . . . . . . .
presumptive3 ,
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epyTc , -
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- giving rise to/resulting in
( ) . - n implied contract (

3 Presumptive , ,
. implied authority
) ,
Black's presumptive authority. implicative: implicative actions imp/icative

8
,'

conduct , 3
, . . - )

, , constructive contract lack's Law --i
implicative Dictionary, : !2:
::z
. species of contracts which a rise, t from the
, , intent of the parties, but from the operation of law to 'N
, , avoid injustice. These sometimes referred to as
. q u a si contra cts contracts i m p l ied in law as
contrasted with contracts im plied in fact which
rea l contracts expressing the intent of the parties
: conduct rather than words.
implied fact ( implied in fact) -
lack's
,
,

(constructive contracts = contracts implied in law) ,
, -
implied in law -
, .
(contracts
implied in /act) . ....
implied in law , lack's
constructive, constructive
lack's that which is implied, conditions.
established the mind / the law in its ! / Constructive/implied conditions
construing /acts, conduct, circumstances,
instruments. . . inferred, implied made ! ) ,
legal interpretation. Oxford Dictionary of Law ,
constructive ,
: :
Describing thig that is deemed l a w to exist Conditions qualifications ta pro mise which
to have happened, though that is not in fact a rise from the nature of the promise and which
the case. the law recognizes as conditioning the promise
constructive though not expressly stated.
ImpUed - implied in
: , law, constructive/implied conditions
, ,
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4 . .
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Dictionary of Law:
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constructive , , .
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constructive - . :

9
vindicore. [lolin "10 cloim chollenge"] Roman
/aw & Hisl. demond 05 ' 5 own; to ossert right , vindicatory,
8 in to ( thing); to ossert cloim ownership of vindictive .
( thing).
:, Vindictive damages lack's
vindicotio. [Lotin "cloim"] Romon /ow. 1 . oction
the owner to cloim property.
exemplary damages punitive
damages, ,
2. The cloiming of thing 05 ' 5 own; the
t:::: ossertion of right i n title to thing. ,
f..,;
. vindicatory
,
:
,
. vindicotory port. The portion of stotute thot ets
forth the penolty for committing wrong neglectmg
, , , duty.
-;:::;
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. (appearances deceptive) ,
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Dictionay :
,
oction for the repossession of personol property
wrongfully token detoined Ihe defendont .... , .



,
,
.
, . , ,
to vindicate, . 399
: to clear from , ,
suspicion , criticism, m, doubt; to assert, ,
maintain , a.lfirm (one's interest) action ; ,
{ defend (one's interest) against inteiference
encroachment. ,
, ,
Roman civil law Black's to assert (
legal right to ( thing) ; to seek recovery thing) ),
legal process. vindication .

, vindication action/lawsuit/claim .
- ,

-. .
, subsidiary (serving ( assist supplement The-

10
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American Heritage Dictionary ), - ::
,
liabllity . , -
subsidiary's liabllity, ,
, . '0

u

. 'N
, L-
L-, L- L--
' U
: additional, supplementary, , - I..D
supplemental, secondary, , collateral.
. . ;-;J
secondary. , -
secondary liabllity . ,
Black's Law Dictionary, , . - ;:
,
:
. -
,


liability in the nature of contingent claim, such
as the lia bility of guara ntor as contrasted with that (
of strict surety comaker. guara ntor's liability ,
does ! arise until the principal debtor has failed to ,
the creditor.

,
, ).
, ,
. . . becomes secondari/y li for another' s debt
performance in contrast to strict surety who is ,
primarily li with the principal debtor. who , .
promises to answer for debt, default miscarriage
of another. ,

. . . the guara ntor is only secondari/y li. His
liability is contingent the default of his principal . . . .
t h e lia bility o f gua ra ntor is, strictly speaking,
secondary and collateral. .
,
. 's Law
Dictionary, Fifth Edition, secondary ATL BTL,
liabllity : .
:
that which arises only when the party directly li
fails to perform otherwise defaults in performance. the line is type of advertising through
Frequently refers to the liability of guara ntor. media such as , cinema, radio, print, banners ... to
promote brands. Major uses i nclude television and
radio advertising, web and Internet ads. This
. type of communication is conventional i n nature and is
secondary liabllity , considered i mpersonal to customers. It differs from
Below the li advertising, which believes i n
-
u nconventional brand-building strategies, such as
direct mail and printed media ... Used loosely,
liabllity, the line still means mass media.
.
httD://en.wikiDedia.org/wiki/Below the
,
(advertising)
, ,

11
,

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.
BTL advertising
,> , BTL industry -
:. Snakes Technologies www . snakes-tech.com: .
Above the line (ATL) is advetising lechnique
using mass media 10 promole brands, using Ihe prinl, , -lfunds
and radio advetising, web ads.
-l jinancing.
, AT L (
advertising
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13
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AppLicable Law vs Governing Law


Revis(it)ed: ?
. .

1. 2( 18) 2008 .
. , (),
, ry, ,
applicable law goveming law ()
. ( -
ry . ).
, ,

, ry
. .
goveming law applicabIe law
. Goveming law - , -
, (conf1ict of laws) .
,
, ,
, (choice [ law),
, .
. ? .
goveming law (
. ry ) ()
; () ; ()
(applicable law), ; ()
.
(, , applicabIe law.
,
), , ,
( , Inter-American convention the law
) applicable to international contracts ( -
)
. convention the law applicable to contractual
applicabIe law obligations ( Rome 1980) ( -
goveming law, . , ) 1.
( 111, VI,
, , .. 1210 - 1215 )
, ,
,
I aroB,
.
Contracts (ApplicabIe law) Act 1990,
2. Convention the law li to contracts for the
. intemational sale of goods. The Hague 1986 (,
) .
.

14
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governing law, . 1210 . -
applicable !2:
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governing law < -
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applicable law ( Applicable Law , ,
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Goveming Law , , ,
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governing law . ,
applicable law
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15
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applicable law ,

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applicable law goveming law.

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17
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18
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19
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21
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We' ft-slg-slg-slg-slggi ' Africa -
Ft-ft-ft-ft-slggi' Africa -
( Boots-boots-boots-boots-m ovin ' u p ' down gi ! )
There' 5 discha rge i the war!

Sv-si-lv-fiv-i- ' -twty mile to-day -


Fu-lv-svt-thity-tw the day before -
( ts-ts-ts-ts-mvi ' up ' down gi ! )
There' s discharge i n the war!

D't-d ' t-d' t-d't-Ik ! what' s i n front of you.


( ts-ts-ts-ts-mvi ' u p ' down gi);
-m-m-m-m go mad with watchin ' ,
' there's discharge in the warl

Ty-ty-ty-ty-to thi n k ' something different -


Oh-my-God-keep-me from goin' lunatic!
( Boots-boots-boots-boots-movin' u p ' down gi ! )
There' s discharge i the war!

ut-ut-ut-ut-th bullets in the dlis.


If-you-eyes-drop-they will get atop ' you !
( ts-ts-ts-ts-mvi' up ' down gi) -
There' s discharge in the war!

W--stik-ut- ' ug, thirst, ' wea riness,


ut-t-t-t-t the hi sight of ' -
t-ts-ts-ts-m vi ' u p ' down again,
' there' s discharge i n the warl

'Taint-so-bad-by-day beca use ' m,


But night-brings-Iong-strings-o' foty thousand million
Boots-boots-boots-boots-movin ' up ' down gi.
There' s discharge i n the war!

1 - ' ave-marched-six-weeks i n '" ' cetify


It-is-not-fire-devils, dark, thig,
But ts-ts-ts-ts-mvi' up ' dw gi,
' there' s discharge i the war!


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23
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:
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( , , 1 think this 'puts paid ' t o M r.Vitkovsky ' s


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- : for " " - A. I . or Lozinsky -
Thank u indeed. Life is more interesting M . L. was alive and well in 1 93 6 and obviously
than fiction. agreed with " ".

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. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. - . 535.
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, Literature , 1 // . Trans1ation - Theory and
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( - . .) 1. Press, 2006. - . 536-537.

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. - . ? ,
-
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(Oxford Advanced Leamer ' s Dictionary
. , ( - 07) ; ill English Dictionary
, for Advanced Leames, Intemational Student
. , , Edition ( ) .. ) ,
.
, "The Living Dictionary" .
,
,
, .
. - : 106, 000 words and
phrases - the words need (?!).
, 1
, .
: Oxford, ,
Longman , ill, Collins ...
( -

39
,j " ,"
, ,

) (Anita's 2. Architecture decorative weight-beaing


dress, her dress, his dress . . . ), , structural u nit, two sides of which form rig ht angle
!::: , with flush against wall and the other flush
t::J beneath projecting surface, such as eaves
window.
:) . , , 3 . wall-anchored fixture for gas electricity.

, - 4.
cr-> , . squae bracket.
. ?
'"'-J . angle bracket.
'"'-J
. Mathematics See .
,
'"'-J 5 . Chiefly British of pair of parentheses.
:::. , -
::zj ?
6. classification grou ping, especially within
t::; ? sequence of n u m bers grades, as categoy of
, , incomes sharing the same tax rate.
, , 7.
. ? . The distance between two i mpacting shells,
, the first aimed beyond target and the
, , second aimed short of it, used to determine
, the range for artilley .
. , . The shells fired in such .
Updated Edition,
LCE:
,
: - 1 . [usually plural] also round bracket
(
British English of the pair of signs put a ound
words to show extra information [= parenthesis
-
American Eng/ish]
- ! ) , -
advanced, - in brackets
'
Last 5 sa/es figures given in brackets.
intennediate (
? angle brackets ? square bracket ?
, ? ) , -
pUnduation mark
IELTS, FCE .
, 2 . income/tax/age etc bracket particula r
, income, tax etc. range:
? the highest tax bracket
? families in /ower income brackets
- , , , The 3 . piece of metal, wood, plastic, often in the
i Heitage Dictionay ( - ) shape of the letter l, fixed to wall to support
7-8 . , , something such as shelf.


bracket :
,
: :
1. ' good ground is easy to find; hoisting lugs
. simple rigid structure in the shape of l, the engine or the altemator mounting brackets
of which is fixed to vertical make good grounds" , ' little ink bottle and
surface, the other projecting horizontally to two pens were fastened to its floor gold
support shelf other weight. brackets , slender pointed celIular disrupter
. small shelf shelves supported such swung out skeletal brackets" . -
structures. , , , -

40
"',.:, ,
, brackets, , to heat it before eating ( LCE). , :
hoisting lugs the engine the altemator .
......
mounting brackets, , , -
, Lingvo,
: ( -
bracket. ( 'N
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary ) , '.J
English pyraTb - , . -, - 8
, . , ,
. UI , , -
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. , (<< ) .
, -
, . -,
, , -
I E LT S , FCE , ,
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- Y-dinner.
. , , -
" Let's fix quick lunch" ,
, " Let's have Y-dinner"!
, Y-dinner -
, , ! ,
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Ke,

(
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Y-dinner, to -
<< , , ,
, , .. ,
.. , ,
- there is book the desk, there is
, ml that picture the wall, there is waZking stick in the
already cooked and prepared, that only m, he is at Oxford, he is in the rm. . .
have to heat before ! it (07), ?
frozen prepared meal, us packaged in ,
disposabl serving tray, that needs only to ,
heated before serving () ml that is
sold already prepared, so that just need , .

41
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t::I
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, " Floor: ,
Man ' s" , , sex "
"absent-minded radiation " . sex " ,
- ,
g , - , .
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;::::; -. , : dissipated, scattered,
. - difJused, absent-minded, absent, abstracted,
25
1- , diffuse ( .n. ) , hare-brained, vacant
. m ( . n . ) , erratic, n, oblivious,
, , vague, dispersed, absentminded, mused,
, , . [orgetjul, sparse, wool-gathering.
, , - , -


, . absent-minded, ,
. erratic, hare-brained wool-gathering.
, - . , ,
: - ", . :
. absent-minded . . . .
: jloor, sex, halj. - jlooring, gender. Lingvo . . The
. . Oxford Russian D ictionary
, , , absent
. - absent-minded: .
. Lingvo: 1 . ; 1 1 . .
u . sex. , .
(u ) , ,
- . , . ,
,
? , - .
- ,
- . , .
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(, , LCE D
escrow , 07 - ?),
, ,
: 1 2 ( escrow
sex. n, land,
, written contract, etc that is held someone
(.. , who is n! directly involved 'n n agreement while
, , ( agreeent is being achieved,
) , , - n, property, /ega/

42
,:=" ;, -
document that is kept someone until ? :
particular thing has happened) , ?
.......
. , ? -1

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. , - ;::,
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interstice. - .
- , Lingvo ? , ,
Multitran ( " tried to off-
) . , hand and not too obviously uninterested " ,
. . ,

, - - -
interstice - , .. . ,
.

, , , -
: . otT-hd
smalZ crack space in sth - (07) ; . LCE : 1. n! very
/riend/y towards someone when ta/king to
smalZ space crack in something them ; 2 . said done without thinking
n things (SmalZ p/ants were growing in the p/anning. 07 -
interstices o/the rock.) - ( LCE) ; : (disapproving) n! showing much interest
very smalZ narrow space n objects in sb/sth . ,
suifaces - ( ) ; ,
: -
space, especialZy smalZ narrow n,
,
n things parts - ()
.

?
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? .. , 2000 . ,
interstices . . ,
, 2008 .
, , .
interstices ? , Lingvo , , ,
- interstice, - .
interstices. I nterstice n :
.; , , ,
,
interstices. , (, beautiful someone
something that is beautifu/ is extreme/y attractive

43
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44
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, , -
Mitsubishi Montero. . "
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.
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Pepsi (
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45
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Each ti me we prod uce new edilion . . . , our aim is
a lways the same: whal we do 10 m a ke Ihe
dictionary hel pfu l for advanced level students
, of English? ( . - . .)
?,) - . . , , LCE
, , .
, , 5 -
(2008-2009)
. : " For advanced learners of English. "
, -
, - , Longman ,
(learners of
, English) . - ,
2003 Longman , ,
Dictionary of Contemporary English (
- LCE) . ,
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46

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Oxford , American ,
Heritage , Merriam-Webster, Random House ,
, . . .
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,
.
,
LC E The American Heritage .
Dictionary, . . .
, -
, LCE ,


, ( )
, . (Anita ' s dress, her dress,
his dress . . . ) , . . .
( ?
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-
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. , dress, LCE
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47
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: 1 . floor; 11 . u. sex .
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I ( 8 ) fl;
( 8 ) floor ( d) " sex;
, , of both sexes; female;
- , male.
, - , . ,
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48
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absent- minded radiation. -,
absent-minded . . , ,
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) scattered radiation.
, , Lingvo
, , absent-inded. m
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m R 1 . . 2 .
, () scattered, dissipated;
scattered population;
( diffused/scattered light . ( )
a bsent- m i nded; vacant/
, wandering gla nce/look . . .
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Lingvo

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absent
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=
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Lingvo ( Lingvo - combatant officer
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Polytechnical
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cavity . .
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cavity
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53
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stick at smb .. ( . : , 2000) :
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getting ready for combat. Longman
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:
, : his legs gave way -
(under him) , he m weak in the knees. . (
, ,
( Lingvo 1 2) . ,


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,
something that is beautiful is extremely
,
attractive ( look at - LCE > .
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beautiful -
possessing beauty.

51

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, : She wrinkled up nose in amusement,

, which made look odd (


) . u -
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the BI Combinatory Dictionary of English -
John Benjamins. . .
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( New Century Dictionary l
;:::
1 93 1 . 1 956 . otf-hand
, , (ofIhand) :
offhand . . adv. At ; fothwith; with o u t
.

) . previou s thought ti; extempore . . . .


. D made ffhd, t m us (as,
ffhd e m a k spe e c h ) ; u studid, ea sy,
without effot m (as, " had g a bout
Lingvo, . . ! t day with his usual cool, ff-hd m " :
Galswothy' s " tii, " . 5 ) ; a l so, dig sig
. th igs ffh d (as, " S h e tied to m a ke heself light d
, ffh d" : H . G . We lls' s " . itlig, " i . 5 . 8 ) ;
sometimes. cava l i e . c t. busque. [
. . . .]
-

, .
otf-hand , ,

otf-hand " tried to ,
hand and not too obviously uninterested" . , "
LCE . . " (
, Oxford Advanced Leamer' s Dictionary . . ) .
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- "sometimes" -
. - - .
, . . - "
, - , , ,
, , , " - .
. ,
, . otf-hand
. . , .
"nu " ,
-
.
. . . -
1 The New Century Dictionary of the English
, , Language. / Edited H . G . and .G. Brewster. -
.. - New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, ' . , 1 956. - '
two l . - 2 8 3 2 .

55
'\;"

,
,
off-hand - ,
.
:;; . .
. -

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= - -
"-J , Longman Dictionary of Contemporary
N' , - English - ,
, ) ,

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1-

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. , .
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.
off-hand .

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: , ( 8 -
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, .
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.

56
,, '

I( I( .;-. :,,:;
'.

Teaching Sim uLtaneous Interpretation


into Foreign Lang u age:
ProbLem s and PitfaLLs
Lynn Visson (USA)
The issues i nvo!ved in teaching foreign. N o r was this practice exc!usive to
simu!taneous interpretation to interpreters Russia, since in Western states, inc!uding
working from native into foreign !anguage - the U S , at high-!eve! negotiations such as
which are certain!y not unique to Russia and disarmament ta!ks interpreters usually work
the US - have n discussed and ana!yzed from the !anguage of their own side into the
mu!titude of teachers in multitude of !anguage of the other party to the discussions.
institutions. While the debates are of theoretica! At i nternationa! fora, organizations,
and pedagogica! interest, the critica! question and conferences, however, the preference has
for instructors is how to dea! daily basis !ong n for interpretation into the native
with students who are trying to utter in the !anguage . At the United Nations interpretation
t1uid , grammatica! prose of a foreign !anguage into Eng!ish, French, Spanish and Russian is
text originally written or spoken in their native provided native speakers of these !anguages,
!anguage . Though there has n much and it is only the interpreters working with
discussion of theory, the practica! aspects of Chinese and Arabic who must work in both
teaching interpretation into non- native directions, into and out of their native
!anguage have n re!ative!y neg!ected !anguage. There is !ogica! basis behind the
teaching professiona!s. choice of interpretation from foreign tongue
For decades, the dominant argument in the into the native !anguage. n though the
Soviet Union was that it was preferable to interpreter certain!y understands everything
interpret from the native into foreign said in his native !anguage , the pressure of the
!anguage , since definition - and as matter booth ll too often !eads to breakdown in
of sense - the interpreter understands grammar, choice of !exica! units, sty!e and
everything said in his native !anguage . No n register, correct pronunciation , stress and
wou!d serious!y dispute this comprehension of intonation.
the native !anguage , but that in way The listener, moreover, is most unlike!y to
guarantees that the interpreter is proper!y devotee of !inguistic theory, or concerned
and quickly to process this materia! and to as to whether that the interpreter understands
produce grammatically, !exically and every syllable being uttered. is so!e interest is
sty!istically correct interpretation in foreign in what he is hearing, i.e. what he is being
!anguage . In the Soviet Union, the argument " fed , " and whether that is easi!y
was pragmatic as well as theoretica! , for the comprehensible and correct Eng!ish , Russian,
dearth of native speakers of foreign !anguages French, or whatever other !anguage
meant that Russian interpreters had choice used at given meeting.
except to interpret both into native and into

57

Yet today's private and commercial markets Equally difficult for native speakers of
are increasingly seeing demand from many Russian is the English system of compound

s;: international organizations and conferences for tenses. The Russian verb system does not
interpreters who work in both directions, into automatica11y prompt the interpreter to
and out of their working language. Regardless out with the correct form ofthe verb in the past,
of theory and the theoretical preferences of present or future. The work of producing such
teachers of interpretation , today's pedagogues compound tenses as "we shall now have been
8 must squarely [ the realities and demands of sitting here for forty minutes " or " If 1 had

C"-.J
the global market - and prepare their students known, 1 would not have said that" lies with the
:::!.. to work both ways. interpreter. overuse of simple tenses,
r::;, Well and good. Yet ll of experience in "They do, " "he declared " rather than " they
= teaching interpretation training courses at the doing" or " has declared" lead
U nited Nations, the Graduate School of to confusion regarding the sequence of events
Translation and Interpretation of the Monterey or completion of action, and these rrors ,
Institute of I nternational Studies, Columbia too, w erode the English-speaking Iistener's
U niversity and the Marshall Center in Germany confidence.
has underscored to the daunting difficulties third headache for t}1e teacher of R-E
encountered interpreters working from native i nterpretation is the vital importance of
into foreign languages (in this case, from Russian prepositions. There are enormous differences
into English) , and the problems their teachers in meaning between the expressions "to keep
must [. The situation is somewhat similar to to/keep in/keep out/keep up/keep at, " etc.
teaching right-handed people to write letters The wrong choice of preposition produces
using the left hand, or people used to driving effect the listener similar to that produced
the right to drive the left. Theoretically, the interpreter into Russian who opts for the
same action is being performed. In fact, 11 the wrong case ending.
rules of the game and 11 the signals are different. Syntax poses yet another problem. The
interpreter who copes superbly and easily Russian - construction produces
with the difficulties of speaker's difficult sentences with word order radically different
accent, wrong grammar, incorrect syntax and from that commonly found in English sentences.
high-speed delivery when working into his native Participial constructions which in
language too often stumbles seriously while sentence far ahead of the subject help to add
interpreting into foreign language. The to the verbal confusion, as do sentences
pressure of the booth break down the beginning with verbal construct in an oblique
linguistic intuition, knowledge and interpreting case, e.g.
technique of even exce11ent interpreter who is ;
forced to work " the wrong way. " are often best translated as
Anglophone teacher working with nominative cunstructions, e.g. " our meetings
native Russian speaker who is interpreting into have discussing this issue for long time . . . " ;
English [l that there are so many vital "this report contains many useful ideas."
issues, such as complex vocabulary The non-native speaker frequently runs
(economics, oil and gas, the environment, into trouble over issues of style and register.
etc . ) , idiom, syntax, p roper register and Trying to prove how weH he has mastered the
intonation that he in good conscience language, the Russian speaker opt for the
ignore such mundane irritants as an omitted or extremes: an overly formal or gratingly
misused article. Such sins of commission and colloquial level of discourse . " Esteemed
omission , however, or of the use of definite co11eagues" alternates with " guys gonna
instead of an i ndefinite article w break for coffee now? " Slang and buzzwords
instantaneously cause an Anglophone listener should kept to minimum. It cannot
to lose confidence in the interpreter. overemphasized to students that rather than

58
, '',',
' _,
'$ ,
demonstrati ng the mastery of language, series of at least three [ur such recordings of :3
excessive use of colloquialisms and substandard the same tape text, each time focusing
forms reveals inability to with the particular issue, should the student try to :::::
norms of style and register. " it simple " is put everything together into smooth Q:
good advice for the novice interpreter forced to interpretation, and record that attempt as well.
work into non- native language. way of will almost certainly encouraged and
going so is to focus short, punchy Anglo heartened the difference between his first
Saxon words such as " make , " " do , " "get , " and final recordings. 23
"put , " " right , " "wrong" rather than words with And , lastly: students of interpretation need

long Latin roots such as " e lucidate , " encouragement as well as criticism. This
" fabricate , " "procrastinate , " etc: Since the seem obvious, but there are so ways for
words of Anglo- Saxon origin are short, they student to "go wrong" when interpreting into
save time for the interpreter, and their semantic foreign language , and so elements of :3:
field of application is much broader than that of interpretation that need constructive criticism , '
most lengthy words of Latin origin. " Make " is that compliments for good work - and ongoing
much shorter than " manufacture , " and encouragement - are vital to avoid having the
"show" is much shorter than "elucidate. " student give u and throw in the towel.
From the beginning of the program of Naturally, the more native speakers of Russian
study students should record themselves, have the opportunity ofworking with native
focusing intensively grammar, syntax, speakers of their working languages, and the
intonation , style and register, and delivery. The more exposure they have to the linguistic
student should then listen to the recording, environment of those languages and to
taking notes the pluses and minuses of immersion in that environment, the better the
hisjher interpretation , and then record the results. Teachers , students, and the future
same text tape second time, selecting listeners of those students - they are in
individual issue as focus - e.g. , correct use of " real" and not "student" booths - will benefit
the article. Having listened to that recording, [ro e nhanced international exchange
and having again made notes his programs providing opportunities for both
performance, the student should do the text students and faculty to exposed to the
third time , recording the i nterpretation language milieu and actual environment of
more while concentrating syntax, their working languages.
intonation or delivery. Only after having done

(... . 13

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Again, you say something about nose. If you :
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mention it. (. ) . , ,
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mean to say that I am, as it wee, turning up -
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am supised that you youself should bing this up.
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supposedly led you the nose and intended to
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it. (. . ) ,
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65
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. When 1 working ro, 1 n think about beauty.


1 thmk only about how to solve the ro . But when 1 have ftnished,
if the solution is not beautiful, 1 know it is wrong.
Buckminster Fuller1


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( The Contractor representative has n " contaminated sea waler routed 10
sent for
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-/- ( This MOry


deposit was valued higher than others . . .
,
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( 1 959 . )
2 . , , NQ4 (20) , 2008. - . 50.

67
"

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The messages also sent via n-
e -mail 10 the persons listed in ,
Paragraph 1 .6 1 .6. , 1 . 6.

" contaminated sea water


routed to battery of corrugated - n8JI -
plate interceptor separators - -

The method used t o -


predict refract ive i ndex [ * -
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* yr 10predict (<<n" -
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.

5. excess: in excess / ) .
I! will o nly marginally so [ ]
- . , n - . , ; []
- >} . .

, ,
- , >} .
. ,
6. keep , ,
( keep the lijting schedule plan
( marginally +
) ; . ,
marginally
keep within the terms o/re/erence
- ( moderate/ moderately,
(
slight/slightly, fractional/fractionally) ,
/
}! .
);

69
. ".,!:
According to WSD's calculations, steel consumption
in the US w pick only marginally to 125 tons,
/ro this year's expected 122, 8 tons : n and all claims arising
'-q WSD ( World Steel /ro shal1 rejected the Contractor
Dynamics) , , /
::s;: 1 25 . , ., ,
1 22 , 8 . .
""> .
1 1 . meet exceed
8
r-...J 9. permanent
,

, , i1 . .
r-...J , meet , exceed,
! ?
nnt (
use o/ land. , )

(
) . -

, meet
- / .,
- , exceed ., -
.

- , ,
( , : ,
) , / .. : meets ,
: . exceeds the fire ,atings ,
,
: .
20. ()
. n
permanent / , -, , -,
n . : ,
, n .
n ,
-
, , .. .
-
-
.

1 0 . reject
.
' .
,

unchanged :
is essentially unchanged ,
,

avoid : , ,
Provisions shall made ( avoid resultant
malfunctions
linu [-
]

70
': ''.. ;
. '; . ",

over
For /, over 15 different techniques
,
s , ,
( ) 1 5 ,

free: free from (-. ,


( -. , )
) and free from de/ects

exceed: not : , ;
exceeded , (. ,
)
that specijied to/erance /
out-o/-roundness is not exceeded

flawless ,

hazardous : ,

progress: in : , , []
progress ; (., n- Since work is still in progress to define
)
, . . .

maintain: maintain 8
the schedule maintain the schedule / insta//ation /
"
the p/atjorm in 2009 -
2009 .

match : 1) ;
we/ds which match the stee/ in yie/d
2) , strength ,
..

merely : , ; ;
ro this discussion provides merely n
iZZustration / -
" -
;
. . . that treating the is merely n
approximation as to ... ,
" -

71
ff

$"'&,

similar : , , / [ ]
;
since A's were ve1Ji similar

m ;
ve1Ji similar ( / -

unsuitabIe : ,
, unsuitable /
especially
,

shelter: without ;
shelter
lf the pipelayer has standing without
shelter in extremely cold weather

/ -

,
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.. , ,
. , ,
( - ,
) ,
( - )
- .
.
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. , , ,
, , , ,
, ifthe solution is ,
not beautiful, 1 know it is wrong (. ) . , , ,
.
,
, (
,
,
. , )?
- ,

72

Commercial systems
have minimum of three or 3 4 -
four vessels ( give smooth .
operation. 3-4 - .

, , , , ,
. : <<J( , - '"
=
, , , =
C.D
3 4 -
. ? , -
? -
, -, . ? 4 ,
-
, ,
- ! - -
.
, The purged gasflow is intermittent and 01 varying
, , , 7 composition the cycle.
( ,

) 5
: -
- 6-
, 8 - . . ,
,
6

.
. 6 . 8.


,
over the cycle,
. ,

, ,
:
u/ ,
1)

3 .
the cycle ,
-
, , .
, q , cycle
, (the [) ,
, ,
. , ( ! )
- , -
, 4 , ,

.
nbl ()
, ,
n .

5 ,
,
(
bl n
) , .
40-50
6
- , ,
,
.
,
, ,
.
, .

73
-

', ::,;>"#
ii":
. , 0 7 .
, , . ,
yr , ,

"-004
(over l) , - , ,
: ()
. () .
8 2)
=
I"'OOJ
intermittent. , , ,
,.....
I"'OOJ
n- . ,
I"'OOJ
u , - , :
i!:. , ,
J5 , . ,
t::; , ,
. , ,
.
) , ,


, - .

surge vessel is required to -


ensure good mixing and n nOJl " n- ( : )
outflow. - n
.
(: -
) .

* : - , ( - . -
) , . n - : , ,
, , , ?

Therefore, the delayed cokers -


are designed with the lowest - -
possible operati ng pressure to - UJl, -
. .
mlntmlze coke and increase ,
distillate yields.
UJl. .

Petroleum coke -
broadly classified i nto two , (,
categories, sponge coke and , , , n-
needle coke, depending its ,
physical properties, such as its , , , ) ,
texture, density, porosity, electric , - , , -
resistivity, and coefficient of :
thermal conductivity. . .

1
, , , [commitments and "ights ()
obIigations and ";ghts) ,
. " ( ) - ,
. . ( ): "
, OJI. - OJI .

74

M odern solvent deasphalting
units usually use blend of l ight -
hydrocarbon solvents (C S - C6 -
paraffinic cut) 10 allow maximum ( -
operatingjlexibility. cs - c 6 ) iif
( 6 ) . I'...J

. N
-----------------------------------------------------t-=----------------------------
The solubility of in the solvent - -

dec reases wilh ;ncreasing -
temperature and this variable , ,
p rovides the major method of
day-to-day operational control of -
the process . - .
.

The plant air passes through * -


filter to remove n scale or dirt - () ,
that would otherwise block the , ,
distributor nozzle in the reactor. *
. .

: , , , ..
- ,
-
. -,
: .
, :
(,
, , ,
) , ,
, : , , ..
( ! ) , ,
. . .

resid from the - - I0l


distillation unit is charged to ro - n
asphalt converters V- 1 1 and - I0l n - - I0l
V- 1 02 through steam-jacketed - I0l V- I O I V- 1 02
gear - I0l and charge - I 0 1 V- I 02 . -
healer - I0l. *.

: -
(vacuu resid). -
, : mo V- lO1 V- 102.'1"
: amo?

75

At high temperature , conversion


to 70% i nto sulfur 70%
reache d /or the Claus reaction. 70%
. .
:


-. 70% .
=
-------_---+--
N T he re m a i n i ng 2 is 2
:::, neutralized with caustic soda 10 , 2 -
(""'O-J
avoid/orming turbidity. .
z= .
::25
r: -------4-----

The maximum temperature of
L: orpa -
water in the heat exchangers must
limited to prevent corrosion n' npuece,

deposit 0/solids. - n
.
.


1 . 4.
,
, 40-50 (
)
- ,
, () /
. :
,
( ) .

2.
- .


,
.
3 .


, ,

.
2-3 , -
!

76
"'c

Cum grano salis "\" .,



.. u

( ,
! ) . . ,
, , ,
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.
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.
.

" Bonjour! Esl-ce que vous allez aujourd' hui? "
( Pimsleur ' s Speak and Read " Oui, je vais . Je vais aujourd ' hui. I
Essentia! French 1 - Units 20, 25, 26) vous, mademoiselle, l a l lez vous? "
. " Pas Ires . "
( " Pourquoi? "
. . ) . , " que je voudrai acheler quelque chose l je
pas.
. " Pourqoi? "
" que les magasins sonl fermes. "
. " Vraimenl? "
" esl volre mari? Volre mari, eSI-il? " " Oui, ils sonl fermes. 11 esl lard . "
" mari? Je sais pas il esl. esl volre " Mais ils sonl ouverls. "
femme, monseur? Volre fem me, eSI-ll? " " Quand? "
" Elle esl volre mari. eSI-il? " " Demain. Demain vous pouvez acheler quelque
" 11 esl Amerique. Nous habilons Amerique. " chose dans magasi n . Prenez
d ' a rgenl! "
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77
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" Q u ' est-ce que vous voud iez a ch ete? " ,
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Combien d' agent avez-vous? Est-ce que vous <
avez d e l ' a g ent? " ? )

O u i , j' ai 80 fa ncs.

< ) .
" ' est pas bea ucoup. " -,
Pou ma fem m e 90 suffit! Mais pas pou m o i . " . ,
!


, ( )


:
O U R WIN ES LEAVE YOU N OTHING FOR . (<< -
, ) .
:
SPECIAL COCKTAILS FOR LADIES W N UT S (<< -
) .
- ( ) :
LADIES ARE REQUESED NOT HAVE CIL D R E N IN BAR. (<< -
, ) .

78
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Le f 9is S u i sse
. .

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216 . (: .
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79
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soixante-dix, quatre-vingts, quatre-vingt-dix) , . ,
2004 .
( ,
:
syndic, + +
- president, , (
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, . . .
- ,
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1 87 7 . , 1 29 1 , , ,
1 997 . , ,
.. , . , ..
" Dictionnaire suisse romand" ,
. . . ,
( ,
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, -

80
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6Jl AJl - - 40-
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N1 (21)2009 .
. 50, 3-5 - :
, , -, ,
.

: , , -,
. .

,
. 54, 1-14 , : .
: