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Demography of India

India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's
population. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects, the population
stood at 1,324,171,354.

During 19752010 the population doubled to 1.2 billion. The Indian population reached the
billion mark in 1998. India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2022,
surpassing the population of China. It is expected to become the first political entity in history to
be home to more than 1.5 billion people by 2030, and its population is set to reach 1.7 billion by
2050. Its population growth rate is 1.2%, ranking 94th in the world in 2013.

India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age
of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37
for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.

India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are
four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan
languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra
and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social
parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic,
genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.

The sex ratio is 944 females for 1000 males (2016)

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Global demographics in the years to come

India will surpass China to become the most populous nation in the world by 2022, six years
sooner than previously forecast, and the country is projected to retain the top spot till 2100.

Around and after 2022, Indias population is projected to continue growing for several decades
to 1.5 billion in 2030 and 1.7 billion in 2050, while the population of China is expected to remain
fairly constant until the 2030s, after which it is expected to slightly decrease.

India will remain the most populous the country in the world till 2100, according to the report.

According to a forecast issued in 2013, India was expected to surpass Chinas population by
2028 but the latest report predicts that India will overtake its Asian rival six years early by 2022.

The report said India will remain the most populous country in the world in 2050 with a
population of 1.7 billion.

It also projected that India will continue to have the largest population size in the year 2100
even though its population will decline slightly from 1.7 billion in 2050 to 1.66 billion by the end
of the 21st Century.

The current world population of 7.3 billion is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030, 9.7 billion in
2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.

The report said during 2015-2050, half of the worlds population growth is expected to be
concentrated in nine countries India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Congo, Ethiopia, Tanzania, US,
Indonesia and Uganda listed according to the size of their contribution to the total growth.

India is expected to remain a relatively young country in the decades going forward.

Its median age in 2015 is 26.6 years and this would grow to 31.2 years in 2030, 37.3 years in
2050 and 47 years in 2100.

In comparison, Chinas median age will be 43.2 years in 2030, 49.6 years in 2050 and 51.1 years
by the end of the century.

The US will have a median age of 40 years in 2030, 41.7 years in 2050 and 44.7 years in 2100.

Indias life expectancy at birth will also improve over the next decades, growing from 71.7 years
in 2025-2030 to 75.9 years in 2045-2050 and 84.6 years in 2095-2100.

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Socio Economic and Caste Census 2015

The Socio Economic and Caste Census was the first of its kind in independent India. Its primary
finding was that rural households make up nearly three quarters of the countrys population,
some 884 million people, and that an overwhelming 74 per cent of them survive on a monthly
income of Rs 5,000 for their highest earner. The message from these staggering numbers is
obvious: India has to resolve some very basic issues within before it can aspire to be any kind of
power, regional or global.

With agriculture contributing just 13.7 per cent to the Indian Gross Domestic Product, it is clear
that the rural situation is a millstone around the countrys neck, rather than being an asset in the
transformation of our economy.

Here are some key points from the census report:

1. This is the first caste census done in Independent India.

2. The last caste census in India happened in 1932.

3. Just 4.6% of all rural households in the country pay income tax.

4. The total households in the country - rural plus urban - stand at 24.39 crore.

5. Public sector-employed households made up 1.11% of the total.

6. Over 11% rural households possessed refrigerators.

7. 20.69% rural households had either an automobile or a fishing boat.

8. 94% of the rural households owned a house with 54% cent having 1-2 room dwellings.

9. Of all the rural salaried households, 5% earned salaries from the government while those
employed in the private sector constituted 3.57% of the total households.

10. Landless ownership was 56% of the total rural population, with 70% of SCs and 50% of STs
being landless owners.

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