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Unproven Methods of Cancer Treatment

 

The

following

 

statement

conccrning

Staphylococcus

 

Phage

Lysates

(SPL),

formerly

known

as

Liimcoln

Bacteriophage

Lysate8,

proposed

for

the

treatment

of

many

diseases,

including

can

cer,

by

Robert

E

Lincoln,

M.D.

(deceased)

and

A.

Ernest

Mills,

M.D.,

Medical

Director,

Del

mont

Laboratories,

Inc.,

was

recently

distributed

 

to

the

59

Divisions

of

the

American

Cancer

Society

for

their

information.

After

careful

StaphylococcusPhage Lysat.s or

study

of

the

literature

and

LincolnBacteriophage Lysates

Lincoln

Strain

No.

7

(beta)

from

a

other

information

available

to

it,

the

Ameri

patient

with

acute

sinusitis

and

infec

can

Cancer

Society

has

found

no

evidence

tious

hepatitis.

Both

possess

all

the

that

treatment

with

Staphylococcus

 

Phage

recognized

characteristics

of virulent

Lysates

(SPL),

formerly

known

as

Lincoln

toxigenic

staphylococci.

They

are

co

Bacteriophage

tive

human

benefit

beings.

in

Lysates,

results

the

treatment

in

of

any

objec

cancer

in

agulase

ment

beta

and

mannitol

phosphatase

and

positive,

alpha

fer

and

produce

exotoxins,

hemolysins,

entero

This

is based

on

the

following

summary

of

toxins,

hyaluronidase,

polysaccha

information

in the American

Cancer

Society

rides,

fibrinolysin,

protease,

lipase

files:

Therapy

The

from

and

by

Lincoln

who

used

ing

S.

Lincoln

Bacteriophage

aureus

lincolnii,

M.D.,

Medford,

1954.

of cancer

lifetime,

Lysates,

Alpha

were

derived

lincolnii

developed

of

Staphylococcus

aureus

Robert

E.

Beta

Lincoln,

Foundation,

died

in

Dr.

the

in

January

treatment

Lincoln's

Founder

the

Massachusetts,

They

in

were

1948. Dur

first

Bacteriophage

H.S.A.

(lincolnii)

Beta

was

used

in the

initial

treatment

of cancer,

and

Bacteriophage

H.S.A.

(lincolnii)

Alpha

was

used

in

the

initial

treatment

of

many

other

diseases

and

in

the

later

Lincoln's

treatment

death,

of

in

A 1955 A. Ernest

cancer.

year

after

Mills,

Dr.

M.D.,

who

had

been

associated

with

him

since

1951

and

who

became

the

Medical

Director

of

the

Foundation

following

his

death,

described

in

a letter

of Medicine

and

the

tion

of the

published

(253:

of

in the

New

England

1955)

Journal

1090-1091,

the

strains

offered

used

for

the “¿ origin

as

the

clinical

well

prepara

investi

as

identity

bacteriophage

in

staphyloccal

lysates

gation,― as

follows:

 

“¿ Thephage

utilized

by

the

Lincoln

Laboratory

is

identified

Foundation as Gratia

B 985, obtained

from

a

col

lection

prepared

and

maintained

by

Dr.

Edna

Follensby,

an

associate

of

Dr.

Sanford

B. Hooker,

of the

Depart

ment

of Bacteriology,

Boston

Univer

sity

School

of Medicine.

This

particu

lar

strain

was

selected

because

of

its

marked

polyvalency

and

high

level

of

lytic

activity.

propagation

virus and for the preparation

“¿ Forthe

bacterial

of

lysates, two strains of pathogenic

of this

the

Staphylococcu8

aureus

(Micrococcus

pyo genes

var.

aureus)

were

isolated

by Dr.

Follensby

from

specimens

sub

mitted

by Dr.

Lincoln;

Lincoln

Strain

No.

1

(alpha)

was

taken

from

the

nasal

passages

of a patient

with

acute

sinusitis

and

infectious

diarrhea,

and

266

and

at

Boston University School of Medicine

used

and distributed by the Lincoln Foun dation up to 1952. Since that time, routine production has been carried on regularly by experienced and com

made

“¿ TheDepartment

penicillinase.

and

supplied

of

Bacteriology

lysates

all the

petent

vision

personnel,

under

Dr.

Roos

at

Laboratory

of

Foundation

the

the

in

super

Lincoln

Swarth

 

more,

Pennsylvania.―

 

Three

years

later,

in April

1958, the

Lincoln

Foundation

was

granted

 

U.S.

Government

License

299

for

Bacterial

Antigen-Staphylo

 

coccus

Phage

Lysates

 

(Staphage

Lysates

T.M.).

 

In

1962,

in

response

to

an

inquiry

as

to

whether

the

current

Lincoln

preparation

was

the

same,

or

essentially

the

same,

as

that

de

scribed

by

Dr.

Mills

in

1955, Dr.

Mills

replied

that

“¿ presentthe

product

is the

same

as

I have

previously

described;

the

method

of

adminis

tration

is

by

subcutaneous

injection,

nasal

aerosol

inhalation

or nose drops,

oral

and

topi

cal

application

as indicated;

in malignant

 

dis

ease

SPL

is

used

to

enhance

the

defensive

mechanisms

of the

body,

particularly

if ubiqui

tous

staphylococcal

infection

is

a

complica

tion;

.

- - we

have

recently

demonstrated

that

blood

stream

carriage

is definite,

to

any

part

of

the

system;

results

to

be expected

in can

cer

cases

is

an

amelioration

of pain,

less

need

for

narcotics,

at

least

a

temporary

improve

ment

in strength

and

vigor,

perhaps

a slowing

down

 

of

metastatic

spread—in

other

words,

Stapha@e

Lysates

are

palliative.―

 

Dr.

Lincoln

reported

that

his

interest

in

phage

lysates

as a treatment

for

cancer

came

about

incidentally

in 1948 when

he was

evalu

ating

the

bacteriophage

lysate

therapy

in

sinusitis

and

other

respiratory

tract

infec

tions.

At

the

request

of the

family,

he treated

their

son,

an

inoperable

cancer

patient,

with

bacteriophage

Dr.

therapy.

that

Mills

reported

a “¿ CharlesToby

In

letter

in

1963,

of

(son

Senator

Charles

W.

Toby,

deceased)

was

the

original

patient

aided

by

Staphage

Lysates

in

his

bout

with

recticulum

cell

sarcoma― and

vania,

became

President.

In

1963,

Dr.

Mills

that

“¿ ishe alive

and

well

and

still

taking

reported

that

the

Lincoln

Foundation

had

booster

therapy

with

SPL.―Cases

treated

by

been

disbanded

some

time

before.

Dr.

cancer

Hodgkin's

to

the

tuberculosis,

sitis,

and

have

of

Lincoln

included

the

sigmoid

and

disease

stated

cause

for

that

which

cancer,

infectious

others.

breast

and

lung

he could

is

multiple

cancer,

of

leukemia,

rectum,

the

cancer.

cure

unknown,

He

is said

any

disease,

including

sinu

diarrhea,

sclerosis,

hepatitis,

infectious

The

Inc.,

source

Lysates

first

in

Mills.

Mills,

Research,

time

Swarthmore,

the

Delmont

were

Laboratories,

as

a

of

A.

of the

mentioned

Director

of

the

was

In

Staphylococcus

in the

1963,

M.D.,

Bacteriophage

statement

showed

above-cited

a

as

Boston

letterhead

Dr.

Ernest

Delmont

cal

Medical

Inc,—Division

Avenue,

Laboratories,

76

of Clini

West

Med

In

a

statement

titled

“¿ StaphageLysates,―

ford

55, Massachusetts.

At that

time,

according

by Dr.

Mills

identified

as “¿ Reprintedfrom

MD

to Dr.

Mills,

Dr.

P. Bartel,

microbiologist

with

Medical

News

Magazine

Vol.

2,

No.

8,

p.

17,

the

Harrison

Reseach

Unit

of

the

University

August

1958,― a

copy

of

which

is

sent

to

all

of Pennsylvania

School

of Medicine,

was

Labo

physicians

making

inquiry

concerning

the

use

ratory

Director

of Delmont

Laboratories,

Inc.,

of Staphylococcus

Phage

Lysates

 

(SPL)

for

in Swarthmore,

Pennsylvania.

 

the

treatment

of cancer,

Dr.

Mills

states:

During

Dr.

Lincoln's

lifetime,

 

physicians

“¿ Thepalliative many physicians

sates as adjunctive therapy to specific

Ly

effects

with

obtained

Staphage

by

measures

ual case

decrease

ylococcal

in

lation

system

catalyst)

of

by

biotic-bacteriophage—one

applicable

may

to

be explained

the

in part

toxic

often

the

individ

by

staph

a

of superimposed,

of

infection

so

diseases,

by

non-specific

found

a

or

anti

the

enervating

the

the

the

stimu

properdin

of immunity

afforded

by

nasal

mucous

support

(magnesium

the

membranes,

own

of

as

vascularity

of nature's

trained

lysates

ing

in The

Lincoln

Iowa,

ington.

eral.

death,

fight

in the

were

death,

administration

called

Research

advertisements

Magazine

of bacteriophage

Fellows.

were

Follow

published

offering

his

Defender

bacteriophage

Oregon,

California

by doctors

Texas,

each

Dr.

Dr.

medicine,

treatment

Texas

since

deplored

in California,

and

Wash

had

Lincoln's

Lincoln's

sev

and

has

Pennsylvania,

and

In

correspondence

Dr.

Mills

has

against

organized

stated that after

a careful

review of the quali

fications

phage

list

doing

of

physicians

they

physicians

using

the

lysates,

certain

the

had

harm.―

dropped

“¿ whowe

therapy

bacterio

from

felt

their

were

body's

controls

against

microbic

 

inva

sion.

All

I

am

sure

of

is that

 

we are

 

able

to prolong

life

more

comfortably,

 

Investigations

 

slow

down

 

the

rate

of growth

of some

cancer

(never

an

exacerbation),

 

and

In

March

1952, a report

on

an

investigation

we

do

have

evidence

of

a

few

ap

by the Massachusetts

Medical

Society

of

Dr

parent

cures.

We

do not

claim

a can

Lincoln's

theories

stated:

 

cer

tive.―

cure,

only

a

worthwhile

pallia

 

“¿ Noscientifically

 

valid

evidence

has

 

been

presented,

nor

has

the

Commit

 

tee

been

able

to

obtain

data

which

 

Proponents

 

would

substantiate

claims

 

of

any

Robert

E.

Lincoln

 

was

born

in

1899,

re

definite

organic

 

changes

in

cancer

 

ceived

an

M.D. degree

from

Boston

University

 

which

are

attributable

to

Dr.

Lin

School

of

Medicine

in

1926

and

was

licensed

coln's

bacteriophage

therapy.

Cases

to practice

medicine

in Massachusetts

the same

of marked

symptomatic

improvement

year.

He

died

from

an

acute

heart

condition

have,

however,

 

been

encountered.

January

31, 1954.

 

These

are explainable

to experienced

A.

Ernest

Mills

was

born

in

1899,

and

re

observers

as

manifestations

 

of

the

ceived

an

M.D.

degree

from

the

Tufts

Uni

 

tremendous

force

of

faith

and

hope

 

versity

School

of

Medicine

 

in

1924.

He

was

which

has

been

offered

where

none

licensed

to practice

medicine

in Massachusetts

 

has

existed

before.―

 

in

1924.

In

 

the

American

Medical Association

 

honest

   
   

“¿ TheCommittee's

and

con

 

Directory,

internal

tice,

county

Medical

In

was

laws

maintained

1963,

he

is listed

as

a specialist

general

member

the

Lincoln

trust

76

in

medicine

and

is

medical

also

February

created

of

New

who does some

listed

society

the

as

and

a

of

prac

of

his

American

Foundation

under

Boston

the

were

Ave

Association.

1950,

as

a

nonprofit

Hampshire.

through

1959

Headquarters

at

 

sidered

able

been

be

beneficial

curred

Dr.

been

alone.―

opinion,

based

evidence,

presented

obtained

is

that

nor

which

organic

in disease

Lincoln's

due

to that

on all

no

the

avail

proof

has

to

any

shown

able

that

oc

by

have

treated

which

and

have

to that

was

has

changes

processes

therapy

therapy

nue,

West

Medford.

Following

Dr.

Lincoln's

   

death

in

1954,

A.

Ernest

Mills,

M.D.,

became

 

Dr.

Lincoln

was

found

guilty

 

of

violating

Medical

Director

of

the

Foundation

in

West

the

Code of Ethics

of the

Massachusetts

Medi

Medford,

and

Charles

E.

Lincoln,

Robert's

cal

Society

and

was

asked

to

resign.

As

of

brother,

who

lived

in

Swarthmore,

Pennsyl

1952,

he

was

no

longer

a

member

of

the

So

 

267

ciety. In April 1953, he sued the Massachusetts Medical Society and seven doctors for $250,000

made

for

libelous

statements

he claimed

were

in the Society's

report.

The suit, however, had

not

come

to

trial

at

the

time

of

Dr.

Lincoln's

death.

 

In

1954,

after

two

and

a half

years

of

un

successful

negotiations

with

Dr.

Lincoln

and

with

clinical

investigators,

which

were

ter

minated

by

Dr.

Lincoln,

the

Committee

on

Cancer

Diagnosis

and

Therapy

of

the

Na

tional

Research

Council

reported:

following

use

therapy

“¿ theOn presented

alone

basis

for

of

the

-

of

review,

the

bacteriophage

24 case

records

the

Committee

does not consider that clinical trials of the bacteriophage therapy for can

cer

under

the

Committee's

 

auspices

are

warranted,

nor

does

it

advise

the

sponsoring

agencies

to

support

further

A report

trials.―

on a study of “¿ Treatmentof Can

     

cer

with

the

Lincoln

Agent― by

the

Cancer

 

“¿ Theformulation

the

must

vations

of

an

opinion

on

the

value

be

of

based

a therapeutic

on

of

objective

procedure

obser

to

documented

response

 

Advisory

Council

of

the

ment

in

its

of

Public

Health,

“¿ Conclusion―:

California

Depart

issued

in

1963,

stated

therapy,

in patients

with

proven

can

“¿ Basedupon

its

of

the

investigation

and

 

cer.

Because

the

Committee

did

not

consideration

Lincoln

remedy

receive

any

supply

of

therapeutic

 

as

set

forth

in

this

report,

agents

or

any

scientific

data

on

ob

Council

Here

jective

ment

has

clinical

evidence

patients

proposed

not

of

benefits

cancer

been

following

with

possible

these

to

the

treat

agents,

it

undertake

trials

on

or

the

to evaluate

response

to the bacteriophage

by

Dr.

Lincoln.―

scientific

of

cancer

therapy

 

“¿ TheCancer

Advisory

- Lincoln Staphage Lysate treatment

of cancer or any substantially

by Finds as Fact

.

.

that

the said

similar

is

treatment,

cer.―

agent

of

no value

alleviation

in

the

diagnosis,

or cure

of can

 
     

of

It

further

recommends

that

all

persons,

A report

24 case

Foundation

the

following

in

records

after

1955 on

evaluations:

a subsequent

by

the

death

submitted

Dr. Lincoln's

review

Lincoln

contained

firms, associations

ing,

tributing

administering,

the

said

or other

selling

Lincoln

entities

prescrib

or

otherwise

dis

Staphage

Lysate

or

     

any

substantially

similar

agent

in

the

diag

 

“¿ Amongthe

24

case

records

pre

nosis,

alleviation,

treatment

or cure

of cancer

sented,

the

Committee

found

no

rec

“¿ orderedbe

to

cease

and

desist― from

such

ord

which

included

both

definite

es

activity.

On

September

20,

1963,

the

Cali

tablishment

of the diagnosis

by biopsy

 

fornia

State

Board

of

Health

issued

such

a

and

also

objective

beneficial

response

regulation.

268