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NEW EDITION INTERNATIONAL Student’s Book INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS INTERMEDIATE Student’s Book Keith Harding & Liz Taylor OXFORD OXFORD (Great Garendon Stet, Oxfordox2 6D? Oxford University Pres sa deparment of he Universty of Oxon Tefurthes te University’s objective of excelenc in resezch, seholarp. And ection by publshing worlwide in Oxford New York ‘Auckland Cape Town Dar ex Sslaam Hong Kong Rarici Kealatumpur Madrid Meltoure Meaice Cry Nairobi [New Dei Shanghai Taipei Tents With fice in ‘argentina Austra arizt] Chile C2sch Republic Prance Greece Gtatemila Hangar aly Joan Paabd Fontugal Sigapore South Korea swazeriand Tauand Turkey Ukraine Vita ‘oxror and oxtonn ENELIH are registered rae mark of (Oslo Univesity ress ie the UK and in certain other countries (© Dxons University Press 2005, ‘The moral rghtsof the author have been asserted Database righ Oxford Universiy Press maker) Pls publsied 2905 [No unauthorized photocopying Allghts reserve No part ofthis publication may be reproduced store in aretrievalsytem,o ransmiied, in any form or by aay means, ‘without the prior permisia in wrtingof Oxford University Pres, forascapresls permed by aw, of unde ema agreed with he appropiate epregraphic rights onaniation Enquiries concerning eproducicn outside tae scape ofthe abore should be sent to the ELT Rights Department, Oxford Univesity Press, atte adress above ‘You rst rt circulate this book is anyother bindingor cover snd younmstimpovethssame candiion an an aequirer ‘Any websites referred‘o in this publication ave inthe pubic domain ane thar addresses are provided by Oxford University Pres fr infermation only. 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Each unit has four main parts: Language focus, Wordpower, Skills focus, and Focus on functions. The unit begins with an ‘agenda’. This gives you the language contents of each unit. First, you lear new grammar, or revise grammar you studied before. You listen to a dialogue or read a text which presents the grammar in a real-life situation. ‘Then you study examples of the grammar to understand how to use it correctly. You think about how the grammar works and you complete the rules. Practico You use the grammar in different practice situations: sometimes in speaking, activities, sometimes in writing exercises. The exercises help you to learn the new Janguage and use it with confidence. You do some of the practice activities with another student or in a group. In the second part of the unit you lear new vocabulary. You also lean ways to organize and remember useful words and phrases In the third part of each unit you improve your listening, speaking, and readin; skills. You listen to interviews or read longer texts and you discuss topics in pairs or groups. You also practise writing. In the last part of each unit you learn the phrases you need for socializing with people at work or outside work. You also learn the phrases you need for telephoning in English Pronunciation ‘These exercises help you with pronunciation problems. You listen to examples and practise the correct pronunciation. ‘There are three review units. You choose what to revise and complete the review exercises. You can use the Pocket Book for the areas that you need to review again. In a pocket at the back of the International Express Student's Book there is a separate reference book with useful language from the Student's Book. You can use the Pocket Book in your lessons and take it with you when you travel. It has a Grammar section, with grammar tables and summaries for each unit; a Focus on functions section, wich a summary of all the phrases for socializing and telephoning: and other useful information and reference material. ‘The scripts of all the listening material and the answers to the exercises are at the back of the Student’s Book. You can seudy these after the lesson. There is an International Express Workbook which has extra exercises on grammar, vocabulary, and social English. It has a Student’s Cassette or CD with more pronunciation and social English exercises for further practice. Good luck with leaming English, We hope you enjoy using International Expresst Contents Language focus Wordpower Skills focus Focus on functions * Introductions and greetings + Welcoming a visitor 6 + Tense review * Personal ~_# Present Simple and Present information file continuoy = * Learning vocabulary + Answering the phone * Making and changing appoinements * Pronunciation: /, 2, /, 10; saying dates Agreeing and disagresing * Participating in a meeting or discussion + Pronunciation: sounding polite + Personal attitudes and qualities * Advice and suggestions * Pronunciation: /ff and fl “Passives: Present Simple, + Leisure and feness ~ «Leaving recorded messages = = Presere Contiaubasy <= © activities file ; * Using mobile phones paid bots see je, * Word combinations + Pronunciation: stressing Pase Simple, WF = important information 58 * Past Simple, Past * Gerunds fle * Gap years for + Requests and offers Continuows, + Personal adults + Exchanging information Past Perfect management + Pronunciation: contrastive stress Language focus Wordpower Skills focus Focus on functions * City descriptions file * British English and American Enalish * Giving talks and presentations * Money and finance file * Collocations Types of business communication © Texting + Pronunciation: sentence stress * Phrasal verbs file * Dictionary skills (2) * Pronunciation: stress in phrasal verbs + Writing emails * Job descriptions file = + Collocations fe + Interviewing techniques * Word-building : * Pronunciation: word stress + Business correspondence Confusing words Dictionary skills (3) — shoals habe doe © * Pronunciation: weak p.120* Reporting spoken * Politics and current. * News.and views _* Social responses, Janguage: statements, affairs ile + Common expressions ‘questions, orders, and + Collocation + Saying goodbye ‘requests * Pronunciation: showing degrees of enthusiasm Review Unit C p.130 Listening script p.132 Answer key p.143 vAcenDa UNI 1 a Preset Simple an Present continous “) An international project Alon and ate verbs +» Personal information file, > Introductions and greetings. Welcoming visor CET Reade home page of che company website and the email, 1 What is NMP? 2 What services does NMP offer? 3 What project are Piet and Rosa working on now? 4 Whois Eric Carlin? NETWORK — SMPisanindependent mitimediaprodution compary which has won several media awards Its owned and run by Petvan MULTIMEDIA ..fisand Rosa Lanson. PROBUCTIONS ~ NMPspaciizes inthe trae! and cuturalsectorproviing Video = from training and marketing videos to programmes for iternationa televison audiences = home ‘Web design, consultancy,and management — = toelp your company get the most out o the internet company history Media presentations — everything you need fora <= succesful conference, serrinar or product launch FAQ. Management training — videos andelesrring : Products(on avariety ofsubjects / ' || The project will consist of tan programmes, each focusing on the food and drink ofa different county. At the moment, we want to look at Spain, Italy, France, india, China, Japan, Lebanon, Thailand, Mexico, and the USA. The programmes willinolude interviews with well-known | chefsin each country. There will be information on the food and drink in || each county, and some typical recipes | Asyou know, the chef Eric Carin has agreed to be our new presenter || andinterviewer. He's very interested in the food of different countries || and{forturately he loves traveling, because the project wil involvea lot of travel. F've arranged for Eric to meet us forlunch on Monday to discuss some | Preliminary ideas. | hope that's OK with you | Rosa 6 @ units @ > G@ 11 Eric Carlinis meeting Piet van Els for lunch. Listen to part of their conversation and answer the questions. 1 When did Piet and Rosa set up the company? 2. How long have they known each other? 3. What are their different responsibilities at NMP? 4 What do the new managers do? 5 Do Piet and Rosa’s jobs involve a lot of travelling? © Gremmer quiz Read the following sentences from the conversation in @. Answer the questions below. Rosa and I set up the company fifteen years 2g0. We've known each other since we were at univers We've been NMP for two years. Paul, ournew Financial Manages, deals with the fi We both wave alot. Arche moment Rosa's travelling even more than usual cial aspects In which sentence(s) isthe speaker talking about © the past? the present? + atime from the past to the present? 2. Match she verbs with the tense: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, or Present Perfect Simple. Present Simple and Present Action and state verbs Continins Read the examples and complete the rules. Write simple March the sentences in A with the categoriesin B. or continuous. A si 1 We usually meet at least once a day. Action verbs Z 2 ses leaps denon ‘© Louise works on promotions. She's working on two 3 You're meeting her this afternoon. big launches at the moment. 4. She knows the market very wel ‘© Rosa and Piet travela lor. At present, Rosa is 5. She's working on two big launches. travelling even more than usual. = at the moment, «© Piet oftes has business lunches. He’ having lunch 6 He deals with all the financial aspects with Ericat the moment. of the business. State verbs a anaction happening at the moment of speaking bb a regular or habitual activity € a temporary activity happening around now, but perhaps not at the moment of speaking a farare arrangement 3 longeterm activity a long-term state ‘© Rosa understands what che customers want. Rosa is understanding what the customers areavanding. © She knows the market very well. SheS-kanewing the market very well. * Louise has a lot of work at the moment: Louise is shaving a lor of work ar the moment, ‘+ Verbs which express an action or activity, e.g. bring, arrive, manage, travel, work, are used in both simple and tenses. They are called action verbs. + Verbs which express a state, e.g, understand, believe, know, want, be, bke, are not normally used in ____ tenses. They are called state verbs. + Some verbs, e.g. have, see, look, taste, think, are used in both and ___ tenses, They express cither an action or astate, Graaronp2 unit: @ 2 @ units Practice @ Complete the sentences. Use the Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verb in brackets. 1 1____ to work by train this week ~ my car’s broken down. (travel) 2 He's Swedish, He from a town just outside Stockholm. (come) 3 They ___ German, but they _______ actually French. Ulooky/ibe) 4 Thiswine avwful. Let's speak to the waiter. (taste) 5 Socry,|____ a film on Friday. How about Saturday? (see) 6 1___ a word of Japanese - its so embarrassing! (not understand) 7 She of changing cities because she happy here. (think)(not be) 8 Why the sauce? Is it too spicy? (you, taste) 9 He __ eight weeks’ holiday a year. Lucky thing! (have) 101 his point, but | don’t agree. (see) u __ for the newspaper? icin the kitchen, tyou, look)/(think) 12 1__ abroad quite a lot. Almost every month, in fact. (travel) 15 'm afraid they a meeting. Can Trakea message? (have) “4 ___ lunch to work on Fridays t00? (you, bring) Read the answers Eric Carlin gave in an interview with Louise, the Promotions Manager for NMP. What questions do you think Louise asked? Example 1 Where were you born? 1. Lwas born in Cornwall, in a small seaside town, but my parents moved to London when Twas four. 2 Yes, grew up in London and went to school there. 3 Lwentto college to study for a diploma in Gookery, Catering, and Hospitality Management. 'd heen interested in cookery since I was fourteen. My mother went out to work then and Thad to cook for my younger brother and sister. 4 After the course, | started working as a chef in London. 1 worked at (wo restaurants, the Hilton and the Buckingham, where | was Head Chef. After the Buckingham, I went to France and the to Italy. Partly to learn more about cooking and partly co learn the language. 6 Ispeak English, French, and Italian. | really enjoy speaking other languages— although I'm notso good at writing. 7 Eve had my own restaurant since 1999. I’s hard work, but Lloveit. 8 Apart from cookery, Ienjoy playing tennis in the summer and skiing in winter. 9. Yes,1 do. My ambition is to open my own cookery school. 1 Where were you borne 2 Work in pairs. Interview your partner to find out about his/her background, studies, past and present work, interest, and future plans. Then tll he class about your partner. Work in groups. Read the questions and discuss your ideas. 1 Eric Carli speaks three languages and enjoys learning other langua languages do you speak? Do you enjoy learning other languages? 2 What makes a good language learner? 3 How can you become a berter language learner? units ® centre surfing, subject flat full time exercise colleagues course salary college commute holiday suburbs eveningclass 10 @ unirs Personal information file. Leaming vocabulary Read the suggestions for learning vocabulary. 1. Which suggestions do you agree with? 2. Which methods do you already use? 3 Which new suggestions would you like to try? 4 Which other methods of your own do you use? + When you read something in English, don’t stop to look up every new word in che dictionary. Try to guess the meaning of a new word before you look it up in a dictionary. + Don't learn every new word you meet. Learn the words thatare most useful to you and your situation, + With a problem word, ora word with no easy translation, write it in your notebook in an English sentence which shows the meaning. + Test yourself regularly by covering the cranslation of English words in your notebook. + Use both English-Fnglish and bilingual dictionaries, + Try to put words into topic groups when you write them down, For example, words connected with travel, entertainment, work, etc. * Carry your notebook round with you and try to learn 5-10 new wordsa dy, (Ic helps ifthe notebook is small and portable!) a vocabalary. ‘You have two minutes. Learn the words in the box. Then cover the box and write the words you remember Work in pairs. Compare the words you managed to write down. Did your partner remember any words which you forgot? Organizing vocabulary Divide the words in the box into four topic groups and give each group a heading. Add two more words to each group. ‘Work in pairs. Choose six of che words and use them to give information about ‘yourself to your parmer. ‘Complete the following groups with suitable words. Compare groups with a partner, snctfr projet mist a toinaus | eee Lach ages home book frame wok | las Complete the word family cable. p¥ebi iiss as Combine the words in boxes A and B to make compound nouns, More than one combination may be possible. Example public transport ‘Work in pairs. Ask each other questions using the compound nouns in Example Do you go 10 work by public transport? B Recording vocabulary ab et What information is importar > srepramme fours | @ Whatink ;portant to record when you leara a new word? year code Example correct pelling cooking friends transport © Look at the ‘word frame’ for specialize. Which of these items are used? Word imei eee Sa, 1 correct spelling part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.) pronunciation and stress @ use ina sentence ‘a definition in English translation 4 ipema cnr ieacnocaacl _—orproduct : grammatical information, Word fait Ee, = e.g. preposition used with word (andstiess) 8 similar or related words, 5 e.g. specialist Grammar Vern + in + noun/geruna = : ‘He specializes in giving financial advice, ean © Choose woof ofthe words below, nu wane Hida pe Bic eats Tse dictionary to help you. (to apply keen tomanage _responsible Reviewing vocabulary Answer the questions and then exchange ideas with a partner. 1. How importants it for you to review vocabulary? 2. How often do you do it? 3. Which methods do you find work best? Asking for help with vocabulary @ Match the situations in A with an appropriate question in B. A B 1 You don’s understand the meaning of a word. a Sorry, can you repeat that? 2 You didn’t hear what the teacher said. b Whar the English for 3 You want to translate a word in your language into English. ¢ Can you speak a little slower? 4 You don’s know how to spell a word. dd Whatdoes ... mean? 5 You want to borrow your partner’ dictionary. © How do you spel it? 6 The teacher is speaking too quickly. Can I borrow your dictionary? @ Write alternative questions for the situations in A above. 32: @ unity National branding Work in groups 1 Whatis a “beand’? Can you think of any well-known brands? C pe brands’ 2. Look at the pictures. Which countries do yor of each count ssociate with them? Is the 3 Wha its people? scribe each country ia the pictures Work in pairs. Look atthe list which of thenounsin Bdo you A B fun-loving carnival practical technology traditional football adventurous Guinness sevlish utdoor life high-tech Zealand authentic land fashion-conscious Singapore “Switzerland © Compare your answers with other students. Discuss your reaso Read the article Selling your country—national brandi D. Then answer the q Wha wunery have as a result of national Which countries have been successful at national br How did Scotland actually ‘sell itself” and promote its bra Work in pairs or groups. Think of a country ~ not your own and not one mentioned in the article. Make lists of 1 the adjectives you associate with it, 2. the products and services you associate with it. Use your lists to interview other student of the county. find out if they have the same image Think about your own country. What associations do people of other nationalities have about your country and its people? 1 Are they true? Are they positiv 2. How would you brand” your country? 3. How is the brand different from neighbour ‘countries? Workin groups. 1. What problems and misunderstandings can you have when you meet or work with people from other countries and cultures? Examples language difficulties, different ways of sreeting 2. What problems can you have the first rime you visit another country? Example not knowing the system of ordering and paying ina bar or café 3. Suggest what you can doto avoid or overcome these kinds of problems Makea list of cultural tips for foreign visitors to your country. Include some of the topics below and add topics of your own. * Introductions and greetings + Queuing * Ordesing and paying in cafés, bars, and restaurants Using public transport «Invitations © Tipping + Eye comtactand gestures Ce eee of competition. How do you choose between ‘Nalaysi Renn ae a See ie ee etd P Asia, trying to attract foreign professionals who usually See ee ee ct make their nome in Hong Kong, Japan, or South Korea. Pe ree cs Ce eee a all developed successful branes, not just for tourism but eee ee CaO fn the world there is sure to be a Lord of the Rings fan PO ee ae Del Se a oc Introductions and greetings. Welcor Introductions and greetings 9 a visitor © 22 Eric arsives at NMP to meet Pet. Listento the conversation 1 What does Piet say when he greets Eric? 2. How does Piet introduce Eric to Claire? 3. What do Eric and Claire say when they are introduced? (Wack pain. wece onic you oa tay eating sala 1 Youare at a conference. Introduce yourself to the person sitting next to you. 2. Youare meeting a visitor you have never met before in a hotel lobby. You see someone you think might be your visitor. Speak to her. Introduce a person visiting your organization to a colleague. You arrive at a new company. Introduce yourself to the receptionist. Introduce two friends of yours at a party. © Read the ineroductions below. Match them with he situations in @ shove. a Signor Butani, I'd like to introduce you to a colleague of mine, Michelle Johns. b Good morning. My nameis Giles Truro. [have an appointment at 10.30. ¢ CanT introduce myself? I'm Javier Corzon irom Global Auto, Madrid, 4 Excuse me. Is your name Karen Miles? € Idon’t think you know each other, do you? Julia, this is Claude. © Write F (format), (neutral), or | (informal) next to each ofthe introductions in ©, © Match the phrases in A with appropriate responses in B. A B 1 How's work? a Pleased tomeet you, to0. 2. How are you? b Nottoo bad thanks. A bit busy. 3 Pleased to meet you ¢ How doyoudo. 4 Thaven’e seen you for ages! 4. Yes, chats right. 5. How are things going? ¢ Very well, hanks. And you? 6 How do you do. f Its good to see you again, too, 7 Nice to see you again! g No,I've been away a lot recently. 8. Youmust be Marco. h Everything's going fine, thanks. What about you? © Which of the phrases in @ would you use ‘2 when you meet someone for the first time? b when you meet someone you already knaw? @ Walk acound the class. Practise introducing yourself and others, and greeting people. 4 @ units Welcoming a visitor \Work in pairs. List four topics which people often talk about when they meet professionally for the first time. Write a question on each topic to aska visitor ict van Els is welcoming Bob Wyatt, a visitor from Toronto, Canada, Read the conversation. 1 Whattopics do they talk about? 2. What questions do you think they asked? Pict So, did you have any problems finding us? MrW_ No, none at all. I walked here. My hotel is only a few minutes away. Piet Ohvreally? Which > Mr W_ [Pm staying at the Garrick. I's in King Se Do you know it? Piet know the name. What ? MeW_ Oh, it’s very pleasant. I always stay there when I come to London. Piet How often ? Mr W_ Four or five times a year, What about you? 2 Piet Yes, do quite a lot of travelling - mostly in Europe, but I go to Canada and the States as well - about two or three times a year. Mr W_ Canada? That's interesting, een Piet No, "ve never been to Toronto, but [had a wonderful holiday on ‘Vancouver Island not long ago. © @ 14 Listen to the conversation. Write the questions. © Read later extracss from the conversation between Piet and Mr Wyatt. What questions do you think they asked? 1 Piet ? ‘MrW_Justehree days. P'm flying back the da ee MrW_ [ve been with Star TV for four years now: 3 MrW a Pict _ Yes, itis, Wedo get good weather 4 Piet MrW [went to New Zealand with my wife and our two daughters. Piet MrW Yes, play ice-hockey in winter and I do some sailing in summer. after tomorrow. 1 London sometimes! © © 18 Linen tothe exracn from the convention, Write the questions @ Study conversations 1.4 and 1.5 between Piet and Mr Wyatt. 1 Who asks questions? The host (Piet) only, or both the host and the visitor? 2 Dothey give Yes or No answers only? 3. How do they show interest in what the other person is saying? @ Role-play. Work in pairs. Student A You are Piet van Els or Rosa Lanson, Student B_ You work for a multimedia company in your country. It's your first visit to NMP. 1 Student A welcomes Student B to NMP. Speak for three minutes. 2. Change roles. How good were you at building a conversation? How could you improve? unit1 @ | UNIT2 ve @unitz New companies ng paws VAGENDA Fast Simple and Present Perfect Simple review sed 10+ Infinivve subject and abjectaqvestions > Workfile Dictionary sls (1) Company and job profile » Answering the phone. Making and changing appointments How do you use the Internet? Have you ever bought anything online? Which websites did you use? What tame do we give to companies that do business over the Internet? Read about ebookers, a successful dot com company. How is it different from more traditional travel agencies? atiadit sas Sees Find a word ar phrase in the text that means: 1 holidays where everything (travel, accommodation, etc) is included in the price 2. reductions in price 3 the possibility for something to happen 4 to talk to someone in order to decide or agree about something 5. written legal agreements 6 the people who work for an organization © Look aethe information about another dor com company, Friends Reunited. ‘What service do you think the company offers? DET i Te tree TEES Welcome to Friends Reunited ‘The website to find old friends, get back in touch, and organize reunions. Cee Free to search eer Teeny Friend reunited lets you find old friends and read what people you've lost touch with are doing now. It’s free to search and see entiies for the 11 million members. eed © G 22 Listen to part of an interview with Julie Pankhurst, one of the founders of Friends Reunited, and tick T (true) or F (false). Julie Pankhurst got the idea for Friends Reunited when she was on leave from work. Julie and her husband did not have any internet skills. The Friends Reunited service is free to online members. The business has developed very quickly Friends Reunited only operates in the UK. The service now includes workplaces as well as schools and universities. awe ON OOOOH = O 00000 = oO © Grammar quiz 1 Match the sentences in A with the categories in B. A B 1. He and his wife opened a travel agency in 1980. a apaststate 2 Hehas signed special contracts with 120 airlines. ba pastastion tihtt 3 Wedidn’twantto make it difficult. 2. Match the verbs in A with the tense: Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple. QP Book. 9.12 used to + infinitive 5. Match the sentences in A with the categories in B. 1. Read the examples and complete the rule. A © His wife used to be a flight attendant. 1 usually drive to work. ' Arschool we used to play games and have 2 Tused to drive to work. fan, 3. Tamused to drivingto work # Use used to + todescribe past es phates soleieetie mene a anactivity which I do regularly, and which is no longer new or difficult 2. Find another example of used to in the b a present habit or routine ebookers.com article. ¢ past habit or routine ‘What is the negative form of used to? 4. What isthe question form? Qpresevs1kp. 15 unit2 @ 17 Subject and object questions 1. Read the examples. What isthe difference in the verb form in subject and object quescions? Subject questions © Somebody built up good contacts ‘Who built up good contacts with airlines? '* Something opened in 1996. ‘What opened in 1996? 2 Match the questions in A with the answers in B. A 1. Which company brings old school friends into contact with each other? 2. Who set up Friends Reunited in 1999? 3. What did they launch in 2002? 4 Which company has recently opened sites in European countries? Object questions ‘Dinesh built up good contacts with somebody. Who did Dinesh build up good contacts with? ® Customers buy tickers from somewhere. Where do customers buy tickets from? B Julie, Stephen, and Jason did. 'b Friends Reunited docs. ¢ Friends Reunited has. Sites in Australia ‘Whar kind of verb do we often use in the short answer to a subject question? QPrisaviokn. 16 Practice @_Lookat21 onp. 132. Write short answers to the questions about Friends Reunited using an auxiliary verb. 1 Who first got the idea for Friends Reunited? Julie Pankhurst did. Who was on maternity leave? Who isa web designer? Who wanted to start a new company? —_______ Who puts their details and messages on the site? How many members were registered in 2002? What has been launched since 2002? —__— ‘How many workplaces have been added to the system? —___ @ Write three sentences (two true and one false) about things you used to do when you were younger but no longer do. Read out your sentences. The other students rust ery to guess which sentence is false. Examples | used fo do karate. used so tive in Paris. used to work from home © Make questions for these answers from the article about ebookers.com. 1 What Ie sells discounted flights and provides travel products. 2 Who Dinesh Dhamija did. What His early experience of the industry did. 4 When 1n 1996. 5 How much He negotiated discounts of up to 65% on standard prices and fares. 6 Where Iroperates in eleven European countries. How many Atotal of 900 staff. 8 What Travelis. 8 @ unirz © Workin Group A or Group B. Group A Read St Luke’ dataile A and write eight questions Group B Read Agora’s datafile B and write eight questions. Datafile A Datafile 5 is | aes | + The company owns Gazeta (Poland's frst independent ~ “dailynewspaper), 14magazines, and 30radiostations. + Itwas founded in 1996 on St Luke's dau] as aresut of an * underground jouralists. Gazerasfistedtor, Adam employee buy-out _ Midi spentmore tan i yens iio bupeoninathe, + There were originally 35 employees (or co-owne!s} 12 Mpkurayakwenovensie $2546 5553 There arenow 85. Each employee receives an equal | “+ Thereare 4,000 ernplouees. Nearly lof tiemhaves financial sharein the company eachyeat | inthecompany.Each year some ofthe company’s) = Each employer has a mobilephone, ocker, anda & Sumnistgapeieeinat as algae ta 55554 tt 5 shoulder bag. Everything ese is common property. te cressis casual even thePresident ofthe company + There areno desksand no personal workspaces. Youcan | wears jeans The atmosphereiever trendy. Everybodys work anywhere: inthe staff café, nanareaof soft seats “onfistname terms with newspapers, Fut, an tea; in patio area; orn a The offces haveratural wooden floors and glass rook central. open area cated The Hub. ~Thereisalsoa health club with a saunaanda ‘+ There aresspecial Brand Rooms for St Luke's clients. Each one's decoratedwith a suttable theme andthe client can seit to work tohold meetings, orto socialize. ‘= Each month, there's a party tocelebratethe workthe employees haveddone together. 2 company’s mission § to promote inst tolerance, * Inthe emplouees'own words, Proftislehealth - vou “tespectfor human sights, ang sblidariy wits theless, eeditbut is not what youlive for” fortunate Satter © Rea the other datafile. Answer the other group's questions. © Give your opinion of StLuke’s and Agora. Explain why you would or wouldn't like to work for these companies @ WNritedown * four things that you used to do atschoo! (but don't do any more) Examples. used to play the pianoshave long hair four important events in your lif. Examples | got marriediran a marathon. + four things that you have achieved since you left school Examples I have passed university examsileamt to drive © Discuss your lists with other seudents uNiT2 @ 19 Qa Work file. Dictionary skills (1) i @ Work in groups. 1 What information about words can you find ina good dictionary? 2 Inadictionary, what do the following symbols and abbreviations mean? sb sth sing pl {u] tc) US (or AME) Brit (or BrE) @ Vee the dictionary extracts to answer the questions. Work as quickly as possible. Company 1 What is the abbreviation tor company? 2 ls company used with a singular ora plural verb? 3. Mark the stress in company. 4 Complete the sentences: 2 ke being with har she's company. b Doyou want me to you company? ‘rkamponi/ noun (pl companios) “Tessa sag vere] abies rganeanion {Elling guts or services Phe compury are Dionne tide nes fst. 3 {Uy boing with 9 povooe 7 ahnsye onion ‘Recblscmoars = wr aed com) ‘(Cpeasanttobe wit. {abIOBIS) nee sb companyto goor te with sb sett mest hone somploy, ml srhM tenoioy sion Employ Serecrezies caine martes | 1 Whisholtheveprefnsand etiam ca beead with Unpiynwcnet: mrepmpiewrcenoines | _omploy- i, dis, ure, -e,~ive, -e8, «ment, full nthe lshat esis ams campur stm 2 Where can yougo to find work? inca enamatoe 9 ‘employee mint noun{C) apersn whe = 3. Mark the stress in employer. “Tork Peja basses NEEL tie ae “aaron! nu (C) 2 pron. OF omplate the sentences: ipa tate obec Pea 4 Hels employed a computer operetor. “Te fame 8 pal ok: De od b Areyouemployed the new project? agency non iC} cipe people a find work and thet ‘compares workers et tt Work 1. Whatis the difference between the nouns workand job? 2 Which phrase means without a job? 3. Mark the stress in workaholic. 4 Complete the sentence: a work a large firm in London. b Whatare you working atthe moment? “work (aon st); work todo sth td stb ‘thie reo pscal or ental er Inorder oesrmmony eto auhiovest. She working Jer alangesrm tn Gusgos oT the towerkase ‘ecto sh ing sworn nam 4 0 the ob ht you da ‘epecilly in orer to warn mney the Pace ‘sere youd yourob:lstery dificult ind teort isthe ci 2 He oon wu f tare tnthut aoe atx mors (= Work anuncouatas noun. Insomecantnte "asontst seb found work at he asia. STeegotanacjobatinehosptal workaholic /secky Ralk/ ou (Ca person *nholoves werk and dows oom of it (Extracts based on Oxford Wordpower Dictionary 019 431 5169 © 2000) © Read the language areas that an English-English dictionary can help you with. Aemsemapescnsoes = —_ccollagations formal epee ‘e.g. make an appointment e.g. employfake on og an 20 @ unit2 | ‘Aovork wack orb 4(L-) wor (a th (ob | o° ‘Work in pairs. Check your answers in a dictionary, 1 Find four groups of three synonyms from the list. 2 Are there any differences of meaning between the three words in each group? 3. Use six of the new words in a phrase or sentence. customer buyer establish salary clieat set up lay off make redundant income found fre earnings Complete these sentences with the name of a famous company and the product or service itis famous for. Which word is more informal a sack or dismiss? b benefits or perks? Give three examples of benefits that a company gives its employees. Use over with each of the following words ro make compounds. (Ie can be used at the beginning or end of the words.) Use the new compound words in sentences. time take turn heads 1. Which prefix (tn, ins, im, diss, i-) is used with the adjectives below to make their opposites? honest flexible motivated patient decisive interesting responsible practical 2 What do the prefixes re- (e.g. relaunch) and co- (e.g, co-operative) mean? Find the British English equivalents of these American English words. bill (noun) catalog, cellphone eraser internship (noun) vacation welfare workstation uNiT2 @ 2) Company and job profile @ Workin pairs : 1 Would you like to be the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a company? 2. What kind of product orservice would your company offer? 3. Who would be interested in buying your product or service @ _Youaregoing to lsten 0 an interscw with Martin Leach, CEO of Maserati Before you listen, match the words in A with the definivions in B A B (headaeacees a acompany that owns smaller companies of the same type = b acompany that belongs to and iscontrolled by another 2. reputation larger company 4 sabidiaey ¢ asystem of machines and people in a factory that fit the parts of something together in a fixed order 4 parent company d the place from where an organization is controlled 5 assembly line © the opinion that people in general have about something © G22 Listento the first part ofthe interview with Martin Leach, Flin te missing words Miaser: A local campany with international appeal Company history: + Founded inBolognain = Moved to Moder it —_— i ' Flat company bought ‘00% of share eapital in * 1997 by Fervari: Maseratibeceme « of Ferrer. led Utro:modern in 1998, ‘© Output in189 © Quiput noi 4 Martin Leach eppointe ars per yee » cars per day ed CED in " Key features: © ‘tradition end © avertion to ‘= research and . “loyal uNit2 © G22 Listen to Martin Leach talking about his background and career. Correct the information on the press re '* Began racing go-karts atthe age of seven Won Euronean Cup and came second Word Chenporst : lever: | Frlsh raves ord a Ce @ _ Youare going tolisten to Martin L typical week. Before you listen, pred ich talking about his job and describing a the answers to these questions. 1 What hours do you think he works? 2. Which of these activities do you think he does in atypical week? + check emails * givea speech to suppliers + meeting with the head of the # have Italian language classes racing department * visit regional offices + arrange flights to Rome + evaluate a protorype of a new car + tour the factory on the test track + meeting with the Product ‘= take part in a video conference ‘Marketing team with international partners + meeting with the directors + fly to Rome for a ceremony with ‘+ meeting with the Honorary the Italian President President of the Maserati + lunch with thehead of Fiat Members Clut 3 What do you think is the part of his job that he enjoys most? 4. What do you think is his opinion on the most important skill to have? @ 24 Listen to the third part of the interview. Check your answers to @. @ 24 Listen again and complete these sentences, 1 F'm responsible for n Modena. 2 it important to of our product. 3 It's my job to to the best of his or her ability. 4 You need tc and show people who you are and that you're interested in their work 5. My jab involves alot of which Llike. 6 I spend alot of time 7 The part of my job that | enjoy most is 8. You have to know how to tohave with relaxation ~ that Workin pairs Interview eachother about your curentor previous job. In your answers, ue the expressions in italics from @). Work in groups. Discuss these questions and issues. 1 At Maserati, Martin Leach and his senior staff hold most of their meetings in English. Do you think this isa good idea? 2. Marsin Leach has beea able to combine one of his early interests ~ driving fast cars ~ with his career. Have you, or anyone you know, been able to do the same thing? Doesit help you do a better job? Maserati isa company that combines the traditional with the modern. Think ofa traditional company you know, perhaps in your country or area, How could it be more modern? UNIT2 @ 23 28 @ uNiT2 Answering the phone. Making and changing appointments Work in pairs. Look ar standard telephone phrases 1-10. Write other phrases with the same meaning. Compare your phrases with those on p. 25-6 ofthe Pocket Bock 1. Claire Hallam speaking, 6 Thereason I'mphoningisto.. 2 Tdllike tospeak to Ms Lanson, please. 7 What time would suit you? 3. Imsorry, her line is engaged. 8 Could you make it next Tuesday? 4. Would you like to leave amestage? 9) Pmafraid I'm not available thea. 5. Would you mind spelling that, please? 10 Yes, Thursday suits me fine. Why do.we often use would and could when we make requests or arrangements? G 25 Listen to Rosa Lanson telephoning Erie Carlin 1 What does the message on Eric’s answerphone ask the caller to do? 2 Whyis Rosa calling Eric? @ 25 Listen again and complete the missing parts of Rosa's message Rosa ’mealling "Could Pnext week? Monday or Tuesday would be best if you then. Could __*ro arrange a time? Thanks. Goodbye. @ 26 Listen to Frie returning Rosa's call. 1 When isn’t Eric available? 2 Why does Claire make the appointment provisional? @® 26 Complete the extract from the conversation Claire Ah, yes, Rosa told me about it. —_ on Monday or Tuesday? Eric Well, —? on Monday or Tuesday morning, but Tuesday alternoon Claire Tee Sr » Eric Yes, — 3, Read the conversation, Suggesta suitable word for each gap. Eric Hello, Erie Caclin i Claire Hello, Eric. Irs Claire again. Pm —* about the meeting next weekend. I'm sorry, bur Piet isn't > atthe time we arranged, he's got another —_‘. But he’s Sater on. Would four o'clock be “ for your Eric Sothar’s four o'clock —__ of rwo fifteen? Claire Yes. I that tim Eric Yes, that's Claire Good. So, we look forward to seeing you next Tuesday, then. Goodbye, Erie * for you? @ 27 Listen to the conversation. Check your answers, Work in pairs, Say what the underlined words and phrases mean. 1'm afraid Pm tied up all day on Thursday. 1 2. Can you gothask to meffssthing tomorrow? 3. Justa minute. Tl put you through. 4 We were cut off earlier. 5 Could you read that hack tome? 6 Theline’s busy. Willyou bold? 8 9 0 Thete’s some interference, Ll hang up and call you again. The line’s very faint. Could you speak upa bit? Could you bear with me for a minute? Could we put off our meeting? Something important has come up. 1. @ 28 Listen to the words and repeat them: 3 Say the date: s 2 Cy 0 Tuesday 3 March six Tuesday this. think Saturday 12 August seventy Wednesday then thirteen Thursday 13 July Saurday hours there thirty ‘Monday 16 April miles mot! 2 G 29 Listen to the word pairs. Tick the words you hear, 1 sick thick 3 sinkthink 5 pass path. 2 singthing 4 mouse mouth 6 worse worth ‘Thursday Wednesday 24 February Sunday 26 September Friday 30 December 4 @ 2.10 Listen to the dates and repeat them. ® _ Work inpairs, Student A and Suxtent B. Role-play the telephone calls. See pp. 25-6 ofthe Pocket Book, Studenta Sicuation 1 Phone Acorn Chemicals Ask to speak to these people: John Anderson Extension $31 De Rubin Research Department Student B Sicuation 1 You work for Acor Chemicals. Deal with incoming phone calls. Extension 531 engaged Dr Rubin on holiday @ Role-play Sitaation 2 You work for Commercial Insurance Deal with incoming phone calls. Sue Waite in a meeting Mrs Johnson. at lunch Situation 2 Phone Commercial Insurance {Ask to speak to these people: Sue Waite Customer Services Department Mrs Johnson Marketing Deparunent 1 Write your arrangements for next week in the diary below. Include a one-day business trip, two meetings, a business lunch, and two other appointments, Then phone two colleagues to make an appointment with each of them. September 12 Monday 14 Wednosday 2. Your programme has changed. Phone your two colleagues to change the appointments, UNIT2 @ 2 World Languages AGENDA Comparative and superlative adjectives Relative lauses Adjectives file, Personal attitudes and qualities » Past present, and future languages Giving opinions. Agreeing and disagreeing Participating in » meeting ordicussion @ Look at the table. Match the languages in the box with the countries where they are spoken. You can use one language more than once Country China Canada Spain | Swiveerland — (esque Work in pairs han =e ee aia DSS your partner, then check each other's answers. Majorlanguages __Numberof speakers | %ot population Mandarin 867m 67.0% ‘Wu (Shanghai) 50m 1) 45m English 19m Spanish (Castilian) Galician 3m + $50,000 German | 4m | a Irian 540,000 —*| 42,600 ~ Cantonese Catalan French Romansch Say the numbers in the tablein @. Dictate five more numbers to ° ° @ 34 Read the information about Andrea Harris. Then listen to the interview and answer the questions. My name's Andrea Harris. T work fer a large investhent bank in the City, the fnancial district of Lorcion. I'm part of 2 departwent Which arranges business trips for ether companies in Europe arc Asia. Thase are conparies that Want to pronote thenselves abroad. Z travel abroad quite a bit myself, which I love. I often have te deal Lith clients he don’t speak English, uhich means I have to have other languages besides English - my mother true. 1 How many languages dors she speak? 2 What language did she study at school? 3 Which of these things docs Andrea think is more difficult: learning a foreign language as an adultor learning a foreign language asa child? b leaming French or learning Spanish? Japanese or Spanish? @ 34 Listen to Andrea again and complete the sentences. 1 The first thing I realized is that learning a foreign language can be than you think. 2 Learning a language when you're young is much and when you're. 3 Forme, Spanish was, than French. 4 Inearly gave up. Butafter a while it got 5. lesa Spanish ato oF te interesting and useful, I've ever done. 6 He’ really one of the and teachers you could hope for! 7 Burthen, as said, Japanese is «iffcuts than Spanish. 8 Certainly, my Japanese is not my Spanish. Grammar quiz ‘Work in pairs, Match the two halves of the sentences giving the rules for comparative and superlative adjective forms. A 1 The opposites of more and most 2. The comparative and superlative forms of good and bad 3. Weuse erand est 4 The comparative and superlative endings of adjectives which end in -y S Weuse as + adjective +as or not as + adjective + as 6 To show a big difference before a comparative adjective 7 To show a mall difference before a comparative adjective 8 The expression one of the -est as the comparative and superlative form of one- and two-syllable adjectives. aceless and least. are ier and -iest ithe y disappears). ‘we use much or a lot. is followed by a plural noun, we use slightly or alittle. ace better, best, worse, worst. ‘h to show somethingis or isnot che same or equal. mac enoe units @ 27 Relative clauses Read the examples. The relative clauses are underlined. Complete the rules and answer the questions. Type A relative clauses + I getto travel abroad quite alot, which I love. My teacher, who as Japanese, was the best teacher Ihave ever had, He now lives in London, where we met. “My husband, whose Spanish is excellent, helped ie practise. Type B relative clauses + Tm part ofa department which arranges business ‘tips for other companies in Europe and Asia- * Loften have to deal with clients who don’t speak English. ® There aren’t many words in Japanese that are aa © [think to achieve this I would have to go and live where Spanish is spoken by everybody. © Type relative clauses give you extra information about the noun they refer to. They ate called nort-defining relative clauses. + Type ____ relative clauses give you information that tells you which person, place, ‘or thing the speaker is talking about. They are called defining relative clauses. 1 When an that replace who or which? 2. When are where and whose used? Piss 0-4 Practice @ Complete the sentences with that, which, where, who, ot whose. Then decide if the 26 @ UNITS relativeclauses are defining (D) or non-defining (ND) and tick che correct column. D ND isinLondon. = (] O] 1 Andrea works for a large investment bank 2. The head office of her company, islocatedinthecentreof [_] the city, is only twenty minutes from her house. 3 She often travels to countries she can practise her languages. [_] 4 Her husband, speaks excellent Spanish, helped her learn. {_| [_] 5 sia ead oeclet etenebicsphauh Wise titan’. Cl speak it ona daily basis. 6 The language she found most difficult was Japanese. Oo 7 Andrea had a teacher was the best she had ever had. oo 8 The teacher, first anguage was Japanese, was very patient. [] [] 9 Arabicis the language she would like to learn next. oo Work in pairs. Join the facts about China to make one sentence, Use that, which, where, who, ot whose, Example The arca of China is 9,596,960 square kilometres. Itis slightly smaller than the USA. ‘The area of China is 9.596.960 square kilometres. which is slightly emaller than the USA. 1. The population of China is 1.3 billion. Iris the highest population in the world. 2 Beijing has a population of 13 million. Beijing is the capital of China 3 The political leader of China lives in Beijing, His title is President. 4 Badaling is a popular touristlocation. You can see part of the Great Wall in Badaling. 5 China manufactures electrical goods, textiles, and clothing. They are sold throughout the world. 6 Most Chinese people are descended from the Han people. They came from. Noxth East China. ——— ee How difficult are these languages for an American? O=very easy 10= very difficult © Work in pairs. Write similar sentences about your own country, city, or town. Compare them with your partners © 1 Complete the paragraph using the information in the bar chart. Use the comparative or superlative form of a suitable adjective (e.g. easy, dificult, hard) and a lot/much, a littlelslightly, and (not)... aso show the degree of difference. [A group of students from the United States were asked which languages they found easy and difficult to learn, According to the survey, the "language to learn is Spanish. French is * difficult. Russians _*than Spanish. Chinese isthe “language, with Japanese and Arabic __‘aifficult. Hebrew is = Arabic. Not surprisingly, the survey shows that for Americar, uropean languages arenct __’ difficulttolearn __*Asian languages. 2 Use the information in the bar chart to make more sentences: * comparing Russian and Japanese * comparing Spanish and German * comparing all the European languages © Work in groups. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the following. Say which you prefer and why. 1 Learning a language in a small group or in one-to-one lessons. 2 Learning a language with an untrained native-speaker teacher or a trained teacher from your country. Using the phone or email to communicate with work colleagues, Driving to work or travelling on public transport. ‘Working in an open-plaa office or in individual offices. Living with your parents or in your own accommodation (when you first start work), uNiT2 @ 20 } a= Adjectives file. Personal attitudes and quali the different ways in which people communicate with each other Example gestures @ Readth e, Underline the adjectives that 0 @ UNITS © Look at the listof adjectivesin the box and answer the questions. attentive bored decisive distracted encouraging friendly interested intrusive neutral rude supportive 1. Find two pairs of opposite adjectives. 2. Find five adjectives whose opposites are formed by adding either w-or in-. Give the full word (e.g. uninterested). 3. The following words from the list do not take 1en- or in-to form their opposites. What are their opposites? You may need to usea dictionary. encouraging neutral rude © Complete the sentences with a suitable adjective. shevereerece FEEDBACK ON A NEGOTIATION — 1 Pierre = noms crossta for most ofthe. meeting = not very — _ Secs = nodding jaan —— ___ presentation. Seemed —-BWalenting = catier. 8 KALA LE mm? = ning ncn ligt ly in| ee © _ Replace the phrases in italics with adjectives from the box. analytical diplomatic flexible motivated responsible confident enthusiastic innovative punctual thorough Employee profile i ‘An excellent employee whois ableto be trusted Hes - 2 andisclearly interested in his workard Fisideasarenew __‘andhe ‘issure about his cn abiffy ______‘whenputtingthemforward. | Heisalso good at dealing with peopleindificultstuations ‘and ‘sable to change to suitnawsituations_____’.ethapshe needsto be ¢ allittleorelegicaland scientific about his approach but hisreportsare very detailed —___ | “Hisbestquality's that he's excited and interested ___"about everything! Ask and answer the questions. 1. Which three adjectives would your colleagues or other students use to deseribe you? 2. How important is body language in your culture? How would you show you are interested, bored, thoughtful, aggressive, and neutral? 3 Doyouuse different body language when you speak English? 4 In business, is what you say more important chan how yon say it? units @ 21 1 4 6 In the British Museum in London there is a black stone, called the Rosetta Stone, which measures 114 x 72 cm. It is covered with carvings in three different scripts: hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. The stone is written in three scripts because these were being used in Egypt at the time. It is over 2,000 years old and wwas found in 1799 by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in the town of Rosetta in Egypt. ‘The structure of the hieroglyphic script vas very hard to work out ~ it was not successfully deciphered until 1822 Jean- Francois Champollion, a French expert int languages, discovered the text was ‘written by.a group of priests in Egypt to Read the article The Rosetta Stone and the new Rosetta Di Past, present, and future languages Do you find English easier to speak or to write? ‘What about your own language? Do you know which was the ea Arabic, or Hieroglyphs? form of written language: Chinese, ‘Why is the Rosetta Stone in three different scripts? When was it made? Who found it? Where does its name come fret ‘Who deciphered the hieroglyph Why was its discovery important? Whatis the purpose of the new Rosetta Disk? honour the Pharaoh. This discovery meant that the Rosetta Stone could be used as a kind ot ‘éietionary’ to check the meaning of early written languages. Today a small group of engineers and scientists want to build a new Rosetta Stone’ or Disk, usingthe same idea of parallel texts. Many scientists predict that mostofthe world's languages disappear in the next hundred years. This new stone will. preserve some basic knowledge of the woild's languages for futuregenerations. © G22 Listen o part ofa radio programme about the Rosetta Disk. 32 @ UNITs How many languages will be preserved on the disk? ‘Where is the new Rosetta Project based? How many volunteers are working on the project? © G22 Liseen again. Complete this FAQs (irequently asked questions) page of the Rosetta Project website. ‘What is the aim of the Rosetta Project? * Tocreate apermanent physical archive of ‘world’s languages. What form will the new Rosetta ‘Stone’ take? + A special micro-etched inside a spherical + An > archive, + Asingle-volume reference ‘What will be on the disk? + A description of each language, includingits * system. + Awordlistof —_ "core words. ‘+ A parallel text from the Bible, Genesis chapters How will people be able to read it? © Witha "with magnification of one thousand times. ‘Where will the disk be available? * There will be lots of disks distributed throughout the What is the website where people can contribute their research? * www, © Work in groups. 1. Why do you think languages disappear? 2 Do you think it is important to preserve languages, even if they are only spoken bya small number of people? Think of arguments for and against. 3 Do you speak any dialects (regional language variations) from your country? 4 Do you havea strong accent (way of pronouncing) when you speak your native language? © Work in pairs. Discus the question. ‘Which of these reasons for learning languages do you think are relevant to people who need languages for work? a. Allanguage is part of a people's culture and it’s important to respect culture b Ifyou speak the language of an international partner they will respect you more. € Iwill save money on translation and interpretation services. 4d. Iegives you an advantage over your competitors if you can speak the language of your trading partners and they can’t. € Itallows you to dominate meetings with intemational partners. £ You can meet people from other countries and understand their way of life. 8 Itgives you more job opporcunitie. h Ir interesting and fun. UNIT? @ 33 24 @ units Giving opinions. Agreeing and disagreeing. Participating in a meeting or discussion @ G 33 Listen to the first part ofa meeting between Rosa, Piet, and Eric. 1 How many programmes will NMP finance? 2 Which countries does Eric think should he inthe first three programmes? 3. Why does Piet disagree with Erie 4 Which three countries do they agree on? © G22 Linen again. Write the phrases which Rosa, Piet, and Eric usein the meeting under the correct heading below Asking for opinions Giving opi What are your views? In my opinion Froma financial point of view Agreeing Expressing reservations. | Disagreeing fee — S| Denner You could be right, but . © © 34 Listen 1 Which two groups of people must the pilot programme impress? 2. Why does Rosa want to find a consultant for each programme? 3. Whae does their choice of Spain for the pilot programme depend on? ‘othe second part of the meeting, @ 34 Listen again. Add other phrases the speakers use under the correct, headings in @ above. © workinpairs. 1. Which of the phrases in @ would you use to give a astrong opinion? b atentative opinion? 2 Which of the phrases would you use to agree strongly 3, Whatothcr phrases could you use to disagree politely? QPrvweerBooky.2 oe Participating in a meeting or discussion Opening Stating objectives The aim of the meeting is to Beginning the discussion (Enc), would you like to start? Interrupting Just a minute, (Rosa), could I just ask something? Asking for clarification ‘Checking agreement Moving on Concluding Well, think that’s everything. Summarizing Closing Some of the phrases used in the meeting are given below. Complete the list with other phrases you remember from the meeting. Check with 3.3 and 3.4 0n p. 134. Good. Let's call ita day, then. o Work in pairs. Compare your list of phrases. See p. 22 of the Pocket Book. Ta 2a 3a 4a aa Pronunciation 1 @® 38 Listen to the same sentence, spoken twice. Tick the one which sounds polite. a Could you explain that again? 2 @ 36 Listento five more sentences, spoken twice, Tick the one which sounds polite Could you begin, James? Could you begin, James? Excuse me. Could I come in here? Excuse me, Could I come in here? Can we get back to the main point? b Can we get back to the main point? ‘Would you mind repeating that? b Would you mind repeating that? Could you go over thar again? b Could you go over thatagain? 3 @ 87 Listen co and repeat the polite versions of all the sentences in 2. e b Could you explain chat again? Work in groups. Each person chooses one of the topics below and startsa short discussion of that topic. Give your opinions and explain why you agree or disagree with your colleagues. 1 All young people should do twelve months’ military service or community service after finishing school. 2 Public transport should be state-owned, not privatized. A public transport system can either makea profit or provide a good service. It cannot do hath. 3 University education should be free and the state should pay the cost of students’ accommodation, food, and books. 4 Allemployees should ger a share ofa company’s profits, not enly senior management. 5. Unemployed people who get payments from the state should do some kind of work in exchange for the money they receive. UNITS @ 35 ‘VAGENDA Present and past tends: Present Continuous, PastSimple Adjectives and adverbs » Food file. Word groupe Ethicaleonsumerism ‘Advice and suggestions Work in pairs 1. What are the opening hours of most shops in the city centre in your country ‘Were the opening hours different when you were younger? 2 What do teenagers in your country spend most of their money on? What did You use to spend your money on when you were younger? 3 Doelderly people in your country spend or save their money? What will you do when you are older? @ March the phrnsesin A with the definitions in B A B 1 inline with a money spent by people in one house 2 retailoutlet years that someone is likely to live 3 household expenditure ¢ babies born during a particular period 4 single-person household d_ money tospend after paving taxes, ete 5 birthrate € child who needs financial support 6 life expectancy f: howe bbepérdo ig ©7 dependent child - “g. similar to. sis 32 8 Sipesble come, Tt Hep Orbe: : © Read the article Changing consumer trends in Japan, Answer the questions, 1 What changes does the article identify inthe spending habits of these groups? «business people in their 50s * seniorcitizens c ‘ 2 What changes does the article identify in these areas? a © chop opening hours * divorce rate be * catingand drinking habits * proportion of elderly people ee * women in the workforce te changes happening in the way people: ne rep ies apenas mera SE eaeeeeemeseia: aa eeteereieeerntie rset naliter-andatarenutteypandingrore | = 24-hour shopping |= Consumer spending is becoming a 24-hour business ~ and businessis booming. For ecample, when one men’s clothing storestarted opening its doors round the lock ten yeas agp sales immed ately increased by 20%, Nowadays, one third of its annual sales are to customers who come in between 10 p.m. and 7 arm, - and this isi ine with national figures. Many customers ae office workers on their way home. More retail outlets are expancing ther night time opening hours because shoppe are often more relaxed at night and spend more money. Te typeof goods people buyis also changing, For example, fewer people are eating traditional food andthe corsumation of westem- siylemealsisincreasing, People are dincing alot less sake and alot more red wine They ate also drinking ess whisky, but more bee a Stheensesesess See oc ore Find three examples of trends from the 1990s. Which tense is used? Find three examples of present trends. Which tense is used © Complete this table with information from the artic. [Proportion of sales taken in amen's clothing store between 10 p.m. and7 am. —__% D increase in telephone bills from 1895 to 2000 % 'B_ Proportion of women aged 20 to 39in work in 1970 @1_ Proportion of women aged 20 to 39n work now Bj Increase in divorce rate from 1980 to 2000 “B_ Proportion ofpepultonaged sein 1960 7. Proportion of populetion aged 65+ in 2000 9 B Proportion of population aged 65+ in 2020 (estimates) __% How similar are th es and trends described in the article to changes and ends in your own country? o Grammar quiz Match the sentences in A Pm moving into my own apartment next week 2. Look, he's waving at us. He probably wants to say hello. 3 The birth rate in most western countries i falling 4+ a cooking focraselt this weck because yy paren have gone aw Communications FnTelogy fs of communications technology grew cramaticaly inthe 1990 Deere vs a particularly strong growthinthe sale nduze of mobile spans. Telephone ils ose by near 10% rom 199502000 even Seugh overall household expenditure fell. A lot more people are seiing email and the Internet on a daily basis. Business people in the 52 for example, are spending more on communications technology because they do not want tobe left behind. E Single women as a market force Jecessing number of women are entering the workforce. In 1970, sly 33% of women in their 20s and 30s worked, Now that figureis| sell over 60%. Fewer young women ae getting maried. The | secpertionof single women ntheir30s is rising steadily, and they seeeatning andsperding ore money than they dd ten yeas ago A the same time the divorce rate more than doubled between 380 and 2000, 50 there was an increase in the numberof single- pesson households th the categories in B. B 2 anactivity happening atthe moment of speaking b a temporary activity happening around aeepasicnhee of speaking The silver market’ ‘Atthe other end of the scale, senior citizens are becoming big ‘spenders, Between 1950 and 2000, there was @ dramatic fall in the birth rate, and an increase in life expectancy. These tends are Continuing and there are mare elderly people than ever before In 1960, 5.7% of the population was aged 65 or more. From 1960 to 2000, there was an increase of twelve percentage points to 17.7%, and by 2020 this figure is expected to be 26.8%. With no dependent ctilen, no education costs and low housing costs, they have a large disposable income. For example, they are spending more and more money on domestic and overseas travel. Present and past trends Read the examples. ® People aredrinking | alotless sake less whisky. more beet = lot more red wine. » Fewer young women are getting married. y = Fewer people are eating traditional food. i ‘© More recail businesses are expanding their night-time opening hours. © Alot more people are using email and the Internet on a daily basis. . = Sales increased grew by 25%. = rose declined from 200 t0 250, 7 fell : 2 © Therewas am increase agrowth =| in sales. = arise adectine | of 25%. 2 afall = Which preposition? Weite by, from, in, of, orto. + Weuse after a noun and before the amount, * Weuse after a noun and before the topic. + Weuse after a verb. * Weuse and ___aftera verb and before two amounts. Practice @ _ Describe present crends in evening entertainment activities show inthe line araphs below. a Cinema b Tvjvideo ¢ Theatre Bars and cafés Reading books Example People are going to the cinema a lot more. or A lot more people are going to the cinema, © Work in pairs. Describe the changes that are taking place in your country. Choose two from the list below. Give possible reasons for the changes. ‘+ evening entertainment activities ‘consumption of foods from other countries smoking car ownership types.of shop in city centres use of mobile phones use of the Internet 24-hour shopping, domestic holidays (compared to forcign holidays) 28 @ uniTs © @ 41 Listento a description of the trends in TV viewing hours in the UK last vyeat. As you listen draw the line graph. Average weekly hoursof TV viewing L a [ena en) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul = Aug. Sep Oct. Nov Doc © Complete the extract from the description you heard. Use suitable verbs from the box in the correct tense. decrease drop fall fluctuate go down/up increase _eveloff reach i In January last year the average number of weekly viewing hours stood at 28.1. This figure __" steadily for the next two months, reaching 27.2 in February [ and 255 in March. The number of viewing hours then * alittle: they > slightly to 26.1 in April They then — ‘dramatically 0 23:3in May The figure then _* very slightly to 23.5 in ure and then ‘more or less _ for the summer, whichis traitionally the time people watch the least television. The figure "slightly back to 23.3 in July and __*its lowest point i August at 23.2. Average viewing hours "sharply in September to 25.3 and then“ more ‘gradually for the rest ofthe year to 26.1 in October, and 27.4 in November. The figure _" its highest point in December at 28.2 hours per week. Listen again and check your answers, ‘Work in pairs. Look atthe highlighted words in the extract in @. Are they adjectives or adverbs? How do you know? Whatis the general rule for forming adverbs? oo @ Write the adjcctives from these adverbs. Then match the adjectives/adverbs with the type of change they show. ‘Ravers 40 @ univ © Work in pairs. Select information from one of the bar charts and prepare a presentation of past trends. Give your presentation to the class. Begin This bar chart shows ... or AS you can see... BE bermark copies pinted per 1000 population Wicvratnd In _—= © Werk in groupe: Dinees thine questions with rlésencs vo the graple above 1 What were the main trends in cinema attendance, newspaper circulation, and the percentageof womicn i the woehfocee at the end ofthe last century 2. Do you find any ofthe trends surprising? 3 How do you think they might compare with your country? 4. Whar do you chink are the eurent trendein thee three areas? Trattoria | 2 Miestoneseselection restaurant Oo 3 Seafoodislene ig News café [a] A selection of shollish, smoked f delicous ight meal or travelersina hurry. Meals are prepared at the bat in front of the customer and served with a glass of chilled white wine, champagne, ar even. {ake Look cutfor the seasonal promotions of oysters orocopes. be for the business traveller. There are hot and cold drinks, suchas around coffee and freshly squeezed you can make use of ivenews broadcests, international 'b] The relaxedlounga atmosphere makes this theplace-to- orangejuce as wel as avarieyof bee's. Alscavalableis selection of sacks, pasties, and cakes White you ela, Food file. Word groups @ Match the names of four of the food and drink outlets at an intemational airport with their descriptions. gm bestofitalanardMedeerranean cui. Enjoy "relaxed but efficient cable service. There arethres-course, " two-course and ane-couirse options available, depending _ | of your time end your appetite! Starters inc ee _ Mushrooms, Greek salad {marinated{etacheese, olives, — © andtomatoes).and a selection of antipasti Thereare. main course specialities such aspoachedsalimon served _ Ona bed of spaghetti; sautéed breast of chicken served with smakebecon, rape, and mushroam sauce or _giledsin sea. Avariety of self-service internationalfood stands. Have © some deep-fried cuicken orbakedpotatoes. Create your | own saladortry thesoup of theday.Eniou a healthy breakfast of caresis, yoghurts, and fresh fruit suchas. apples, bananas, and grapefruit This restaurantcaters for ailtastes ma fashionable setting witha magnificent ‘view of the airport newspapers, andlaptopconnections. @ _ Find words in she teats hac belong in these word groups, 1 meat 2 fisl/seafood 3 fruit and vegetables 4 drinks 5 dairy producss 6 other food types © Think of other words for each category. Use a dictionary if necessary. @ Match the different methods of food preparation in A with the definitions in B. A B 1 baked a fried quickly in a lite hot far 2 chilled cooked gently in a small amount of liquid 3 deep-fried © cooked in an oven in dry heat 4 grilled d filled with something 5. ground € cooked in an oven by heat from above 6 marinated F cooked in oil that covers the food completely 7 poached given smoky flavour from a wood fire 8 sauréed h made into small pieces or powder 9 smoked i. putin a mixture of oil and spices 10 stuffed made very cold (but not frozen) © 1 Think of other items of food that can be prepared using each of the methods Example baked cake 2. Think of other ways of preparing food 10 add to the list in @). What items of food can be prepared using these methods? Example boiled exe © Work in groups. Discuss the questions, 1 Is therea good selection of intemational restaurants in your eapital city? 2 Are there different cypes of rescaurant (e.g. fast-food, waiter service, sel-servic 3. Can you cook any dishes from other countries? 4 Where can you buy the best-quality food in your country: in street markets, small shops, or larger supermarkets? UNITs @ criteria code of conduct dominate energy-efficient ethical exploited growth markets ‘market share 10. organic food LL sweatshop 12. two-way process 8 a2 @ units Ethical consumerism @ Work in groups. Look at the pictures and discuss the questions. 1 Do you buy any products, such as clothes and food, which are made in other 2 Do you know how they are produced? 3, Whar do you understand by the terms ‘globalization’, “developed world’, and ‘developing world”? © Match the words and phrasesin A with the definitions in B. place where people work for low wages in poor conditions ‘morally correct ot acceptable the percentage of total sales of a product ina parti standards or principles food produced naturally, without using artificial chemicals 1 process moving in two different directions a set of moral rules of behaviour treated unfairly, not receiving mach in return for work to control or have a lot of infinence no waste of energy markets showing an increase in investment products you use on yout face or body to make yourself more attractive ular area achieved by one company © G@ 42 Read sentences 1-8 and listen to a discussion on a radio programme. Decide if, according to the speakers, the sentences are true (T) or false (F) and tick the correct column L_ Consumers are increasingly using the same products. 2. People in the developing world want many of the things that = ing from the developed world 3. The West is not v its producss [ Oo they seece y successful at persuading people to buy 6 Consumers in developed countries won’t accept that a nade by badly-paid workers, 4 "There are very few positive and responsible forms of wade between the developed and the developing world. OO 5 Theresa falling trend in impos from the developing word g products have to be Local consumers in developing countries just buy whacthe West tells them to buy ot ot 8. Fewer people in the West are becoming ethical consumers, }) 4.2 Listen again, What information do the speakers give about 1 present trends in global production of cigarettes? 2. past trends in tobacco-related deaths in developed countries? 3 in developing countries? 4 present trends in the Hollywood film industry? 5. present trends in the ‘Bollywood! film industry? past trends in tobacco-related de Look at these statements from the discussion, Do you agree with or disagree with them? Why? 1... globalization means some consumers can get the proclucts they really want. 2 people enjoy their coffee more if they know its been produced by workers who are not exploited. Read the article The rise of the ethical consumer. Match headings 1-4 with paragraphs acd. 1 Ethical Bnance 2. The ethical shopper ce 3 The future a 4 cages policies [eh ing Seven ofthe largest supermarket chains in the UK adopted a ‘code of conduct’ to establish ethical policies. ‘Manufacturers of sports shoes, manufacturing, where child labour was a big iss succesful campaign in India and Europe to introduce a ‘child-friendly’ labelling schemecalted ‘Rusia Now the trend is moving beyond the shop and the factory into the investment sector. Ordinary stor are demanding to i s are opening up decision-mal Gs*, for example recently invited al is slowing down. Figures from eal that in 2003 over £4 billion was. Read the article again. What do the following figures relate to? 1 £177 billion 4 £107 million 2 £147 billion 5. Over £4 billion 3 £187 million 6 34% per annum Work in groups. 1 Are the trends identified in the article the same in your country? 2. How practical do you think itis to be an ‘ethical consumer’? 3 Doyou know any companies in your country which have a ‘code of conduct” to establish ethical policies? UNITs @ 42 Advice and suggestions @ Maria Ferrando, a friend of Erie Ceslin, has agreed to act asa consultant for NMP's programme on Spain, Read the extract from her book, A Taste of Spain does she say ‘tapas ate more than food’? What other examples of the connection between food or drink and national customs can you think of? ee of food served in bars) ham, sausage, squid, prawns, meatballs, salt De Pee eee ea ee ee of wine or sherry covered by a lid (tapa) on tapeo, going from one tapas bar to the next vnhich there was afree slice of ham.Today,you sampling the varity on offer in each one. @ 42 Listen to the first part of Maria's conversation with Rosa and Eric. L Which three regions of Spain does Maria suggest for the programme? 2. What does she say about Basque cooking? 3 Whatis San Sebastian famous for © 6 42 Listen again. Write the phrases Marfa, Rosa, and Eric use to ask for and give advice and suggestions under the correct headings below Asking for ad and suggestions | Giving advice and suggestions My advice would be to ideas Accepting ideas Rojectin Yes, thatsounds like « good ideal What other phrases can you use to reject advice or suggestions politely? Compare your phrases with those oa p. 17 of the Pocket Book @ 44 Lis 1 How does Maria describe the cuisine of Catalonia? 2 Why does she suggest Rosa and Erie go to the Penedés reg 3. Why does Maria suggest they go to Valencia? and Erie. a to the second part of the conversation between Mat on of Catalonia? @ 44 Listen again, Write other phrases the speakers use for advice and suggestions under the correct headings in @. Two phrases for giving advice and suggestions are tentative. Write T next to the tentative expressions, Work in pairs. Match the phrases in A with a suitable ending in B A B 1 My advice would be a filming the preparation of paella? 2 Tflwere you... b to include a visit to some cava vineyards. ¢ explain whattapas are 4 Have you thought... d Td describe how sherry is made 'S Whydon't.; 6 (shag) you include the Basque country. 6 Ithinleyou should 4.» of including someSpanish recipes?» a Iwoulds aggest.. |) 18 yor interview some Spanish chefs Ne tee @ unite Pronunciation 1G 45 Listen to the pronunciation of the following pairs of words. Repeat each pair. MW ng) 1 sherry cherry 2 shoes choose 3 dish itch 2 G48 Lisenrothsenteee Tcehesemence you kagaorb, 1 a Would you like a sherry? 4 a Did you say they were sheep? b Would youlike a cherry? b Did you say they were cheap? share. 5 a Shall wash it? *) Beoweme:Thrismychae. shall wach 3 a Ican't see any ships. 6 a Doyouwant me to cash it? b Tean't see any chips. b Doyouwant me to catch it? 3 @ 47 Listen to the pairs of sentences in 2 again. Repeat each sentence. isten and repeat the words below. : vane Tae Sea 7, chops 2 shelf 4 shells 6 dish 8 shops 10 Czech Jose one of the NMP projects and rk in groups. Read the letter from NMP. Choc Oo ease rie pena ele toeaee DINE Dear Sir or Madam We are doing some market research forthe three NMP projects outlined below ‘and would very much like to hear your ideas and suggestions We would be Brateful you could tell us what information and topics you think we should include in the programmes and give us any other ideas you may have. All the Programmes are designed for international audiences, New project proposals | Aseties often ffteen-minut television prograrnmes called Improve your Engish for intermediate level adult learners, 2 Five thity-minute television prograntmes about Britain sponsored by Vist Bntain, designed to promote tourism, 4 A series of Sx thrty-minute prograrnmes for international comparies called Doing busines in otver cultures, each programme about afferent country, In appreciation of your help,we would be happy to send you a copy of one of the NMP video programmes listed in the enclosed brochure. Pleae tellus which you would lke to receive, Yours faithfully Rosa. Lanson NMP Project Director : uNiTs @ 45 REVIEW ona | UNITA lee > eta ‘This unie reviews all the main language points from Units 1-4. Complete the | exercises. Use the Pocket Book for the areas that you need to review again. @ Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple, Action and state verbs Complete the biographical information about Vanessa Ramirez, another consultant for che Intemational food and drink peoject. Use the correct tense and form of the verb in brackets. @ Subject and object questions Work in pairs. Write six questions starting with Where, When, Who, What, or How ‘many about Vanessa’s biographical information. Examples Where does Vanessa come from? Who owns two restaurants? © Comparative and superlative adjectives, Relative clauses Argenting Brazil Poru Venezuela Population (millions) 319 175.0 265 ul Birth-rate (per 1.000 population) 191.0 192 208 228 Cost living (USA = 100) 0 0 66 1 Tourist attractions Tangodancng Riocarnival. © Machu Picch, Caribbean beaches Main language spoken Cepital city President 1 Work in groups. Do you know the missing information in the chart? 2 Write as many sentences as possible about the four countries, using comparative and superlative adjectives, and relative clauses. Score a point for each different comparative/superlative adjective or structure, and for each relative pronoun that you use, Examples The population of Perw is slightly larger than the population of Venezuela, vhich has the smallest population of the four countries. (3 points) Pere is matseeexipetesve as Vomecnole, bur iz more axpessive thant Brazil, which is the cheapest place to live. (3 points only, because which was used in first example| One of the most famous places where tourists visit in Peru is Machu Picchu. (2 points) @ Present and past trends, Adjectives and adverbs | What changes are taking place in your country? Describe present trends in 4 holiday destinations the crime rate © propesty prices b driving to work national sports ams your owntopic 46 @ REVIEW UNITA 1990-2000 1 Fastfood yo 2 Cigarettes. 3 Alcohol —_—s 4 Fruis and vegetables 2 Look at the graphs describing trends in the consumption of various items in the 1990s, Write sentences describing past trends. Use different verbs, and an adjective oradverd, Examples The consumption of fast food rose dramatically ix the 1990s. ‘There was a dramatic increase in the consumption of fast food from 1990 to 2000. used to + infinitive ‘Work in pairs. Tell each other about your eating. and drinking habits when you were younger. Ask questions if you wanto clarify anything, Example [used to eat alot of sweets. I didn't use 10 like fruit, Introductions and greetings, Welcoming a visitor, Advice and suggestions Anew employee or student from another country is starting at your place of work or study. Whar do you say in these situations? 1. Greet himhher and introduce yours 2. Welcome hinvher by asking five questions about his/her country, journey, accommodation, interests, et. 3 Introduce him/her to another colleague/student. 4 Give advice and suggestions on * how to seitle in to the place of work or study ‘© how 10 settle in t0 the country + whatto do at lunch, in the evening, and atthe weekend, Now role-play the situations with 9 partner. Answering the phone, Making and changing appointments ‘What do you say in these situations? ‘Answer the phone to a friend. Answer the phone in a work situation. ‘Ask to speak to someone when phoning another com ‘Ask someone to wait while you transfer the call. ‘Make an appointment to meet a friend. ‘Make a business appointment, Change an appointment. Finish a business call Giving opinions, Agreeing and disagreeing, Participating in a meeting or discussion In groups, have a workplace meeting to discuss these suggested changes. 1. We should write important company documents in our own language and English. 2 Everyone should work an extra hour a week unpaid for the next six months in order to improve performance and productivity. Vocabulary tost ‘Work in two groups, A and B. Write a vocabulary test ro give to the other group. ‘Choose ten of the words below. Write a sentence or phrase to help the other group guess che word. Example Word presenter Clue a person who introduces a TV or radio programme presenter negotiate commute practical fluctuate specialize brand discount ethical matemity leave ‘outofwork motivated flexible EO subsidiary accent investment diplomaric_—_retailoutlet_ responsible for birth rate consumer workforce chilled body language REVIEW UNITA @ “7 NITS U Misi6n del Sol _ Cuernavaca, Mexico Have you ever been covered in volcanic mud ‘and lett to lie on a cold stone? That's one of the unusval experiences that awaits you atthe ‘Misién del Sol, stuated 80 km south of Mexico ‘CityAs well as the therapeutic treatments at he hotel's health spa, guests are guaranteed year- round sunshine, and en opportunity to relex ‘completely. A new meditation centre will also be opened next year The accommodation - wood and stone ‘buildings surrounded by trees and water ~ 1S certainly relaxing. Guests are requested to wear only light-coloured clothes in natural fibres. ‘Bedrooms are simply furnished and @ telephone in each room is the only modern convenience. ‘As Jan Heaslip,a guest ftom lreland told me, “You walk into the resort and the stiess just dseppears. The whole time you'e there, youre not being forced to do anything. Its a wonderful fooling’ @ units Y AGENDA Time for a break? Look at the pictures of thr ‘Where do you think they are located? Parsives: Prosent Simple, Present Continuois, Present Perfect Simple, Past Simple, Will Future Leisure and fitness activities fil Word combinations Leaving recorded messages Using mobite phones special hotels from different parts of the world. Which of these facilities and features would you expect to find at each hotel? You might find some of them at more than one of the hotels. + conference facilities © fitness centre # year-round sunshine + sateliteTV Read the reviews of the three hotels. swimming pool ‘© health treatments © airconditioning, ‘+ moonlight camel rides + hig * private entrance to each guest eoom speed Internet access 1. Match each description with the correct picture. 2. Check your answers to Crowne Plaza Coogee Beach, Sydney, Australia Aconterence ata beachside hotel just a few lilometres fam cena Syaney does" sound {he hard work especially when you ied out that you won be expected to veor formal sine sus and that aul ogame of entertainment has been arranged bythe hotel The Crowne Plaza has 2 tly equipped business cee, which s curently being «extended. The hote’s 200 rooms are designed to meotthe noods ofthe international business traeler At roomshave ai-coiitoning, sateiteTV. and high-speed internet acpes. ‘Ther also pool anda spa, and anew fitness centre has recently been opened. Butts the ‘abulous location next tthe oveen that makes ‘the hotel special Corference delegates seom to age that business anc pleasure are combined pertecty The feedback questionnaire ask, "ere you coked ater during your stay?" We ween just trated tke guess; wrote one delegate from the Netherlanes, We were Veated ike ryaty =) Ourtravel correspondent, Leon Martignac, visits - Desert Resort ‘Mandawa, Rajasthan, Indi Twas the cemel ride into the desert on my first evening that convinced me Id found -somew/tere fantastic. The stress of madern life ‘was soon forgotten as my fellow guests end | ‘were met bya group of guides and camels, and ‘were transported into a peaceful moonlit world ‘Am | being taken back intime?”| thought. The Desen Resort's siwatec in the heartot the Rajasthan Desert Facilities re simple. The tel was built as a tourist village with twenty. ‘te secluded cottages, each wit is own priv entrance. The cotages have been fitted with modern bathrooms, and there's a swimming ‘B00, ut the resort hasn't been updated to include any unnecessary facites.| nope this policy won'tbe changed. The desert the moonlight, and the camels are all youneed. @ _@ 5.1 Listen to part of a welcoming speech by the business manager of the Crowne Plaza hotel, welcoming a group of delegates to a conference. What does he say about 1 another conference? conditioning! 2 cofiee, tea, and cold drinks? 6 the conference programme? 3 Tunch? 7 the temporary business centre? 8 breakt, 4 drinks this evening? @ G5. Listenagain and complete the extracts atthe hotel ac the same timeas this one un the calé which conference suite 1 Another conference 2 Coffee, tea, and cold drinks ____all d __ just inside the main entrance to 0 join the management for drinks by the 3 This evening, you swimming pool 4 matt the business centre before lunchtime. Some of the rooms at the moment. atre » but id it's a little warmer than usual in here because the air-conditioning in However the work The updated programme 6 The business servic ere is a temporary business centre, which Passives: Present im the seception area. Present Continuous, pI Present Perfect Simple, Past Simple, Will Future Read the sentences below. Answer the questions. This evening you are invited to join the ‘management for drinks by the swimming pool. b The General Manager nsnally makes 2 short welcome speech. € Unfortunately, one of the main speakers has cancelled her talk. dd Acouple ofthe sessions have been cancelled or rescheduled. © The updated programme is being printed at the £ My colleague Anna is working on it g Will we be shown show round the fitness centre? h The Fitness Contre Manager will come to the pre dinner drinks party as well i Mynnewspaper wasn't delivered to my room this morning. j Did you request it at reception last night? 1. Match the sentences with the correct tense: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, Past Simple, Will Future. ‘Which sentences are passive and which are active? When do we use the passive form? Find other examples of the passive in the hotel articles, 5. How do we form questions and negatives in the passive? (GQ Pose Book pe. 89 units @ 49 50 @ units Practice @ _ Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of the verb in brackets. Decide whether the verb needs to be active or passive, 1 The manager and staff —__ (hope) you have a pleasant stay. 2 Reminder: guests __ (ask) to place all valuables inthe safery deposit box. 3 Acomplimentary bus service (take) guests to the city centre every day. 4 Currently the main meeting room ___ (redecorate). 5 We ___ (install) another six computer terminals this week. 6 This way, madam. Breakfast ____(serve) on the terrace. 7 ‘Recently the meeting rooms __(ft| with multimedia presentation equipment. 8 We apologize, but because of the had weather we ______ (cancel) the excursion to the mouatains, 9 Your room (not clean) yet. 10 ‘There wasa lot of building work going on. Every morning we = (wake up) by the noise. AL Thehotel _ (build) in the year 2000, 12 The hotel (open) a fitness centre in 2002. 13 When I get back next week,T____ ask} to write a report for my manager. 14 You (give) a complete invoice tomorrow whea you check out. 15 T'm sorry about that: in future the cleaning staff —_ (disturb) you in the mornings. Complete questions 1-4 about Misién del Sol hotel, and questions 5-8 about Crowne Plaza hotel. Use the correct form of the verb in the passive. 1 Where/ hotel / locate)? _ —_ 80km south of Mexico City. 2. What / open /next year? ‘A new meditation centre. 3 What /guests/ (request) /t0 wear? Light-coloured clothes in natural fibres 4 How/bedrooms | (furnish)? sachet ts ove Ina simple way. S What /entertainment / (arrange)? = a A fall programme. 6 What currently /(extend)? a tiaras “ The business centre. 7 What/recently (open)? A new fitness centre 8 How/one delegate /(teeat)? Like royalty. Workin pairs. Make similar questions for each other about the Desert Resort hotel. @ Read the press release about the new Metropolitan Arts and Leisure C Complete the texr using the correct form of the verbs in brackets, Arts and Leisure Centre The Metropolitan ts ard Leisure Centre (MALO is an exciting new rivetsde development. Ie (stant) five yoars ago, ‘and wil bring new life toa disused industrial area ofthe city. At the moment, work * (tll continue), but when it finish) in sis month time, the community “ (povie) with an art gallery, exhibition spa national museum, a multiplex cinema, and a modem sports and Fitness centre. A rarge of stops. bars, and calés {also plan). The Cent * (open) by the Mayor, who” nest) a special aunch party © Make alist of the stages you think were involved in the MALC projec. Examples, Buy di cd industrial area (Ask for goveramont approval / Appoint the architects @ Work in pairs, Student A and Student B. StudentA 1 Read Datafile A below, 2 Wri the questions you need 1o ask Student B to complete the missing information on the MALC project. 3 Ask you Project update History buy disused industrial area receive government approval appoint architects construct new buildings stant building new subwey station Recent developments (the last six months) finish building subway station build multiplex cinema prepare exhibition snace ‘Work in progress (this month) install gym equipment organize museum galleries install cinema seating. Future schedule next month pfing promotional material invite press for preview organize launch party and answer Student B's, i question 5 yeers ago e.g. When was the area bought? 4 yearsago ‘astyeat complete e.g. Has the subway station complete been butt? yes e.g. Is the gym equipment being = installed? no next week 4g When will the promotional 3 ‘material be printed? flext month UNITS @ 61 Vv Jilaviva information on the MALC project. 2. Write the questions you need to ask Student A to complete the missing, 3. Ask your questions and answer Student A's, 1. Read Datafile B below. Student B irplace of work or study arhome a town or city in your country @ Work in groups. Choose one of these topics. and will be made in the topic are being made, ‘What changes have been made, $f the group. for the MALC project in atea you have chosen? Discuss them with other members o Prepare a project report with headings like the one 52 @ UNITS o Leisure and fitness activities fi .Word combinations How do youlike to spend your free time after working hard? Do you do any of these activities? Which ones do you think are the most interesting? Discuss with a partner. * Igo swimming in the evenings. I change out of my work clothes and then go for a cycle-ride, Pmtaking a part-time course in Japanese, so do homework most weekends. play for a local soccer team and we train once a week. 1 goto the gym. Sometimes | doa workout and sometimes Ido yoga - I'm taking classes in yoga at the momen. + Itook up basketball a year ago and now I play every Saturday. ‘+ Tjoined a cock-climbing club a few months ago, so on Sundays Igo to a special centre with a climbing wall. ‘+ Ido abit of acsing, I'm taking part in a play at the local theatre at the moment. Match the verbs in A with the nounsin B. A B go radu go for + anactivity (gerund form) got + ateam join + ahobby or incesest play + anaction play for +2 play orcompetition +a place Match the activities in the box with the verbs and nouns in @. Example go + an activity (gerund form): dancing, jogging, horse-riding, bowling dancing rugby anathletics competition run netball thedrivingrange Caichi —alocalsoftballteam jogging horse-riding thespa pottery classes.» awalk bowling a. computer course i anewhobby — tennis ‘Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Which of the activities in @ and © 1 have you never done? 2 have you done over the last week? 3. do you think are the best for making you fit? 4 do you think are the best for relaxation? 5 exercise both body and mind? Work in pairs. Make a list (using the correct verb + noun combinations) of all the leisure and fitness activities you do each week/month. Ask questions to find out more about each other's list of activities. Discuss in groups. 1. What different leisure or fitness activities are popular in your country a. with young people? b with older people? © with men? with women? 2 Are there any which are not played or done in other countries? unirs @ 59 54 @ UNITS Fit to work Work in groups. Discuss the questions 1 2 ‘What things to encourage health and fitness could youhave or doin the workplace Do you socialize with people from your place of work or study? Do any sports or other activities with them? Are there any organized leisure programmes or activities at your place of work or study? n the café/restaurant? inside the building in gen at your desk or workstation? outside the building? in the staff roor/lounge? come together ina aan action which is, the use of natural traditional, normal (adi.) specially created to suita particular person (adi.) ready with fall attention (adj) ‘ea problem or improve a situation (nown) olling pain or rubbing into the body (acun) © Workin groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What do you think of che Ford Company's policy on encouragi fitness? 2 What are the advantages 2 for the employer: b for the employee? 3. Can you think of any disadvantages? @ _ Read the information about two businesspeople. What differences do you think there are hetween their lifestyles? How do you think they spend their leisure time Abib Cury isin his 20s ond works in marketing company in Sao Paolo, Brazil, He comes from largo family, butisn'i married and doesn't haveany children, Cac Da Chengie adirector olalarge import company in the southern city of Kacshiung, Taiwan. Hele 49 aud manied with one son, His wife isthe manager of a lecel bakery @ @ 82 Listen to Abib Cury and Gao Da Cheung talking about their health and ores about eheir lifestyles under the following headings .d when they do Biness routines. Mak (include details of what they do, where they doi Abib Cury GaoDa Choung momning activities breakiast lunch dinner © Workin puts and discuss the questions 1 Whick 2. How is your lifestyle similar or different? of the two men do you think has the healthier lifestyle? Why © Work in groups. 1 Does your company programme? What activities does i inc or place of work have a staff welfare policy and Jude? -amme for your own or an imaginary 2 Plan a new staff welfare policy and proj company 3. Present your ideas to the otter groups. uNITs @ 56 @ UNITS Les ing recorded messages. Using mobile phones Leaving recorded messages @ 53 Listen to five pre-recorded answerphone messages (1-5). Match them with the following descriptions. a. Eric Carlin’s answerphone message. bb Rose's answerphone message (at home}. € An automated voice mail message. 4 The answerphone message froma travel company: € Acomputer company helpline. ® 83 Listen to the messages again. Tick the sentence you hear. 1 Well get back to you as soon as possible. / We'll call you back as soon as possible. 2 The office is closed for a moment. | The office is closed at the moment. 3. Please talc after the tone. / Please speak after the tone, 4 ‘The person you called is unavailable. / The person you called is not available. 5. All our operators are busy right now. / Al our operators are busy just now, @ 54 Lisen to four recorded messages. Decide which of the answerphone messages in @ they are replying to. @ 544 Listen again and complere the messages 1D trisisa * Maria Ferrando. This 's Rosa Lanson. 1 ® thank you forall the help and information you gave us. I'm going to research a few things and then we'll___ another meeting. Thanks again Helle this s Rosa Larson on * 11m having trouble connecting up tothe Internet - my computer keeps crashing. Could you soon, please? i's justatter “Thanks Hi tic Its Rosa. 've got information from the Internet about ‘the places Maria suggested, so we ought to have another meeting, Could you later this week? Thurséay or Friday would be best if you could make it then. Call me when you ____‘.Bye! 4 | Hi Pose. tts ric. | [matreid | can't make Thursday or Friday ‘morning, but Friday afternoon's OK, How does that sound? = any time from twoo'clock, Bye. QE Hk. 25-6 Pronunciation 1G 86 Listen to Rosa’s message to Eric again. Notice how she stresses the words that carry important information. Hi Bric. e's Rosa. I've gotsome more information from the Intemer about the places Maria suggested, so we ough to have another meeting Could you manage later this week? Thucsday oF 3 Look at these notes made by Eric when listening to the other messages on his answerphone, Write messages | and 2 as complete sentences. Message 1 George ~ mest bar of Gi Wednesday ~ 6 p.m Message 2. Peter - can't make ~ squash— tomorrow instead? nd Hotel ~ Eriday would be best if you could makeitthen. Call me when you get a moment. Bye!” 4 In pais, practise the complete messages and stressing the important words. 2 In pairs practise Rosa’ message, stressing the important words. © Workin pairs 1 Take tums to leave each other recorded messages. The receiver should make notes about the message, but obviously mustn't interrupt! Here are some ideas for messages — but you can also think of your own. ‘¢ Make changes to the agenda of a meeting, + Request information on new productvservices. * Ask about howa business trip w ‘© Request a reference for a former employee 2 Foreach of the messages you receive senda return message to your partner's answerphone Using mobile phones Workin pairs. 1 What are the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones compared to Iand-lines? What problems can you have when usinga mobile phone? 2. What other thingscan mobile phones be used for apart from just talking to another person? @ 88 Listen to these extracts from a conversation on a mobile phone. In each case, what problem does the speaker have? @® 58 Listen again and complete the sentences. 1 you. 2 You're 3 ______ orale a the moment. 4 battey’s rn s eal you back? 6 U'mafraid | justthen. — repeat that? 8 was that? @ Choose one of the situations from @ above. Phone your parmer. Start the ‘conversation normally, but then introduce one of the problems identified in @ atore © Change roles and repeat the activity with a different situation and problem. UNITS @ 57 NIT6 AGENDA » Past Simple, Past Continuous. Past Perfect Home and away 3, Sound le. Percual management crm o so @ UNITS Gap years for adults » Requests and offers. Exchanging information Work in geoups. Discuss the questions. 1 2 Do you know anyone who has moved to another country to live and work? Did they have any problems? What difficulties might someone have when they move to another country? How is living in another country different from just visiting a country for a short period Look at the photographs and read the information. In pairs, discuss the questions, 1 2 What problems do you think César Murillo and Chris Stewart had? What do you think they like about their new lives? G} 6-1 Listen to an interview with César Murillo. Answer the questions. ‘When did he move to London? What did he do before coming to London? How is teaching in London different from teaching in Spai What problems did he find? What does he like about London? Does he still enjoy his life in London? @ 62 Listen to.an interview with Chris Stewart, Tick T (true) or F (false). He was a guitarist wich a band called ‘Genesis’. ‘When he was ata party to China, was asked to write a travel guide He worked as a grape-picker in Seville He moved to Andalucia in 1988. He had no experience of farming. 00000 O- 00000 O- He ctill enjoys what he does, ee! © © 61,62 Liscen again and complete extracts 1-4, c 1 “to London in 1998.1__* English Literatur university in the south of Spain when | “the chance to.come to the ie to make @ new start and London seemed like the ideal place 2. P Atthe beginning it was difficult It __*completely ferent from what! ____* before. The pupils came from so many different backgrounds and cultures, and a lot of them were from very peor families. There werealso problems of discipline and classroom behaviour.|___ one day whena pupil “and shouted, This is boring’, and walked out. That type of thing ___ in Spain Chris 3 ft suppose it in 1973, when |__* in France. ‘grapeson the vendange, when! ____* an American woman. She told me how wonderful Seville was, especially asa place to study the guitar. When the grape-picking _,l immediately hitened to ‘Sevile, and fel in ove with the place, ‘Ana and| in England for many years when we here, so we knew about sheep and farming, |___“toshear sheep at the age of 21, for example. But there was, and sili, an awful lat to learn, They ‘were very hard but happy days. Past Simple, Past Continuous Read the examples and answer the questions. ‘© Lwas teaching one day when a pupil stood up and shouted, “This is boring’, and walked out. ‘+ Twas sitting at home when the phone rang, 1 Which verbs express completed actions in the past? 2 Which verbs expzess an incomplete activity that was in progress over a period of time in the past? 3. Which verbs arein the Past Continuous tense? 4 How is the Past Continuous formed? Sperone. 2-10 Past Simple, Past Perfect Read the examples and answer the questions. ‘+ Before Iwent back to university, 'd taught for five years in a Catholic school. © Ana and I had already farmed in England when we came here. 1 Which of the two actions happened first - going back to university or teaching in the first example, farming oF coming here in the second? 2 Which verbs are in the Past Perfect tense? 3 How is the Past Perfect formed? GRaaBam.0 Find other examples of these tense combinations in the two interviews. (Look ar 6.1 and 620 p. 136.) UNITs @ 59 Practice @ Complete the sentences about César Murillo. Use the verb in brackets in either the Past Simple or Past Continuovs. Lt teach) in Spain when —__ (decide) to go back to university 2 When! study), ‘meet) an English teacher from London. 31 see) a poster advertising cheap fights to the UK while (wait) at the train station, 41 (live) in Kent when | ____ (have) an offer ofa job in London. 5 When! (arrive), schools in London (go through) a difficult 6t really (enjoy) my frst lesson when the bell ring) 7 When | (start) my teachingjob, | (live) in temporary 8 While (read) the newspaper, (see) an advert fora flat-share. @ _Lookarthe biographical information about Alison MacDonald, a Scorish engineer who settled in Canada. Use the Past Simple and Past Perfect to write sentences about Alison's lif Examples When Alison was born, her parents had already brought up two other children. Her family had moved to Glasgow by the time she started school. born Isle of Skye, Scotland (two older brothers, born 1956 and 1958) family moved to Glasgow. Scotland started school finished school passed all her Higher exams ‘worked ona farm in Australia for a year started Glasgow University: studied Civil Engineering took her Master's degree, Macquarie University, Canada ‘married her boyfriend (Stewart); settled in Vancouver, Canada started work for a Canadian engineering company son born (Callum) returned to work promoted toasenior management position daughter born (Moira) visited Scotland for a 3-month vacation with family © Workin pairs. Write similar biographical information about yourself (or someone you know well). Make sentences about each other’ lives usin Simple and Past Pecfect he Pas 60 @ UNITE Read the extract from Chris Stewart’s book about life on his farm in Andalucia, ‘Complete the sentences using the correct tense of the verb in brackets, eee as gspaiceree sien DAY Teed ces aos ar cone pe font hours | no. Domingo aad his wife Antonia Bian er at hs igi eros oe a ® Nn lock I =e " (have) beat By 8 cock cide y10ciebck1 (fms) all my usual moming tasks ~s0 I was able to get everything ready to | start mynew career. When Ana —— § (come) back from the E ee _—________ * (prepare) pens, pencils, : oars and T (sit) down, ready to write. i _1 (orite) my first words when T a " (ee)a ® (escape) from the ee the field, Iwas exhausted and I__* (lose) thedesire to write, So much for my frst morningasa writer! ‘Work in groups. Take turns to think of as many strange and amusing explanations for these events as you can. Use the Past Perfect to describe them. Example I missed the meeting because I had gone to the wrong company, 1 I didn’t hear the phone ... 2 missed the last bus home 3. Hismanager wanted to talk tobi 4 The conference was cancelled 5. She wasinvited to meet the President... 6 The airport was closed ... 7 My desk wasn't where it usually is... 8 Thecomputer crashed ... ‘Work in groups. Think of something you were doing at a particular time last week. Tell the others in the group the time only. They have six questions to try to ‘guess the activity. Examples Between 7 pm. and 8 p.m. lastnight. Were you cooking dinner? Were you working out at the gym? Think about an important decision that you have made in your life for example, about education, work, or relationships. 1. Where were you and what were you doing when you made the decision? 2. How did your life change as a result of the decision? 3. Whathad your life been like before you made it? Describe your important decision to a partnes, units @ 61 Gerunds file. Personal management @ 1 Personal Management Solutions isa company that helps people make positive changes in the way they manage theit lives. Look at the advertisement. What main piece of advice does it give? Do you think it’s good advice? examples of verb + gerund and verb + preposition + gerund. Write them in columns I and 2 of the table opposite ‘Too much paperwork? + Isyour desk covered with documents? Itmayjust be your That's just gngsimple example. We can suggest doing 2 personal management many othérthiniss. l'yotenot very good at planning thatneedsimproving. how to manage your| fime, or if you're just Wercoommend fllowing interested in finding o@@aat : some basicrules. personal management, then £, == . contact us. Ifyou don't For example write a “destruction date’ onevery 7 unimportant document. Mayhe you're sed to keeping every piece ofpaper you receive. But how much time do you spend looking for things because your desk is untidy courfiling cabinets full? Here's a simple piece of advice: avoid filing a task you've finished working oa without writing date when you can throw itaway. Maybe the ‘destruction date’ is one week. ane month, or one year in the future. When you next open your fling . fibnetandthedatehaspased joucanenjey nzoving DOM't delayl useless paperwork away. You'll need bigger office ifyou Call Personal Management Solutionson keop putting it off 0448 897676 rind answeringa few simple questions about yourjob, we ean help you ~and youcan look forward to living and working in a more positive eavironment @ 1 Read another of Personal Management Solutions’ advertisements. What main idea does i give about positive change? Do you think the idea is helpful? 2. Find examples of verb + infinitive or gerund, Write them in column 3 of the rable opposi Positive chang ‘Do you ever stop to think how you could make a positive change? It’s amazing how many people seem to complain about their situation. They would like tobe different - moreinteresting exciting, or attractive ~ but they can’tfind a way tomake it happen, Maybe it's because they remember being told by their parents or teachers that ‘youaze who you are’. They remember toturnon the computer in the morning, but they don't rememser to think creatively about themselves. Well, now you can stop worrying. You don't need to put up with being the same forever. We have the solution, We love thinking of ereative analogies that suit individuals, and we would love to kelp you. It’s easy really. Forexample justanswer these questions: Are you a Mini but would like to be a Mercedes? Do you like thinking of yourself as light blae but feel you're actually dazk grey? We can help you make a positive change by looking at how to take the steps in between, How many steps you can take inthe rightdirection willbe up to you Call Personal Management Solutionson 0443 897676 62 @ unite eesecetaiiis tiseree SHINE an: 3. Which columa do you think these verbs go into? prefer wouldprefer hate would hate Grammar quiz ‘Complete the rules. Write gerund or infinitive, 1 When we use would with love, like, hate, and prefer, the form of the ver which follows is usually the — 2 When we use love, like, hate, and prefer to refer toa yeneral situation, the form of the verb which follows is usually the 3. With remember, when the remembering happens before the action itis followed by the 4 When the remembering happens after the action itis followed by the 5 When stop means not do any longer, itis followed by the 6 When stop means interrupt one activity in order to do another, itis followed by the QBPiwsias0010.7 Complete the sentences. Write the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in brackets. 1 Doyou remember hhim when we were in Copenhagen? (see) 2, Will you remember ___ and confirm the meeting for next Tuesday? (write) 3 Ae working on te new projec al mong, he stopped —_____ lunch, have) 4 | don’t play football any more. I stopped five years ago. (play) ‘Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1. Whar things do you remember doing when you were younger? 2. What activities did you do in the past, but have now stopped doing? ‘Work in pairs. Prepare eight questions about personal management using verbs from the table. Then change pairs and interview your partner, Examples How much time do you spend tidying your desk each week? What are you particularly good at doing in your job or study? How would you love to be different? UNIT 6 @ 63 1 1 4 ‘Aap yeartor adutts is constructive time out it can be anywhere, doing anything and everything. You could be travelling round the world, building o ‘sohoolin Chie, doing alternative work ‘experience, Wingon abeach in Fiji or simply having enw look at your hfe. ‘Traditionally a gap year was viewed asa student activity taking an axtended breakbefore university. Itusually involved travel and, as result, was only done by people fromweatthy familias abloto pay fortho axporianco. Inthe UK, both Princes Willian end Harry took gap years tetore starting university ot miltary raining. Horvever, gap year now offers something for everyone: fr young people, or foralder people reaching retirement for peoplewho don'twart ¢ career, but just wanttotake Ife one stage ata ‘time, orfor peonlein steady careers. Many ton comparies regartgortfolio careers’ ofthis kind a5 4 very positive thing. our CV hes en interesting range of activtiesitcan often make ‘ou more emplayabie. Gap years for adults a Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. Read the article What is a gap year for adults? and the three adverts, Work in pairs and answer the questions. What did you do afer school or university, and before starting work? What isthe best time of life to travel or spend time in another country? What isthe longest holiday you have ever taken from work? What did you d How isa gap year for adults different from a traditional gap year? Why do employers think gap years are a good idea? Would you like to take a gap year as an adult? If yes, what would you like to do? Where would you like to go? Which, if any, of the three areas a, b, or c would you choo: your choice. tive reasons for OH a its f= Improve "*rstimeourowor | TE BEE inancther country lea YOUP JOD cewarcing experience. skills! sticise Suen eal el of ich i inproveyurob prespac hen youre Cocos nies teachers neal ereyoe can bend and other wl bref frmyeurowvedge endl ” Save the planet! | There are thousands of conservation | projects running globally trom close to. | hhome to the deepest darkest comer of the Amazon. YOU can volunteer and help make a difference. See the world Round-the-world ticket are flexible can be cheaper than you think, Decide the places you really want to visit a then build your itinerary around thea Ifyou inelude some work experience you go, you'll nat only See the sights youllilive theculture. i { Opportunities range from working on wildlife reserves in South Africa to conserving the coral reefs of Malaysia, : { e Doe Seo tid choose (a, b, or c from @)? Der earn Ceo ea oma Peete need Why did they take a gap year? Peete Seca id What was the worst bit? What do they do now? @ 63 Lise views with three people who took a exp yea: Make notes to complete the first part of the table = A - pa | Peete Peet tid partes er’ in and make notes @ 68 Listen o so complete the second part of the tal Work in pairs. Sort the adjectives in the box into six pairs with opposite meanings, Use a dictionary if necessary adventurous ambitious. cautious hard-working lazy optimistic pessimistic — reckless relaxed unadventurous _unambitious uptight Now answer these questions. 1 Which of the adjectives hest describe Dean, Alicia, and Hortense? 2 Which of the adj stives best describe you 3. Think of people you know who you could describe with each of the adjectives. Tell your partner about them ‘Work in groups. Design the perfect gap year for each other. Think about the adjectives in @ and use the suggestions below. * travel round the world (Which route? Which countries?) + voluntary workin an developing country (Doing what exactly? Which country?) * learn a completely different skill (What skill? Where «study a foreign language inthe host country (Which language? Which country? Present your ideas to the rest of the class. UNITS @ 6 Can you. (+-ing)? Do you think you could Could you... ? Td like you to Do you mind (+ -ing)? 66 @ UNITS | Would you mind . Requests and offers. Exchanging information ‘Workin pairs. Which of the phrasesin the box would you use to make the requests below? Give reasons for your choice. Ask a colleague to translate a letter for you 2 friend to dosome supermarket shopping for you. your secretary to work three hours overtime this week. 2 colleague to give youa lift to the train station. your secretary to make some photocopies. yourson or daughter to tidy their bed 2 calleague to help you move some office furniture. a friend to water your houseplanss whileyou're on holiday. @VAuaune @ 64 Listen to a conversation between Rosa and Claire. Write the information Rosa asks Claire to get @ 64 Listen again. Write other phrases Rosa and Claire use under the correct beading below. Requests and offers Requesting, Agreeing Could you ...? Yes, of course. Offering Accepting Declining ‘Would youlike me to ...2| Yes, ifyou could. | Thanks, but you needn't bother, What phrases can you use to refuse a request? How do we begin @ refusal and what do we add to sound polite? ‘Work in pairs, You are colleagues. Practise making and responding to requests. Add two more requests each. Give reason when you refuse a request. Student A Student B Ask Student B 1 tobelp you translate a document. Agree. 2 togive youa liftto the airport. Refuse. Student B Student A Ask Student A to 1 explain a new computer system. Agree. 2 look aftera visitor next week. Refuse. ‘Work in pairs. You are preparing for a seminar, Practise making and responding to offers. Givea reason when you decline an offer. Add one more request each, Student A Student B Offer 1 to setup the andio-visual equipment. Accept. 2 to check the number of participants. Decline. Student B Student A Offer 1 to open the windows Decline 2 to get supplics of stationery. @ > @ 65 Listen to the phone call Claire makes to Executive Travel Services. Write the times of flights in her notebook. FLUGHTT From Te Day/oate Deparcace Arrival Cod Pillar Canday and i Biber ‘eile Teiday ath Senile Valencin ‘Friday 3th : valonwia — Barcelona Sararday bth i ‘wnday sch © G@ 68 Listen again. Write the other phrases Claire and Jan use under the correct heading below. Exchanging information Asking Checking Tdlikesome information on... | That's... is it? Confirming Correcting Showing understanding Yes, that’s right. Pronunciation 3 G 68 Look atthe examples of corrections and thea listen 1 @ 66 Listentothe corrections. Which word is emphasized? 1 No,not the 7th, the 17th. 2. No, not Mélaga, Madrid. 3 No,nor 10.35, 10.25. 2 @ 627 Listen to the corrections, Circle the So, travelling on the 7th ... (Sth) No, not the 7th, the Sth. b So, departing at 11.45... (11.35) No, not 11.45, 1135. 4 @ 68 Listen and correct the mistakes you hear using the information below. You will then hear correct information. Rares 1 4th 14th 4 Frankfurt Berlin 1 30th 4 Toronto 2 30th 13¢h 5 1245 12.30 2 19h 5 13.45 3 Ziirich Geneva 6 07.30 07.20 3 Rome 6 15.50 © Rewrite the indirece questions as direct questions. 1 Could you tell me what time the 10.30 flight from Paris will arrive? 2. Do you know if there are any cancellations on the 8 a.m. flight to Moscow? 3 Td like ro know where can get some foreign currency. 4 Can you tell me where you bought your tax-free goods? © Compare the indirect and direct questions in @. Answer the questions. 1. What is the difference inthe form of the verb and the word order? 2. Which are usually more police: director indirect questions? 3. Which do we use more at the beginning of a conversation? @ Rewrite the direct questionsas indirect questions. Use introductory plirases from @, 1 Are there any seats available on that fight? 2 Has che plane from London Heathrow arrived yet? 3 Is there a connecting flight to Manchester? 4. Which terminal should I go to? UNITS @ 67 UNIT 7 AGENDA ‘Modal verbs: mutimustn'tineednt, have to/need to “4 Bridging the culture gap > cy deceptions fle 2 @ UNIT? ‘tish English and American English International outsourcing Giving talks and presentations Look at the heading from a conference programme. Ima conference. “Doing business in different countries and cultures ne you are going to this pena eae 1. What topics do you expect to be on the programme? 2, What practical information do you need about attending the conference? Read the extract from the conference advice sheets. Check your answers to guestion 2 in Q. Arrival and registration : = ‘Your hote! will advise you on public transportation from your hotel to the ‘Moscone Conference Center Altemativey, yoo can calf the fllowingiol-fee tancab numbers: 626 2245, 648-4444, 01 6731414, Conference teistration opens. 10.0008 Seprember Sth at Desk ofthe "Moscone Center South, Please bring your eegistration documents with you. You are going o lis on between a young Chinese businessman and his English language teacher. Wu Chao is about to leave for the conference in San Francisco and Mike Millard is Canadian, bu snow based in China Before you listen discuss what advice you think Mike will give Wu Chao oa these topics about doing business with Americans speed of negotiation sensitivity to cultural differences individual initiative and achievement making decisions, periods of silence in meetings social formalities @ 71 Listen to the first part of the conversation and check your answers in @. @ 14 Listen again, Complete the sentences 1 Eknow be prepared for things to be very different. 2 You ‘expect the way of doing business to be the same. 3 You ____ remember that American business culture is largely individualistic. 4 You think clearly and quickly when you're doing business. 5 You worry. In American business culture, they stick to the rules 6 You spend a long time on social formalities. e @ 72 Listen to the second part of the conversation. What advice or information does Mike give Wu Chao about 1. general conversation topi 2 asking personal questions? 3 ifyou don’t understand what someone is saying to you? 4 being on time? @ @ 22 Listen again, Complete the 1 You You You You You You You tences. ask about a person’s job in general terms. ask a person how old they aze. ask a few questions about her husband and children. find you don’t understand everything people are saying. stop the person you're talking to and ask for clasification, be invited for a cound of got practise your go before you go. it’s neeessarylobligatory ‘Write the modal verbs from @ and @ nex: to the appropriate meaning, it’s not necessary/obligatory it’s necessary/obligatory not to do it it’s permitted 1 2 3 4 it’s possible s 6 itsadvisable isnotadvisable Modal verbs, have toineed to Read theexamples. Answer the questions and complete the rules. must/mustn'tineedn’t » [must go and pack. © What else must I be careful about? © Youmustn’t ask questions that are too personal, * Youneedn't worry. In American business ccultare, they stick to the rules. have to{need to © Youbave to be on time for meetings and business appointments. * You need to think clearly and quickly. Do I have to be on time for everything? * DoJ need to know about American popular culture? + Youdon't have to arrive exactly on time for parties and social occasions. © You don't need to spend along time on social formalities. i 2 3 4 How do we make questions with paust? ‘How do we make questions and negatives with ‘other modal verbs, eg. can, could, may, might, should? How do we make questions and negatives with have to and need to? ‘What is the Past Simple form of have to? Write mustn't or needn't. _____istsed to express no necessity oF obligation to do something. is used to express necessity or obligation not to do something, Write have to, need to, ox must. Piressibscinn ______ usually expresses the personal opinion of the speaker about what is necessary or obligatory. _ usually expresses a general ligation outside the control of the speaker, or an obligation based on a rule ot law. is used in both contexts to express necessity. UNIT? @ © Practice @ Read this email from the Haman Resources department of a company to their delegate for the San Francisco conference. Choose the best alternatives, BEE John Livitsky f) sohn, | || Justa tew last-minute reminders aboutthe conference. According tothe schedule, you | hove to/must' register atthe corferonce et 10 o'eleck. know you're very interested in Argentina, so you have to/must” sign up for the optional | ‘session on South America. As fer as the other sessions are concerned, you don'tneed tolmustn't worry - you can choose. The Managing Director would Ike you to meet with Jacques Pétain.mustn tineedn't' be a formal meating -a chatin the bara OK # you want, However, you mustn’Uneedi’t tel him ebout our pias in Argertina, as they're hight confidential ‘You don't have to/mustn' take any brochures, but you can take a few ityou want. (On a more personal note, as Ikrow you haven't bean to San Francisco betore, you | mustihave to’ pack some warm clothes. It can get quite coo! in the everings. Also | smoking: youdion't need tofmustn'® smoke anywhere in public buldings ~ they're very strict about it. One lest thing - you don't have to/mustn'? forget your registration form [Good tuck! Glenys Pronunciation 1 G@ 73 Listen and write the number of words you hear in the sentences. Count contractions (e.g. dem) as one word. 1 3 2 i as ech Eg 3 2 G 78 Listen again and complete the sentences. 1 go tothe talk 5 We roack him, 2 You belate 6 Do carly tomorrow? 3 You about me, Th very hard. 4 You take an umbrella. 8 What should do? 3 G 73 Listen again and cepeat afte each sentence @ unit? faliowed jebligatory lecommended work longhours make a long journey to work use yourspokea English at work send emails in English use computer a lor get upeacly do the housework go abroad in business make a lor of phone calls do repairs around the house @ G74 Listento some recorded information about driving and perkingin Sun Francisco 1 Complete the sentences with words from the box. A full international driving license and auto insurance are for all drivers. b The wearing of seat belts is — © eis __ to drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol. 4 leis ____ to stop or park at red curbs at any time, ¢ Only commercial vehicles are ____ to load at yellow curbs. f Allvehicles are ____costop at green curbs for ¢ maximum of ten minutes The following tips are ______ for tourists driving in the Bay Area. Which sentences express: permission, advice, obligation, obligation not ro do something? 3. Rephrase each extract as if you were speaking directly to the person. 4 What advice about driving would you give people visiting your country? Think about vehicle safery and general driving etiquette, as well as driving and parking laws, © Rewrite these sentences where necessary so they are true for your country. 1 Everyone has to have an identity card. 2. Smoking in restaurants and barsis forbidden. 3 You mustn’t use mobile phones in public places like restaurants and museuras orart galleries, You are not allowed to go into a bar serving alcohol if you are under 18. You have to buy a ticket before you geton a bus. People from other countries do not need a visa to ener the country. You have to pay for your tuition fees if you go to university You are not allowed to owna gun without a special licence. © Work in pairs. Ask your partner questions about the activities in the box, or other activities. Use have to in different tenses. Then complete sentences 1-8. Examples Do you have to work at the weekends? Did you have t0 use your English yesterday? Will you have to work late tomorrow? My partner has had to hasn't had to ae 4 has to ___ 2 doesn't haveto 3 hedto_—__—_— 4 didn’thave to will haveto won't have to City descriptions file. British English and American English © Whar do you know about San Francisco? Look at the photographs to help you Make notes under the headings inthe box Transport Culture/entertainment Eating/drinkin, Businessfindusery @ 1 Read the description of San Francisco. Add information tothe five 2. Find places and things that are alsoin your town or city cadingsin@ skyscrapers, financial district and things mentioned in the textare not in your town or city? ite tana arr tec " “Oren, the wide vanity ofcaling establishments especialy {hi Geldon Gato Stat an hg sorth-eatby the Srreeeciserosapaestectese = san’ Franco as once aamallspaie sing "| Ta. Nom euch alan and the Misi village. Ithasnow grovini | very safeand clean ¢ “swith visitors enjoying ofthis 72 @ UNIT? cosmopolitan cold dramatic accessible safe stunning fascinating ‘al extensive interesting exciting quick chilly cheap soaring, w Example small fishing » hat do each of he adjectives in the box describe in the text? Match these adjectives in the box with their opposites in the box in @. dirty dangerous dull_—_boring noisy warm limited expensive 1 Look at these paies of words. Which one is American English and which one is British English? Use an English—English dictionary to help you. a downtown/city centre ¢ elevatorilife b shopping mall/shopping centre f taxileab © pavemenv/sidewalk g freewayimotorway d flat/apartment h gasiperrol American English and British English spelling is sometimes dif emt, €.. enter (AmE) and centre (BrE). Can you find any other examples of American English spelling in the San Francisco vext? Do you know any other differences between American English and British English? Work in pairs. Describe the town or city where you live to each other. Use words and phrases in @, @, and @. Look ar the list of common questions asked by visicors when they are in a city for the first time. Tam only inthe city for a day. What can | do? ‘Where cam get the best view of the city? How dol get to (name of famous attraction)? Isthere a discount travel pass Who do | call for hotel reservations? What's the nightlife like? What type of food and cestauraats do you recommend? Where are the main shopping areas? Which of the questions do you think would be asked by a business visitor? How would you reply to a by questions? Role-play with a partner. Jness visitor to your city or town asking these uNniT7 @ 73 Intemational outsourcing The outsourcing option - UCC a RL company money 500 jobs lost as bank relocates call centre to India Indians learn to be Brad and Britney Elocution lessons are helping staff at call centres in India to lose their accents and make them nore effective when speaking to ‘customers from the UK and the USA. Many western companies now use ‘international outsourcing as part of their business operation. Outsourcing is when 2 company’ uses. a aifferent company, fen in another country, to. manage some of their business tasks, particularly telephone help and information fines — known as ‘eal centres” “Most English-speaking epuntries outsource to call centres in. counties like India, where English is spoken. India in fact accounts for 66% of international cal ‘eatte outsourcing. But other courtries, suchas the Philippines, ti Lanke, Mexico, @ unit? ‘Work in pairs. Look at the photograph and headlines. 1 What do you think is meant by ‘international outsourcing 2 Whatisa call contre? 3. Why do some businesses have call centres based in other counts 4 What good or bad experiences have you had phoning call centres? Read these questions In which cou different countries, Poland, Russia, and Romania, aealso.used by western companies, ‘Advances in technology, the falling. cost of intemational phone calls, and the differences in labour costs mean that international call centres are booming. It is estimated that soon there will be more than two million call centre operatives in Indi Call centre eperatives have to be polite friendly, and helpful and they need to bee able to give information clearly and respond to customer questions. They also need to sympnthize with callers and understand their problems. Call centtes go to great lengths to make their staff sound like they are from the country of the person they are speaking t. Zia Sheikh, head and co-founder of Infowave International in Mumbsi said “The ate definitely challenges about bridging the culture gap between someone sitting in Denver and someone supporting them from India who'sprobably nevertravelled outside the country. We believe that it’s important that the caller should feel like they're talking to someone next door They mustn’t know that the voice at the cl eel ic yonrantwers to decsionst'snd 3b @\ Theaanewes tries are call centres often based: Why is the number of international call centres increasing? What characteristics and skills does a good call centre operative need? List the ways in which call centee operatives are helped to relate to callers from other end of the line is from the other side ofthe world, Stil are sometimes given Westem pseudonyms to use such as ‘Brad’ or “Britney” instead of their real names They also watch films from the UK and US to lear about how people lve their lives. One call centre operative, ‘James’, ‘who has never heen to the UK, attended crash course in British culture. His course taught him that ‘what English people Tike mot is going to the pub, and they love horse racing and obviously football, and they like food such as puddings and fish and chips. Call centres aso have clocks set to the ‘time ofthe countries that are calling them so they know whether the caller has just {got up, or is about to have dinner, or g0 ‘out. They have regular weather reports, s thatthey can make conversation about the ‘weather and other topies of small tall So the next time you phone to ask fo information about train times or because ‘you have a problem with your computer, YYou might be talking to someone on the other side of the world. But will you actually know? © Find words or phrases in the text that mean, 1 the ability to speak clearly and correctly, especially in public. 2 a way of pronouncing words connected with the country, area, or social class that youcome from. progress or developments in something. understand and share someone's feelings or problem. make more effort than usual in order to achieve something. new and difficult things that force you to make a lot of effort. ‘a name that you use professionally that is not your real name. a course which gives you a lot of information in a very short rime. desserts, often sweet and heavy. © G@ 75 Listen to this discussion from a business meeting, Complete the rable. Advantag: isadvantages 1 companies 2 home countries 3 countries where call centres are located © Work in groups. Give your own opinion of the advantages and disadvantages of call centres and international outsourcing in general. Compare your views with the other groups. © Work in groups. Produce a training guide for call centre staff dealing with callers fromall over the world, with specific advice about callers from your country. Include the following areas: Compare your guide with other groups. UNIT? @ 75 Giving talks and presenta’ © Workin groups. Make alist of what you ned to doto give a successful talk or © Carol Hants a fee NMP BUSINESS TRAINING SEMINAR Ss Communication skills at work Giving talks and presentations * Preparation * ‘Sigaposting language’ * Delivery presentation, ince consultant for NMP. She gives talks and presentations ona variety of subjects. 1 Whats the title of her talk? 2 What do you think is meant by ‘signposting language’? 5 TRAINING SEMINAR oral Hu Carol Hunt NMP BUSI S$ Communication skills at work Preparation: six key points * Objectives * Organization * Audience * Visual information © Content * Praciice Which of the six key points on Preparation do you think these questions refer to? y ch 1 Who are you talking to 2. What is the aim of your talk? 3 Is the talk clear and logical? Have you practised giving the talk? What is the important information to get across? 6 What do you want to achieve? Have you checked the timing? 8 Can you use the visual display equipment correctly? 9 Are you using ‘signposting language’ that makes the talk easy to follow? 10 Are you showing too much information on the screen o 11 Whatdo they need to know? 12 Are you sure what you are saying is interesting? slide? @ 26 Listen woth fst par of Carol Hunstalk and check your answersin © Carol Hunt gives a handout on ‘Signposting language’. Write the correct heading, for each extract Introducing each section Referring to questions Summarizing a section Introducing the topic Dealing with questions Referring backwards and forwards Concluding Referring to visual information Referring to common knowledge Checking understanding Signposting language {I mentiones eatlier.(the importance of | "lsay more about thi later. ‘We'll come back to this pont later Uyleee Tedey ‘dlke to ..(descrite...) 1 Theaim of my presentation his moming sto .. (explain...) ethat dear? lve dividedny presentation into | py i ‘arctic we questions? My tak vellbe in emore Fist alike 1 .. (qweyou an overnew ot...) as Second, | yy moveon to This screen shows ..(a diagram Then focuson Ifyou lock 2 this graph you con see alter that, | ey coal vith ‘What i interesting inthis side is finaly, consider i Fdliketodraw your aitenton to. (this chart.) 2 $225 Feelfreeto | interupt meif there's anything Asyoukrow yeu con tundersand. ‘Asi msure you're aware Hf you don't mnd, well eave questionstil the end - 3 - That condiudes my talk : So, etS sar with. (otectves..) That bings me tothe end of my presentation. Now letSmove onto... thenext part.) i Ifyou have any questions be pleasedt do my best to Let’ turn our attention to. (the queston of.) answer them Thisleads me to... (my thicpoi .) Thank you for your attertion. Finaly. les consider.) 46 ‘ ' Thats a good pont. i That completes my... (description of.) Fatal etl asted tat uation Can getbackio you onthatlater? mata i den’thave (che information atpreseno. Im aftaidl'm not the right person to answer that. So, 1o summarize .. (Shere are five keypoints ..) © G27 Listeno the last par of Carol Hunt's presentation. Complete the key points about delivery on the screen. __ NMP BUSINESS TRAINING SEMINAR @ > @ 77 Listen again. Make notes to help you remember what the presenter says about the five areas. Then compare notes with a partner, © Work in groups or individually. 1 Prepare a talk or presentation on.a topic of your choice. Use the information in this section to think about how you will organize your talk~e.g. how many sections, what visual aids, what visual information systems, how to deal with ‘questions, what signposting language to use. 2. Give your talk or presentation to the rest of the class UNIT? @ 77 NIT8 On a global scale initive wil» itive Vision and mission ‘WaterAid’ vision is ofa word where everyone has ‘access to safe water and effecive sanitaton, WaterAid 72 @ unire ‘Qurmission is «+ to provide safe domestic water, sanitation, and hygiene education tothe word's poorest people. ‘+ tohelp local organizations tet up low-cost, ‘sustainable projects using apprepriate technology that can be managed by the community tse + toinfluence the poicies ofkey organizations such as e governments, iterAidisindependent and eles heavy on voluntary support Over70%of ou funds come from individuals, businesses, appeals, and special eves. pgs AGENDA Arrangementsand intentions: Present Continuous be going to* Money and finance file. Colications Hosting amajor event Types of business communication Texting What problem is illustrated in the photograph below? What can be done to solve problems like this? How can companies and businesses help? ‘March the words in A with the definitions in B. A B 1 sanitation urgent request for something thatis needed 2 hygiene by system for keeping places clean i keeping things free from disease Look at the information on WaterAid. 1 What are WaterAid’s general aims? 2 Whoare they trying to help? 3. What are their main sources of funds? 4. Which ofthe six aims for WaterAid Ethiopia do you think are most important? 5. Which of the statistics in the Ethiopia factfile do you find most surprising? Ethiopia factiile © G81 WaterAid is organizing a trip to Ethiopia for businesses which raise money for them, Listen to che first part ofa mecting between a representative of WaterAid and the business delegates. 1. Complete the flight dates and times. Date ime Arrive Addis Ababa Return London 2 Match the following itinerary arrangements with the correct date: 4th, Sth, 6th, 7th, and 8th March, ‘meet local community leaders transfer to hotel, check in, reception at Government offices rect woreda and kebele leaders, meet women’s group free day travel co rural village in the east © G82 Listen to the second part of the meeting. Where are the group visiting on 9th March, harvesting project b 10th March = __ scheme © Lith March building sewage disposal systems 4 12th March redevelopment project in areas © @ 822 Listen agsin and complete she setenecs 1. D2 Sorry, what time the flight getinto Addis Ababa? WA Ie at 15.00 on the 4th, then ___ tothe hotel, checking-in, and getting ready for the eception at the Government offices. You can sce that it’s —a tiring day. We're — anything on the Sth, so there’s time to rest before the 2 DI Arewe _____ any professional interpreters? My Human Resources department hasa good contact if we need to take an interpreter, No,we'te ____ interpreters I'm afraid it’s too expensive We _____local interpreters from our volunteers already working our there. I think —_ them good enough, D1 That’sfine.1 contact our HR people. 3 D2 Canl just ask about publicity ~ are we for example? a photographer WA We're __a small TV crew and our own photographer for publicity and press coverage. D2 I don'tknowif you're interested, but with my wife, who's a professional photographer. She's interested in doing the publicity shots if you want. WA Fantastic! In that case __ leave our photographer behind, Are you sure it’s OK? D2 _____ with her, butyeah I'm sure. UNITS @ 79 0 @ unire Grammar quiz Match these sentences from the listening in A with the descriptions in B. a Atimetabled regular event in the future. b Adefinite arrangemencin the farure, -¢ A planned intention (decision already made). uasdecision {made at the time of speaking). diction based on present ev ‘in general. ‘Klentfy the tense or form in each case (e.g, Present Simple, be gortg fo + infinitive) Arrangements and intentio be going to + infi Look at these sentences from the listening, Complete the rules and answer the question. Present Continuous, Present Continuous ‘¢ [’m coming with my wife, who's a professional photographer. + We're not doing anything on the Sth. ‘+ Unfortunately, the President of Ethiopia isn't available so he isn’t coming. ‘© When are we visiting one of the projects? be going to+ infinitive # Youcan see that it’s going to be a tiring day. © Are we going to take any interpreters? + No, we're not going to take any interpreters. will + infinitive ® In thatcase we'll leave our photographer behind. * That's fine. I won't contact our HR people. * Weuse __ fora furure intention when the decision has been made in the past. ‘+ Weuse __ for a definite arrangement (one that is written ima diary forexample). ‘+ Weuse ___ fora spontaneous decision about a future action. ‘© The contracted form of willis —___. ‘+ The negative (contracted) form of willis ‘+ How do we form questions for the Present Continuous and be going to forms? QPrescrioskye. 56 Practice @_ Choose the best verb form to complete the sentences. 1A The flight leavesficil leave at 10, so what time do you leavefare you leaving for the airport? B I’m booking/going to book a taxi to pick me up at 8 2A Youhave to check in two hours before the flight. B I thought ir was one. In that ease, Ill book/’m going to book the taxi for an hour earlier 3 A Canyou bring me back a souvenir? B 'm not having/’m not going to have much time for shopping, but OK, Til trol’ going to try. 4A Whar time does/will the return flight land? B Eight in the evening. Do you meetiAre you going to meet me? ‘Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1A Would you like to join the delegation to Ethiopia? B P'élove to, but (travel) to New York onan important businesstrip. 2A Which airport (fly) co? BIFKI ____ (attend) a conference ina hotel near the airport, and che fi (get in) atjust che right time on the 4th, 3A Areyou {have} any time to relax? B Probably not. After the conference] _______ (meet) elients on the 7th, 8th, and 9th. 4 A Did you know that our ex-boss 'be) in New York at the same time? He ____(stay) atthe Plaza. B Noyl didn’t know that. In that case T (nor go) there for a meal =I don’s want to run into him when Pm on business! ‘Make new plans asa result of discovering these situations Example Thaven’t been paid. [wort go out for dinner tonight. The email isn't working. ‘My phone bill is enormous. My boss want to see me now. I've lost my dictionary. All the tickets are booked for today’s New York flight. Icant start my car. Work in pairs. Take turns to think of more examples for each question. Ask each other questions for more details. 1. What regular timerabled events are there in your country in thenext year or two? Example The President opens Parliament in Noversber. 2 What definite arrangements have you made for next week? Example I'm flying to Paris on Friday. 3. What intentions and plans do you have for next year? Example I’m going to pass my English exam. unite @ 5: Student A 1 Read about Barcelona, 2 Tell Student B about the effect of hosting the 1992 Olympic Games on Barcelona. include information about bth € Barcelona's airport 4 12.5% © 12,500 new jobs ight years g $8ba h $2.4bn 3 Student B will tell you about Sydney. Ask questions if you don’t understand anything, 24 @ unite Hosting a major event 1 Has your city or country ever hosted political summit? 2. What peeparation is required to host 3 What changes or improvements to a Use an English-English dictionary to chi construction industry environmen estimate GDP infrastructure solarpowered urban renewal A and Student B. Work in pairs, Studer Barcelona enjoyed hosting the 1992 Olympics, so much that 40,009 people gathered in the Monijue stadium in 2002 to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Games. They hada lot (o celebrate: twas not onlya sporting tiuph, itwas alsoa lasting social and economic suecess. Despite recession that lasted unl the mid-1990s, Barcelona was ableto grow, building on its Olympic achievernent. The city used the Games to introduce an imaginative | urban renewal pln that transformed ts = decaying industrial sreas into the gorgeous seaside city which tourists and visiors love. ‘Barcelona’ airport handled 2.9 milion passefigers in 7997; this figure has now risen a major event, e.g, the Olympic Games, a such an event? «ity comt sr the event has finished? eck the meaning of these words nally friendly to.ves 21 milion. Toursm, wich accounted for less than 2% of the city's pre-Olympic GDP, ismowworth 12.5%. The increase in hotel ‘beds as @ result of the Gomes has produced 12,500 new jobs. Barcelona estimated that in eght yearsit had bultnirastruetue that ‘would usually take tity years. They invested $8 bition ina ring 02d, new airport a Telecommunizatons system, and ar improved = sewage system. The fithyharbour and port ‘fea were transformed bya'$2.4 bilion ‘waterfront development, withthe two flies. towers in Spaa. one: ‘Tosrioushotet | the other: g0 stieebuiing = oeet Student B Read abour Sydney 2 Student A will rll you about Barcelona. Ask questions if you don't understand anything. 3 Tell Student B abou the effect ofhosting the 2000 Olympic | Games on Sylney. Tnclude information about a 1% b the major beneficiaries © Homebush Ba 4 137m Australian dollars © the athletes’ village £ the green and golden bell frog Stadium Australia © @ 84 Liscen to part ofa press conference given by a company of consultants describing their estimate of the income and expenditure if London hosts the Olympic Games. Answer the questions 1 Why have they not allocated much money for infrastructure improvements? 2. How largeis the new stadium going to be? 3. What isthe estimate for total expenditure? 4 What is the final estimated profic figure? 5 What other benefits are mentioned? << oie | © G@ 84 Liscen to the press conference again. Matel the numbers in the box with a oe the correct item on the income and expenditure account. ae ie Expendit £ Income £ 106m 325m Building of new facilities Ticket sales 436m 864m Buying of land Other direct revenue Staging the event ‘Contribution from the IOC Security Sponsorship and advertising Improving the team Resale of land | Untoresecn risks Tourism and tax fro Total [1.69bn Total 3.1400 1OC= Intersatonal Olympic Connitice © Work in groups. 1 Think ofa city that you know well, Which of these events could be hosted there? + an international sporting event * an international tourism convention + a meeting of world leaders © any other event + acultural festival 2 Choose one of the events and plan what the city will need to do before, during, and after the event to make it successiul. 3. Discuss your plans and opinions with another group, UNITe @ cs Types of business communication. Texting ‘Types of business communication | @ Workin pairs. | 1. Which of these ways of communicating do you use at work? Do you useany other ways? + faceto-face tener fae + telephone + memo + text message + email 2 What different situations do you use shem for? Give examples. 3, Which do you use most? @ 85 Listen to Rosa giving Piet details of the research trip to Spain, Make a 1 Listen tothe conversation again. Complete the table with the type of communication used [e.g phone message, email, ete). | mess “Type of communication Hotel Rosa ‘confirm booking Rosa faire check fight times RosalMari thefin San Sebastian | request for interview chef in San Sebastian | Rosa/Maria accept request for interview Rosa NMP team feedback on visits Piet Frie invite for lunch _ Rosa ‘Maria | invite for tunch 2. Which type of communication is not mentioned? Could i be used for any of the messages above? © G@ 88 Listen to the conversation again. Complete the missing parts of extracts 14, 1 Pwel, * in two weeks, on 2nd May. 3 Pand on the sth tospend theday visting | to San Sebastian fst, so 2 | Mineyardsin the Penedés area of Catalonia, talking to cava. | flight to Bilbao on the 2nd. InSan Sebastiin = producers.Then —__ ® on Tuesday. 'm | to interview the chef of one of Spain's top restaurants. ___* afl report onal the visits forthe eitoral | - NA and production tear ~ you in ofcourse. | 2 [then onthe th, "to Sevileand 4 ‘aan pinebar 4 | HPinkstessidste’s out ofthe oe all morning. know, where the custom of topasbegan anda eee corvent where traditional Spanish confectionery is made. JF we have erough time, stoJerezdela Frontera and find out all about sherry production. From Seville ether “ straight to Barcelona or __'to Valencia. 36 @ UNITS Pronunciation 4. @ 86 Listen tothe examples. Notice the words that are stressed 1 He won't have tine to edie to the méeting, 2. Are you coming on the excursion with us on SSturday? 2 @ 87 Listen and mark the words that are stressed. 1 Are you planning co work abroad next year? 2. Pll meee you atthe cinema alter the film 3 Isit true that you're going to change your job again? 4. We're going to Canada for our holiday next summer. 3 @ 87 Listen again, Repeat each sentence twice quietly to yourselfto practise the sentence stress. Work in groups. Take turns to describe a future arrangement, plan, or intention which may or may not be true. The other students can ask a maximum of six questions to guess if what you say is trae or not. Example A I’m going to buy a new car next month B Really? What make are you going to buy? Texting How often do you send or reasive text messages? Have you ever sent any a inaworksituation? bin English? Look at Rosa’s text message to Maria, and Maria’s reply. Lunch w Piet + Eric? 1.30 bar torca. R If they speak to each othes, how will they say the same messages? Look at these abbreviations and symbols often used in informal rext messages. ‘Whar do you think they stand for? 1 asap 6 rmrwi2moro 2b 7 2nite 3 culsr 83) 4 eek! 93 5 rucoming? Convert these messages into text messages. Try to be as brief as possible. 1 Shall we meet for a coffee atthe Grand Caféat 11 o'clock? 2 Can you bring your laptop computer to work tomorrow? 3 Are you coming to the seminar tonight? 4 Inced to talk to you urgently. Can you call me as soon as possible? Write some messages of your own ~ either in full or asa text message. Get your partner 10 ‘convert’ them. unite @ 2 REVIEW UNIT B must could have to don'thave to | needa’ shoulda’ mustn't should might 92 @ REVIEW UNIT B 8 AGENDA > cammar Q-@ > Focus onfuncons @-@) > Woaabulay @ This unit reviews all the main language points from Units 5-8. Complete the ‘exercises, Use the Pocket Book for areas that you need to review again. ple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Past Simple, Wil/ Future 1 Complete the description of the Social and welfare programme of Julie Voelekel’s company. Use the correct tense and form of the verb in brackets. Be careful: five of Passives: Present He Se - 2. Write six questions about the programme based on the text, Use a range of tenses, some active and some passive. Example When was the programme introduced? Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect ‘Work in pairs. Complete the sentences. Use the Past Simple of the verb in brackets, Then continue thesentence in two ways, using the Past Continuous and the Past Perfect. Example _[ felt (feel) embarrassed at the wedding reception because | was wearing jeans /T had forgotten to buy a present. 1 Wheat __{leave) home this moming ... 2 She _______ {choose} to work in another country because 3 He (write) a letter of apology to the client because A When {begin} this course ... 5 The company (take over) one of it's competitors when ... 6 They [want) to take a break because Modal verbs ‘Complete the table below with verbs from the hox 1 Necossity/Obligation 2 Nonecessity/obligation 3 NecessityiObligation : ‘ot todo something noedto \elare forbidden {slave recpsiros) don'tnced to islare probibited 4 Advice _ 5 Possibility 6 Permission slare permitted ‘slere recommended slare allowed be good ar enjoy decide like would love be usedto don’t mind be interested in remember manage stop look forward to pee) © Arrangements and intentions: Present Continuous, be going to + infinitive, will + infinitive ‘Complete the sentences with the cosrect form of the verb in brackets, 1 I'mafraid Lean't come to the conference. ___ (fiy| to Paris then. 2. According ro the timetable, the train —_ (leave) at exactly 12.05, 3. Ive decided Ewant to do that tcaining course so (ask) the Human Resources Manager to send me. 4 The email’snot working again! | (have to) fax this document instead, 5 Wecan meet next Tuesday if you want. 1 (give) a presentation in the afternoon, but! ______ (not do) anything in the morning. 6 Isee from the schedule that you (take) yout holiday in August. In that case, 1_____ (not take) mine until Seprembex, For each sentence, ask for clarification, Example 1 Sorry? Where are you lying to? © Gerunds and infinitives 1. Write eight sentences about your personal attitude to work or study. Choose from the verbs in the box. Example Int quite good at organizing things. 2 Ask your parmer questions to find out ifthey have a similar aticude to work ot stu Example Ave you good at organising things? @ Leaving recorded messages, Requests and offers, Exchanging information, Texting 1 Write recorded messages to leave on someone's answerphone, + two requests to do something + nwo offers to do something + wo asking for information 2. Work in pairs. Say the messages to each other. Make notes on the messages you receive. 3 Respond to the messages by leaving a return message. 4 Write a mobile text message for two of the messages. @ Types of business communication, Giving talks and presentations 1 How many different types of communication have you used in the last week in your place of work or study? 2 Tell your partner about the different types and explain why you used each one. 3. Prepare a presentation on the advantages and disadvantages of different types of business communication, 4 Give the presentation to the other students. © Vocabulary test Work in two groups, A and B. Write a vocabulary test to give to the other group. Choose cen of the words below. Write a sentence or phrase to help the other group guess the word. Example Word ambitious Clue keen to achieve things and do well ambitious ¥ delegate GDP initiative air-conditioning outsourcing allocate fies centre crash crash course cosmopolitan updated conservation stressful install itinerary direct debit uptight accessible early retirement infrastructure volunteer small talk fund-raising shopping mall REVIEW UNIT B @ co AGENDA Time clauses UNITS “What if ‘et and 2nd Conditionals Expressing probability > Phrasal verbs file. Dictionary skills (2) Urban ving Writing emits © Work ingroups 1 How will the world be different in the year 2030? Make predictions about eee ee «the relationship between different gene ‘of women in society | L | Z + energy supplies I Compare your predictions with other groups. How lik think each other's predi © Read the article “Ws 1 Areany of yourp 2. What other predict 3 How likely or unlikely do you think the predictions are’ ‘What if ... ?’ Sky-trains, space travel for tne masses, and food pills? Future precic:icnshaventt alwaus been accurate. But now govemments and businesses areincreasingly using scenario planning to help them pian policies and make decisions 1 What if the power fails? Ss SCENARIO 16,2030, the UK wlineve problerns generating enough energy, -and willbe dependent on imported sources of fuel. It iseasy to 4 y or unlikely do you ~ Scenario 2030 about the UK. COMMENT : eee if we coveredjust part of he Sahara Desert with sclar panels, uid provideall the world’ electricity, The UK govern imagine aterrerct attack on major pipeine As soorras the pipelies attacked, energy supplies willdidp by 4%. frrerdercy supplies wilinot beech. The lacical consequence is that by *beeveningrush:-hour, whole sectioncof thecountty wil lose power. There willbe trafic grdlock, trains willsiop, and "airports willclose. Essential services won'tbe able to mioyeand, “ves wil beput at rk After the goversmentintroduces emergency powers, thearmy will concrof daiy fe. 20 @ UNITS has seta target of 30%renewable sources (such as solat energyand wind power) by 2050. 1's true— if we don't meet that target, then well have to use either nuclear power or amports of natural coal, ol, and gas Thepipelines that carry some of theseimports wil certainly be et ssk of terrorist attack as well as mechanical fai Professor Res’ eros ating Time clauses hp the seu oeaces eleces passent oc furare cae? Which form of the verb is used in the if clause? ‘Which form of the verb is used in the result clause? Js the event in the if clause likely to happen? What are the negative and question forms of 1st Conditional sentences? Read the examples and answer the questions. The time clauses are underlined. © Assoon as the pipeline is attacked, enerey supplies will drop by 40%. © Before the strike is aweek old, the transport and financial systems will collapse. Gaon 2nd Conditional Read the examples and answer the questions. Which tense is used after as soon as and before? 2 Find other examples of time clauses beginning, = Ifwe covered just part of the Sahara Desert with with when, afier, as soon as, and (not)... untilin ee the article in 6 Do they refer to present or furure solar panels, would provide lito work's time? electricity. 3. Which tense is used in the time clauses? et iret beet cneis ed ee cae 1 What is the uncontracted form of there'd in the 1st Conditional second sentence? 2. Which form of the verb is used in theif clause? Read the examples and answer the questions. 3 Whidhoon fhe oy ee ca ** Ifwe don't meet that target, then we'll have to use 4 Is the eventor situation in the #f clause (a) likely, cither naclear power or imports of natural coal, ‘or(b) unlikely or impossible? oll, and gas. 5 What are the negative and question forms of 2nd = Ifcurrent ceends continue, the number of elderly people will more than double in the next 25 years. Conditional sentences? ea ae rematicly on he youriger popuator.thisheppens there Will be demonstrations, perhaps even riots People wil Lo martstalisten.tf Before the strike's a week old, the taansport and financial country willbe dvi “The21st century wil be the century of women. By 2030, when the workplaceis ‘ferinized”,tracitionalworking structures and hours will Dea thing of thepast AL the same time, agree that families wil changeso there wil be ess. need for men asscon as their biological function is complete trends continue, the number of elderly people will more than double nthe next twenty ve years. At the sametime, the _ numberof workers expectedto paufor everyones pensions and services wil ncrease byorly 10% Isa fect that governments will need 10 look or altemnativesources ofiabour _—_If,womenhhadcontrol, there'd be fewer conflicts. Dialogue, lf they wanttoavoid conflictbetweenthe generationsovertax _—_ discussion, and compromise would be the main features of and other financial issues." Intemational relations. Sean Cope UK Econemies Forum —_KimFarmer, Gender Studieslonaoves : UNITS @ 01 Practice rain ac the weekend becomea top politician sce my friends tonight set promoxion have a day of next week have six months’ holiday oversleep tomorrow baya newcar get the offer ofa job abroad speak five languages © Complete the sentences. Use when, before, after, as soon as, oF (no!) .. until Example Yih call you as soon as J get to the airport, 1 Til send youan email aS oaee 2 a -,Tiexplain what Pd fike you to do. 3. Iprobably won't leave the office = 4 ___, Iiltext you, 5 Ineed this document sent urgently. Will you be able to send i¢___? 6 Twon't book a table ee 7 Could you log off gleme Jem: iumarvael ? lace ______,T'lget us some coffee. © Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. Decide whether the predictions are likely, or unlikely or impossible, and use Ist and 2nd Conditional forms as appropriate 1 Iffuelconsumption __fincrease), we _ (need) to look for more energy 2. Tfeveryone in the world ___ (use) their cars less, the demand for petrol and gas (fall. 3. fife expectancy in the West (continue) to rise, there _ (be) more older people. 4 Ifpeople (work) until the age of 9 they. (not need) to have a state pension. 5 women (cake) more positions of power in business, some traditional practices (change). 6 Ifmen ___ (disappeat) completely, the human race __ (become) extinct. Work in pairs. Look at the events in the hox. Decide 1 how likely or unlikely they are to happen to you in the future. 2. your course of action. Make conditional sentences. Examples [fit rains at the weekend, I'll go to the cinema, If became atop politician, Pd... @® 9.1 Listen to an interview with three young working adults: Peter, Jola, and ‘Yves. They are discussing three predictions. As you listen, tick to show how probable they think the predictions are. Predition Definite | tikely | Possibio | Unlitoly | Definitely not r © 1 The family will disappearasthe | main socal uni. Yves al Jola 2 People will move away from the parental home earlier. 3 There will be cheaper, independese aezommodation for young people and key workers (eg. teachersand nurses). 92 @ UNITS DG oe tisctrteecien nates ace ates probability 1 Peter Pm The family is far woo important. that it will become alittle less important — ~ but it won't disappear. 2 Yes Imnotso sure. that the family as we know it will disappear—eventvally 3 Joa 1 4 Peter Yes, Lagree with Jola. There _a move away from the family for young working people for financial reasons as much as anything, 5 Yves - Society needs young people to work in the centres of cities, for example —in businesses, in hospitals, ia schools and so on.?m —__cheaper accommodation for young working people, and key workers in general ~_maybe smaller and less comfortable, but affordable. ‘el » because, 28 Yves says, society needsit. Bur to mean the end of the family @ _ Write the phrases they use to express different degrees of probability in the table. Definite Likely | —__|— f Possible Unlikely Definitely not @ Workin groups. Discus the following predictions using the phrasesin @. 1 The family will disappear as the main social unit 2. People will move away from the parental home earlier. 3 There will be cheaper, independent accommodation for young people and key workers. 4. Welll have to spend more time looking after our elderly relatives. 5 People will work from home more. 6 Employees will be expected to work a minimum of six daysa week. © Decide what the results will be if the predictions in @ come true. Use the Istor 2nd Conditional as appropriate. Examples (5) If people work from home more, there will be less need 10 commute to work, and the roads and transport system will be better. (6) If employees were expected to work a minimum of six days a week, they would go on strike, © Work in groups 1 Think of possible future events in your place of work or study: Choose some likely and some unlikely events. Think about new developments, building, improvements, technology, staff changes, relocation, training, exams, et. 2. How williwould you react if these events happewhappened? Examples. I think i's likely that my company will opena branch in another couniry If they do, Tl Idoubt if Vl pass my exams. If did, Pd UNIT? @ 95 Phrasal verbs. Dictionary skills (2) Phrasal verbs (aso called multi-word verbs) consist of two, or sometimes three, words. The first word isa verb and itis followed by an adverb (pret away] ar a preposition (look after) or both (put up with}, The adverbs and prepositions are sometimes called particles. Work in pairs. Read the instructions fora first-time computer user. Whatdo you think the underlined phrasal verbs mean? J] Pistof all, check younave plugged in all the 3 ‘connections in the correct colour-coded sockets. ‘Then {urn on the power: ‘Matt Mouse’, the on-screen computer assistant, will comeup on yourscreen. Q, Matt provides simple tutorials where you can find é ut about the different functions of ‘your computer He'll show you how to ‘setup a password, which you will ‘need every time you logon. Remember, if you write your password anywhere, If you've got a report to write up ora mamototype, Matt will show you how todo it, how tosaveit. and how to print itoff. If you want to use the Internet, Matt will also show you how to set up anemail address and how {odownload information and files. You Ibe shown how to send an email, and attach documents, SS It couldn't beessier! And if there'sa problem youcan’t sortout with the help of Matt, orif your computer breaks down, then you can always call our 24-hour helpline. Our free mouse mat has all our detailson it do it ma secret way so thatno one soyou won't need to waste time looking up our number. elsecan work itout - @ March the phrasal verbs in @ with the definitions below. transfer from computer to paper 11. stop working search for information ina book 12 type your password to start 1 find the answer 7 establish for the firse ime 2 appear 8 write something in a final form 3 deal witha problem 9 move the switch to start 4 connect to anelectricity supply 10. discover information 5 6 © Which of the phrasal verbs from the instructions in @ can take an object, and which of them can't? © Read the extracts from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Answer the auestions. 1 Which verb has two particles? Which verb does not take an object? Do you know another meaning for take off? What do you think the symbol ©» means? Which of the example sentences isin the passive? wien ‘come across sh/sth to meet or find sbisth by chance: I came ‘across children sleeping under bridges © She came across some pat sthes‘off to change sth toa later time or date: We've hhad to put off our wedding until September. take ‘off 3 (of an idea, a product, exc, tobecome successfiilor popular ‘very quickly or suddenly: The new magazine has really taken off ‘old photographs in adrawer. get ‘on with sb to have a {nendly relationship with sb: ‘She’ never really got on with her sister take sbes'on 1 to employ sb: to take on new staff © She was taken nasa trainee. (rcs hed on Orford Advanced Lenn Dictionary noon 019431 £068 €2008) os @ units Phrasal verbs which take an object ‘Type 2 Phrasal verbs with an object which hi iti “ins ble’) Type 1 Phrasal verbs with an object which has "3S One Position only (‘inseparable’) two possible positions (‘separable’) * Leame across an old friend. © Leamenmold-friendacnees * Did you takeon any new staff? Leame across hii. © Did you take any new staff on? = Leamehinneress. ‘When the object is a pronoan {itfmetherithem, et.) How do the dictionary extracts show ifthe object is ‘only one position is possible. separable or inseparable? © Did you take him on? | Bebrenrttkent hiss B anew receptionist +b yourholidays © my new collen woe © Build shore question and answer dialogues using the phrasal verbsin @. Example A Has your company taken on any new staff recently? B Yes, we've taken on anew Sales Assistant, Lisa Kitano, A When did you take her on? Complete the sentences with the correct form of the phrasal verbs below. Check the meaning ina dictionacy. 1 On my first day at work I was completely lost. didn't know who to forhelp. 2 Iwas talking to my boss on my mobile when I went into a tunnel and he started: 3 The door of my flat was damaged. Someone had and stolen my TV. 4 Ididn’t do very well atthe interview, so they me 5. Tasso late that the meeting was almose over when I eventually 6 Istarted giving my presentation, bur suddenly ‘when I realized that | dida’t have my notes. 71 the computer by mistake and lost all the work I'd done. 8 I my partnerlast week, We were just about ogo on holiday together. Have any of che situations in @ happened to you? Change the sentences so that they are true for you. Tell your partner about the situation and what happened, Askeach other questions to find out more details. 6 Hasthe plane taken off? 7 Drejust sorted out the problem. 1 @ 93 Listen to the examples. Notice the stresson 8 Whattime did they set off? the adverb/preposition ofa phrasal verb Meter he Gaede Complete the rules. Write stressed or unstressed. & # Theadverb/preposition of a phrasal verb which b We've pur the mecting off. meats eeetealea clare 2 @ 94 Listen to the sentences. Mark the ‘+ The adverb/preposition of a phrasal verb which, adverbs/prepositions that are stressed takes an objeceis when itis separated 1° Whee timedoyou usually get up? from the verb, and whenitis not 2. Did you tun on the TV? separated, 3 Shall Teurn itoff? 4 Could you fill in this form? 5 They've managed to put the fire out. 3 G) 94 Listen again, Repeat each sentence twice quietly to yourself after the tape. UNIT? @ % 96 @ units Urban living © Workin groups 1 Look at the photographs. What problems do you associate with urban living? Can you add any to the list? «crowded living conditions # not enough services and facilities (e.g. health care and schools) + high rents for businesses * inadequate sanitation «+ shortage of affordable accommodation for key workers 2. Doany of these problems occur in your town or city? ‘Work in pair 1 Describe accommodation, the number of rooms, the size of the rooms, any special f 2. Which of these features do you think you must have b it would be nice if you had ‘ou can live without? abed a shower 2 place where you live to your partner, e.g. the kind of tures, + well-insulated walls + a large kitchen a bath + modern furniture and fircings high ceilings * polished wooden floors abalcony witha nice view space to entertain friends plenty of natural light (for adinner party) Look at this plan of a ‘microflat’, which provides accommodation in a city centre. 1 What rooms and features are there 2. Which type af person do you think itis suitable for? 3. Would you like co live init? Before reading the article Living in a shop window, discuss who you think would livein a shop window and why Now read the article and answer the questions. 1 Where is the microflar? 2. Which type of person is the microflat designed to help? 3. Which of the features in @ does the microflat have? | Living in a shop window A 24-year-old bank clerk has begun a week-long stay ina ‘microflat’ specially constructed in a shop window on London's Oxford Street. A small crowd cheered as Warren Bevis arrived, suitcase in hand, for his experiment in cheap inner-city living. ('m really looking forward to living here, he announced cheerfully The event is aimed at promoting a way of allowing young people and key workers to beat rising real estate prices. There's enough space for Warren to invite friends round for a dinner party, said Richard Conner, of Piercy Conner, architects of the flat. ‘He can even puta friend up for the night ifhe wants! Organizers insist that the living windew-displa jn Selfridges storeis not another reality-TV show. This sort of micro-living has heen happening in countries like Japan for several years, but it hasn't happened here before. The aim is tohelp young professionals get a foot on the property ladder, Conner told Reuters on Monday. “The microflat is about two-thirds of the size of the average London flat. But everything's been resized so it docsr’t feel very small,’he said ofthe 32-square-metre fat Featuresinclude a double bedroom, a tiny pod with atoilet and shower, some storage space, anda kitcheiv/living room with access to asmall balcony. Ceilings are high (2.8m) to introduce natural lighting and a feeling of space, the walls are @ & well-insulated to keep heat in and noise out, and the interiors are altractively fitted with the latest fashions and styles. The project will run fora fortnight and Bevis will be replaced aftera week by a young woman, Hélene Cacace, who also wants to move to London but cannot afford the high house prices. The price of the flatwill be about a quarter of an ordinary one-bedroom fat. Onlookers were divided on the attractions of living ina shop window. Marka Peake, 14, waited two hours to seethe at revealed —with its glistening stainless steel kitchen and polished wooden floors. It's cool. Fd love toda it if was sure you couldn't be seen in the bathroom,’ he said. Student Corine Smith wasn't so convinced. ‘Do I want tolive ina glass box? Twenty-four hours aday ~eating, sleeping, and washing infront of thewhole of Oxford Street? No way,’ she said, But, who knows —it may be the answer to housing problems for lots of young working people in cities throughout the world id the article again and complete the table. Who are they? | wnat their opinion of he mieroat? 1 Warren Bevis 3 Heléne Cacace 4 Marka Peake 5 Corine Smith © Workin 1 Isthe roups and discuss these questions. ‘a problem finding enough affordable accommodation for young working people in the cities of your country? think of? ‘Would the microflat solution be a good idea in your country? What other ways of solving city centre accommodation problems can you UNITo @ 9” 02 @ uNITe Writing emails Work in pairs. 1 Have you ever written emails in English? If so, what problems did you have? 2. What are the similarities and differences between the language used in emails, letters, and phone communication? Look at the phrases in the box. 1 Are they from an email, a letter or a phone conversation? (Note they could be from more than one.) 2 Are they formal, informal, or neutral? 3 Are they used at the start or the end of the email? Dear Rosa Hi Eric See you latex Yours sincerely OK, Tl see you soon, Isthat you Claire? Cc. Marketing Manager Get back to me asap. It was good to talk to you the other day. ean'etalk to you right now. Bye. Kind regards Dear Mrvan Els ook forward ro hearing from you. Tm looking forward to seeing you at the weekend. Read the email from Rosa Lanson to Maria Ferrando concerning her research trip to Spain. 1 What is the purpose of the email? 2 Who else will read the email? 3. What information does Rosa want from Maria? Hi Mara |__Itwas good to see you for lunch the other day. | thought I'd ust give youa few details of our itinerary, in case you've got any last-minute suggestions. * 2nd May ~ San Sebastian: interview the chet we wrote to (possibly visit Jerez) * 7thMay —Valencia?: try paella valenciana 8th May ~Barcelona: meet your friend: visit tapas bars and vineyards # 11th May — return Can you forward me the contact detalis of your friend in Barcelona? Also, co you have any idea what she might like as a present? Gould you get back to me asap? We've only gota tew days left! Regards. Rosa eae cc coe * 4in May ~Sevile: tapas bar, convent where confectionery made Read the list of email guidelines. 1. Identify examples of good practice in Rosa’s email to Maria. Email guidelines — oF lear state the purpose ofthe ema, - ake sr ne sete vate eae tne ou eo _® Conyinaryrelevantseorle 2. Ate the guidelines the same in your country and your language? ‘Work in pairs, Write the following emails. 1 The Travel agent to Rosa, confirming details ofa fight change (and where to collect the tickets at the airpor?) 2. Rosa to Eric, arranging where to meet for the trip to the airport. 3. Rosa (in Spain) to her husband, Colin, telling him how the trips going. ‘Work in groups of four or five. Sit in a circle. You are going to write short emails from Rosa Lanson to some of the following people or companies: Piet van Els Erie Carlin @ restaurant or food producer in another country atravel agent the production department of NMP 1 friend of Rosa's the owner of a specialist food shop 1 Choose one of the people and start an email from Rosa related to the subject of "The food and drink project’. Only write the headings (From, To, Date, Ce, Subject). 2 Pass your email to the person on your left. Write the next stage ofthe email you receive from the person on your right (greeting and social chat, if appropriate). 3 Continue passing the emails round, adding one stage at atime in the following order: the purpose of the email, the main message (including bullet points), any questions you have, a quick closing summary and final ‘signacuce’. 4 The last person to receive each email should check it, and then put it up on the wall for other groups to read. UNITS @ 9 UNIT 10 “'\ Transitions =a The ‘second ussian revolution? o Look at the photographs. 1 What happened in Russia in 2. What do you know about economic and poli AGENDA resent Ferfec Simple and Present Perfect Continuous ‘Time phrases » Job deecriptions fils. Collocation. ‘Word-bullaing Getting your ides! job > Describing a process. Interviewing techniques 1991? I developments ia Russia since 199 e B a official docum business 01 co-operative entrepreneur devaluation market economy bureaucracy shopping mall natural resources licence © economic system based on the Ina recent survey of ie Forty richest people aged under 40, five of the ten richest people came from Russia. This may seem surprising fora country that spent most of the last century under communist ule. But anyone who has been following develooments in Russia since the fall of communism in 1991 wen't be too surprised Even before 1991 itwas legal or people to start private companies and cooperatives. Since then the values of apitalism anda market economy havabeen emerging. In the mid4990s, Russia's vast state oll and mining, companies were Sold off and marry young entrepreneurs. took the opportunity to start successful businesses, These companies have now expanded into other areas of industry, such as banking, telecommunications, retal and the ats. At the same time, the number of smaller businesses has increased drarraticelly, More money has been coming into the econony. The devaluation of the rouble 100 @ UNIT 10 March the words in A with the definitions in B. 1tthat shows permission to do, own, or use something ned and run by the staff © supplies of coal, oil, wood, et. d reduction in value, e.g. when a currency's exchange rate falls principle of buying and selling goods for profit £ (AmE) a group of shops under one roof, closed to traffic 8 a complicated system of official rules and ways of doing things hh a person who makes money by starting a business after the 1998 economic crisis actually helped to Promate a mintboom. Real wages fel, which encouraged small enterprises to expand. Imports became too expensive for the average Russian, so local producton increased. As @ result. a new mile class has emerged With money tb spend en consumer goods, I's all part of ‘Ue new market economy International companies have also been irvesting in Russia since the fall of communism. Companies like MeDonaid’s, Rolls Royce, Ferrar, and IKEA have opened businesses such as shops, showrooms, and factories Russian entrepreneurs themselves have made significan investments outside Russia - for example Roman Abramovich, who has invested some of his fortune in the London ‘oatbal club Chelsea. As one observer put it: ‘The speed of what's been happeningin Russia since 1991 is remarkable ~in mary ways they've seen “second Russian revolution”, i © Read the article The ‘second Russian revolution’ and answer the questions. When did the communist system fall in Russia? When did private companies and co-operatives become legal? What event in the mid-1990s helped young entrepreneurs 10 emerge? What effect did the devaluation of the rouble have in 1998? Which international companies have invested in Russia? Con youname one Russian entrepreneur who has invested outside Russia? Do you think the changes represent a “second Russian revolution’? © 6} w1 Listenco she firsepartof an interview with Lennart Dahlgren; the General Director of the Russian seccion of the Swedish furnicure and home furnishings company IKEA. Complete the factsheet. TREES: | ime a © G41 Listen again and complete extracts 1-4. 1 Mr Dahlgeen, IKEA +n Russia for several years, and you arrived at the stare. How long, 7 in Russia? 1___‘since 1998. That's when IKEA : ‘operations in Russia. 2. How many stores ” We five stores so far, and we __* several large shopping mails in the last few years. 3 Consumer demand * steadily since we S the first store. 4 We __“*the percentage of ourglobal supply that comes from Russia for a number of years. We S several factories throughout Russia ~ near St Petersburg, Moscow, and Karelia. © @ 102 Lisa to the second part of the interview. 1. What ewo problems has IKEA faced in Russia? 2 Who are IKEA's management training programmes designed to help? @ > G@ 102 Listen again and complete extracts 1 and 2. 1. But bureaucratic problems fewer recently: For example, the Government __ the number of licences that are needed for a new company to setup. 2 However, we anumber of things inthe time we here We ___ managemene training programmes to help new Russian entrepreneurs. We to show how a modern company has to work to survive in the international marker. UNIT 10 @ 101 102 @ UNIT 10 © Grammar quiz Read these sentences from the article and the interview, and answer the questions below. 4 Young entrepreneurs took the opportunity to start successful businesses. b Imports became too expensive for the average Russian, ¢ Consumer demand has been growing steadily 4d. We've opened five stores so far. ¢ Why do you think it’s been successful? 1 Which sentences refer to « period of rime completely in the past? 2. Which sentences refer to a period of time from the past to the present? 3 What are the full forms of We've opened and it’s been in sentences d and e? 4 Match the verbs in the sentences with the tenses: Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple, Present Perfect Continuous. Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous Read the sentences and answer the questions. International companies have also been investing in Russia since the fall of commanism. b Companies like McDonald's, Rolls Royce, Ferrari, and IKEA, have opened businesses such as shops, showrooms, and factories. How long have you been living in Russia? Pye been living here since 1998. ‘How many stores have you established? We've opened five stores so far, and we've also built several large shopping malls in the last few years. Bureaucratic problems have been getting fewer recently. The government has reduced the numberof licences that are needed foe a new company to set up. Which sentences focus on the result or completion of the action? ‘Which sentences focus on the activity itself? Which sentences are in the Present Perfect Simple and which are in the Present Perfect Continuous? 4 Find other examples of the Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect ‘Continuous in the article, and in 10.1 and 10.2.0n p. 140, Why is the simple or the continuous form used? GPK. e phrases ‘Complete the gaps in the following groups of time phrases for,in, ot the fall of communism 1998 we opened the first store i 2 ‘several years | anumber of years 3 | themid-19905 | the last few years Find other time phrases in the text and interview extracts. Preserves Practice @ e ‘Complete the sentences with either the Present Perfect Simple or the Present Perfect Continous of the verb in brackers. 1 Howlong have vou — (work) in China? 2 (work) here for two years 3 Our company —___ (invest) in China for several years. 4 We (open) ten shops in Beijing and Shanghai, but we __ {not move) into southern China, 5 You look tired. What have you (doy? © 1_____ write) a report all day. 7 Have you (finish) the report? 8 Notyet.1______ (write) about ewo thirds, 9 He (study) accounts management for six months. 10 He __ {not learn) how to do spreadsheet 1. Has the computer —__ (crash) again? 12 Ik (do) thatall week. Complete the following article. Use the most appropriate tense of the verb in brackets: Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple, or Present Perfect Continuous. 100s tinny aeonemiionoungRusscne for better and my standard of living. | _ (bexve) three promotions, and recontly I “fmove) into cn apartment nthe centteof Moscow. Lest twin) an amend a Young woman ofthe year! 1 Work in groups. Prepare a questionnaire on work and jobs, or studies. Wiite six questions to find out about other student’s experiences. Examples How many different jobs have you had? What books have you been studying recently? 2. Use the questionnaire to interview a student from another group. 3. Report back to the class, UNIT 10 @ 102 Job descriptions file. Collocations. Word-building © Workin pais. Discuss the questions. 1 Do you enjoy your job? What keeps you motivar 2. How can employers motivate their staff? @ Read the article Morale boosting. Find ways in which staff can be motivated. Example create a sociable environment | A motivated worktorceis a great business asset that can telp yau get ahead of the competition, Consider what motivates your | staff. This could be the opportunity for nev challenges. You may need to create a more sociable environment or encourage a feeling of satisfaction for a job well done and recognition by peers. Initially, some people may show resistance to change But this wil disappear if you explain why you are changing things and you make itclear what your expectations are and the contributions you are looking for rom. ‘your employees. ‘There are some particular ways you can do this. People enjoy trying to reach a goal or exceed a target. However, goals and targets must be agreed with the ‘employee, nat imposed fom above. There snoulé also be a clear reward associated with achieving the goal. This might be public praise for a job ‘well done, promotion to amore senior role, or a pay bonus. Regular feedback is essential. Thiscould be formal appraisal sessions 28 well as informal comment on curent work ard achievements. Giiticism should not be avoided if it is necessary. Staff who feel that ‘one individual is getting away with poor performance can quickly become demotivated, Dismissing persistent poor performers generally boosts the morale of co-workers. Bonus scenes can be setup in ways that ink final pay to individual ‘or team performance. To be effective goals must be clearly defined, achiovable but not too easy, and set for specified periods. Bonuses are particularly retevant for sales-related roles. Some employees may be highly ‘motvated by basic pay f theres a high borus element. In general staf need ‘to baliave that the salaries paid to theméelves and colleagues arofaiy. © Dees your compa, ors company you kno, ase any of thee techniques? I eo, © _ Make the verbs in the box into nouns by adding the appropriate suffix: -ment, , ot al. Write the nouns in the correct columns in the table. Check meanings and spellings in a dictionary. agree commit — disappear expect. —_ perform appear contribute dismiss. explain promote appraise define. encourage improve resis assist develop establish pay —_satisfy J ment tion -ance [sat 04 @ UNIT 10 Pronunciation 4G 108 Listen to the diferent stress patterns of che chee words. see . & perlormance encouragement ee sees satisfaction 2G 104 Mark the stress pattern of the following words. Write a, b, oe 1 appearance 2 definition 3 development 4 dismissal 5. establishment 6 expectation 7 explanacion 8 improvement 9 promotion 10 resistance 3 G 104 Listen again and say each word twice quietly to yourself. 4 What do you notice about the stress pattern of the words that end in -tion? 8 Are there any other patterns in the way these nouns are stressed? Lock at the other words in @) w help you. adventure challenge danger health profit reward success value wealth Complete the sentences with one of the nouns from the table in @. 1 I want to feel I'm doing something useful, so job is important for me. 2. Lwaatto progress in my career, so | want a jab with oppornunities for 3 Isomerimes lack confidence, so any ‘my managers and colleagues can give me is very important. 4 Twanteo find out what my managers think of my performance, so I think a staff scheme is very important, 1. Make the nouns in the box into agjectives by adding an appropriate suffix. Choose from -able, ing, y, -ous, ful. Check the meaning and spelling ina dictionary. 2. Mark the stress pattem of each adjective. 1 Complete the table. 2 Mark the stress patcern of each word. Then check in a dictionary. ‘Match the words in A and B to make compounds and collocations. A B full-time ‘experience annual employmeat careers poy flexible workforce job appraisal keyboard hours motivated advice S salacy skills © Work in groups. 1 Listas many positive job/career characteristics as you can. Examples new challenges, regular feedback, profit related pay 2 In your opinion, what are the five most important characteristics of ajob? UNIT 10 @ 105 Getting your ideal job @ Read the quotes from Clare and Albert. 1. What jobs do they hav: 2. Why do they like their jobs? @ Work in pairs. Answer the questions about your job. 1. Have you been doing interesting and exciting things over the last year? 2. Have you achieved everything you wanted to over the last year? 3 Do you want to be doing the same job in five years’ time? 4 Iseverything exactly how you want it in your job? © Read the title and opening quotation from an article giving careers advice on finding your ideal job. What advice and information do you think the article will giveon the following questions? 1. Whatdo you want work todo for you? 2. Whatdo you have to offer? 3. Where can you look for yourideal job? 4 What's involved in the application process? @ Read the article and check your answers in @. Finding your ideal job — it’s all about Firstly, what doyou want work to from life. You will need to analyse — yourstrengths and weaknesses, Asking do for you?” yourself closely: put yourself and close friends can be one way, but you Be propared to-ask yourself deop and Ur lifstyle preferences under the have to be sure they/re being honest Asrect questions about what you really TuerpscaPe pid prresknees dal want ffom a carer: Right now, you (gy suru on. pris mnyautieuar _tomake them happen. Do the se foe might be thinking chat all you want obs and fields tha pre failures and disappointments. Decide if any of your weaknesses will get do! eee fect job. If they :: s venng SISO 0 08 hat nee edlaiely. | Looking for a career is like looking have to know your prod uct inside out = se2ttE | for anew partner-your life goals need 19 sell ft effet jb-hunt pegs cee ce ceeereel eare apegece aoue 105 @ UNIT 10 © Explain the meaning of these expressions from the article 1 dosomething worthwhile 5 look at che bigger picture 2 put your lifestyle preferences 6 seize the opportunity under the microscope 7 tailor your CV 3 know your product inside out 8 first and foremost 4 setaboutaddressing your weaknesses immediately © Work in pairs, Discuss the questions and advier in the article, and wry them out on each other Examples What do you enjoy doing most with your time? What achievements and successes have you bad? @ Workin pairs. 1 What was the lastinterview you had? 2. What type of questions and tasks were you given? © G 108 Lisceno the fest post of anintorview with Rob Yeungya business psychologist, talking about howto suoveed at job interviews. Answer the questions. 1 How have job interviewers changed recently, according to Rob? 2 What does he say is the purpose of each of the following interview questions, and how should you answer them? a Could you tell me what sort of animal you'd like to be? b Do you know how many cars there are in Australia? ¢ Would you mind if | recorded this interview? © G 106 Listen to the second part of the interview, Answer the questions. 1 Whar three interview assessment tasks does Rob Yeung mention? 2 Whar sills isthe in-tray exercise designed to test? 3 Whar three piles does Rob Yeung recommend applicants separate the in-tray information into? 4. Which job applicants might be given these tests a akeyboard exercise? b_amemory test? 5. Whar questions can an applicant be asked to test memory? 6 What does Rob Yeung think is the mostimportant piece of advice to give someone going for ajab interview? Do you agree? © _Ifyouwere recruiting someone for your own job (or a job that you know well) ‘what interview questions and tests or tasks would you set? What would be the ideal answers? Bird eet eu ie nar ee | ate aol ar ode ods : where can you industry or sector you're interested in? write a personalized covering letter, - What changes and developments are . and then start preparing for — _______ going to happen? How can youbepart of the interview. However, the important _ t suddenly. them? Don't be frightened to seize the thing to remember is that ¢ hard to find opportunity itmay changeyourlifefor an o ways! thebetter se UNIT 10 @ 107 Describing a process. Interviewing techniques Deseribing a process @ 107 Listen to Erie Carlin interviewing javier Péve,a sherry producer in Spain. Tick'T (true), o F (false, Sherry is produced in several different areas of Spain: Nearly three-quarters of the production is exported, Britain is the biggest export market today. ‘Most of the big sherry companies are Spanish-owned, 00000 + o0000 = The sherry producers want fo attract younger markets. @ 108 Listen toa later pa L In which row of few, Answer the questions. els in the solerais the oldest wine? 2. How long does it take for a premium sherry to progress through the s (eas) © Work in pairs. Use the verbs in the box to complete the following extract from the Fa interview. Use the appropriate passive form ofthe verb for describing a proces. ia When wine forbetting,it from the barrels ay on the bottom row, ane these barrels with an equal amount of wine from the next row up. Then, the barrelson that row ‘up with wine from the row above and that process continues until Finally atthe end ofthe process, new: to the barrelson the top row. In this way, the characteristics of the older wine by the younger wine and the quality ofthe wine * consistent top © @ 108 Listen again. Cheek your answers. © _ Number the stages elow ro show the correct order in which olive oilis made Tne making of olive oif (77 a “Alter thacwe take the olives co an olive préss. Before pressing the olives wewash thern and remove the leaves. [-] bo We spread s large net or canvas shoat undor the olive trae, and we shake the tree tomake the olives fall. \) \3 ©. Then we collect the olives and put theminte large baskets: d- We harvest the olives at the end of autumn, © Wemake virgin olive oil from the first pressidgs To quality as virgin olive oll, we have to press ehe olives within sevency-two-hours of harvesting. £ Weise ewe typés of olive press: the preparatory press;whiich we use to extract the first aif trom tthe olives,ancithe final press, which we use to /pretethe dlives morethoroughly. [LT € Werrefie anetbtene the oil witch we obcain from the final pressing, and then sell as blended olive oil 108 @ UNIT 10 Work in pairs. Write a description of form of the verb to describe the stags Interviewing techniques Read the interview questions and phra Perez, Add other interview q pprapriate headings Introducinga topic Could stare by asking you about k abou Checking understanding Soif (70 is exporte 1 Spat Work travel, etc, Make is. Give your partner a lise jour part of quest \ow olive oil is produced. Use the passive n the production process. Begin The olive tions and phrases you know under the Asking for clarification Showing understanding Yes, Lunderstand, Isee. Thank you Thanking, nank you very much, (Seri 's been most interesting, esting topic, e.g. aleisur ions about this topic, then UNIT 10 @ 106 UNIT 11 geet should have (done\'shouldn'thave “7 Critical incidents (done) » Culture fle. Confusing words. Dictionary skills @) tough choice Business correspondence © Workin groups. Discuss the questions 1 What cross-cultural problems do companies face when they work with companies from other countries? 2. Can you give any examples of cross-cultural problems from your own experience, either at work or when visiting other countries? Work in pairs. Discuss the question 1 What problems could there bein these three situations? 4a parent company investigating 2 serions mistake by an employee at one of b two companies of different nationalities competing for a sales contract ina third country © a foreign employce who, by chance, meets his boss shopping with his family atthe weekend 2 Match situations a above with case studies 1-3. oni Goa A British company and a Swedish | An Australian employee was working in compary were competing fora sales contract in Argentina, The British sales. {team knew their product was superior. Germany. One Saturday, he saw the German Director of the company in a car showroom in “the city centre. The Director was with his family “They went to Argentina, ave avery good | and was trying o buy @ ca. He was having modern presentation, and returned tthe | some problems deciding whch mal to buy. UK the next day. confident that they had = The employee knew about that particular car ‘won the contract The Swedish sales team | because he had just bought one himself. He spent a week in Argentina and didn't talk | _hadonly met the irecor once before and was “about the product for the first five days. “Instead, they used the first five days to _get to know the Argentinian company. It ‘wes only onthe last day that they “introduced ther preduct Even though it ‘was less attractive and slightly higher priced than the British product, they go -ontract. The disappointed loader of “meet you. can see youre having afew — "problems. Rerhaps I can help The important thing to know is how many kilometies you “need to drive in an average week’ The Director ‘ih’ ook pleased, and after a quick ‘Thank you, he welked out wit his famiy following stelle ibape buble ber os What did I do ppened atthe Japanese subsidiary ofa US multinational company. During production, amachine component had been inserted upside down and theertire batch. 3 last The cost ofthis was very high. The boss insisted on finding out exactly which rker had made the mistake. The Japanese production manager seidhe ddn'tknow that the entire team would take resporsibility. Despite this the American boss. continued her enquiries unt eventually she ciscaveted the incividual responsible. She "gave a public warning othe worker and made sure that he wos dosely monitored in ature‘ hadn't done this she explained, therest ofthe workforce would fave. _thoughtit’s acceptable to make mistakes, and production would have become less - effent’ Howeve, 3s. resutofher actions preductio actualy got woe, rotbete The fusrated American boss later asked, 'What dd do wrong ~oreitcetniietinstaeotimnerente © Whar do you think they did weong in each siquation? What advice or explanation would you give to the British team leader, the Australian employee, and the American boss? © @ 111 Listen to an expert on cross-cultural communication giving his advice and analysis 1 Match analyses a-c with case studies 1-3, 2. Do you agree with his advice? © G24 Listen again and completeextracts 1-3 1 The Australian employee *a little more formal, and he ® tobe introduced tothe Directors family. Also, he that he knew more than his boss about cars, especialy infront of his family for the Director to speak to him, he —___‘ for his opinion. That way, he a good impression 2 She the worker in public. It _*if she the facts, expressed her concern, and then let them deal with itthemselves. The Japanese production team ___‘ the worker responsible, and made sure he didn’t make mistakes in the future, 3 They * more time to get to know the company. They so quickly co the business side of things, Also, perhaps they were over confident. If they relationship with their * the contract. 1 good person: potential clients, the British sales team 3rd Conditional should have (done\/shouldn’t Read the examples and answer the questions. ave (done) © Ifhe'd waited for the Director to speak to Read the examples and answer the questions. him, he might have asked for his opinion. © He should have waited to be introduced. ® Iewould have been better if she'd just found i ‘out the facts © Ifthey'd buile up a good personal relationship ‘with their potential clients, the British sales team would have won the contract. 1 Did she criticize the wosker in public? 2 Did she do the right thing? Did he wait to be introduced? 2 Didhe do the nght thing? * She shouldn't have criticized the worker in public. 1 What time does the 3rd Conditional refer to, present or past? 2 Which cense is used in the ifclau: 3 Which form of the verb follows would havelmight have in the result clause? 4 What is the difference in meaning between would have and might have? Complete the rules. + We vse and the form of the verb ‘when something was the est thing to do, but the subject didn’t do i. + Weuse and the form ofthe verb ‘when the subject did the wrong thing.