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DESIGN OF PROCESS HEATERS
DESIGN PRACTICES December, 2000

Changes shown by

CONTENTS
Section Page

SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................................ 4

REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 4

DEFINITIONS .................................................................................................................................................. 4

DETERMINING HEATER EFFICIENCY.......................................................................................................... 4


TOTAL HEAT DUTY Qa ......................................................................................................................... 4
STACK TEMPERATURE Ts ................................................................................................................... 4
DESIGN EXCESS AIR RATE ................................................................................................................. 4
HEAT AVAILABLE FROM FUEL............................................................................................................. 5
NET FUEL REQUIREMENT Fn .............................................................................................................. 5
GROSS FUEL REQUIREMENT Fg ........................................................................................................ 5
HEAT FIRED Qf ...................................................................................................................................... 5
HEATER EFFICIENCY ELHV ................................................................................................................. 5

LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION .................................................................................................................. 6


TUBE SIZE AND NUMBER OF PASSES ............................................................................................... 6
ECONOMICAL TUBE SIZE AND NUMBER OF PASSES ...................................................................... 6
DESIGN RADIANT HEAT DENSITY r ................................................................................................... 6
CALCULATION OF TOTAL RADIANT SURFACE.................................................................................. 6
TOTAL RADIANT HEAT DUTY Qtr......................................................................................................... 7
RADIANT SECTION HEAT DUTY Qr ..................................................................................................... 7
RADIANT SECTION SURFACE Ar ......................................................................................................... 7
RADIANT SECTION LAYOUT ................................................................................................................ 7
NUMBER OF RADIANT SECTION TUBES Nr ....................................................................................... 8
HORIZONTAL TUBE CABIN HEATER ................................................................................................. 10
VERTICAL-CYLINDRICAL HEATER .................................................................................................... 11
BURNER ARRANGEMENT .................................................................................................................. 11
VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER .......................................................................................................... 13
HOOP TUBE CABIN HEATER.............................................................................................................. 16

PRESSURE DROP THROUGH THE COIL ................................................................................................... 17

TUBE DESIGN .............................................................................................................................................. 18


MATERIALS.......................................................................................................................................... 18
DESIGN TEMPERATURE .................................................................................................................... 19
DESIGN PRESSURE............................................................................................................................ 20
TUBE WALL THICKNESS .................................................................................................................... 21

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CONTENTS (Cont)
Section Page

INSTRUMENTATION.................................................................................................................................... 23
PROCESS FLUID ................................................................................................................................. 23
Flow ................................................................................................................................................... 23
Temperature ...................................................................................................................................... 23
Pressure ............................................................................................................................................ 23
TUBE METAL TEMPERATURE ........................................................................................................... 23
FLUE GAS ............................................................................................................................................ 23
FORCED-DRAFT SYSTEM.................................................................................................................. 24
Pressure Indicators ............................................................................................................................ 24
FUEL SYSTEM ..................................................................................................................................... 24
STEAM-AIR DECOKING SYSTEM....................................................................................................... 24
SOOTBLOWERS.................................................................................................................................. 24

MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION.................................................................................................................. 24
HOW THE REQUIREMENTS ARE COVERED .................................................................................... 24
TUBE GUIDES AND SUPPORTS ........................................................................................................ 24
REFRACTORY ..................................................................................................................................... 25
FIREBOX PURGING ............................................................................................................................ 25
EMERGENCY COIL STEAM ................................................................................................................ 27
MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS ............................................................................................................... 27

SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS - CUSTOMARY UNITS ............................................................. 29


PROBLEM 1 - HEATER EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................. 29
PROBLEM 2 - VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER LAYOUT................................................................... 29
PROBLEM 3 - HOOP TUBE CABIN HEATER LAYOUT ...................................................................... 33
PROBLEM 4 - TUBE METAL TEMPERATURE.................................................................................... 39

SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS METRIC UNITS........................................................................ 40


PROBLEM 1 - HEATER EFFICIENCY ................................................................................................. 40
PROBLEM 2 - VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER LAYOUT................................................................... 40
PROBLEM 3 - HOOP TUBE CABIN HEATER LAYOUT ...................................................................... 44
PROBLEM 4 - TUBE METAL TEMPERATURE ................................................................................... 49

NOMENCLATURE ........................................................................................................................................ 51

COMPUTER PROGRAMS............................................................................................................................ 53
GUIDANCE AND CONSULTING .......................................................................................................... 53
LITERATURE ....................................................................................................................................... 53
AVAILABLE PROGRAMS..................................................................................................................... 53

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CONTENTS (Cont)
Section Page

TABLES
Table 1 Design Conditions for Process Heaters......................................................................... 54
Table 2 Common Heater Tube Sizes and Properties ................................................................. 55
Table 3 Allowable Elastic and Creep Rupture Stress for Typical Heater Tube Materials ........... 56
Table 4 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion for Typical Heater Tube Materials ............................ 57
Table 5 Modulus of Elasticity for Typical Heater Tube Materials ................................................ 58
Table 6 Minimum Yield Strengths for Typical Heater Tube Material........................................... 59

FIGURES
Figure 1 Average Radiant Heat Density for Cabin and Vertical-Cylindrical Heaters.................... 60
Figure 2 Average Radiant Heat Density for Cabin Heaters With Unshielded Center
Refractory Wall .............................................................................................................. 61
Figure 3 Average Radiant Heat Density for Vertical Tubes Box Heaters (Containing Both
One-Side and Two-Side Fired Tubes) ........................................................................... 62
Figure 4 Average Radiant Heat Density for Vertical Tubes Box Heaters (Two-Side Fired
Tubes Only) ................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 5 Average Radiant Heat Density for Hoop-Tube Cabin Heaters ..................................... 64
Figure 6 Average Radiant Heat Density for Horizontal Tube Box Heater ................................... 65
Figure 7 Cabin Heater Pass Arrangements ................................................................................. 66
Figure 8 Approximate Tube Lengths for Horizontal Tube Cabin Heaters .................................... 67
Figure 9A Approximate Tube Lengths for Vertical-Cylindrical Heaters (English Units) .................. 68
Figure 9B Approximate Tube Lengths for Vertical-Cylindrical Heaters (Metric Units) .................... 69
Figure 10 Typical Layout Vertical-Cylindrical Heater ..................................................................... 70
Figure 11 Typical Pass Arrangements for Vertical Tube Box Heaters........................................... 71
Figure 12 Typical Tube Guide Details for Vertical Tube Box Heater ............................................. 72
Figure 13 Typical Layout for Vertical Tube Box Heater ................................................................. 73
Figure 14 Typical Layout for Hoop-Tube Heater............................................................................ 74
Figure 15 Linear Thermal Expansion of Various Steels................................................................. 75
Figure 16 Thermal Conductivity of Various Steels......................................................................... 76
Figure 17 Typical Tube Guides for Hoop-Tube Heater.................................................................. 77
Figure 18 Corrosion Fraction ......................................................................................................... 78
Figure 19 Rupture Exponent.......................................................................................................... 79

Revision Memo
12/00 The highlights of this revision are:
Editorial and typographical corrections. Corrected Eq. 22 and equation for nozzle
area for stack eductor.

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SCOPE
This section gives the calculation procedures to be used for designing all process heaters. Separate procedures required for
air preheaters are handled separately in Section VIII-K. Convection section and stack design procedures are given in Section
VIII-C. Forced-draft systems, burners, and manifolding and other components that may go into the total specification are
handled in other sections.
No special distinction is given to auxiliary services, such as steam superheaters, contained in the furnace. These duties are
considered to be part of the overall heater duty. However, some of the specific procedures must sometimes be modified to fit
the requirements of the particular situation.

REFERENCES

DESIGN PRACTICES (BESIDES OTHER SECTIONS OF THIS SECTION)


Section XII Instrumentation
Section XIV Fluid Flow
Section XV Safety in Plant Design

INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES
IP 3-4-1 Piping for Fired Equipment
IP 7-1-1 Fired Heaters
IP 15-1-1 Instrumentation for Fired Heaters
IP 18-3-2 Statically Cast Steel and Alloy Pressure Containing Parts, and Tube Supports for Fired Heaters
IP 19-3-3 Linings for Fired Heaters

OTHER LITERATURE
1. EMRE Blue Book, Manual Numbers 012 and 011.
2. EMRE Refinery Construction Materials Manual, Manual No. EETD 028.
3. API 530, Calculation of Heater Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries.
4. ASME Standard B31.3, Process Piping.

DEFINITIONS
See Design Practice VIII-A, Fired Process Heaters

DETERMINING HEATER EFFICIENCY

TOTAL HEAT DUTY Qa


From the process requirements, determine the total heat duty. This must include all flexibility requirements. An allowance
need not be added to the heater duty to compensate for preheat exchanger fouling, since this is normally covered by the
exchanger fouling factors.
Qa = Total heat absorbed by the heater, Btu/hr (MW)

STACK TEMPERATURE TS
Procedures for determining economical stack temperature are given in Section VIII-A.

DESIGN EXCESS AIR RATE


As discussed in Section VIII-A, the design excess air is based on the type of combustion system and the fuel:
Use 15% excess air for forced-draft firing of all fuels and natural draft firing of gas fuels.
Use 20% excess air for natural draft oil or combination gas/oil firing.

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DETERMINING HEATER EFFICIENCY (Cont)

HEAT AVAILABLE FROM FUEL


Heat available from the fuel fired can be determined from the flue gas enthalpy (heat available, HA) curve for the design excess
air rate in Figures 4 to 10 of Section VIII-M. The ordinate of these charts (heat available, Btu/lb (MJ/kg) of fuel fired)
represents the amount of heat that has been extracted from the flue gas (and absorbed by the process fluid) when the flue gas
temperature has been reduced to that shown on the abscissa. The total heat obtained from the fuel is the value read from the
chart if the temperature on the abscissa is the stack temperature.
The particular heat available chart selected should be the one for a fuel which most closely resembles the design fuel. There is
no significant difference between calculations based on different fuels of the same type. Heaters designed for combination
gas/oil firing should be based on oil firing. Once a chart is selected, all calculations must be based on heating values and flue
gas rates consistent with the selected fuel.
For unusual fuels, the heat available curve should be calculated. Computer Program No. 3558 may be used for this purpose.
The heat available curves in Section VIII-M are based on combustion air temperatures of 60F (15C), for heater applications
involving preheated combustion air, these curves must be adjusted to include the additional heat content of the combustion air.

NET FUEL REQUIREMENT Fn

Qa
Fn = Eq. (1)
(HA )s

where: Fn = Net fuel required, lb/hr (kg/s)


Qa = Total heat absorbed in heater, Btu/hr (MW)
(HA)s = Heat available at stack temperature, Btu/lb of fuel (MJ/kg of fuel)

Net fuel is used for all flue gas enthalpy calculations in the furnace.

GROSS FUEL REQUIREMENT Fg

Fg = 1.01 Fn for heaters larger than 100 MBtu/hr (29 MW) heat absorbed Eq. (2a)

= 1.02 Fn for heaters between 15 and 100 MBtu/hr (4 and 29 MW) Eq. (2b)

= 1.03 Fn for heaters smaller than 15 MBtu/hr (4 MW) Eq. (2c)

where: Fg = Gross fuel requirement, lb/hr (kg/s)

Gross fuel is used to determine total heat fired, efficiency, combustion air requirements, stack gas velocity, and flue gas mass
velocity and pressure drop. The difference between net fuel and gross fuel accounts for radiation and other heat losses from
the heater (excluding stack losses).

HEAT FIRED Qf

Q f = Fg x LHV Eq. (3)

where: Qf = Heat fired, Btu/hr


LHV = Fuel lower heating value, Btu/lb (Figures 4 to 10 of Section VIII-M)

By convention, lower heating value is always used in all heater and burner calculations.

HEATER EFFICIENCY ELHV

100 Qa
ELHV = Eq. (4)
Qf

where: ELHV = Thermal efficiency of heater, based on lower heater value, percent

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION

TUBE SIZE AND NUMBER OF PASSES


Mass Velocity G - As discussed in Section VIII-A, adequate flow rate inside the heater tubes is necessary to develop a
satisfactory film coefficient so that heat transfer from the tube wall to the fluid is obtained with a reasonable differential
temperature across the film. Table 1 gives suggested design fluid mass velocities for different services. Since the heater
throughput (lb/sec, kg/s) is determined by the process requirements, the total tube internal cross-sectional area required for the
flowing fluid is the throughput divided by the mass velocity. This cross-sectional area determines the inside diameters of the
tubes and the number of parallel passes through the radiant section (and usually also through the convection section):
W
G = Eq. (5)
p Ax

where: G = Fluid mass velocity through the coil, lb/sec ft2 (kg/s m2)
W = Flow rate through the heater, lb/sec (kg/s)
p = Number of parallel passes
Ax = Cross-sectional flow area through one tube, ft2 (m2)

Available Tube Sizes - Wherever possible, tube diameters should be selected from standard nominal pipe sizes in the range
of 2 to 8 in. (50 to 200 mm). These sizes are listed in Section XIV-A, Fluid Flow. Non-standard sizes should be used only on
special occasions, when design parameters cannot be met with standard sizes. In such cases, tubing can be obtained in 1/8
in. (3 mm) (or sometimes even smaller) increments of outside diameter, with 5.0, 6.0, and 7.625 in. O.D. (127, 152, and 194
mm O.D.) being some of the more common sizes.
Most heaters are designed using 4 to 8 in. (100 to 200 mm) tubes. These tubes, with the most commonly specified wall
thicknesses, are listed in Table 2. Unless experience indicates otherwise, a first assumption of a 0.285 in. (7.24 mm) minimum
wall thickness should be made for alloy radiant section tubes. Note that the wall thickness for carbon steel should be specified
as standard schedule sizes, whereas alloy tubes should be specified for the actual minimum wall thickness required. Table 2
merely lists the most commonly used sizes for the convenience of the designer.

ECONOMICAL TUBE SIZE AND NUMBER OF PASSES


1. The most economical size tubes to use are 4, 5, and 6 in. (100, 125, and 150 mm) pipe sizes. In some cases, to obtain the
required mass velocities, it may be necessary to use smaller sizes, but more than one pass of a smaller size should
usually be avoided.
2. In vaporizing or all-liquid services, the difficulty of uniformly distributing flow to multiple passes increases with the number
of passes. Therefore, the number of passes should be minimized, consistent with the heater arrangement. This tends to
favor selection of larger size tubes. The same number of passes should be maintained throughout the heater.
3. In all-vapor services, even distribution of flow to individual passes is obtained by proper manifold design (see Section
VIII-J, Fired Heater Manifolds). Therefore, the selection of tube size and number of passes should be based on layout
considerations. A different number of passes and different tube sizes can be used for the radiant and convection sections,
since the convection section outlets can be combined and then redistributed at the radiant section inlets.

DESIGN RADIANT HEAT DENSITY r


Process Considerations - As discussed in Section VIII-A, the permissible radiant heat density from process considerations is
a function of several factors which include heater geometry, feed stock, service, and oil outlet temperature. Maximum
allowable heat densities are, therefore, established by experience, as well as from theoretical considerations. Table 1 lists are
recommended average radiant heat densities for most services. These heat densities, along with other recommended heater
design criteria, will insure satisfactory maximum heat densities.
Mechanical Considerations - Using average radiant heat densities dictated by process conditions will usually result in flue gas
temperatures of about 1600 to 1800F (870 to 980C) leaving the radiant section (bridgewall temperature). At this temperature
level, good mechanical service can be expected from conventional tube supports and refractory materials. A lower radiant heat
density should be used if the bridgewall temperature exceeds 1800F (980C).

CALCULATION OF TOTAL RADIANT SURFACE


Bridgewall Temperature Tbw - The bridgewall temperature is the temperature of the flue gas leaving the radiant section.
Since the shield tubes see the radiant section, they absorb part of the total radiant heat to be transferred. This shield radiant
duty is included in the heat absorbed in cooling the flue gas down to the bridgewall temperature.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


The bridgewall temperature is primarily a function of average radiant heat density, average radiant tube metal temperatures
and the basic shape of the heater. Figures 1 to 5 present bridgewall temperature as a function of these variables for the
various types of fired heaters designed by ExxonMobil Engineering. Figure 6 presents bridgewall temperature information for
horizontal tube box heaters which, although no longer specified for new heater applications, are still in use at many locations.
In reality bridgewall temperature is also a function of fuel type, excess air level, combustion air temperature, and radiant tube
spacing. However, for typical heater designs the effect of these variables is small and can be ignored for design purposes. On
the other hand, if any of these variables are outside the recommended limits summarized below, the Heat Transfer Equipment
Section of EETD should be contacted so appropriate bridgewall temperature correction factors can be developed and applied.
Fuel Type - Figures 1 to 6 are only valid for typical refinery fuel gases and fuel oils. Unusual fuels with higher or lower than
normal adiabatic flame temperatures may require adjustment of the bridgewall temperature curves.
Excess Air - Figures 1 to 6 are valid for excess air levels from 15 to 50%.
Combustion Air Temperature - Figures 1 to 6 are valid for combustion air temperatures from ambient up to about 850F
(450C).
Radiant Tube Spacing - Figures 1 to 6 are based on the assumption that the majority of the radiant tubes will have a tube
spacing of two times the nominal diameter.
When starting a design, assume that the average radiant tube metal temperature is about 100F (50C) above the average bulk
fluid temperature. The average radiant tube metal temperature is usually based on uncoked radiant tubes. Corrections
listed on these figures must be made to the temperature read from the curves, since the bridgewall temperature depends on
heater height. This requires a trial-and-error solution to determine final bridgewall temperature, radiant heat density, tube
surface, etc.

TOTAL RADIANT HEAT DUTY Qtr

Q tr = (HA )bw Fn Eq. (6)

where: Qtr = Total radiant section heat duty (including shield section radiant duty), Btu/hr (MW)
(HA)bw = Heat available at bridgewall temperature, Btu/lb of fuel (MJ/kg of fuel)
Fn = Net fuel required, lb/hr (kg/s) [see Eq. (1)]
n

Shield Radiant Heat Duty Qsr - This is the radiant heat absorbed by the shield section Btu/hr (MW). Calculation procedures
for shield radiant duty are found in Section VIII-C, Design of Convection Sections and Stacks.

RADIANT SECTION HEAT DUTY Qr

Qr = Q tr Q sr Eq. (7)

where: Qr = Heat absorbed by the radiant section surface, Btu/hr (MW)

RADIANT SECTION SURFACE Ar

Qr
Ar = Eq. (8)
r

where: Ar = Radiant section tube surface, ft2 (m2)


r = Radiant section average heat density, Btu/hr ft2 (W/m2)

RADIANT SECTION LAYOUT


General - The radiant section layout is developed from a number of requirements, as outlined below. Since these are
interrelated to some extent, a trial layout must first be developed and then modified as the design progresses.
The radiant section layout must provide sufficient space for mounting burners and installing the required heat transfer surface.
The required clearances between burners and tubes (see Burner Clearances, below) determine the minimum tube envelope
around the burners. In many heaters, this envelope is governing, and either the required tubes must be spread out on this
envelope or more tubes must be added to the minimum number required.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


The tube size and number of passes are selected to give the desired mass velocity. The number of passes must be consistent
with the heater type, so that each pass receives the same amount of heat. While vertical cylindrical heaters can be designed
for almost any number of passes, cabin heaters usually require an even number of passes so that they can be symmetrically
arranged in the heater.
The convection section layout must be determined before the radiant section can be finished, since the length of each section
depends upon the other. Also, the radiant duty in the shield section depends upon the size of the convection section.
Therefore, design of the convection section (see Section VIII-C) must be done concurrently with design of the radiant section.
The following general layout criteria should be used with all heater configurations (see sketch below):
1. Centerline-to-centerline spacing of adjacent radiant tubes should be two times the nominal diameter (short radius U-bend).
2. Radiant wall tube centerline should be located a distance of 1-1/2 time the nominal diameter away from the wall.
3. Corner tubes in the radiant section should be located so that there is no dead tube, which is partially shielded by adjacent
tubes and receives substantially less than the average amount of heat. See the sketch below:

Avoid "Dead" Tube

2 x IPS

1 1/2 x IPS

Preferred Avoid DP8BFa

4. To assure adequate visibility from radiant section observation doors, tube spacing at these doors shall be 3 times the
nominal diameter (long radius U-bend).
5. Compatibility with the layout of inlet distribution and outlet collection piping should be kept in mind when the tube layout is
being set.
Tube Lengths - The proper choice of tube length has a marked effect on the cost of any heater being designed. Guidelines for
selecting economical tube lengths are presented below for cabin and vertical-cylindrical heaters. The particular lengths given
are approximations and can vary in individual cases. For vertical tube box heaters, the number of tubes and layout are usually
developed first, with the tube length being determined afterwards.
Maximum tube lengths for convection sections or for horizontal radiant sections should be limited to about 100 ft (30 m),
because of the difficulty in handling longer tubes. Maximum lengths of vertical tubes should be limited to 45 ft (13.7 m)
(preferably shorter), because the vertical maldistribution of heat input is excessive in longer tubes.

NUMBER OF RADIANT SECTION TUBES Nr

Ar
Nr = Eq. (9)
A o Lr

where: Nr = Number of tubes in the radiant section


Ao = Tube outside surface, ft2/ft = 0.262 Do (m2/m = Do x 10-3)(see Table 2)
Do = Tube outside diameter, in. (mm)
Lr = Radiant tube effective length, ft (m). This is the exposed tube length for heat transfer
and does not include return bends. While return bends located inside the firebox will
actually absorb some heat, EMRE practice is not to count bends in the effective heat
transfer surface of process heaters. Note that for tubes with return bends located in
header boxes, the actual length of the tubes will be longer than the effective length.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


This calculated number of tubes should be adjusted so that there are an equal number in each pass. Each pass must also
have a number of tubes consistent with the type of heater being designed, as well as with the locations of inlets and outlets
(e.g., a top inlet and bottom outlet from the radiant section requires an odd number of tubes per pass). Note that in special
cases, it may be desirable to use an unequal number of tubes per pass in order to compensate for a severe maldistribution of
heat input to the passes. Consideration must be given to flow control in such cases, since pressure drops in the passes will be
unequal.
For heater designs where the number of tubes is known, based on layout, etc. (e.g., vertical tube box), Eq. (9) is used to
determine tube lengths.
Burner Clearances - Listed below are minimum clearances that should be provided around the burners.
1. Natural Draft
For natural draft operation with burners firing vertically or horizontally, the following minimum clearances shall be provided:

DISTANCE in ft (mm)
MAXIMUM A B C D
HEAT RELEASE Burner Exit to Centerline of Burner Centerline Burner Centerline Between Opposing
PER BURNER Roof Tubes or Refractory to Centerline of to Unshielded Burners (Horizontal
MBtu/hr (MW) (Vertical Firing Only) Tubes Refractory Firing Only)
OIL 4 (1.2) 12 ft (3700) 3 ft, 3 in. (1000) 2 ft, 0 in. (600) 16 ft (4900)
6 (1.7) 16 ft (4900) 3 ft, 9 in. (1100) 2 ft, 6 in. (800) 22 ft (6700)
8 (2.3) 20 ft (6100) 4 ft, 3 in. (1300) 3 ft, 0 in. (900) 28 ft (8500)
10 (2.9) 24 ft (7300) 4 ft, 9 in. (1400) 3 ft, 6 in. (1100) 32 ft (8700)
GAS 2 (0.6) 7 ft (2100) 2 ft, 3 in. (700) 1 ft, 6 in. (500) 8 ft (2500)
4 (1.2) 10 ft (3100) 2 ft, 9 in. (850) 2 ft, 0 in. (600) 12 ft (3700)
6 (1.7) 13 ft (4000) 3 ft, 3 in. (1000) 2 ft, 6 in. (800) 16 ft (4900)
8 (2.3) 16 ft (4900) 3 ft, 9 in. (1100) 3 ft, 0 in. (900) 20 ft (6100)
10 (2.9) 19 ft (5800) 4 ft, 3 in. (1300) 3 ft, 6 in. (1100) 24 ft (7300)
12 (3.5) 22 ft (6700) 4 ft, 9 in. (1400) 4 ft, 0 in. (1200) 26 ft (7900)
14 (4.1) 25 ft (7600) 5 ft, 3 in. (1600) 4 ft, 6 in. (1400) 28 ft (8500)

Notes:
(1) For horizontal firing, the distance between the burner centerline and the closest roof or sloped arch tube centerline or refractory shall
be 50 percent greater than the distances in Column B.
(2) For combination liquid and gas burners, the clearances will be based on liquid fuel firing, except when liquid fuel is used for start-up
only.
(3) This table applies to burners capable of natural draft operation, even though they may often operate with a small forced and/or
induced draft.
(4) Clearances for liquid fuel service govern for combination gas/oil services, or where provisions are made for future oil firing.
(5) No minimum burner-to-burner clearances are set. Allow at least 1 in. (25 mm) between adjacent burners. If a plenum chamber is to
be used for muffling combustion noise (the usual case), increased spacing is required mainly to ensure proper air distribution around
the burner. See Section VIII-F, Burners.
2. Forced Draft Upfiring
a. The following clearances are required for typical large, forced-draft burners.

BURNER HEAT MINIMUM DISTANCE FROM BURNER CENTERLINE


RELEASE FOR BOTH GAS AND OIL FIRING TO:
Centerline of Unshielded Centerline of
MBtu/hr (MW) Radiant Tubes Refractory Walls Adjacent Burners
20 (5.9) 4 ft, 6 in. (1370 mm) 3 ft, 6 in. (1070 mm) 4 ft, 6 in. (1370 mm)
30 (8.8) 5 ft, 0 in. (1520 mm) 4 ft, 0 in. (1220 mm) 5 ft, 0 in. (1520 mm)
40 (11.7) 5 ft, 8 in. (1730 mm) 4 ft, 8 in. (1420 mm) 5 ft, 8 in. (1730 mm)

b. Provide vertical clearances between burner and refractory, tubes, stack entrance, etc. in line of the burner throw.
Consult burner manufacturer for clearances of a particular burner model. Typirovisions are made for future oil firing.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)

HORIZONTAL TUBE CABIN HEATER


1. Number of Passes and Arrangements
a. Typical pass arrangements are shown in Figure 7. Combinations of these arrangements can be used for more than 4
passes (Figures 7A and 7D).
b. Use Figure 7C for severe coking services (vacuum pipestill heaters), rather than Figure 7A. The use of jump-over
return fittings are very expensive and should not be used unless they are necessary.
2. Tube Length - Figure 8 may be used as a guide in choosing approximate radiant tube effective length for the typical
horizontal tube cabin heaters shown in Figure 7. This approximate length may require adjustment, based on the number
of tubes and passes, burner clearances, etc. For most applications, the actual length used can be expected to be 80 to
100% of this approximate length.
3. Heater Length - The locations of return bends will affect the actual length of radiant and convection tubes. The possible
arrangements are shown below:

(a) (b)

Convection Section

Radiant Section

DP8BFb

a. Sketch (a) is preferred. The effective length of the convection tubes is approximately 3 ft (0.9 m) longer than that of
the radiant tubes. Clearance for thermal expansion must be provided between radiant section return bends and the
end wall. Clearances must also be provided between convection section return bends and the header box, but this
affects only the detailed mechanical design.
b. Sketch (b) should be used when radiant section return bends with removable plugs (plug headers) are used. Radiant
and convection tubes have the same effective length in this case.
c. Convection section return bends should always be located in header boxes to prevent flue gas by passing around the
end of the convection section.
4. Radiant Section and Burner Layout
a. Assume a single row of burners (one row in each cell for Figure 7D).
b. Select burner to tube clearances as previously stated. For the preliminary layout, assume a burner to tube center-to-
center spacing of 51 in. (1300 mm) for natural draft and 60 in. (1520 mm) for forced draft.
c. Leave a 1 ft (300 mm) clearance between the outside diameter of the lowest radiant wall tube and the floor.
d. Space tubes (center-to-center) on two nominal diameters (2 times IPS).
e. Hip sections (transition between radiant and convection sections) should be assumed to be at a 45-degree angle.
f. Determine the number of burners required, based on the minimum clearances previously stated. Determine if burners
can be physically laid out in a single row as assumed. If burners cannot be placed in single row:
i. For natural draft, use a staggered row (triangular pitch) or double row of burners and increase the width of the
radiant sections accordingly.
ii. For forced draft, revise the layout to fit.
g. The height/width ratio of the radiant section in general should not exceed 3.5:1 unless necessary to comply with plot
space or specific burner flame length requirements. Height should be taken as the distance between the floor and the
centerline of the uppermost tube in the vertical wall section. Width should be taken as the tube centerline spacing
across the firebox.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)

VERTICAL-CYLINDRICAL HEATER
1. General - Most vertical-cylindrical heaters will be designed with horizontal tube convection sections. Heaters should not
be designed with integral convection sections. (See Section VIII-A, Figure 1B.)
2. Number of Passes and Arrangement - Any number of passes can be used in vertical-cylindrical furnaces, since the
radiant section layout is always symmetrical. However, certain number of passes (1, 2, 4 or 8) tend to result in simpler
outlet piping. Other arrangements may require an expensive ring manifold, not otherwise required, to collect the heater
outlets and should be avoided unless process considerations dictate their use.
3. Radiant Tube Length - Figure 9 may be used to determine the approximate range of possible tube lengths. Consistent
with the criteria listed below, economical radiant tube lengths are usually the longest possible. The final length will only
rarely fall below the indicated range (Lr / Dt < 1.6). To avoid excessive longitudinal maldistribution of heat input, maximum
tube length should normally be 35 to 40 ft (10.7 to 12.2 m). In no case should tubes longer than 45 ft (13.7 m) be used.
4. Radiant Section Layout
a. The circumference of the tube circle is determined by multiplying the number of tubes by the center-to-center tube
spacing.
b. The ratio of tube length to tube circle diameter (Lr / Dt) should be no greater than 2.6 and no smaller than 1.2.
c. Check burner clearances as developed below.
d. If necessary, the radiant layout can be revised by the following:
i. Increase the number of tubes. This decreases Lr and increases Dt. Thus, Lr / Dt is reduced, and burner-to-tube
clearances are increased. However, clearance in line of burner throw is also reduced and may in turn require
smaller burners.
ii. Increase the spacing between radiant tube passes. This reduces Lr / Dt and increases burner-to-tube clearances,
but does not decrease burner throw clearance. Since this approach causes a far greater increase in heater cost
than that from increasing the number of tubes, it should not be used until these possibilities are exhausted.
e. The welded return bends are normally located inside the firebox and the overall height of the box must allow for
thermal expansion of the coil.
f. The radiant coil may be either top-supported and guided at the bottom or bottom-supported and guided at the top.
With an even number of radiant tubes per pass, the outlet will be at the top of the radiant section (since the inlet from
the convection section is at the top). In this case, the radiant coil should usually be hung to eliminate vertical growth at
the heater outlet nozzle. Conversely, with an odd number of radiant tubes per pass, the coil should normally be
supported from floor level, since the outlet nozzle is at the bottom of the heater.
Convection to radiant crossover designs is less difficult with top supported coils, since the crossover requires much
less flexibility. However, both arrangements are routinely done successfully. Consideration should be given to the
likely arrangement of the outlet manifold and transfer line since these are also affected by locations of supports and
tube outlets.
g. Crossovers should normally be located outside the heater rather than inside. This permits better support and permits
increased flexibility, thereby avoiding potential mechanical problems. This also provides a place for temperature
indicators between the radiant and convection sections.

BURNER ARRANGEMENT
a. Select the number and size of burners. The minimum clearances specified above must be maintained. When
possible, the number of burners should also be a multiple of the number of passes to provide symmetry.
b. Avoid using two burners in a vertical-cylindrical heater. The use of two burners produces unsymmetrical heat patterns
and may result in poor operations.
c. The use of only one burner requires that the heater be shut down every time the burner must be cleaned or otherwise
maintained. Therefore, the use of three small burners is preferable to one large burner in heaters in continuous
services.
d. The burners are normally laid out in one burner circle.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


6. Convection Section Layout - In addition to the general section on convection section design, the following are specific to
the vertical-cylindrical heater (see Figure 10):
a. The convection section length Lc and width W c depend upon the radiant tube circle diameter. Therefore, they must be
worked out in conjunction (trial and error) with the radiant layout.
b. For the preliminary layout, assume Lc = 0.9 Dt. Final design lengths will usually fall in the range of 0.8 Dt to 1.0 Dt.
c. The convection section box is supported by the radiant section cylindrical shell and supporting structure. The inside
four corners of the convection section refractory should be located just above the inside of the radiant section
refractory wall. This then sets the convection tube effective length as well as convection section width, since the
combination of both is a function of radiant section diameter.
d. The convection section header boxes usually extend beyond the radiant shell.
e. In the rare case where the radiant tubes have cleanout plugs, the convection tubes (including headers and header
boxes) cannot extend beyond the radiant tube circle diameter, since access must be provided for cleaning of the
radiant tubes.
7. All-Radiant Heaters
a. For an all-radiant type heater, no means are provided for cooling flue gases leaving the radiant section. The stack
temperature is the bridgewall temperature. Stack temperature and efficiency depend solely on the choice of radiant
heat density.
b. Radiant surface is obtained directly by dividing the heater duty by the heat density.
c. All-radiant vertical tube heaters usually have an even number of tubes per pass, with the coil bottom-supported.
8. Very Small Heaters - Meeting normal established design criteria is often difficult with the design of very small heaters [less
than about 10 MBtu/hr (3 MW) heat duty]. The following should be considered:
a. These heaters are usually all-radiant. However, a convection section may be economical, particularly with only gas
fuel.
b. Higher-than-normal allowances should be provided for radiation and other heat losses. Multiply the net fuel by 1.03 to
determine the gross fuel required.
c. The minimum height of the radiant section should be about 15 ft (4.6 m).
d. Minimum burner-to-tube clearances should be maintained.
e. Increase the spacing between passes (as previously discussed) and/or decrease the heat density, as necessary.
Since the heater shell dimensions will largely be determined by minimum burner clearances, decreasing heat density
has the added benefit of increasing heater efficiency.
f. Helical coils are sometimes used in small heaters, instead of the usual serpentine coil.
i. The coil is supported at three points on each turn. Each support usually consists of a high alloy pipe extending
the entire height of the radiant section, with the coil supported from this pipe by means of U-bolts.
ii. No return bends are required for the coil, reducing heater cost. Pressure drop through the coil is also reduced by
the elimination of return bends. Pressure drop is approximately 150% of that of a straight tube of the same
length.
iii. A maximum of two tube passes should be used.
9. Multi-Service Vertical-Cylindrical (V.C.) Heaters - The radiant section of V.C. heaters can be divided into two or three
separate, but compatible, services. However, when possible, this arrangement should be avoided.
a. A refractory brick wall can be used to divide the radiant section into separate zones. Although each zone has its own
firing controls, the heat input is influenced to some extent by the other zones. Since the maximum height of the free
standing interior walls is about 25 ft (7.6 m), this influence will be substantial in tall heaters. See the discussion on
HOOP-TUBE CABIN HEATERS for more details on the dividing wall.
b. Separate services can also be installed in the same radiant section, but without the interior wall. However, this
arrangement can be used only in special cases, since there is no way of varying the relative heat input to the
individual services once the amount of surface in each service has been selected.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)

VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER


Note: The vertical tube box heater is an ExxonMobil proprietary design and has substantial advantages over the design of
our competitors. To protect this proprietary technology, care must be taken to ensure that only contractors and heater
vendors who have signed appropriate confidentiality agreements are given information on the vertical tube box heater.
1. General
a. Vertical tube box heaters use a combination of one-side fired tubes along the end and side walls of the radiant box,
plus two-side fired tubes in rows across the box. The two-side fired (or center) tubes divide the box into a number of
cells.
b. Since equal heat input per pass is desired, each pass must contain the same number of one-side fired tubes and of
two-side fired tubes.
2. Typical Arrangements - Figure 11 shows sketches of a number of generalized arrangements, with various pass and cell
configurations. This group of arrangements is not intended to cover all possible combinations. Other arrangements may
be used to meet special requirements.
a. Figures 11a to 11c show the most commonly used arrangements. Similar arrangements can be used for 4 and 10
passes. This type arrangement should be used as first preference. As shown, the outlet tubes should be located at
the sides of the heater, which is the region of less than average heat density. This layout tends to reduce the coking
rate of the hottest tubes.
b. Figures 11d and 11e show other arrangements that have been used. However, some variations in heat input per
pass can be expected because of the non-symmetrical layout of the two-side fired tubes. Also, the heaters tend to be
wider than shown in Figures 11a to 11c, leading to a short, wide convection section (perhaps too wide). Similar
arrangements can be made for 9 passes (4 cells) and 12 passes (4 or 5 cells).
c. Figure 11h shows the use of only high heat density two-side fired tubes, which minimize coil length at the expense of
a larger box. This arrangement should be considered when very expensive tubes are required (e.g., stainless steel) or
where conditions require a short residence time or uniform radiant heat density around the tube. Note that heat
release in the end cells is one-half of that in the center cells. Figure 4 presents bridgewall temperature curves for this
type heater. Some variations in the layout procedures described below are required for heaters with only two-side
fired tubes, since these procedures were primarily developed for combinations of one- and two-side fired tubes.
3. Layout Considerations - The following considerations should be kept in mind when the vertical box layout is being
developed. In special cases, the guidelines should be modified as required.
a. Most heaters will have a top inlet to the radiant section (from the convection section) and a bottom outlet. Therefore,
an odd number of tubes per pass is normally required.
b. Jumpovers (i.e., between wall tubes and center tubes) may be located at the top or bottom of the radiant section,
although they are most commonly located at the bottom. They are usually located outside the firebox.
c. Tubes are bottom-supported and guided at the top. Wall tubes over 35 ft (10.7 m) long should also have a midpoint
guide to restrict tube bowing caused by peripheral maldistribution of heat input.
d. Center tubes under the convection section must be about 3 ft (0.9 m) longer than the other tubes to accommodate the
top tube guide system. See Figure 12 for typical guide details.
e. The location of center tubes relative to the convection section side walls will determine the type of tube guide required.
Care must be exercised in locating these tubes to ensure that they can be adequately guided. The use of 1 or 2 long
radius U-bends may be required for proper locations of these tubes. See Figure 12 for details of typical center tube
guides.
f. Allow a clear path for access and tube replacement through the end walls and from cell to cell. This is usually located
down to the center of the furnace between outlet tubes of adjacent passes. Allow a 24 in. (610 mm) tube center-to-
center spacing for 6 in. (150 mm) or smaller tubes [17 in. (430 mm) minimum clear access].
g. Location of the transfer line will depend upon heater and burner arrangement. Typically, one transfer line will run
along each side of the heater, as shown in Figure 11f. Should this arrangement not be possible, a less desirable
arrangement with outlet tubes in the center and a single transfer line may be used, as shown in Figure 11g.
h. As nearly as possible, the number of end wall tubes and center tubes per row should be equal, to take full advantage
of available space for tubes. Since the design will not always permit this, it is preferable to use fewer tubes on the end
walls and maximize the use of center tubes. If this results in wide spaces on the end walls, a few long radius U-bends
should be used to spread out the end wall tubes.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


i. While all cells should be the same size, it is acceptable to make the center cell (or two) slightly wider than the others to
accommodate one or two extra wall tubes if these tubes are necessary to obtain an equal number of wall tubes per
pass.
Conversely, it is also acceptable to leave a wall tube out of one or more cells if necessary. However, cell size should
not be reduced since this is probably set by minimum burner clearances.
j. A minimum of one long radius return bend (or equivalent space) should be provided in each side of each cell. These
should be located at diagonally opposite corners of the cells. These larger spaces are necessary for peepholes which
permit viewing of tubes and burners (see Figure 13).
4. Radiant Section Design
a. Determine the proposed arrangement from typical arrangements shown in Figure 11, as previously discussed.
b. Determine the number of burners. The heat release, number and size of burners will be identical in each cell (except
for Figure 11h, where heat release in end cells is one-half that of the other cells).
c. Determine the minimum tube envelope surrounding the burners, based on previously stated minimum burner-to-tube
and burner-to-burner clearances. Keep in mind that additional clearance between burners may be required at the
center of the heater if the transfer line arrangement shown in Figure 11f is used.
d. The preliminary layout should be based upon the minimum tube envelope surrounding the burners, unless experience
indicates that a larger envelope should be used for the specific case. In many designs, this minimum envelope has
been used in the final layout with virtually no modifications.
e. Determine the approximately number of tubes. The following method can be used as a short-cut aid in the trial-and-
error procedure for determining the proper number of radiant section tubes. See Figure 13. The following
nomenclature is used in this method:
B = Cell width (tube center-to-tube center), ft (m)
B = Preliminary approximate width, based on minimum tube envelope.
Lt = Heater length (tube center-to-tube center), ft (m)
Lt = B
Li = Heater radiant section overall length, inside refractory, ft (m)
Li = Lt + 3 times tube size (IPS)
Wt = Heater width (tube center-to-center), ft (m)
Wt = Preliminary approximate width, based on minimum tube envelope
Wi = Heater radiant section overall width, inside refractory, ft (m)
Wi = Wt + 3 times tube size (IPS)
a = Number of wall tubes at one end of heater
a = Preliminary approximate number of wall tubes at one end of heater
b = Number of wall tubes at one side of one cell
c = Tube center-to-center spacing, ft (m)
e = Number of center tubes between adjacent cells
n = Number of cells
p = Number of passes
x = Number of wall tubes (one-side fired) per pass
y = Number of center tubes (two-side fired) per pass
a, b, e, x, y are first approximations based on the following equations. These equations assume that the corner
tubes of each cell are arranged at a 45 angle, and one long radius return bend is included in each side of each cell.
i. End wall tubes
Wt ' 2
a = + 0.586 (Customary) Eq. (10)
c

Wt ' 0.610
a = c
+ 0.586 (Metric) Eq. (10)M

Let a = whole even number based on a

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


Determine: (a a)c
If this is positive, this is the increase in center access clearance above 2 ft (0.6 m).
If it is negative, this is the increase in tube envelope over the minimum.
ii. Side wall tubes
B
b = 0.957 Eq. (11)
c

Let b = next higher whole number greater than b


iii. One-side fired tubes per pass
2a + 2nb
x = Eq. (12)
p

Since x must be a whole number, some adjustments may be required:


Decrease (a) by 2 or 4 tubes. Long radius U-bends should be used as necessary to spread out the
remaining tubes.
Add to (a). Note that this also will require addition to (e).
Add to (b) in each cell.
Add or subtract from (b) 1 or 2 tubes in only the center cell(s). If subtracting tubes, leave the resulting space
blank and don't decrease the cell size.
iv. Two-side fired tubes per pass
e = a (approximately) Eq. (13a)

e
y = (usually, when there are 2 pass outlets per row of center tubes) Eq (13b)
2

or

e (n 1)
y = (adjust as required to obtain whole number) Eq. (13c)
p

v. Total tubes per pass - The total number of tubes per pass (x + y) should be an odd number for most
arrangements. Make slight adjustments to the number of tubes to modify this total as required.
f. Determine the radiant surface. Eq. (8) is used to determine the amount of radiant tube surface required. However,
this equation must be modified for the vertical tube box heater arrangement, because of the usage of both one-side
and two-side fire tubes.
The amount of equivalent surface required based on one-side firing can be determined. Since for standard tube-to-
tube spacings (2 IPS) the average heat density on two-side fire tubes (2-side) is 1.5 times the average heat density for
one-side fire tubes (1-side) the heat absorbed by each two-side fire tube used in the layout will be equivalent to that of
1.5 one-side fire tubes.
Qr
A1 side = Eq. (8a)
1 side

where: A1-side = Equivalent radiant section tube surface, based on one-side fired heat density, ft2 (m2)
The bridgewall temperature used for this calculation depends on the radiant section height, so a trial-and-error solution
must be made to determine the final bridgewall temperature. However, for the initial approximation of radiant tube
length, assume no height correction of bridgewall temperature. The convection section layout and shield duty are
estimated based upon the radiant layout developed up to this point.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


g. Determine the radiant tube length Lr.
A1side
Lr = Eq. (14)
p ( x + 1 .5 y ) A o

Radiant tube length Lr should be within the range of 30 to 40 ft (9.1 to 12.2 m), with the optimum length being 35 to 40
ft (10.7 to 12.2 m). It should not exceed 45 ft (13.7 m).
If Lr > 40 ft (12.2 m), consider adding to the number of tubes (x & y) to reduce Lr. Heater width should be increased
first, then length.
If Lr < 30 ft (9.1 m), review the design basis, since this is an unusual case and may possibly be uneconomical.
As discussed above, the final Lr must be used in determining the final bridgewall temperature.
5. Multi-Service Box Furnaces - The vertical tube box heater can be used for two services by splitting the radiant section;
one end of the heater in one service and the other end in a second service. The convection section may be in one service
over the entire radiant section or in two services, one above each radiant section.
The two services must operate together at similar heat densities.

HOOP TUBE CABIN HEATER (SEE SECTION VIII-A, FIGURES 4C AND 4D)
1. General - The double hoop arrangement shown in Figure 4D of Section VIII-A is customarily used for POWERFORMING
heaters but can also be used for other all-vapor services. These heaters are usually multi-service, with each radiant zone
separated from the others by free standing brick walls.
The single hoop arrangement shown in Figure 4C of Section VIII-A can be used for two separate duties, one in each of
the radiant hoop sections. A free standing brick wall should be placed between the two hoops to permit a turndown of one
of the sections. Additional zones can be provided in the radiant section by joining this brick wall with another running to the
heater side wall.
2. Typical Arrangement - A typical arrangement of double hoop tube cabin heater is shown in Figure 14. This arrangement
shows three separate radiant zones. Note that vertical sections of tubes in center rows are on a staggered pitch and are
connected by standard U-bends. These tubes are considered to be one-side fired, the same as if they were backed by a
refractory wall. The hoops are also counted as equivalent to one-side fire tubes.
Although Figure 14 shows inlet and outlet manifolds parallel to the convection section, manifolds can also be arranged
normal to the convection section. Whatever manifolds arrangement is used, the goal is to reduce pressure drop by
simplifying piping between the heater and the reactors. Refer also to Section VIII-J for additional details on manifold
layout and design.
3. Number of Passes, Tube Size and Length - Special considerations are required for selecting the number of parallel
passes and tube size, since tube length per pass must also be considered. (Note that all references are to Figure 14.)
a. Various combinations of tube size and number of passes should be considered. Since each tube size has a different
ratio of tube surface to flow area, each combination will result in a different tube length requirement.
b. Choice of coil length is relatively limited, when compared to other designs.
i. Minimum height Ht is based upon required burner clearances discussed earlier.
ii. Maximum height is based upon maintaining uniform heat transfer, as well as mechanical considerations. Height
should be limited to straight tube length Ls of:
30 ft for 5 in. IPS (9.1 m for 125 mm NPS) and larger tube diameter.
25 ft for 4 in. IPS (7.6 m for 100 mm NPS) and smaller.
iii.Cell width between tubes (B) is based on minimum burner-to-tube clearances. However, minimum cell width
should be 10 ft, 0 in. (3.05 m) tube center to tube center.
c. Although it is desirable to use the same tube size in all zones, this is not necessary; and in practice, different tube
sizes can be used in the individual cells.
d. Coil length can be increased by a factor of two by increasing the number of series passes through the zone. This is
done by providing blinds, or baffles, in the manifolds. Zones A and C are shown with one series pass, while Zone B
has two series passes. Any number of additional series passes can be used, if necessary.
4. Convection Section Length - The convection section extends the entire length of the heater, across all radiant zones.
The convection section length is equal to the sum of the lengths of all radiant zones, plus the width of the internal dividing
walls.

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LAYOUT OF RADIANT SECTION (Cont)


5. Radiant Section Duty - As in other heater designs, overall radiant section duty can be determined from heat available
charts, given the net fuel rate and bridgewall temperature. Each radiant zone has its own bridgewall temperature.
Average bridgewall temperature is based on the combined flue gas streams leaving each radiant section. Convection
section design is based on this average bridgewall temperature.
For services which are composed evenly of all-radiant duty, bridgewall temperature is a function of radiant heat density
and tube metal temperature. The complete design of these zones in straightforward. Bridgewall temperature is
determined from Figure 5. Heat transfer to the hoop has been included in this curve.
For services which combine radiant and convection duties, the radiant duty must be determined by subtracting the other,
all-radiant duties from the overall radiant duty. Before this radiant duty can be determined, the heater layout must be
estimated (and later corrected as required), so that the shield radiant duty can be calculated.
Each radiant zone will contribute to the total shield section radiant duty. This contribution will depend on the radiant
section heat density of each zone and on the portion of the convection section located over each radiant zone. The
calculation procedure for shield section radiant duty is given in Section VIII-C.
Variations in relative duties over the run length must be considered in selecting design radiant heat densities for each
zone. For example, in the typical POWERFORMER heater (Figure 14), Zones A and C are all-radiant reheat services,
while Zone B and the convection section are in preheat service. Since A and C contribute a smaller amount of cooler flue
gas to the convection section during operations when these reheat duties are reduced, Zone B must be fired harder to
make up for this reduced convection heat input. Therefore, Zone B may have to be increased in the size to avoid high
radiant heat densities during the periods when Zones A and C operate at low rate.
6. Burner Layout - Burners should be located to give uniform heat distribution to the tubes, consistent with minimum burner-
to-wall clearances. The burners should be located so that the burner-to-wall distance is approximately half the burner-to-
burner distance.
Adequate burner space is not always available in hoop tube heaters and additional clearances are occasionally required.
For natural draft burners, these may be obtained through use of a double row of burners (Zone A). In other heaters, it may
be necessary to provide a longer cell length than otherwise required.
7. Dividing Walls - Free standing refractory brick walls divide the radiant zones. These walls should be 2 ft, 3 in. (690 mm)
wide at the base [three 9 in. (230 mm) bricks], with a stepped construction and a maximum height of about 25 ft (7.6 m).
The radiant section layout should provide for a minimum clearance between this interior wall and the adjacent hoop tubes
of 1.5 times the tube size, the same as between the tubes and the exterior walls.
8. Radiant Section Manifolds - These manifolds are located below each radiant zone, at each side of the heater. Various
methods of sealing the heater in this area are used: an external header box to enclose the manifold, a sliding seal plate
arrangement or a foil seal around each individual tube connection to the manifold. The latter method is not always
possible, particularly in designs with small tubes, where manifold thermal expansion is greater than the space between
adjacent tubes (Figure 15). The sealing arrangement used must also ensure that the manifold is not directly exposed to
radiant heat transfer.

PRESSURE DROP THROUGH THE COIL


Computer Program No. 3660 can be used to calculate heater coil pressure drop for both single and two-phase flow conditions.
This program initially calculates thermodynamic property information for the heater feed stream and then using this data
calculates the pressure drop for the coil geometry submitted.
Heater pressure drop can be calculated by hand using the procedures and equations presented in Section XIV which covers
fluid flow. For all-liquid and all-vapor systems, pressure drops can be easily and quickly calculated by hand since specific
volume changes through the coil are small. To facilitate this calculation, the Fluid Flow Module of the Pegasys computer
program can be used for single-phase pressure drop calculations. However, with two-phase systems the pressure drop per
unit length of coil changes continuously with changes in gas-liquid ratio. Calculation of pressure drop is, therefore, a complex
point-to-point trial-and-error calculation. As a result, hand calculation of two-phase pressure drop is very time-consuming and
is best done by using a computer program such as 3660.

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PRESSURE DROP THROUGH THE COIL (Cont)


The internal diameter of the tube used in pressure drop calculations should be the average instead of the minimum tube wall
thickness. [Minimum wall thickness = 0.875 (average wall thickness).] Since the tube diameter greatly affects pressure drop
(1 / P varies approximately as the 2.5 power of tube diameter in vaporizing services), it is important that any anticipated coke
buildup be allowed for, when the internal diameter of the tube is figured for pressure drop calculations. The following are
suggested thicknesses of coke to be used in the radiant section (no coking is assumed in the convection section, unless
reverse decoking facilities are also provided):
1/8 in. (3 mm) for light coking services (atmospheric pipestills, etc.).
1/4 in. (6 mm) for heavy coking services (vacuum pipestills, etc.).
In addition, the designer may have to estimate the pressure drop through the transfer line downstream of the radiant section. In
this case, refer to Section VIII-J for sonic velocity considerations.

TUBE DESIGN

MATERIALS
The primary considerations are the required strength, resistance to corrosion (or erosion), and oxidation (or reduction)
characteristics. Bearing upon these characteristics are the temperature level, the heater atmosphere, and corrosive
constituents of the process fluid or the fuel.
The most commonly used materials are carbon steel, C-1/2 Mo, 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo, 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo, 5 Cr-1/2 Mo, 9 Cr-1 Mo, 18 Cr-
8 Ni and 25 Cr-20 Ni. For selecting the proper materials, as well as for establishing corrosion rates, see the Refinery
Construction Materials Manual (RCMM) or consult the Materials Engineering Section of EETD.
For process heaters, the following tube materials are most commonly selected, based on internal and external conditions:
Internal Conditions - Largely based on sulfur corrosion.
1. Pipestills - See RCMM Corrosion Design Curve Nos. 1-A to 1-J for APS and 4-A to 4-J for VPS.
a. Carbon Steel (CS) is used at low tube metal temperatures [approximately 700 to 900F (270 to 480C)], until the
corrosion rate becomes excessive.
b. 5% Cr is used for high temperatures. It is generally good up to 1200F (650C) tube metal temperature (TMT).
c. 9% Cr is occasionally used where the crude is extremely corrosive and/or the operating conditions result in high tube
metal temperatures.
d. 18 Cr-8 Ni is rarely used due to concern over polythionic stress-corrosion cracking (PSCC) during downtimes.
2. Reboilers, Hydrofiners, etc. - See RCMM Corrosion Design Curves Nos. 2 and 3, A through J. The corrosion rate may
be significantly higher than in pipestills. See also RCMM Corrosion Design Curve 5 for hydrocarbon streams containing
H2S and H2.
a. CS is used for low temperatures.
b. 5% Cr is used for moderate temperatures (no increased corrosion resistance over CS for H2S / H2 service).
c. 18 Cr-8 Ni is used for higher temperatures or high H2S partial pressure in the feed.
3. POWERFORMERS - Tube selection depends mainly upon resistance to H2 attack (RCMM Corrosion Design Curve No. 6)
and material strength. There is relatively little corrosion.
a. C-1/2 Mo should not be used in hydrogen service even at low temperatures.
b. 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo is used at low temperatures as would be typical for convection section tubes.
c. 2-1/4 Cr or 5 Cr is used for higher temperatures. 5 Cr is used if external oxidation becomes limiting.
d. For very high temperature cases, modified 9 Cr-1 Mo material can be used to provide required strength and resistance
to external oxidation.
External Oxidation - This normally plays a relatively minor role in tube selection or corrosion allowance, but is the
principal concern in the location and selection of materials for convection section extended surface. For high-temperature
oxidation rates, see CMM Corrosion Design Curve No. 8.

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TUBE DESIGN (Cont)

DESIGN TEMPERATURE
Unless otherwise indicated, the design temperature is the maximum calculated outside tube metal temperature. Calculation of
radiant section tube metal temperature is described below. Calculation of convection section tube temperatures is described in
Section VIII-C.

Tm = Tb + Tf + Tc + Tm ; Eq. (17)

with:

1 Do
Tf = D ( r )max
Eq. (17a)
hi i

t 2 Do
Tc = c
D + D ' (r )max
(Customary) Eq. (17b)
kc i i

t 2 Do
Tc = 10 3 x c D + D ' ( r )max
(Metric) Eq. (17b)M
kc i i

t 2 Do

D + D (r )max
Tm = a (Customary) Eq. (17c)
km o i

t 2 Do
Tm = 10 3 x a D + D ( r )max
(Metric) Eq. (17c)M
km o i

where: Tm = Maximum tube metal temperature, F (C)


Tb = Temperature of bulk fluid at the point of calculation, F (C) (coil outlet or peak
temperature is usually used for Tb)
Tf = Temperature rise across inside oil film, F (C)
Tc = Temperature rise across coke layer (fouling service), F (C)
Tm = Temperature rise across tube wall, F (C)
Do = Outside tube diameter, in. (mm)
Di = Inside tube diameter, based on average tube wall thickness, in. (mm) = Do 2 ta
Di = Inside diameter of coke layer, in. (mm) = Di 2 tc
ta = Average tube wall thickness, in. (mm)
tc = Design coke thickness, in.
= 1/8 in. (3 mm) for light coking service (atmospheric pipestill, etc.)
= 1/4 in. (6 mm) for heavy coking service (vacuum pipestills, visbreakers, etc.)
hi = Inside oil film coefficient, Btu/hr ft2 F (W/m2 C). See Section VIII-C for
recommended calculation procedures.
Btu / hr ft 2
kc = Thermal conductivity of coke, (W/m C), as follows:
F / in.

FILM TEMP. F 500 1000 1500 FILM TEMP. C 260 500 800

Btu / hr ft 2 38 34 30 W 5.5 5.0 4.4


kc kc
F / in. m C

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TUBE DESIGN (Cont)


Btu / hr ft 2
km = Thermal conductivity of tube metal temperature at mean wall thickness,
F / in.
(W/m C). See Figure 16.
(r)max = Maximum point heat density, based on outside tube diameter and corrected for
longitudinal and peripheral maldistribution of heat and flame luminosity, Btu/hr ft2
(W/m2)

( r )max = C1 C2 C3 r Eq. (17d)

where: C1 = Dimensionless correction factor for peripheral maldistribution around tube


= 1.77 for one-side fired tubes
= 1.18 for two-side fired tubes
(These factors are good for process heaters with ta < 0.5 in. (13 mm), and tube center to
center of 2 x IPS. For other applications, see Figure 6 in Section VIII-D. Multiply factor
from this figure by 1.5 for one-side fired tubes.)
C2 = Dimensionless correction factor for vertical maldistribution, as follows:

FURNACE RADIANT FURNACE RADIANT C2


SECTION HEIGHT, ft SECTION HEIGHT, m FACTOR
Up to 25 Up to 7.6 1.20
30 9.0 1.23
35 10.7 1.28
40 12.2 1.33
45 13.7 1.40

(Vertical maldistribution depends upon heater geometry. This factor should be used for
all heaters previously described. For unusual applications, consult the Heat Transfer
Equipment Section of EETD.)
C3 = Dimensionless correction factor for luminosity, which depends upon the type of flame:
= 1.0 for non-luminous flames (gas)
= 1.08 for luminous flames (oil, combination gas/oil)
r = Radiant section average heat density, Btu/hr ft2 (W/m2)

DESIGN PRESSURE
The pressure used for the design of fired heater tubes will be one or both of following.
Elastic Design Pressure (Pe) - This pressure is the maximum pressure the heater coil could be exposed to for short periods of
time. The value of this pressure is generally related to a safety valve setting and must be determined by the individual
responsible for the overall unit process design. This pressure is used in an elastic design equation to prevent excessive elastic
stresses in the tube when at its maximum pressure.
Rupture Design Pressure (Pr) - This pressure is the normal operating pressure the tube must sustain over long periods of
operation. If the operating pressure changes during an operating run, the highest pressure should be used. The rupture
design pressure is used in a creep design equation to ensure that any creep damage accumulated under the action of the
operating pressure (stress) does not result in a tube failure.
In most situations, both elastic and rupture design pressures vary depending upon the section of the total heater coil under
consideration. However for low pressure and/or low pressure drop heaters it is common practice to use a constant elastic and
rupture design pressure for the whole coil. For high pressure and/or high pressure drop heaters, consideration should be given
to establishing different elastic and rupture design pressures for various sections of the heater coil since considerable
investment savings on tubes can often be realized.

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TUBE DESIGN (Cont)

TUBE WALL THICKNESS


Calculation of heater tube wall thicknesses is based upon the procedures and stress data outlined in API RP-530. When
calculating the minimum tube wall thickness required, three different design bases will generally have to be considered. The
most conservative basis will set the minimum required tube wall thickness for the heater. The relevant equations for each case
are summarized below.
1. Elastic Design Basis - Preventing failure by bursting during a maximum, short term pressure condition near the end of the
design life when the corrosion allowance has been used up.
Do Pe
tm = + TCA (Customary) Eq. (19)
2 Se + Pe

Do Pe
tm = + TCA (Metric) Eq. (19)M
2000 Se + Pe

where: tm = Minimum tube wall thickness, in. (mm)


Do = Tube outside diameter, in. (mm)
Pe = Elastic design pressure, psig (kPa, gage)
Se = Allowable elastic design stress [psi (MPa)] at the design tube metal temperature (based
on two-thirds of minimum yield strength for ferritic steels and 90% of yield strength for
austenitic steels). Table 3 presents stress values for typical materials used in heater
design. Refer to API STD-530 for other materials.
TCA = Total corrosion allowance, in. (mm)
= Nominal annual corrosion rate (in. or mm per year) times 5. (Heater tubes are normally
placed in the 5 yr corrosion design category.) Nominal annual corrosion rate (including
both inside and outside corrosion) is evaluated at the design tube metal temperature
using the curves contained in the EMRE Refinery Construction Materials Manual
(RCMM).
Note:The corrosion data in the RCMM is considered to be conservative, so a 5 year design
life normally results in a much longer actual life. If more accurate, measured corrosion
rate data is available and used for design, the life should be increased to 10 years.
2. Rupture Design Basis - Preventing failure by creep rupture during the design life.
Do Pr
tm = + f TCA (Customary) Eq. (20)
2 Sr + Pr

Do Pr
tm = + f TCA (Metric) Eq. (20)M
2000 Sr + Pr

where: tm = Minimum tube wall thickness, in. (mm)


Do = Tube outside diameter, in. (mm)
Pr = Rupture design pressure, psig (kPa, gage)
Sr = Allowable creep rupture design stress (psi [MPa]), based on 100% of the minimum
stress to produce rupture at the design life and the design tube metal temperature.
Design life is to be 100,000 hrs unless otherwise specified. Table 3 presents stress
values for 100,000 hours design life for typical materials used in heater design. Refer to
API RP-530 for other materials.
f = Corrosion fraction, dimensionless. Determined from Figures 18 and 19. This factor is
applied to take credit for the reduction in stress which results with the addition of the
corrosion allowance.
TCA = Total corrosion allowance, in. (mm). Determined exactly the same as for elastic designs,
see Item 1 above.

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TUBE DESIGN (Cont)


S 3. Minimum Wall Design Basis - Ensures that a tube near the end of the corrosion life will have sufficient mechanical rigidity
to resist sagging and/or damage from external forces or abuse.
tm = 0.125 in. (3.17 mm) + TCA for radiant, shield, and convection tubes. Eq. (21a)

tm = 0.22 in. (5.59 mm) for studded tubes to provide mechanical rigidity Eq. (21b)
required for the studding operation.

Tubes in Steam Superheating or Generating Service - Fired heater tubes in these services should be designed
according to the procedures outlined above unless local statutes or ordinances specifically require ASME or some other
design basis.
Thermal Stress Checks for High Pressure or High Temperature Tubes - The tube design equations discussed
previously assume that the thermal stress induced by the radial temperature gradient across the tube wall is negligible.
However, for high pressure or high temperature heaters, tube wall thicknesses and temperature gradients may be large
enough to result in significant thermal stresses. Therefore, tubes designed for these type heaters should be checked to
ensure that the thermal stresses are indeed negligible. If thermal stresses are found to be excessive, the tube material can
be upgraded or the heat flux decreased to reduce the tube wall thickness and thermal stress to acceptable levels.
The equations given below can be used to determine whether thermal stresses are within acceptable limits for tubes
operating in the elastic region. However no simplified formulas have been developed for checking thermal stresses when
tubes operate in the creep region. Therefore, any tube designs in the creep range which has a temperature difference
across the tube wall of 150F (80C) or greater should be submitted to the Mechanical Engineering Section of EETD for
review.
The maximum thermal stress for a tube is given by the following equation:

E T 2 Y 2
S th = In ( Y ) 1 Eq. (22)
2 (1 ) In Y 2
Y 1

where: Sth = Maximum thermal stress, psig.


Y = Do / Di, ratio of outside to inside tube diameter (Di based on average tube wall
thickness).
= Coefficient of thermal expansion at mean tube wall temperature, F-1 (C-1). Table 4
contains thermal expansion data for the commonly used materials.
= Modulus of elasticity of mean tube wall temperature, psi (MPa). Table 5 contains values
of E for the commonly used materials.
= Poisson's ratio, dimensionless. Equal to 0.3 for steels.
T = Design temperature difference across average tube wall thickness, F (C).
For the elastic region, the calculated thermal stress should meet the following criteria:
For ferritic steels:
Sth (2.0 0.67 Y) Sy and
Sth 1.33 Sy
For austenitic steels:
Sth (2.7 0.90 Y) Sy and
Sth 1.8 Sy
where: Sy = Minimum yield strength, psi (MPa). Yield strengths for common materials are presented
in Table 6.
External Piping - Heater piping external to the firebox and header boxes, such as external crossovers, should be designed per
the Piping Code, ASME B31.3. For most applications, crossovers are made the same thickness and of the material as the
tubes they connect (the upstream material if a change of materials occurs).

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INSTRUMENTATION
The following instrumentation should be provided for process heaters. This is usually shown on the design specification flow
plan. Instruments requiring connections on the heater itself should also be shown on the heater sketch, so that these
connections can be properly located. Additional instrumentation may be required in individual situations.
No distinction has been made here between indicators and recorders, the choice depending upon the requirements of the
individual situation.
See Section XII for details of control schemes.

PROCESS FLUID

Flow
1. Flow measurement and control for each pass in liquid and vaporizing services.
2. Protection from low flow (or flow stoppage) should be provided in accordance with Section XV-B.

Temperature
1. Coil Inlet - Average temperature into the fired heater. Also, individual pass indicators if flashing occurs across a control
valve.
2. Crossovers - Temperature of each pass (or of common header) between radiant and convection sections.
3. Coil Outlet Temperature (COT) of each pass, plus combined temperature in transfer line. Because of the large number of
passes in hoop tube type heaters (with nearly uniform outlet temperatures), coil outlet temperatures on individual passes
are not normally measured. At most, COTs from a few representative passes should be measured.

Pressure
1. Coil Inlet - Pressure of each pass, downstream of control valve. Pressure in feed line if valves are not used to control flow
to individual passes.
2. Coil Outlet - Overall pressure in transfer line.

TUBE METAL TEMPERATURE


Thermocouples for monitoring tube metal temperatures should normally be provided. The exact number and location of the TIs
will vary depending upon the type of heater being designed. As a minimum, the general philosophy should be to provide one
TMT thermocouple per pass located at the coil outlet and at an elevation above the heater floor coincident with that of the peak
heat density. Refer to IP 15-2-1 for guidelines on using TMT thermocouples.

FLUE GAS
Temperature (Instruments and connections required by IP 15-1-1.)
1. In stack below the damper.
2. At the bridgewall. When possible, the thermocouples shall be placed in the arch out of view of the shield tubes.
3. Between different services in the convection section.

Draft Gages (Required by IP 15-1-1.)


1. At the bridgewall.
2. Downstream of stack or duct control dampers.
3. Upstream of stack or duct control dampers.
4. In the sidewall at the heater floor.

Other Pressure Instruments - A high-pressure alarm (and under certain conditions, a cut-out) at the top of the radiant section
is also required for all heaters, per IP 15-1-1.

Oxygen/Combustibles Analyzers - One shall be provided to permit continuous analysis of the flue gas in the stack, per
IP 15-1-1.

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INSTRUMENTATION (Cont)

FORCED-DRAFT SYSTEM

Pressure Indicators
1. Main air duct.
2. At each burner, downstream of the shut-off damper.
Controls & Safety System - As required by IP 15-1-1.
Air Flow Measurement - This can normally be justified when it is planned to regulate the fuel/air ratio by computer control.

FUEL SYSTEM
Control & Safety System - Pressure indicators, alarms, cutouts, as required by IP 15-1-1.
Atomizing Steam - Provide a pressure indicator on the header, downstream of the control valve.
Fuel Oil - Reference off-site DP on Fuel System. Provide a temperature indicator near the end of dead-ended headers, and at
the inlet and outlet of return loop headers.

STEAM-AIR DECOKING SYSTEM


See Section VIII-I.

SOOTBLOWERS
Pressure Indicator on steam header.
Flow Indicator on steam header for low-pressure systems (< 250 psi, < 1725 kPa).

MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION

HOW THE REQUIREMENTS ARE COVERED


International Practices - IP 7-1-1, 7-4-1 and 7-5-1 cover minimum requirements governing the design, fabrication, and
inspection of process heaters. Although minimum process requirements are included for application to vendor-designed
heaters (duty spec.), the IPs are largely concerned with the common mechanical design requirements that apply to most of our
heaters. These requirements are updated periodically, based on our latest experiences and developments.
Design Specification - The design specification gives the information shown in the checklist (Table 1) in Section VIII-A. A
sketch showing the general heater arrangement is necessary. Special mechanical features for the particular heater are also
included in the design specification. Up-to-date details of these mechanical features are available from the Heat Transfer
Equipment Section of EETD.

TUBE GUIDES AND SUPPORTS


Corrosive Compounds in Fuel - If the fuel contains significant amounts of vanadium and sodium, special consideration must
be given to metal parts (mainly tube supports) operating at temperatures above 1200F (650C). The tube support operating
temperature is assumed to be the same as the flue gas temperature. Above 1200F (650C), molten ash deposits on the
supports and fluxes them. The common tube support and guide materials of 25/20 and 18/8 Cr-Ni alloys rapidly deteriorate
under these conditions. The following means of reducing this problem must be included in the specification, where applicable:
1. The designer must specify the quantities of vanadium and sodium in the fuel, so that the appropriate requirements of
IP 7-1-1 are invoked. Among these are protective refractory coatings or the use of high chromium-nickel (50 Cr, 50 Ni, and
Nb) alloy for the tube supports.
2. Where practical, heater components can be designed to minimize exposure to hot flue gases. Examples are locating tube
supports and guides outside the firebox and behind tubes. Also, convection section intermediate tube sheets can
sometimes be eliminated in the case of V.C. heaters by making the convention section shorter and wider.
3. The vulnerable components can also be made easily removable for replacement during turnarounds. This is practical for
the radiant section supports and guides. IP 7-1-1 requires supports for horizontal radiant section tubes to be replaceable
without removing the tubes.
Making convection section tube supports replaceable without removing the tubes requires substantial extra investment and
is rarely done. Sometimes the owner wishes the radiant tube supports to be made replaceable without even shutting down
the heater. However, this is normally very expensive and seldom justified. Neither of these two features should be
specified unless specifically requested by the owner.

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MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION (Cont)


Special Mechanical Details - Certain heater designs require inclusion of special mechanical design features in the design
specification in order to obtain a satisfactory detailed design. Although typical details are included in this Design Practice,
consult the Heat Transfer Equipment Section of EETD for up-to-date details.
1. Vertical Tube Box Heaters - Details of the tube guide and support system must be included for this type of heater. See
Figure 12.
2. Hoop-Tube - Inclusion of guide details for the radiant tubes is recommended. See Figure 16.

REFRACTORY
Materials - The heater refractory materials are affected by the corrosive compounds in the fuel. The most common low
temperature problems are caused by sulfur, but high concentrations of metals can also cause deterioration of refractories at
high temperatures.
The designer must specify the quantities of sulfur and metals in the fuel, so that the appropriate IP 19-3-3 and IP 7-1-1
requirements for refractory materials can be applied.
Temperatures - Hot face design temperatures should be specified so that the required refractory thickness can be calculated,
based on heat losses. [IP 7-1-1 requires a maximum of 180F (82C) casing wall temperature with no wind and 80F (27C)
ambient temperature.] Floor and arch cold face temperatures are chosen so that their heat loss is the same as for the walls.
Hot face design temperatures should be realistic estimations of actual temperatures. The following basis should be used to
determine these temperatures [round off to nearest 50F (30C)]:
1. Radiant Section Protected Walls (shielded by tubes) - Average of bridgewall temperature and average tube metal
temperature (uncoked), plus 100F (55C).
2. Radiant Section Unprotected Walls - Bridgewall temperature.
3. Radiant Section Arch - Bridgewall temperature.
4. Radiant Section Floor - 1800F (980C).
5. Convection Section Protected Walls - Divide the section into two parts (bare tubes and extended surface tubes). Use
temperature of 200F (110C) below inlet flue gas temperature into each section.

FIREBOX PURGING
Each heater design should include facilities for purging the heater firebox before light-off of the first burner pilot. The purge
facilities should as a minimum allow for one volume change of the heater box atmosphere (radiant section) every 5 minutes.
Acceptable means of purging include: (1) use of forced or induced draft fans when provided, (2) steam purge connection(s) in
the radiant section floor or lower wall, and (3) an eductor located in the heater stack or flue gas duct. A stack eductor is the
preferred option over steam purging when fans are not provided and the burners are equipped with flame ionization rods. This
is because of concerns with moisture condensing on the flame rods rendering them ineffective.
Design of Steam Purge Facilities - A restriction orifice should be provided in the piping system to limit steam flow to the
required rate mentioned above. Otherwise, a much higher actual steam rate is likely, with possibly harmful effects to the entire
steam system. In calculating steam rate, remember that the heater box is at atmospheric pressure.
Purging steam connections are preferably located in the heater floor. This avoids direct impingement of steam on the tubes.
Enough connections should be specified to distribute the steam uniformly throughout the firebox, about one connection per
150 ft2 (14 m2) of floor area.
Design of Stack Eductors - A stack eductor induces purging air flow through the burners by creating a draft in a cold heater.
Either steam or air can be used as the motive fluid in the eductor, the choice being based on economics. The steam supply
chosen should not be less than 50 psig and should have a superheat of at least 100F (55C) to ensure good operation.
Purging is achieved by activating the eductor for 15 minutes with the stack dampers and air registers fully open.
The eductor consists of a single nozzle/orifice positioned in the center of the stack or duct. The eductor nozzle flow is directed
in the same direction as the flue gas flow. The nozzles and piping inside the flue gas system should be made of 304 SS.

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MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION (Cont)


To determine the necessary nozzle diameter and steam or air flow rate, first calculate the draft required from the eductor:
Draft = Pburner + PC.S.
where: Pburner = Pressure drop through burners, in H2O (Pa)
PC.S. = Pressure drop though convection section, in H2O (Pa)
Both of these pressures should be based on a flow rate equivalent to one consecutive radiant section volume change in 5
minutes. The burner manufacturer's burner curves should be consulted to obtain the pressure drop through the burners. Refer
to Section VIII-C to calculate the pressure drop through the convection section.
Next, calculate the critical pressure and density, as well as the sonic velocity at the throat of the nozzle by using the following
equations:
Pthroat = 0.546 Psteam or Pthroat = 0.528 Pair

throat = 0.628 steam or throat = 0.634 air

K Pthroat
v sonic = 68.1 (Customary)
throat

K Pthroat
v sonic = (Metric)
throat

where: K = Specific heat ratio, 1.4 for air and 1.31 for steam
P = Pressure, psia (Pa)
= Density, lb/ft3 (kg/m3)
vsonic = Sonic velocity at eductor throat, ft/s (m/s)

Finally, the area of eductor nozzle discharge is found by using:


167.4 Draft x A stack
A nozzle = (Customary)
throat v 2sonic + 4637 (Pthroat Patm )

Draft x A stack
A nozzle = (Metric)
throat v 2sonic + (Pthroat Patm )

where: Draft= Draft required from eductor, in H2O (Pa)


A = Area, in.2 (cm2)
P = Pressure, psia (Pa)

To allow for vena contracta effects and inefficiencies, multiply the area of the nozzle by a factor of 1.2. So that the nozzle
diameter shall be:

1.2 x 4 x A nozzle
Dnozzle =

And the flow rate (in lb m/hr or kg/hr) of the steam or air is found by:
W = 25 x 1.2 x throat x Athroat x vsonic (Customary)

W = 0.36 x 1.2 x throat x Athroat x vsonic (Metric)

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MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION (Cont)

EMERGENCY COIL STEAM


Facilities for steam purging the coil in the event of a loss of flow are occasionally specified. Since they have very limited value,
they should not normally be provided. This coil purge is intended to prevent the high temperature residual heat in the heater
refractory from coking the hydrocarbon remaining in the coil. Coil purge steam should never be considered as a substitute for
immediately shutting off the fuel upon loss of flow in the coil.
A steam purge has little or no value in services containing light hydrocarbons (reboilers, etc.) or mixtures of hydrocarbons and
hydrogen (POWERFORMERS, HYDROFINERS). Experience has also shown that it is not even required in heavy hydrocarbon
services if firing is immediately stopped upon loss of flow in the coil.
If coil purge steam is to be specified, a steam rate equivalent to a mass velocity of about 5 lb/sec ft2 (25 kg/s/m) should be
adequate for low-pressure systems. This will evacuate the coil in less than 1 to 2 minutes. The steam supply pressure must be
higher than the downstream system pressure. For pipestills, 125 to 150 psig (860 to 1040 kPa gage) steam can be used
through the decoking facilities. Also, when coil purge steam is specified, consideration must be given to the effect of the steam
on the downstream equipment.

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS
Observation Doors - Although IP 7-1-1 requires that sufficient observation and inspection doors be provided, the number and
location should be spelled out in the design specification, since vendors will usually provide only marginal viewing of the heater
interior. The following are typical observation door requirements:
1. V.C. Heaters
a. Two peep holes in floor for viewing radiant and shield tubes.
b. At the lower platform level - About 4 ft, 6 in. (1.4 m) above the floor, mainly for observing burner operation. One for
every burner.
c. Upper radiant section - One to two under the convection section for viewing the arch, shield tubes and supports, and
radiant tube supports.
d. Arch - One to two for viewing radiant tubes and burners.
2. Cabin Heaters
a. At the lower platform level for observing the burners. One for each burner along the side(s) of the heater.
b. At each end of the heater. Two per cell at the lower platform; one to three in the area of the upper radiant section.
c. On the side of hoop tube heaters at the beginning of the hip section, for viewing tubes and tube guides (Figure 14).
3. Vertical Tube Box Heaters
a. Two peep holes in the floor of each cell, at diagonally opposite corners.
b. At the lower platform level. One per burner or one per burner row in each cell. All doors provided must be located
between tubes which are on 3 IPS spacing.
c. At the upper platform level. One to two per cell on each side of the furnace. Two to three at each end.
d. One in the arch over each cell.
4. Convection Section - All Heaters - Provide at least one set of inspection doors to view representative tubes and
supports, so that deterioration and fouling can be detected. These should be vertically aligned to permit inspection of each
convection section tube row and located adjacent to an intermediate tubesheet if one is provided. A second set of
inspection doors should be provided for convection sections over 50 ft (15.2 m) long and should be located adjacent to an
intermediate tube sheet also.

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MECHANICAL SPECIFICATION (Cont)


Platforms and Ladders - As with observation doors, although covered by IP 7-1-1, platforms and ladders should be specified
to minimize problems.
1. Typical platforms are provided as follows:
a. Around the heater floor (burner observation) level.
b. As required around the heater at the upper observation door level.
c. At both ends of the convection section for access to the header boxes.
d. Along one side of the convection section for access to sootblowers, if used. This platform should be wide enough to
extend beyond the outboard end of the sootblowers (this requirement is adequately covered by IP 7-1-1).
e. Access to peep door locations other than those mentioned above should be by ladder, stairway or platform, as
dictated by the heater arrangement.
f. Access to dampers is normally provided.
g. Access to instrument connections is normally provided, but in most cases these connections can be located so they
are accessible from platforms provided for other reasons.
2. Stairways are customarily specified for access from grade to the burner control platform (floor level) and on up to the
sootblower level. An additional ladder or stairway is usually provided from grade to the sootblower level at the opposite
end of a heater to serve as an alternate means of escape.

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS - CUSTOMARY UNITS

PROBLEM 1 - HEATER EFFICIENCY


Given: Atmospheric pipestill service
Inlet Temperature = 450F
Outlet Temperature = 725F
Throughput = 1,610,000 lb/hr
Heat Absorbed = 353 MBtu/hr
Fuel: Atmospheric pipestill bottoms
Find: Heater design efficiency, assuming forced-draft burners, 150F stack approach temperature. (Note: With current
fuel costs, approach temperatures significantly below 150F are frequently justified.)
Solution:
Ts = 450F + 150F = 600F

Use 20% excess air

353 MBtu / hr
Fn = = 23,460 lb / hr from Eq. (1)
15,050 Btu / hr
(Section VIII-M, Figure 6 at 600F and 20% excess air)

Fg = 1.01 x 23,460 lb / hr = 23,690 lb / hr from Eq. (2)

Q f = 23,690 lb / hr x 17,500 Btu / lb 414.6 MBtu / hr from Eq. (3)


(Lower Heating Value, Section VIII-M, Figure 6)

353 MBtu / hr x 100


LHV Efficiency = = 85.14% from Eq. (4)
414.6 MBtu / hr

PROBLEM 2 - VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER LAYOUT


Given: Same as in Problem 1
Find: Radiant section layout
Solution: Determine possible combinations of tube size and number of passes:
1,610,000 lb / hr
W = = 447 lb / sec
3,600 sec/ hr

TUBE SIZE ASSUME Ax, ft2 G, lb/sec ft2 from Eq. (5)
IPS tm, in. (TABLE 2) p (Eq. (5)]
6 in. 0.285 0.1946 6 383
8 288
10 230
5 in. 0.258 0.1315 8 425
10 340
12 283

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS
Assume: 8 pass, 6 in. IPS as best combination pass arrangement per Figure 11b.
Determine number of burners:
5 cells at 2 to 4 burners/cell = 10 to 20 burners
Normal heat release per burner:
414.6 MBtu / hr 41.5 MBtu / hr ; 414.6 M 27.6 M ; 414.6 M 20.7 M
= = =
10 ( too high) 15 (OK ) 20 (OK )

From possible burner sizes, select 27.6 MBtu/hr. Minimum tube envelope around burner:

5 Ft. - 8 In.

B' = 11 Ft. - 4 In.

5 Ft. - 8 In. 5 Ft. - 8 In.

W' = 22 Ft. - 8 In. DP8BFc

Determine number of tubes per pass:


22.67 2
a = + 0.586 = 21.26; a = 20 or 22 from Eq. (10)
1
12 in. tube center-to-center = 2 x 6 in. IPS

11.33
b = 0.914 = 10.42; b = 11 from Eq. (11)
1

2( 20) + 2(5)11 150


x = = = 18.8 from Eq. (12)
8 8

Let x = 19 tubes per pass


19 x 8 = 152 total wall tubes

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CUSTOMARY UNITS
Possible arrangements:

(1) a = 20 x 2 ends = 40
b = 11 x 4 cells x 2 sides = 88
12 x 1 (center) cell x 2 = 24
152 tubes

or

(2) a = 22 x 2 44
b = 11 x 4 cells x 2 = 88
c = 10 x 1 cell x 2 = 20
152 tubes

Assume first arrangement is chosen.


Center tubes:

e = 20 from Eq. (13a)

20
y = = 10 from Eq. (13b)
2

Total tubes per pass = 19 wall + 10 center = 29


Layout
(21.256 - 20) + 2 = 3.256 Ft. = 3 Ft. - 3 In.
(This Space Can Be Reduced To 2 Ft. - 3 In.
By Using One Long Radius U-band on Each
Side of End Wall)
10 End Tubes 10
9
11 Side Wall Tubes
2 10 Center Tubes 10

11 11

12

11

11
DP8BFd

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS

Wt (0.707 x 12 in. = 8.5 in.) x 2 = 1 ft, 5 in.


+ (9 tube spaces at 12 in.) x 2 = 18 ft
+ Center space = 3 ft, 3 in.
[or use Eq. (10)] 22 ft, 8 in. vs. 22 ft, 8 in.
required (W)

Wi = 22 ft, 8 in. + 3 (6 in.) = 24 ft, 2 in.

B (for 4 cells)
= (0.707 x 12 in. - 8.5 in.) x 2 = 1 ft, 5 in.
+ (9 tube spaces at 12 in.) = 9 ft
+ (1 tube space at 18 in.) = 1 ft, 6 in.
[or use (Eq. 11)] 11 ft,11 in. vs. 11 ft, 4 in. required (B)

B (for center cell)


= (0.708 x 12 in. = 8.5 in.) x 2 = 1 ft, 5 in.
+ (10 tube spaces at 12 in.) = 10 ft
+ (1 tube space at 18 in.) = 1 ft, 6 in.
12 ft, 11 in.

Lt = 4 (11 ft, 11 in.) + 12 ft, 11 in. = 60 ft, 7 in.


Li = 60 ft, 7 in. + 18 in. = 62 ft, 1 in.
Determine Radiant Tube Length:
Choose 1-side = 12,000 Btu/hr ft2 see Table 1

Determine Tbw

1st Trial:
Let Tbw = 1650F (Figure 3, assuming 750F avg. TMT and no height correction)
Qtr = 9700 Btu / lb x 23,460 lb / hr = 227.6 MBtu / hr from Eq. (6)
(Section VIII-M, Figure 6 at 1650F and 20% excess air)

Qr = 227.6 MBtu / hr 16.4 M = 211.2 MBtu / hr from Eq. (7)


(Qsr from Problem 1 of Section VIII-C)

211.2 MBtu / hr
A1-side = = 17,000 ft 2 from Eq. (8a)
12,000 Btu / hr ft 2

17,600 ft 2 17,000
Lr = 2
= = 37.3 ft from Eq. (14)
8 (19 + 1.5 x 10 ) 1.734 ft / ft 471.6 ft 2 / ft

272 equivalent tubes, outside surface of NPS 6 see Table 2

Tbw Requires height correction of (37.3 - 35 ft) 8/ft = 18F

Tbw = 1650F 18F = 1632F assumed

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS
2nd Trial:
Assume Lr = 38 ft
Tbw = 1650F (38 - 35 ft) 8/ft = 1626F
Qtr = 9850 Btu/lb x 23,460 lb/hr = 231.1 MBtu/hr
Qr = 231.1 MBtu/hr 16.4 M = 214.7 MBtu/hr
214.7 MBtu / hr
A1-side = = 17,900 ft 2
12,000 Btu / hr ft 2

17,900 ft 2
Lr = = 38.0 ft (checks)
471.6 ft 2 / ft

Tbw = (say) 1625F

PROBLEM 3 - HOOP TUBE CABIN HEATER LAYOUT


Given: The following high pressure POWERFORMER service heating requirements for two limiting simultaneous
conditions.

PREHEAT 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT TOTAL


OPERATION: I (II) I (II) I (II) DRIER I (II)
Throughput, lb/hr --------------------- 376,000 (305,000) --------------------- 25,000
Temperature, Inlet, F 512 (390) 923 (767) 970 (875) 250

Outlet, F 995 (905) 995 (925) 995 (945) 700
Heat Duty, MBtu/hr 152 (137) 26.5 (45.5) 9.5 (20.0) 10.0 198 (212.5)

Find: Radiant section double hoop tube layout, assuming 700F stack temperature and forced draft burners to be used
(20% excess air).
Solution:
Choose Services:
Preheat will be radiant and convection
1st and 2nd Reheat will be all-radiant
Drier will be all-convection
Limiting Conditions:
Case II is limiting for Reheats (maximum duty)
Case I is limiting for Preheat and Drier (maximum duty and minimum contribution of Reheats to convection duty)
Design Reheats first based on Case II, then design overall furnace based on Case I
Determine Design 1st and 2nd Reheat Services
Approximate radiant tube surface required:
Assume: r = 12,000 Btu/hr ft2 see Table 1
1st Reheat 2nd Reheat

45.5 MBtu / hr ft 2 20.0 MBtu / hr


Ar =
12,000 Btu / hr ft 2 12,000 Btu / hr ft 2 from Eq. (8)
2 2
= 3790 ft 1670 ft

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CUSTOMARY UNITS
Total coil length required:

3,790 ft 2
6 in. IPS: = 2,180 ft 960 ft see Table 2
1,734 ft 2

5 in. IPS: 3,790/1.456 = 2,600 1,150

4 in. IPS: 3,790/1.178 = 3,220 1,420


Determine possible combinations of tube size, number of passes and Lr
376,000 lb / hr 305,000
W = = 104.4 lb / hr (I); = 84.7 lb / sec (II)
3,600 sec/ hr 3,600

From Coil Design Pressure (500 psig), and estimated Tm = 1150F, estimate tm:
For 6 in. IPS, tm = 0.285 in.

For 4 in. and 5 in. IPS, tm = 0.245 in.; ta = 0.280 in.

Desired G = 35 to 60 lb/sec ft2 see Table 1

Total Coil Length Re quired


Lr =
No. of Passes, p

For chosen burners: min Ht = 25 ft, B = 10 ft


min LS = 20 ft
Max LS = 25 ft for 4 in. IPS; 30 ft for 5, 6 in. IPS
For double hoop tubes desired Lr:
4 in., Lr = 4 (20 to 25) + (10) = 111 to 131 ft

5, 6 in., Lr = 4 (20 to 30) + (10) = 111 to 151 ft

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS

TUBE Ax, ft2 G, lb/sec ft2 Lr Lr (DETERMINE


SIZE, ASSUME (BASED ta) I/II 1st 2nd LATER) Lr
NPS tm, in. (TABLE 2) P [Eq. (5)] REHEAT REHEAT PREHEAT
6 in. 0.285 0.1946 8 67/54 272 ft 120 ft 500 ft
10 54/44 218 96 400
12 45/36 182 80 333
14 38/31 156 69 286
5 in. 0.245 0.1365 12 64/52 216 96 396
14 55/44 186 340
16 48/39 163 298
18 43/34 145 264
20 38/31 130 58 238
4 in. 0.245 0.0845 20 62/50 161 71 294
22 56/46 146 268
24 51/42 134 245
26 48/39 124 226
28 44/36 115 210
30 41/33 107 47 196

Three possible combinations satisfy the Lr and G requirements for 1st Reheat. (6 in. would require two series passes. This
has the advantage of inlet and outlet on same side of heater.)
Only one combination is available for 2nd Reheat. Since required Lr is less than the minimum, r will be reduced. (6 in. - 8
pass has high G for Case I.)
Select 6 in. - 10 parallel passes for both Reheat services.
Use Ls = 20 ft for both services

Lr = 4 (20) + (10) = 111.4 ft

EXPRESSION 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT


Ar = (p) (Lr) (1.734) 3,864 ft2 1,932 ft2
r = (Case II) 11,780 Btu/hr ft2 10,400 Btu/hr ft2
r = (Case I) 16,850 Btu/hr ft2 4,910 Btu/hr ft2

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS
Heater Layout

Heater Layout

2 x 12 In. = 2 Ft. Internal


Dividing Wall

9 In. + 1 In. Coil Inlet


Expansion 10
= 10 In.
2 Ft. - 3 In. 6 In.

6 In. Preheat
10 Tubes. 9 Ft. 9 In. + 1/2 In.
9 Spaces @ 9 Ft. Expansion = 9 1/2 In.
12 In. = 9 Ft.
Coil Outlet

10 In.
1 Ft. - 1 1/2 In. 11 Ft. - 1 In.
Radiant Cell Length = 22 Ft. - 2 In.
Equivalent Shield Tube Area 12 Ft. - 2 1/2 In.
23 Ft. - 3 1/2 In.

1st Reheat 2nd Reheat DP8BFe

Note: Header thermal expansion at 1000F = 8.9 in./100 ft (see Figure 15).
Determine Reheat Service Firing Rates:
Wc = 8.5 ft (from Convection Section Design - not included in sample problem)

EXPRESSION 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT


Lc 23.29 ft 12.12 ft
Qsr = 1.77 r Lc W c 350 r 184 r from Eq. (9a)
of Section VIII-C
= Case I/II 2.34/4.12 0.90/1.91 MBtu/hr
Qr = 26.5/45.5 9.5/20.0
Qtr 28.8/49.6 10.4/21.9 MBtu/hr
Tbw (assume Tm = 1000F) 1,520/1,740F 1,415/1,685F see Figure 5
(HA) bw 10,400/9,230 10,950/9,500 Btu/lb Fig. 6,
Section VIII-M
Fn = Qtr / (HA)bw 2,770/5,380 950/2,310 lb/hr
Fg = 1.01 Fn (Based Total Heater Size) 2,800/5,430 960/2,330 lb/hr
Qf = Fg x 17,500 Btu/lb 49.0/95.0 16.8/40.8 MBtu/hr
No. Burners Req. 4 2
Minimum Cell Length Req. 13 ft vs. 22 ft actual 8 ft vs. 11 ft actual

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS
Design of Preheat Radiant Section
Overall Furnace Performance
Ts = 700F (given ) see Figure 6,
(HA )s = 14,560 Btu / lb Section VIII-M

198 MBtu / hr
Total Fn = = 13,600 lb / hr from Eq. (1)
14,560 Btu / lb

Fn (preheat zone) = 13,600 (2,770 + 950 ) = 9,880 lb / hr

Estimate Radiant Section


Assume r = 12,000 Btu/hr ft2; Tbw = 1750F Figure 5
(HA)bw = 9,150 Btu/lb Figure 6,
Section VIII-M
Qtr = 9,880 x 9150 = 90.5 MBtu/hr from Eq. (6)

Assume Lc 40 ft
Qsr = 1.77 (12,000) (40) (8.5) = 7.2 MBtu/hr from Eq. (9a),
Section VIII-C
Qr = Qgr Qsr = 83.3 MBtu/hr from Eq. (7)
Ar = 83.3 x 106 / 12,000 = 6940 ft2 from Eq. (8)
Total Coil Length Required
6 in. IPS: 6,940/1.734 = 4,000 ft
5 in. 6,940/1.456 = 4,760 ft
4 in. 6,940/1.178 = 5,890 ft
Determine Possible Combinations of Tube Size, Passes, Lr. These are summarized on the previous tabulation. Use of 5-in. or
6-in. tubes would require several series passes. Two possible combinations of 4-in. tubes are apparent, with 26 passes
preferred due to slightly higher G and required Lr for r = 12,000 Btu/hr ft2, slightly over the minimum.
Use 4 in. IPS, 2 series passes/26 parallel passes

6 In. = 2 In. 26 Tubes 2 x 8 In. = 16 In.


Expansion = 8 In. 25 Spaces @ 8 In. =
16 Ft. - 8 In. 4 In.

8 In.

Radiant Cell Length = 36 Ft. - 4 In.

Shield Area 38 Ft. - 7 In.


1st Reheat 2nd Reheat
DP8BFf

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


CUSTOMARY UNITS
Determine actual Lr for r = 12,000 Btu/hr ft2:
Qsr = 1.77 (12,000) (38.58) (8.5) = 6.95 MBtu/hr from Eq. (9a),
Section VIII-C

Qr = 90.5 MBtu/hr - 7.0 M - 83.6 MBtu/hr

Ar = 83.6 x 106 / 12,000 Btu/hr ft2 = 6,960 ft2

6,960 ft 2
Lr = = 113.9 ft
1.178 ft 2 / ft x 52 tubes

Lr = 4 (L s ) + (10)

113.9 31.4
Ls = = 20.62 ft = 20 ft , 7 1 / 2 in.
4

Determine Overall Radiant Section Tbw (For Convection Section Design)

RADIANT SECTION Qtr Ar Shield Lc


Preheat = 90.5 MBtu/hr 6,960 ft2 38.58 ft
1st Reheat = 28.8 3,864 23.29
2nd Reheat = 10.4 1,932 12.21
Total 129.7 12,756 ft2 74.08 ft

(HA)bw = Qtr / Fn = 129.7 MBtu/hr/13,600 lb/hr = 9,540 Btu/lb see Figure 6,


Tbw = 1680F Section VIII-M
Check by Bridgewall Temperature Curve:
Equivalent Shield A r = 1.77 (74.08 ) (8.5 ) = 1,114 ft 2

Total A = 12,756
+ 1,114 see Figure 5
13,870 ft2
r = 129.7 x 106 / 13,870 = 9,350 Btu/hr ft2
Tbw = 1640F
Checks closely with heat available curve. Principal reason for difference is the method of apportioning the shield tube surface.
For Convection Section Calculations use Tbw = 1680F as determined from Heat Available Curve.
Use overall s based on Qsr / Lc W c
s = [6.95 + 2.3 + 0.9 = 10.15 MBtu/hr] / 74.08 x 8.5 = 16,100 Btu/hr ft2

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CUSTOMARY UNITS

PROBLEM 4 - TUBE METAL TEMPERATURE


Given: Atmospheric Pipestill Heater Design per Problems 1 and 2.
Find: Design tube metal temperature
Solution:
Do = 6.625 in., assume tm = 0.285 in., ta = 0.326 in., Di = 5.973 in. see Table 2

Assume tc = 0.125 in., Di = 5.973 - 0.250 = 5.723 in.

Use hi = 300 Btu/hrF ft2 (Calculation procedure per Section VIII-C; not included)

r = 12,000 Btu/hr ft2 (1-side fired basis)

C1 = 1.77

C2 = 1.33 for 40-ft radiant section

C3 = 1.08 for oil firing

(r)max = 12,000 x 1.77 x 1.33 x 1.08 = 30,500 Btu/hr ft2

Tb = 725F

1 6.625
a. Tf = x x 30,500 = 122F from Eq. (17)
300 5.723
0.125 2 x 6.625
x x 30,500
b. Tc = 35 5.973 + 5.723 = 124F
at 850F,

0.326 2 x 6.625
x x 30,500
c. Tm = 194 6.625 + 5.973 = 54F
5% Cr at 1000F,

Tm = 1025

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METRIC UNITS

PROBLEM 1 - HEATER EFFICIENCY


Given: Atmospheric pipestill service
Inlet Temperature = 230C
Outlet Temperature = 385C
Throughput = 203 kg/s
Heat Absorbed = 103.5 MW
Fuel: Atmospheric pipestill bottoms
Find: Heater design efficiency, assuming forced-draft burners, 85C stack approach temperature. (Note: With current
fuel costs, approach temperatures significantly below 85C are frequently justified.)
Solution:
Ts = 230C + 85C = 315C

Use 20% excess air (based on ER&E forced-draft burners)

103.5 MW
Fn = = 29.6 kg / s from Eq. (1)
35.0 MJ / kg
(Section VIII-M, Figure 6 at 315C and 20% excess air)

Fg = 1.01 x 29.6 kg/s = 2.98 kg/s from Eq. (2)


Qf = 103 x 2.98 kg/s x 4.07 MJ/kg = 121.5 MW from Eq. (3)
(Lower Heating Value, Section VIII-M, Figure 6)

103.5 MW x 100
LHV Efficiency = = 85.1% from Eq. (4)
121.5 MW

PROBLEM 2 - VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER LAYOUT


Given: Same as in Problem 1
Find: Radiant section layout
Solution: Determine possible combinations of tube size and number of passes:
W = 203 kg/s

NOM. TUBE SIZE ASSUME Ax, m2 from Eq. (5)

mm (IPS, in.) tm, mm (TABLE 2) p G, kg/sm2


150 (6) 7.24 0.01808 6 1,870
8 1,400
10 1,120
125 (5) 7.24 0.0122 8 2,080
10 1,660
12 1,380

Assume: 8 pass, 150 mm NPS as best combination pass arrangement per Figure 11b.

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
Determine number of burners:
5 cells at 2 to 4 burners/cell = 10 to 20 burners
Normal heat release per burner:

121.5 MW 12.2 MW 121.5 MW 8.13 MW ; 121.5 MW 6.10 MW


= ; = =
10 ( too high) 15 (OK ) 20 (OK )

From possible burner sizes, select 8.13 MW. Minimum tube envelop around burner:

1730 mm

B' = 3460 mm

1730 mm 1730 mm

W' = 6920 mm DP8BFg

Determine number of tubes per pass:


6.908 0.610
a = + 0.586 = 21.58; a = 20 or 22 from Eq. (10)
0.300
300 mm tube center-to-center = 2 x 150 mm NPS

3.454
b = 0.914 = 10.60 ; b = 11 from Eq. (11)
0.300

2 (20 ) + 2 (5 ) 11 150
x = = = 18.8 from Eq. (12)
8 8

Let x = 19 tubes per pass


19 x 8 = 152 total wall tubes
Possible arrangements:

(1) a = 20 x 2 ends = 40 tubes


b = 11 x 4 cells 2 sides = 88
12 x 1 (center) cell x 2 = 24
152 tubes

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or

(2) a = 22 x 2 44
b = 11 x 4 cells x 2 = 88
c = 10 x 1 cell x 2 = 20
152 tubes

Assume first arrangement is chosen.


Center tubes:

e = 20 from Eq. (13a)

20
y = = 20 from Eq. (13b)
2

Total tubes per pass = 19 wall + 10 center = 29


Layout
(21.58 - 20) x 0.305 + 0.61 = 1.09 m
(This Space Can Be Reduced To 0.79 m
By Using One Long Radius U-band on Each
Side of End Wall)

10 End Tubes 10
9
11 Side Wall Tubes
2 10 Center Tubes 10

11 11

12

11

11
DP8BFh

W= (0.707 x .300 m = .212 m) x 2 = .42 m


+ (9 tube spaces at .300 m) x 2 = 5.40 m
+ center space = 1.09 m
[or use Eq. (10)] 6.91 m vs. 6.91 m required (W)

W= 6.91 m + 3 (.150 m) = 7.366 m

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METRIC UNITS
B (for 4 cells)
= (0.707 x .300 m = .212 m) x 2 = .42 m
+ (9 tube spaces at .300 m) = 2.70 m
+ (1 tube space at .450 m) = .45 m
[or use Eq. (11)] 3.57 m vs. 3.45 m required (B)

B (for center cell)


= (0.707 x .300 m = .212 m) x 2 = .42 m
+ (10 tube spaces at .300 m) = 3.00 m
+ (1 tube space at .450 m) = .45 m
3.87 m

Lt = 4 (3.57 m) + 3.87 m = 18.14 m


Li = 18.14 m + 0.45 m = 18.59 m

Determine Radiant Tube Length:


Choose 1-side = 37,900 W/m2 see Table 1

Determine Tbw
1st Trial:
Let Tbw = 900C (Figure 3, assuming 400C avg. TMT and no height correction)
Qtr = 22.6 MJ / kg x 2.96 kg / s = 66.71 MW from Eq. (6)
(Section VIII-G, Figure 6 at 900C and 20% excess air)

Qr = 66.71 MW 4.84 MW = 61.90 from Eq. (7)


(Qsr from Problem 1 of Section VIII-C)

61.90 MW
A1-side = 2
x 106 = 1,635 m2 from Eq. (8a)
37,900 W / m

1,635 m2 1,635
Lr = 2
= = 11.4 m from Eq. (14)
8 (19 + 1.5 x 10) 0.5285 m / m 143.7 m2 / m
272 equivalent tubes outside surface of 150 mm NPS

Tbw Requires height correction of (11.4 - 10.7) 14.6C/m = 10C

Tbw = 900 10 = 890C vs. 900C assumed

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METRIC UNITS
2nd Trial:
Assume Lr = 11.6 m

Tbw = 900C (11.6 m 10.7 m) 14.6C/m = 887C

Qtr = 22.21 MJ/kg x 2.96 kg/s = 67.74 MW

Qr = 67.74 MW 4.84 MW = 62.90 MW

62.90 MW
A1-side = x 10 6 = 1,660 m 2
37,900 W / m 2

1,600 m
Lr = = 11.6 m (checks)
143.7 m 2 / m

Tbw = (say) 885C

PROBLEM 3 - HOOP TUBE CABIN HEATER LAYOUT


Given: The following POWERFORMER service heating requirements for two limiting simultaneous conditions:

PREHEAT 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT TOTAL


OPERATION I (II) I (II) I (II) DRIER I (II)
Throughput, lb/hr -------------------------------- 47.4 (38.4) ---------------------------- 3.15
Temperature, Inlet, C 267 (199) 495 (408) 521 (468) 121
Outlet, C 535 (485) 535 (496) 535 (507) 371
Heat Duty, MBtu/hr 44.5 (40.1) 7.76 (13.3) 2.8 (5.9) 2.9 58.1
(62.3)

Find: Radiant section double hoop tube layout, assuming 700F (370C) stack temperature and forced draft burners to
be used (20% excess air).
Solution:
Choose Services:
Preheat will be radiant and convection
1st and 2nd Reheat will be all-radiant
Drier will be all-convection
Limiting Conditions:
Case II is limiting for Reheats (maximum duty)
Case I is limiting for Preheat and Drier (maximum duty and minimum contribution of Reheats to convection duty)
Design Reheats first based on Case II, then design overall furnace based on Case I
Design 1st and 2nd Reheat Services
Determine approximate radiant tube surface required
Assume: r = 37,900 W/m2 see Table 1
1st Reheat 2nd Reheat

13.3 MW x 10 6 5.9 MW x10 6


Ar = 2
from Eq. (8)
37,900 W / m 37,900 W / m 2
= 351 m 2 156 m 2

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
Total coil length required:
351 m 2
150 mm NPS: = 664 m 295 m
0.5285 m 2 / m

Table 2
125 mm NPS: 351 / 0.4438 = 791 352

100 mm NPS: 351 / 0.3591 = 977 434


Determine possible combinations of tube size, number of passes and Lr
W = 47.4 kg/s (I), 38.4 kb/s (II)
From Coil Design Pressure (3450 kPa, gage), and estimated Tm = 620C, estimate tm:
For 150 mm NPS, tm = 7.24 mm

For 100 and 125 mm NPS, tm = 6.22 mm; ta = 7.11 mm

Desired G = 170 to 290 kg/s.m2 see Table 1

Total Coil Length Re quired


Lr =
No. of Passes, p

For chosen burners: min Ht = 7.6 m, B = 3.0 m


min LS = 6.1 m
Max LS = 7.6 m for 100 mm NPS; 9.1 m for 125 and 150 mm NPS
For double hoop tubes desired Lr:
100 mm, Lr = 4 (6.1 to 7.6) + (3.0) = 33.8 to 39.8 m

125, 150 mm, Lr = 4 (6.1 to 9.1) + (3.0) = 33.8 to 45.8 m

Ax, ft2 G, lb/sec ft2 (DETERMINE


TUBE SIZE ASSUME (BASED ta) I/II Lr Lr LATER) Lr
mm Tm, in. (TABLE 2) P [Eq. (5)] 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT PREHEAT
150 7.24 0.01808 8 328/266 82.9 m 36.6 m 152.4 m
10 262/213 66.4 29.3 121.9
12 218/177 55.5 24.4 101.5
14 187/152 47.5 21.0 87.2
125 6.22 0.01268 12 312/252 65.8 29.3 120.7
14 267/216 56.7 103.6
16 234/189 49.7 90.8
18 208/168 44.2 80.5
20 187/151 39.6 17.7 72.5
100 6.22 0.00785 20 302/245 49.1 21.6 89.6
22 274/222 44.5 81.7
24 252/204 40.8 74.7
26 232/188 37.8 68.9
28 216/175 35.1 64.0
30 201/163 32.6 14.3 59.7

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
Three possible combinations satisfy the Lr and G requirements for 1st Reheat. (150 mm would require two series passes. This
has the advantage of inlet and outlet on same side of heater.)
Only one combination is available for 2nd Reheat. Since required Lr is less than the minimum, r will be reduced (150 mm
8 pass has high G for Case I).
Select 150 mm - 10 parallel passes for both Reheat services.
Use Ls = 6.1 m for both services

Lr = 4 (6.1) + (3.0) = 33.8 m

EXPRESSION 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT


Ar = (p) (Lr) (0.5285) 360 m2 180 m2
r = (Case I) 21,700 W/m2 15,600 W/m2
r = (Case II) 36,000 W/m2 32,800 W/m2

Heater Layout

Heater Layout

2 x 300 mm = 600 mm Internal


Dividing Wall

225 mm +
Coil Inlet
25 mm
Expansion 10
= 250 mm 690 mm 150 mm

150 mm Preheat
10 Tubes. 2700 mm 225 mm + 13 mm
9 Spaces @ Expansion = 238 mm
2700 mm
300 mm =
2700 mm Coil Outlet

250 mm
345 mm 3330 mm
Radiant Cell Length = 6650 mm
Equivalent Shield Tube Area 3670 mm
7000 mm

1st Reheat 2nd Reheat DP8BFi

Note: Header thermal expansion at 540C = 7.4 mm/m (see Figure 15).

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
Determine Reheat Service Firing Rates:
Wc = 2.59 m (from Convection Section Design - not included in sample problem)

EXPRESSION 1st REHEAT 2nd REHEAT


Lc 6.99 m 3.67 m
Qsr = 1.77 r Lc W c 32.1 r 16.8 r from Eq. (9a),
Section VIII-C
= Case I/II 0.70/1.18 0.26/0.55 MW
Qr = 7.76/13.33 2.78/5.86 MW
Qtr 8.46/14.51 3.04/6.41 MW
Tbw (assume Tm = 540C) 825/950C 770/920C see Figure 5
(HA)bw 24.2/21.5 25.5/22.2 MJ/kg see Figure 6,
Section VIII-M
Fn = Qtr / (HA)bw 0.350/0.675 0.119/0.290 kg/s
Fg = 1.01 Fn (Based Total Heater Size) 0.353/0.682 0.120/0.293 kg/s
Qf = Fg x 40.7 MJ/kg 14.4/27.8 4.88/11.9 MW
No. Burners Req. 4 2
Minimum Cell Length Req. 4.0 m vs. 6.7m 2.4 m vs. 3.4 m

Design of Preheat Radiant Section


Overall Furnace Performance
Ts = 370C (given) see Figure 6,
(HA)s = 33.9 MJ/kg Section VIII-M

58.1 MW
Total Fn = = 1.714 kg / s from Eq. (1)
33.9 MJ / kg

Fn (preheat zone) = 1.714 (0.350 + 0.119) = 1,245 kg/s


Estimate Radiant Section
Assume r = 37,900 W/m2; Tbw = 955C see Figure 5
(HA)bw = 9,150 Btu/lb see Figure 6,
Section VIII-M

Qtr = 1.245 kg/s x 21.3 MJ/kg = 26.5 MW from Eq. (6)

Assume Lc 12.2 m
Qsr = 1.77 (37,900) x 12.2 x (2.59) = 2.12 MW from Eq. (9a),
Section VIII-C

Qr = Qtr Qsr = 24.4 MW from Eq. (7)

24.4 x 106 W
Ar = = 664 m2 from Eq. (8)
37,900 W / m2

Total Coil Length Required


150 mm NPS: 644/0.5285 = 1,220 m
125 mm NPS: 644/0.4438 = 1,450 m
100 mm NPS: 644/0.3591 = 1,790 m

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
Determine Possible Combinations of Tube Size, Passes, Lr. These are summarized on the previous tabulation. Use of 125 or
150 mm nominal diameters tubes would require several series passes. Two possible combinations of 100 mm nominal
diameter tubes are apparent, with 26 passes preferred due to slightly higher G and required Lr for r = 37,900 W/m2, slightly
over the minimum.
Use 100 mm NPS, 2 series passes/26 parallel passes

150 mm + 50 mm
Expansion = 200 26 Tubes 2 x 200 mm = 400 mm
mm 25 Spaces @ 200 mm
= 5000 mm 100 mm

200 mm

Radiant Cell Length = 10900 mm

Shield Area 11590 mm


1st Reheat 2nd Reheat
DP8BFj

Determine actual Lr for r = 37,900 W/m2:


Qsr = 1.77 (37,900) (11.6) (2.59) = 2.02 MW from Eq. (9a),
Section VIII-C

Qr = 26.5 MW 2.0 MW = 24.5 MW

Ar = 24.5 MW x 106 / 37,900 W/m2 = 646 m2

646 m 2
Lr = = 113.9 ft
0.3591 m 2 / m x 52 tubes

Lr = 4 (L s ) + (3.05)

34.6 9.6
Ls = = 6.25 m
4

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
Determine Overall Radiant Section Tbw (For Convection Section Design)

RADIANT SECTION Qtr Ar Shield Lc


Preheat = 26.52 MW 646 m2 11.59 m
1st Reheat = 8.46 360 6.99 m
2nd Reheat = 3.04 180 3.67 m
Total 38.0 MW 1,186 m2 22.25 m

(HA)bw = Qtr / Fn = 38.0 MW / 1.714 kg/s = 22.2 MJ/kg see Figure 6,


Tbw = 915C Section VIII-M
Check by Bridgewall Temperature Curve:
Equivalent Shield Ar = 1.77 Lc W c = 1.77 (22.25) (2.59) = 102 m2

1,186
Total A = + 102
1,286 m2

r = 38.0 MW / 1,288 m2 = 29,500 W/m2

Tbw = 895C see Figure 5


Checks closely with heat available curve. Principal reason for difference is the method of apportioning the shield tube surface.
For Convection Section Calculations use Tbw = 915C as determined from Heat Available Curve.
Use overall s based on Qsr / LcW c

s = [2.02 + 0.70 + 0.26 = 2.98 MW] / 22.25 x 2.59 = 51,700 W/m2

Problem 4 - Tube Metal Temperature


Given: Atmospheric Pipestill heater design per Problems 1 and 2
Find: Design tube metal temperature
Solution:
Do = 168.3 mm, assume tm = 7.24 mm, ta = 8.28 mm, Di = 151.7 mm see Table 2

Assume tc = 3.17 mm, Di = 151.7 6.35 = 145.3 mm

Use hi = 1,700 W/m2C (Calculation procedure per Section VIII-C; not included)
r = 37,900 W/m2 (one-side fired basis)
C1 = 1.77
C2 = 1.33 for 12.2 m radiant section
C3 = 1.08 for oil firing
(r)max = 37,900 x 1.77 x 1.33 x 1.08 = 96,300 W/m2
Tb = 385C

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SAMPLE PROBLEMS / CALCULATIONS (Cont)


METRIC UNITS
1 168.3
a. Tf = x x 96,300 = 66 from Eq. (17)
300 145.3

3.17 2 x 168.3
b. Tc = 10 3 x x x 96,300 = 68C
5.05 151.7 + 145.3
at 455C

8.28 2 x 168.3
x x 96,300
c. Tm = 10 3 x 28 168.3 + 151.7 = 30F

5% Cr at 540C, Figure 14
Tm = 549C

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NOMENCLATURE
Ao = Total outside surface area, ft2/ft (m2/m)
Ar = Radiant section tube surface, ft2 (m2)
Ax = Cross-sectional flow area through tube, ft2 (m2)
A1-side = Equivalent radiant section tube surface, based on one-side fired heat density, ft2 (m2)
a = Number of wall tubes at one end of furnace, dimensionless
B = Cell width - tube center to tube center, ft (m)
b = Number of wall tubes at one side of one cell
C1 = Factor for peripheral maldistribution of heat transfer around radiant tube
C2 = Factor for vertical maldistribution of heat transfer
C3 = Luminosity factor
c = Tube center-to-center spacing, ft (m)
Di = Tube inside diameter, based on average wall thickness, in. (mm)
Di = Inside diameter of coke layer, in. (mm)
Do = Tube outside diameter, in. (mm)
Dr = Radiant section diameter (inside refractory), ft (m)
Dt = Radiant section tube circle diameter, ft (m)
E = Modulus of elasticity, psi (MPa)
ELHV = Thermal efficiency based on lower heater value, percent
e = Number of center tubes between adjacent cells
Fg = Gross fuel required, lb/hr (kg/s)
Fn = Net fuel required, lb/hr (kg/s)
FG = Lb flue gas/lb fuel (kg flue gas/kg fuel)
f = Corrosion fraction, dimensionless
G = Fluid mass velocity through the coil, lb/sec. ft2 (kg/s m2)
Ht = Height of hoop tube above floor, ft (m)
HA = Heat available from fuel, Btu/lb (MJ/kg)
(HA)bw = Heat available at bridgewall temperature, Btu/lb (MJ/kg)
(HA)s = Heat available at stack temperature, Btu/lb (MJ/kg)
hi = Inside film coefficient, Btu/hr ft2 F (W/m2 C)
Btu / hr ft 2
kc = Thermal conductivity of coke, ( W / mC)
F / in.

Btu / hr ft 2
km = Thermal conductivity of tube wall, ( W / mC)
F / in.
Lc = Convection section inside length, ft (m)
Li = Radiant section overall length (inside refractory), ft (m)
Lr = Radiant tube effective length, ft (m)
Ls = Exposed straight tube length of hoop tube, ft (m)
Lt = Radiant section length, tube center to tube center, ft (m)
LHV = Fuel lower heating value, Btu/lb (MJ/kg)
Nc = Number of tubes in convection section
Nr = Number of tubes in radiant section
n = Number of cells in radiant section

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NOMENCLATURE (Cont)
Pa = Absolute pressure, psia (kPa-abs)
Pe = Elastic design pressure, psig (kPa-gage)
Pr = Rupture design pressure, psig (kPa-gage)
p = Number of parallel passes
Qa = Total furnace heat absorbed, Btu/hr (MW)
Qc = Heat absorbed in convection section, excluding shield section radiant duty, Btu/hr (MW)
Qf = Heat fired, Btu/hr (MW)
Qr = Heat absorbed by radiant section surface, Btu/hr (MW)
Qsr = Radiant heat absorbed by the shield section, Btu/hr (MW)
Qtc = Total convection section duty, Btu/hr (MW)
Qtr = Total furnace radiant duty, Btu/hr (MW)
Se = Allowable elastic design stress, psi (MPa)
Sr = Allowable creep rupture design stress, psi (MPa)
Sth = Allowable thermal stress, psi (MPa)
Sy = Minimum yield strength, psi (MPa)
Tb = Bulk fluid temperature, F (C)
Tbw = Bridgewall temperature, F (C)
Tg = Flue gas temperature, F (C)
Tm = Maximum tube metal temperature, F (C)
Tr = Fluid temperature, F (K)
Ts = Stack temperature, F (C)
TCA = Total corrosion allowance, in. (mm)
ta = Average thickness of tube wall, in. (mm)
tc = Design coke thickness, in. (mm)
tm = Minimum thickness of tube wall, in. (mm)
W = Fluid flow rate through the furnace, lb/sec (kg/s)
Wc = Convection section inside width, ft (m)
Wf = Flue gas rate, lb/sec (kg/s)
Wi = Radiant section overall width inside refractory, ft (m)
Wt = Radiant section width, tube center to tube center, ft (m)
x = Number of wall tubes (1-side fired) per pass
Y = Ratio of outside to inside tube diameter, dimensionless
y = Number of center tubes (2-side fired) per pass
Tc = Temperature rise across coke layer, F (C)
Tf = Temperature rise across inside oil film, F (C)
Tm = Temperature rise across tube wall, F (C)
= Coefficient of thermal expansion, F-1 (C-1)
= Poissons ration, dimensionless
r = Radiant section average heat density, Btu/hr ft2 (W/m2)
(r)max = Maximum point radiant heat density, Btu/hr ft2 (W/m2)
1-side = Radiant section average heat density for tubes fired from one side only, Btu/hr ft2 (W/m2)
2-side = Radiant section average heat density for tubes fired from two sides, Btu/hr ft2 (W/m2)
= Poissons ratio, dimensionless

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COMPUTER PROGRAMS

GUIDANCE AND CONSULTING


For up-to-date information on available programs and how to use them, affiliate personnel should get in touch with their Affiliate
Library Contact. Fairfax personnel should consult either the ExxonMobil Engineering Section responsible for the technology
involved and/or the ExxonMobil Engineering Technical Program Contact.

LITERATURE
The following references are available:
ExxonMobil Engineering Computer User's Manual, published and maintained by the Computer Technology and Services
Division.
Computer Program Library Catalog, published and maintained by ExxonMobil's Communications and Computer Sciences
(CCS) Department - Computer Technology and Training.

AVAILABLE PROGRAMS
The applicable programs available at the time of this writing are listed below:

PROGRAM NO. TITLE AND DESCRIPTION


3558 Radiant and Convection Section Design. Also used for fuel heat available.
3660 Heater pressure drop for all-liquid, all-vapor or vaporizing services.

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TABLE 1
DESIGN CONDITIONS FOR PROCESS HEATERS

Suggested Average Heat Suggested Design


Density r (Based Mass Velocity G
lb/sec ft2
on One-Side Firing)*
Services [kg/s m2] Remarks
Btu/hr ft2 [W/m2]
Atmospheric Pipestill 12,000 300 (min) to 400 Salt content less than 40 lb/1000
Preheaters [37,900] [1,450 (min) to 1,950] barrels.
Vacuum Pipestill Preheaters 10,000 350 (min) to 450 See below for outlet tubes. Time-
[31,600] [1,700 (min) to 2,200] temperature limitations for lube vacuum
pipestill.
Light Ends Units Less than 80% vaporization. No highly
a. Preheaters and 12,000 250 (min) to 350 unsaturated materials which
Reboilers [37,900] [1,200 (min) to 1,700] polymerize.
b. Rich and Lean Oil 12,000 250 (min) to 350
Heating [37,900] [1,200 (min) to 1,700]
Lube Rerun Still Preheaters 12,000 250 (min) to 350

[37,900] [1,200 (min) to 1,700]
Distillate & Gas Oil Heaters
a. FCCU Preheat 12,000 250 (min) to 350
[37,900] [1,200 (min) to 1,700]
b. Hydrofiner Preheat 12,000 250 (min) to 350
[37,900] [1,200 (min) to 1,700]
Asphalt Heaters 6,000 250 to 350 Low heat density due to poor film
[18,900] [1,200 (min) to 1,700] coefficient.
Residuum Heaters in Fuel Oil 10,000 250 to 350 Require long runs and dependable
Circulating Systems [31,500] [1,200 (min) to 1,700] operation. Must handle dirty, heavy
materials.
Catalytic Reforming
a. Gas Preheat 12,000 [37,900] 35 to 60 [170 to 290]
b. Naphtha Preheat 12,000 [37,900] 100 to 200 [500 to 1,000] All-vapor services.
c. Mixed Gas and Naphtha 12,000 [37,900] 15 to 40 [75 to 200]
(Low Pressure Powerformer) 35 to 60 [175 to 300] Low Pressure: Approx. 300 - 450 psi
(High Pressure Powerformer) High Pressure: Approx. 450 - 600 psi
Lube Treating (Phenolfiner)
a. Extract Solution 12,000 [37,900] 100 to 200 [500 to 1,000]
b. Raffinate Solution 7,000 [22,100] 200 to 300 [1,000 to 1,500]
Cracking Service (Visbreaker) See Note 1 Based on absence of cracking coil tar
a. Heater 600 to 900 and only moderate salt content. Design
b. Soaker [2,900 to 4,400] to 910F max. Film based on cleaned
tube.
Desulfurization Preheat 12,000 250 to 350 Mixture of feed and recycle gas at high
(GO-Finer) [37,900] [1,200 to 1,700] pressure.

Notes:
* Average heat densities for two-side fired tubes are 1.5 times the heat densities listed for one-side fired tubes.
(1) Design heat fluxes are set as required to achieve film temperature criteria of 910F maximum. Typical average heat fluxes are 10,000
Btu/hr ft2 [31,600 W/m2] for heater and 5,000 Btu/hr ft2 [15,800 W/m2] for soaker.

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TABLE 2
COMMON HEATER TUBE SIZES AND PROPERTIES(1)

Nominal Outside Avg. Inside Average Wall Minimum Wall Inside Surface Outside Surface
Size Diameter Diameter Pipe Thickness Thickness Flow Area Area Ai, Area Ao, ft2
(NPS), in. Do, in. Di, in. Schedule ta, in.(2) tm, in.(2) Ax, ft2(3) ft2 per ft(3) per ft
8 8.625 7.981 40 0.322 0.282 0.3480 2.089 2.258
7.973 0.326 0.285 0.3467 2.087
7.939 0.343 0.300 0.3435 2.080
7.767 0.429 0.375 0.3290 2.033
7.625 80 0.500 0.437 0.3171 1.996
6 6.625 6.065 40 0.280 0.245 0.2006 1.587 1.734
5.973 0.326 0.285 0.1946 1.564
5.939 0.343 0.300 0.1922 1.555
5.767 0.429 0.375 0.1814 1.510
5.761 80 0.432 0.378 0.1810 1.508
5 5.563 5.047 40 0.258 0.226 0.1390 1.321 1.456
4.911 0.326 0.285 0.1315 1.286
4.877 0.343 0.300 0.1296 1.277
4.813 80 0.375 0.328 0.1265 1.260
4.705 0.429 0.375 0.1207 1.232
4 4,500 4.026 40 0.237 0.207 0.0884 1.055 1.178
3.848 0.326 0.285 0.0808 1.007
3.826 80 0.337 0.295 0.0798 1.002
3.814 0.343 0.300 0.0793 0.998
3.642 0.429 0.375 0.0723 0.953

Nominal Outside Avg. Inside Average Wall Minimum Wall Inside Surface Outside Surface
Pipe Diameter Diameter Pipe Thickness Thickness Flow Area Area Ai, Area Ao,
Size, mm Do, mm Di, mm Schedule ta, mm(2) tm, mm(2) Ax, m2(3) m2/m(3) m2/m
200 219.1 202.7 40 8.18 7.16 0.03233 0.6367 0.6882
202.5 8.28 7.24 0.03221 0.6361
201.6 8.71 7.62 0.03191 0.6340
197.3 10.90 9.53 0.03057 0.6197
197.3 80 12.70 11.10 0.02946 0.6084
150 168.3 154.1 40 7.11 6.22 0.01864 0.4837 0.5285
151.7 8.28 7.24 0.01808 0.4767
150.9 8.71 7.62 0.01786 0.4740
146.5 10.90 9.53 0.01685 0.4602
146.3 80 10.97 9.60 0.01682 0.4596
125 141.3 128.2 40 6.55 5.74 0.01291 0.4026 0.4438
124.7 8.28 7.24 0.01222 0.3920
123.9 8.71 7.62 0.01204 0.3892
122.3 80 9.53 8.33 0.01175 0.3840
119.5 10.90 9.53 0.01121 0.3755
100 114.3 102.3 40 6.02 5.26 0.00821 0.3216 0.3590
97.7 8.28 7.24 0.00751 0.3069
97.2 80 8.56 7.49 0.00741 0.3054
96.9 8.71 7.62 0.00737 0.3042
92.5 10.90 9.53 0.00672 0.2905

Notes:
(1) This table lists common tube sized for the convenience of the designer. Intermediate tube thickness can and should be used
whenever appropriate.
(2) Specify wall thickness given in bold type (specify tm, unless ta corresponds to a standard pipe schedule, in which case specify ta).
Note that tm = 0.875 ta.
(3) Based on average wall thickness.

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TABLE 3
ALLOWABLE ELASTIC AND CREEP RUPTURE STRESS FOR TYPICAL HEATER TUBE MATERIALS

Elastic and Creep Rupture Stress, psi


Medium
Carbon Steel C-1/2 Mo 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 9 Cr-1 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni
Temp. Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep
F(1) Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress
700 15,800 20,800 15,700 15,250 18,000 16,800 15,900 16,000
750 15,500 16,900 15,400 15,000 18,000 16,500 15,500 15,700
800 15,000 13,250 15,000 14,600 17,900 15,900 15,100 15,400
850 14,250 10,200 14,500 14,250 17,500 15,200 14,500 15,100
900 13,500 7,500 14,000 17,000 13,800 17,500 17,000 16,700 14,400 13,250 13,750 20,500 14,750
950 12,600 5,400 13,400 10,250 13,300 10,900 16,500 12,100 13,500 9,600 13,000 13,750 14,400
1,000 11,500 3,700 12,700 5,900 12,800 6,700 15,750 8,700 12,400 7,000 12,100 9,300 14,200
1,050 11,900 3,400 12,100 4,150 14,750 6,400 11,300 5,100 11,200 6,200 13,800 15,500
1,100 10,900 2,000 11,400 2,600 13,600 4,600 10,250 3,700 10,100 4,150 13,500 12,200
1,150 12,300 3,150 9,200 2,700 9,000 2,750 13,100 9,600
1,200 10,700 1,750 8,200 1,950 7,700 1,860 12,700 7,500
1,250 6,450 1,250 12,300 5,900

Elastic and Creep Rupture Stress, MPa


Medium
Carbon Steel C-1/2 Mo 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 9 Cr-1 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni
Temp. Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep Elastic Creep
C(1) Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress Stress
375 108.0 135.0 108.0 104.0 125.0 115.0 110.0 110.0
400 105.0 115.0 106.0 102.0 124.5 112.5 107.5 108.0
425 102.5 93.0 104.0 100.0 123.0 110.0 105.0 106.0
450 99.0 73.5 101.0 98.0 121.0 105.0 100.0 104.0
475 95.0 56.5 97.0 132.5 96.0 135.0 119.0 125.0 100.0 100.0 96.0 156.0 102.0
500 89.0 42.0 94.0 86.0 93.5 88.0 116.0 93.0 95.0 75.0 91.0 110.0 100.0
525 82.5 30.5 90.0 52.5 90.0 57.0 112.0 70.0 89.5 56.0 86.0 77.0 98.0
550 85.0 32.0 86.0 37.0 106.0 53.0 82.0 42.0 80.0 53.5 96.0
575 80.0 20.0 82.0 28.0 100.0 40.0 75.5 31.5 74.5 37.0 94.0 98.0
600 73.0 12.0 77.0 15.7 92.5 29.5 69.0 23.6 67.5 26.0 92.0 80.0
625 83.5 20.5 62.5 17.7 60.0 18.0 90.0 64.0
650 73.0 11.5 56.5 13.2 53.0 12.5 88.0 52.0
675 45.0 8.8 85.0 41.5

Note:
(1) For intermediate temperatures, stresses can be obtained by graphical interpolation.
Source: API Standard 530

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TABLE 4
COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR TYPICAL HEATER TUBE MATERIALS

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Between 70F


and Indicated Temperature, F-1 (Multiply Table Value by 10-6)

Carbon Steel 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni


Temp, F thru 3 Cr-1 Mb thru 9 Cr-1 Mo Type 304 SS
700 7.44 6.80 9.92
750 7.54 6.88 9.99
800 7.65 6.96 10.05
850 7.57 7.03 10.11
900 7.84 7.10 10.16
950 7.91 7.16 10.23
1000 7.97 7.22 10.29
1050 8.05 7.27 10.34
1100 8.12 7.32 10.39
1150 8.16 7.37 10.44
1200 8.19 7.41 10.48
1250 8.24 7.45 10.51
1300 8.28 7.49 10.54

Source: ExxonMobil Engineering Materials Data Book

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Between 20C


and Indicated Temperature, C-1 (Multiply Table Value by 10-6)

Carbon Steel 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni


Temp, C thru 3 Cr-1 Mo thru 9 Cr-1 Mo Type 304 SS
375 13.42 12.26 17.87
400 13.59 12.39 17.99
425 13.76 12.52 18.09
450 13.92 12.64 18.18
475 14.07 12.75 18.28
500 14.19 12.85 18.37
525 14.31 12.95 18.47
550 14.42 13.04 18.56
575 14.53 13.12 18.65
600 14.62 13.20 18.73
625 14.69 13.28 18.80
650 14.76 13.34 18.86
675 14.82 13.41 18.92
700 14.90 13.47 18.96

Source: ExxonMobil Engineering Materials Data Book

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TABLE 5
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY FOR TYPICAL HEATER TUBE MATERIALS

Modulus of Elasticity, psi (Multiply Table Value by 106)

Medium C-1/2 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni


Temp, F Carbon Steel thru 3 Cr-1 Mo thru 9 Cr-1 Mo Type 304 SS
700 25.4 26.6 24.9 24.8
750 24.6 26.1 24.5 24.4
800 23.8 25.7 24.2 24.1
850 22.7 25.1 23.8 23.7
900 21.5 24.5 23.5 23.4
950 20.1 23.7 23.1 23.1
1000 18.8 23.0 22.8 22.7
1050 16.9 21.7 22.3 22.3
1100 15.0 20.4 21.9 22.0
1150 13.1 18.0 21.3 21.6
1200 11.2 15.6 20.8 21.3
1250 20.1 21.0
1300 19.5 20.7

Source: ExxonMobil Engineering Materials Data Book

Modulus of Elasticity, MPa (Multiply Table Value by 103)

Medium C-1/2 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni


Temp, C Carbon Steel thru 3 Cr-1 Mo thru 9 Cr-1 Mo Type 304 SS
375 174 183 171 171
400 169 180 169 168
425 164 177 167 166
450 158 174 165 164
475 150 170 163 162
500 142 166 160 160
525 134 161 158 158
550 124 155 156 155
575 112 147 153 153
600 100 137 150 151
625 89 121 146 149
650 77 107 143 147
675 139 145
700 135 143

Source: ExxonMobil Engineering Materials Data Book

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TABLE 6
MINIMUM YIELD STRENGTHS FOR TYPICAL HEATER TUBE MATERIAL

Minimum Yield Strength, psi

Medium
Temp, F Carbon Steel C-1/2 Mo 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 9 Cr-1 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni
700 23,900 23,800 22,900 27,000 25,000 23,800 17,700
750 23,100 23,100 22,300 27,000 24,500 23,200 17,400
800 22,200 22,500 22,000 26,800 23,800 22,500 17,000
850 21,300 21,900 21,300 26,200 22,900 21,800 16,700
900 20,200 21,000 20,800 25,600 21,500 20,600 16,400
950 18,900 20,100 20,000 24,800 20,100 19,500 16,000
1,000 17,300 19,100 19,100 23,500 18,600 18,100 15,700
1,050 17,900 18,200 22,100 17,000 16,600 15,300
1,100 16,400 17,000 20,400 15,700 15,000 15,000
1,150 18,400 13,700 13,300 14,500
1,200 1,600 12,200 11,500 14,100
1,250 9,600 13,600

Minimum Yield Strength, MPa

Medium
Temp, C Carbon Steel C-1/2 Mo 1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo 5 Cr-1/2 Mo 9 Cr-1 Mo 18 Cr-8 Ni
375 162.5 162.5 157.0 186.0 172.5 164.0 122.0
400 158.0 160.0 155.0 185.0 169.0 160.0 120.0
425 155.0 156.0 152.0 184.5 165.0 155.0 117.5
450 148.0 151.0 149.0 181.0 159.0 150.0 115.0
475 141.0 146.0 145.0 178.0 151.0 144.0 113.0
500 134.0 140.0 140.0 174.0 143.0 136.0 111.0
525 125.0 135.0 135.0 167.0 134.0 128.0 109.0
550 128.0 130.0 160.0 124.0 120.0 107.0
575 120.0 123.0 150.0 113.0 110.0 105.0
600 110.0 116.0 138.5 103.0 100.0 103.0
625 125.0 94.0 90.0 100.0
650 110.0 84.0 80.0 97.0
675 67.5 94.0

Source: API Standard 530.

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FIGURE 1
AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT DENSITY FOR
CABIN AND VERTICAL-CYLINDRICAL HEATERS

Average Radiant Density r, W/m2


0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000
1200

1100
2000

1000

Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, C


Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, F

900
AVG
TMT

1500 F
(800 C)
1500
800

Radiant Section Height <25 Ft (7.6m)


Reduce Tbw 8 F/Ft (14.6 C/m)
for Height > 25 Ft (7.6m)
700
1000 F
(550 C)

750 F
(400 C)
600
500 F
(250 C)

1000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

Average Radiant Heat Density r, Btu/Hr Ft2


DP8BF01

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FIGURE 2
AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT DENSITY FOR CABIN HEATERS
WITH UNSHIELDED CENTER REFRACTORY WALL

Average Radiant Density r, W/m2


0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000
1200

1100
2000

1000

Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, C


Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, F

900
AVG
TMT

1500 F
(800 C)
1500
800

Radiant Section Height <25 Ft (7.6m)


Reduce Tbw 8 F/Ft (14.6 C/m)
for Height > 25 Ft (7.6m)
700

1000 F
(550 C)

750 F
(400 C)
600
500 F
(250 C)

1000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

Average Radiant Heat Density r, Btu/Hr Ft2


DP8BF02

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FIGURE 3
AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT DENSITY FOR VERTICAL TUBES BOX HEATERS
(CONTAINING BOTH ONE-SIDE AND TWO-SIDE FIRED TUBES)

Average Radiant Density r, W/m2

90,00
2-Side 0 15,000 30,000 45,000 60,000 75,000
0

1-Side 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000


1200

1100
2000

1000
Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, F

Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, C


900
AVG
TMT

1500 F
(800 C)
1500
800

Radiant Section Height = 35Ft (10.7m)


Reduce Tbw 8F/Ft For Height > 35Ft
(14.6 C/m for Height > 10.7m)
Increase Tbw 8F/Ft For Height < 35Ft 700
(14.6 C/m For Height < 10.7m)
1000 F
(550 C)

750 F
(400 C)
600
500 F
(250 C)

1000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000
1-Side
2-Side 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000

DP8BF03 Average Radiant Heat Density r, Btu/Hr Ft2

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FIGURE 4
AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT DENSITY FOR VERTICAL TUBES BOX HEATERS
(TWO-SIDE FIRED TUBES ONLY)

Average Radiant Heat Density r = Side, W/m2

20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000


1200

1100
2000

1000
Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, F

Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, C


900

AVG
TMT
1500 F
(800 C)
1500
800

700
1000 F
Radiant Section Height = 35Ft (10.7m)
(550 C)
Reduce Tbw 8F/Ft For Height > 35Ft
(14.6 C/m for Height > 10.7m)
750 F Increase Tbw 8F/Ft For Height < 35Ft
(400 C) (14.6 C/m For Height < 10.7m) 600
500 F
(250 C)

1000
5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000

DP8BF04 Average Radiant Heat Density r = Side, W/m2

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FIGURE 5
AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT DENSITY FOR HOOP-TUBE
CABIN HEATERS

Average Radiant Density r, W/m2

0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000


1200

1100
2000

1000

Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, C


Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, F

AVG 900
TMT

1500 F
(800 C)
1500
800

Radiant Section Height <25 Ft (7.6m)


Reduce Tbw 8 F/Ft (14.6 C/m)
for Height > 25 Ft (7.6m)

1000 F 700
(550 C)

750 F
(400 C)
500 F 600
(250 C)

1000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

Average Radiant Heat Density r, Btu/Hr Ft2


DP8BF05

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FIGURE 6
AVERAGE RADIANT HEAT DENSITY FOR
HORIZONTAL TUBE BOX HEATER*

Average Radiant Density r, W/m2

0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000


1200

1100
2000

1000

Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, C


Bridgewall Temperature Tbw, F

AVG 900
TMT

1500 F
(800 C)
1500
800

700
1000 F
(550 C)

750 F
(400 C)
500 F 600
(250 C)

1000
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000

Average Radiant Heat Density r, Btu/Hr Ft2


DP8BF06

Note:
* To be used for checking existing heaters.

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FIGURE 7
CABIN HEATER PASS ARRANGEMENTS

(A) 4-Pass (B) 2-Pass

(C) 4-Pass (D) 4-Pass DP8BF07

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FIGURE 8
APPROXIMATE TUBE LENGTHS FOR HORIZONTAL TUBE CABIN HEATERS
Tube Length, m

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
1400
15,000

14,000 1300
Double Radiant Zone
(Fig. 7-D)

13,000 1200

12,000
1100

11,000
1000

10,000
900
Total Radiant Surface, ft2

9,000
800

Total Radiant Surface, m2


8,000

700

7,000

600

6,000

500
5,000

400
4,000

300
3,000

2,000 200
Single Radiant Zone
(Fig. 7-A,B,C)

1,000 100

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
DP8BF08
Tube Length, ft

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FIGURE 9A
APPROXIMATE TUBE LENGTHS FOR VERTICAL-CYLINDRICAL HEATERS (ENGLISH UNITS)
10,000
9,000
Curve 1
8,000 Determine Lr (or a Range
of Lr's) for known Ar

7,000 Curve 2

6
Determine Dt For Known

t =1.
Ar and Lr

LD
6,000

r
5,000

2.6
D=
t
L/
4,000 40

.6
=1
/D
t
L
r
3,000 30

2,500

Radiant Section Tube Circle Diameter Dt, Ft


6
r
A
Total Radiant Surface Ar, Ft2

2.
r s

20
t=
L v

2,000 Lr
/D
1-
rve
Cu

1,500

1,000 10
L
r
vs

900 9
-D
t
2

8
ve

800
ur
C

7
700

6
600

500

400

300

250

200
10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

DP8BF9a Radiant Section Tube Length Lr, Ft

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FIGURE 9B
APPROXIMATE TUBE LENGTHS FOR VERTICAL-CYLINDRICAL HEATERS (METRIC UNITS)

900
800 Curve 1
Determine Lr (or a Range
700 of Lr's) for known Ar
Curve 2

.6
600

=1
Determine Dt For Known
Ar and Lr

t
LD
r
500

.6
=2
t
LD
400

r
300

Radiant Section Tube Circle Diameter Dt, m


200 20
Total Radiant Surface Ar, m2

r
A

10
100
vs

6
1. 9
=
r
-L

90
/D t
1

Lr 8
rve

80 6
2.
Cu

= 7
70 /rD t
L
60 6

5
50
L
r
vs
-D
t

4
2

40
ve
ur
C

3
30

2
20

10
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20

DP8BF9b Radiant Section Tube Length Lr, m

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FIGURE 10
TYPICAL LAYOUT VERTICAL-CYLINDRICAL HEATER

)
D
r
.(
Radia I.D
nt Tu
be Cir
y

Diam cle
or

eter (
ct

D)
fra

t
Re

1.5 (IPS)
n
io

1.5 (NPS) Convection Section


t
ec
tS

Side Wall
an

~ Lc
di
Ra

Radiant Section Shell

Convection Section
End Tube Sheet
(Refractory Lined)
Convection Section
Header Box
DP8BF10

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FIGURE 11
TYPICAL PASS ARRANGEMENTS FOR VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATERS

(a) 6-Pass, 4 Cells

(b) 8-Pass, 5 Cells

(c) 12-Pass, 7 Cells

(h) Two-Side Fired


Tubes Only

(d) 6-Pass, 3 Cells

(f) Transfer Line


Arrangement

Legend

Indicates a Series of Tubes


(e) 8-Pass, 3 Cells

Indicates external
(g) Transfer Line
DP8BF11 Arrangement Indicates Coil Outlet Tube

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FIGURE 12
TYPICAL TUBE GUIDE DETAILS FOR VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER

Provide adequate clearances to permit removing horizontal


guides with stubs attached. These clearances should be provided Horizontal Guide - 5.5" O.D. x 1/2" min. wall,
for both guide pisitions and in both convection section side walls (140mm O.D. x 13mm min. wall)
(for interchangeability). Provide pin between guides to prevent 25 Cr - 20 Ni, Centrifugally Cast
rotation.

Removable Loose
Fitting Cap

Typical
Provide minimum Structure
of 2" (50mm) in cold B B
position Note 6 4" (100mm) min
1/8" (3mm) thick Guide for Center
18 Cr - 8 Ni Tubes Under
Sleeve Note 1 Convection Section
A A
6 min Note 6 Note 2
Vertical Guide
3-1/2" O.D. x 1/2" min. wall
Note 3
(90mm O.D. x 13 mm min. wall)
25 Cr - 20 Ni
Note 4

Note 5

Guide for Center and Guide for Center and End


Wall Tubes Not Under Wall Tubes Under Convection
Convection Section Section as Required

Note 6 Note 6

Note 7
Clearance between
Guides = Tube O.D. + 1/2"
= Tube O.D. + 13mm

1/2" (13mm)

Section A-A Section B-B

Notes:
(1) Guide - 1/2 in. (13 mm) thick 25 Cr - 20 Ni channel. Fill with refractory.
(2) Guide Pin 3-1/2 in. O.D. x 1/2 in. minimum wall (90 mm O.D. x 13 mm min. wall). Cast 25 Cr - 20 Ni.
(3) Weld between Guide Pin and Socket to be 182 Inconel or equal.
(4) Socket and weld between socket and return bend: Material for both to be equal to return bend.
(5) Alternate locations for Guide Pin and Socket as required.
(6) Provide minimum clearance required for thermal movement of tube guide. 4 in. min. clearance.
(7) Stubs - 3-1/2 in. O.D. x 1/2 in. minimum wall (90 mm O.D. x 13 mm min. wall). Cast 25 Cr - 20 Ni.
DP8Bf12

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FIGURE 13
TYPICAL LAYOUT FOR VERTICAL TUBE BOX HEATER

Wi

Wi

(610 mm min.) 1.5 (IPS)


45i 1.5 (NPS)
2' min.
(typ.)

Peep Hole
in Floor

Peep Hole
in Floor Outlet Tubes

External
Jumpover

Lt

Lt

Typical Burner Layout

Long Radius
U-Bend for
Observation Door
Inlet Tubes
(From Convection
DP8BF13
Section)

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FIGURE 14
TYPICAL LAYOUT FOR HOOP-TUBE HEATER

Convection
Section
Observation
Door in Arch

Typical Locations
for Observation B Ht
Doors Ls

U-bend to be located inside


firebox and not buried in floor
c
Process c/2
Headers

c
END ELEVATION

Coil Coil
Inlet Inlet
(610 mm) 1.5 (NPS)
2'-3" (Typ.) 1.5 (IPS)
+ Thermal Growth Typical Tube
of Header Spacing
Coil
Outlet
Interior Wall
Interior Wall

Burners

Coil
Inlet

w 2w 2w 2w 2w w

Typical Burner Spacing

ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C

DP8BF14 PLAN VIEW

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FIRED HEATERS Section Page
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DESIGN OF PROCESS HEATERS
DESIGN PRACTICES December, 2000

FIGURE 15
LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF VARIOUS STEELS
Temperature C

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200

26 22

24
20
18 Cr - 8 Ni

22
Linear Thermal Expansion Between 70F and Indicated Temperature, Inches/100 Ft.

25 Cr - Ni
18

Linear Thermal Expansion Between 20C and Indicated Temperature, mm/m


20

16
18

14
16

14 12

12
10
Carbon Steel, C - Mo, Low Co

10 5 Cr - Mo to 9 Cr - Mo
8

4
4

2
2

0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400

DP8BF15 Temperature F

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DESIGN OF PROCESS HEATERS
December, 2000 DESIGN PRACTICES

FIGURE 16
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF VARIOUS STEELS
Temperature C

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100

400

55

350 Car
bon
Ste
el
C-
1/2
Mo
45
300
Btu/hr Ft2
F/In.

250

Thermal Conductivity Km, W/


35
Thermal Conductivity km,

1 1/4 Cr - 1/
2 Mo

2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo
200

mC
i
r- 20 N i-Nb
25 C - 35N
5 Cr - 1/2 M
o u ght Cr
Wro t 25 25
Cas
o
150 9 Cr - 1 M
Cast 25 Cr - 20 Ni
- 8 Ni (HK40)
18 Cr

100 15

50

0 500 1000 1500 2000

Temperature, F
DP8BF16

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FIRED HEATERS Section Page
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DESIGN OF PROCESS HEATERS
DESIGN PRACTICES December, 2000

FIGURE 17
TYPICAL TUBE GUIDES FOR HOOP-TUBE HEATER
Guide:
1/2 in. (13mm) thick 25 Cr-20 Ni channel approx. 5 ft. (1.5m) long.
Attach to tubes with 25 Cr-20 Ni U-bolts.
Two guides per tube.
Each series of tubes to be independent of tubes
guided by the next two guides (do not interlock).
Fill channel with refractory for protection from
vanadium attack. Pads welded on tubes to locate
and support channels. Material
equal to tubes

A Section A-A
A

45i

Detail
Size U-Bolt for Tack Weld
1/8" (3mm) clearance all or Peen
around tube

Typical Radiant Tube Guides

Shoulder on U-Bolt
to maintain clearance around tube

DP8BF17

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DESIGN OF PROCESS HEATERS
December, 2000 DESIGN PRACTICES

FIGURE 18
CORROSION FRACTION

.90 12
10
9

Rupture Exponent, n
8
7
.85 tm = ts + f TCA
6

4
.80

.75
Corrosion Fraction, f

.70

.65

.60

B = TCA/ts
Note Change of Scale

ts = PrDo/(2Sr + Pr)
CS = Corrosion Allowance
.55 Do = Outside Diameter
Pr = Rupture Design Pressure
Sr = Rupture Allowable
n = Rupture Exponent
(See Figure 19)
.50
0 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

DP8BF18 Parameter B

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FIRED HEATERS Section Page
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DESIGN OF PROCESS HEATERS
DESIGN PRACTICES December, 2000

FIGURE 19
RUPTURE EXPONENT

Temperature, C

400 450 500 550 600 650 700

15

M
ed
.C
10 .S
.
9

8
5 Cr -
1/2 M
7 o

6 18 Cr - 8
N i

5 9 Cr - 1 2 1/4 Cr - 1
Mo
Mo
1 1/4 Cr
Rupture Exponent, n

- 1/2 Mo
4

C - 1/2
Mo
3

1
700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

Temperature, F
DP8BF19 Source: API Recommended Practice 530

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