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SheLedf_LEDSdec_1704 1 3/7/17 10:28 AM

APRIL 2017

+
LEDsmagazine.com

Horticultural
lighting
Plant efficacy P. 41

Sapphire scores
High marks
for many P. 45

Flicker
TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODES metrics evolve
And AC-LEDs
also P. 55

Subtle and
spectacular
SSL
Hand-blown
glass fixtures
P. 33

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1704LEDS_2 2 3/14/17 7:54 AM


ISSUE 96

2017
April Cover Story
Custom handblown glass combines with
LEDs to showcase brilliant concert hall
design (see p. 33; courtesy of Iwan Baan).

features
23 REGULATIONS
LRC scientists continue the SSL regulatory columns/departments
conversation
Mark Rea and Jean Paul Freyssinier, Lighting Research Center
5 COMMENTARY Maury Wright
Strategies in Light and Anaheim
25 INTERVIEW
yield interesting experiences
Tridonic CEO discusses US entry and smart lighting
transition Maury Wright
9 NEWS +ANALYSIS
Philips taps Microsoft as part of
33 SSL PROJECTS
indoor-positioning partnering push
Soaring new symphony hall orchestrates soft lighting
Osram completes LEDvance sale to
with LEDs Mark Halper Chinese consortium for 500 million
Samsung expands COB LED family,
41 HORTICULTURAL LIGHTING targets directional applications
Understand energy efficiency of LED horticultural Basil grower slashes energy
lighting systems Josh Gerovac, Fluence Bioengineering usage and boosts production
with LED horticultural lighting
46 FOCUS ON LEDiL unveils new LED optics
Sapphire Awards scores reflect smart SSL portfolio, adds Florence, Carmen,
developments Carrie Meadows and Strada products
Cree cancels Wolfspeed deal
51 SECURITY with Infineon based on US
government concerns
Network security can be achieved in commercial
smart lighting systems
Rafal Han and Simon Rzadkosz, Silvair 19 FUNDING + PROGRAMS
LightingEurope and IALD issue position
55 FLICKER & AC DRIVER paper on human-centric lighting
DOE Gateway report documents
Understand a new flicker metric and its application
LED lighting performance in
to AC-LED light engines four indoor applications
Peter Erwin, Der Lichtpeter, and Peter Shackle, Photalume

65 DEVELOPER FORUM 72 LAST WORD


The industry needs better LED
Understand luminous and radiant intensity, and
measurements Jeff Hulett, Vektrex
uniformity characterization
Gnther Leschhorn and Richard Young, Instrument Systems

LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 3

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commentary

Strategies in Light and Anaheim yield


interesting experiences

I
write this during the midst of trols, even on a fairly busy street. So often fessional deeply involved in Hollywood cin-
Strategies in Light (SIL) week event venues demonstrate poor light- ematography, may have convinced me that
held Feb. 28Mar. 2 in Anaheim ing as I detailed one year after my visit to we still need a better color metric. Even the
this year, and our feature-length the Street and Area Lighting Conference IES TM-30 metrics dont characterize light
coverage of the event will have (http://bit.ly/2lZmNLz). In Anaheim, vis- in a manner that predicts accurate color
to wait until the next issue. But itors to a lighting event could experience capture by a camera. Now our eyes are dif-
Id like to share some highlights state-of-the art lighting. ferent from a camera, but the work that the
of the week and an interesting But then I took a closer look at the sur- Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sci-
experience I had on Convention roundings along Convention Way. The ences is doing on a metric called spectral
Way leading to the Anaheim Convention short street is horribly overlit. Sidewalks similarity index bears watching. It might
Center. The co-located Strategies in Light, on each side of the street have post-top serve the lighting industry well. And our
The LED Show, and Lightspace California pedestrian lighting that doesnt appear to best LED lighting could still be improved
events were all excellent as was our LEDs have any dimming capability (although I in terms of spectral power distribution.
Magazine Sapphire Awards Gala. was never out there late at night). Frankly, There was also a great presenta-
First, lets discuss that experience. Im not sure the street lights in the median tion on using visible light for continu-
Convention Way is a short street off Har- add much in the way of safety given the ous room disinfection. I promise you will
bor Drive that passes between the Mar- output from the post-top lights. The CCTs see more on this topic.
riott and Hilton hotels and dead-ends at of the pedestrian and street lights also If you missed the show or our cover-
the convention center. One night after appear to be a mismatch, although dark- age, come up to date quickly by view-
the show closed, I crossed Convention sky advocates would be happy to note that ing our Top 5 videos from each day
Way mid-block yes, I jaywalked. But as the street lights appeared relatively warm. (http://bit.ly/2mmbTCJ). There is also
I approached the median, I realized the And hopefully Anaheim is using the auton- a video with interviews of the Sapphire
light around me had gotten brighter. The omous technology elsewhere. I suppose Award winners. And you can read more
street lights in the median on Convention the bright and cooler pedestrian lights about the winners on p. 46.
Way have occupancy sensors that can be were judged necessary given the heavy
triggered by pedestrians or automobiles as pedestrian traffic near the Disney resort. Maury Wright,
I confirmed, watching the street. As for the SIL events, we had some inter- EDITOR
Now at first I was happy to see that esting keynotes. Indeed, Jonathan Erland, mauryw@pennwell.com
Anaheim had installed autonomous con- founder of the Pickfair Institute and a pro-

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1704LEDS_5 5 3/14/17 7:54 AM


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ADVERTISERS index
American Bright Optoelectronics .................21 Guangzhou Acevel Electronic NMB Technologies Corporation .....................2
Amerlux ......................................................31 Technology Co. Ltd. ..................................12 Opticolor Inc. ..............................................11
Bergquist, A Henkel Company .....................71 Hangzhou Everfine Osram Opto Semiconductors ......................17
Photo-E-Info Co. Ltd ..................................59
Citizen Electronics Co. Ltd. ..........................35 Philips Emergency Lighting ..........................28
Horticultural Lighting Conference 2017 .......69
Cree Inc. ...................................................CV4 Phoenix Contact ..........................................24
Instrument Systems GmbH .........................15
CSA Group ..................................................29 Plessey Semiconductors Ltd. ......................61
Inventronics (Hangzhou) Inc...........................1
Dow Corning Europe SA...............................58 Seoul Semiconductor Co. Ltd. .......................8
Keystone Technologies................................32
Ecolite LED .................................................57 Sepco .........................................................45
Lighting for Health and Wellbeing 2017 .......67
Edison Opto Corporation .............................14 Shenzhen Ledmy Co. Ltd. ............................38
Linear Technology .......................................63
Eptronics ....................................................30 Shenzhen Moso Electronics
Lumileds ...................................................CV2 Technology Co. Ltd. ..................................20
ERG Lighting ...............................................26
Evonik Cryo .................................................37 Luminus Inc. ...............................................13 Shenzhen Sosen Electronics Co. Ltd. ..........40
Lutron Electrics Co. Inc. ..............................43 Strategies in Light/The LED Show/
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Masterbond ................................................70 Lightspace California 2018 ...................CV3
Future Lighting Solutions.......7, 18, 27, 53, 64
Mean Well USA Inc. .....................................50 Thomas Research Products ........................40
GIIR America Inc. ........................................54
Nextek Power Systems Inc. .........................62 Vicor Corporation ...................................28A-B
Griplock Systems LLC .................................16
This ad index is published as a service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or omissions.

6 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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1704LEDS_8 8 3/14/17 7:54 AM
+
news views
LOCATION SERVICES

Philips taps Microsoft as


part of indoor-positioning
partnering push
In moves to jump-start the indoor-positioning business,
Philips Lighting has rounded up IT companies including
Microsoft and SAP to develop compelling data-linked uses
that might attract customers. And in an underlying wireless
technology change, Philips revealed that it is now embracing
radio-based Bluetooth in addition to the visible light com-
munication (VLC) that it has long preferred.
Indoor positioning also known as location-based ser-
vices transmits signals to smartphones in order to guide
and engage people around buildings. Lighting companies Nearly two years after first announcing a trial deployment
want to use ceiling luminaires to send the signals. Philips with a Carrefour store in Lille, France, Philips has publicly
has persistently championed VLC, which embeds signals in announced only one additional deployment a small trial
the modulation of lightwaves emitted by LEDs. Other ven- with Dubai retail chain aswaaq, nearly a year ago (shown
dors such as Osram and startup Gooee prefer Bluetooth bea- above; http://bit.ly/1SVVDTt). Some industry observers say
cons that send RF signals from chips inside light fixtures that retail chains and other industries are balking because
(http://bit.ly/2lZIevO). they dont envision enough use cases, and because con-

SSL BUSINESS COB LEDS

Osram completes LEDvance Samsung expands COB


sale to Chinese consortium LED family, targets
directional applications
for 500 million Samsung Electronics has announced a second-gener-
With regulatory concerns now ation (Gen2) of chip-on-board (COB) LEDs in the com-
cleared in three countries, panys D Series of components for spotlight and other
Osram has completed the sale directional lamps and luminaires. The LEDs hit the
of its LEDvance lamps group to 160-lm/W efficacy mark at a 5000K CCT with 80-CRI
Source: Mark Halper.

an investor-led Chinese consor- color performance when operated at 85C.


tium for around 500 million Samsungs COB LED portfolio is a bit difficult to navi-
($529M), about 25% more than gate and the various series have overlapping components
the amount widely reported in terms of size, and electrical and photometric perfor-
last July. The new owners mance. The product development targets are generally
include LED components manufacturer MLS Co. Ltd. tied to some industry need that might not be immedi-
The sale to MLS and to investment firms IDG Capital the con- ately evident. For example, the company announced B
sortiums lead member and Yiwu State-Owned Assets Opera- Series products in 2013 that were based on light-emit-
tion Center completes the process by which Osram has been dis- ting surface (LES) dimensions defined in Zhaga books
tancing itself in stages from the profit-challenged bulb business, (http://bit.ly/2nfhkkJ). Those LEDs debuted at around the
while focusing on LED chips, smart LED lighting and page 10 130-lm/W level. In November 2014, page 10

LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 9

1704LEDS_9 9 3/14/17 7:53 AM


news+views
Philips from page 9 Osram from page 9
sumers might simply not see any need for Samsung announced smaller
phone-based guidance around a store. C Series family members and
To help develop broader applications for pushed efficacy to 143 lm/W
the technology, Philips has launched a new (http://bit.ly/2mmxcnZ).
initiative called the Location Lab partner pro- The D Series components are generally
gram, whose initial members include Micro- larger LEDs and include models with LES The drive to incrementally bet-
soft, SAP, and Capgemini, among others. options of 9.8, 14.5, and 22 mm. There are ter performance has been in part
Our Location Lab partners are as import- further options in power rating, drive cur- prompted by new Premium-level tiers
ant to us as apps to a smartphone, said rent, and lumen output in each size. Indeed, in the DesignLights Consortium (DLC)
Parik Chopra, Philips Lightings segment maximum power ratings range from 15.6W qualified products list. LED manu-
leader for retail and hospitality. The value a to 84.2W. Most of the LEDs have a nominal facturers seek to enable their custom-
building owner derives from our indoor-po- forward voltage of 34.6V with the excep- ers to meet the more stringent perfor-
sitioning system increases with the number tion of the 56.1W and 84.2W versions of a mance tier and therefore qualify for
of complementary products and services we 22-mm LED that have a 52V rating. greater rebates, and the Gen2 LEDs sup-
offer. With our partners, we are able to turn The first generation of D Series LEDs port such developments.
our customers vision into reality and enable date to 2015 and topped out at 150 lm/W. The Gen2 LEDs will also be offered
them to differentiate through shopper con- So the latest Gen2 COB LED products in what Samsung has called its Vivid
venience and staff efficiency. deliver a performance boost in the 67% LED technology. The Vivid technology
Other companies to join Location Lab range. Samsung also said the new prod- came to market in 2015 and includes
include Zebra Technologies and SES-ima- ucts feature 50% lower thermal resis- LEDs with 95-CRI performance along
gotag, both of whom Philips described as tance. That gain is achieved through with models designed to oversaturate
strategic enterprise technology advisors more epitaxial real estate that results colors (http://bit.ly/1QMwk0z). The
and market leaders in handheld computers in greater lumen output and the result- Vivid LEDs are popular in demanding
and electronic shelf labels. Also included ing improved efficacy. retail applications.
as seminal members of the Location club
are location-based service software compa-
nies Favendo, Adactive, Vipera, Nakko, and developed by Ambra Elettronica have been applications, and the 200W AE200 rectan-
Mapiq, as well as robotics company Blue Jay. deployed in greenhouses used for basil pro- gular fixtures that can provide the greatest
Philips has an ongoing partnership with dig- duction. Grower Servizi Ambientali Bassa intensity in a focused area.
ital mapping and shopper analytics provider Reggiana (S.A.BA.R.), located in the Reggio The basil greenhouse relies on the AE80
Aisle411; it also certifies other vendors lumi- province between Parma and Bologna, has linear fixture that measures 1200 mm in
naires for indoor-positioning performance slashed energy usage by 56% relative to the length. The 100W product can deliver PAR
via a program Philips calls YellowDot. high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting used (photosynthetically active radiation)-spec-
Philips also has added Bluetooth to its previously, and increased yield via a five- trum photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of
positioning topography, even if it did not go day-shorter production cycle enabled by the 210230 moles/sec depending on the mix
out of its way to proclaim the move. A sin- solid-state lighting (SSL). of LEDs used in the product. Ambra offers
gle line in its press release announcing the Fixture manufacturer Ambra is a mem- configurations with different mixes of
Location Lab program reads, Philips Light- ber of the Osram LED Light For you (LLFY) 450-nm blue, 620-nm red, 660-nm hyper-
ing utilizes a combination of its Visible Light SSL-centric partnership program and offers red, and 730-nm far-red Osram Oslon LEDs.
Communication technology, Bluetooth, and a number of LED-based horticultural light- The efficiency of the fixture is 2.2 moles/J.
the smartphones inertial sensors to deliver ing products. The range includes the 42W For more details on metrics for horticul-
an indoor positioning system that offers AE32 fixture for vertical farming, a number tural lighting products, see one of our
30 centimeters accuracy plus orientation, of linear products intended for greenhouse recent feature articles that covered the
in-pocket notifications, and analytics.
MORE: http://bit.ly/2m36jCZ

HORTICULTURAL LIGHTING

Basil grower slashes energy


usage and boosts production
with LED horticultural lighting
Osram Opto Semiconductors has released
the details of a horticultural lighting proj-
ect in Italy in which LED-based fixtures
10 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_10 10 3/14/17 7:53 AM


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1704LEDS_11 11 3/14/17 7:53 AM


news+views
topic (http://bit.ly/2fWkMA1).
Osram from page 9 cerns. CFIUS also nixed Crees sale of S.A.BA.R. said the prior HPS lighting
services, and specialty lighting prod- Wolfspeed to Germanys Infineon (p. required 32 kW of power whereas the LED
ucts such as automotive. 14), Philips sale of Lumileds last year lighting reduced that load to 14 kW. Annual
As Osram moves away from lamps, (http://bit.ly/1KOvVOA), and LED equip- energy savings total 75,000 kWh or what
CEO Olaf Berlien (shown, p. 9) has taken ment maker Aixtrons sale to a unit of Osram equates to 30 tons of carbon emis-
to describing the company as a high- Chinas Fujian Grand Chip Investment sions. What may be more important is the
tech outfit, an assertion that, as LEDs Fund LP (http://bit.ly/2jAdGDo). reduction in the production cycle by five
Magazine noted, has manifested itself A LEDvance spokesperson told LEDs days for each crop cycle.
among other ways in the companys move Magazine that both CFIUS and Ger- MORE: http://bit.ly/2mGO7T4
into Bluetooth radio chips for indoor-po- manys Federal Ministry for Economic
sitioning systems (http://bit.ly/2lZIevO). Affairs and Energy had over the last SSL OPTICS
Munich-based Osram established month approved the deal, which at the
LEDvance as a separate entity last April, time awaited the consent of Chinese reg- LEDiL unveils new LED optics
legally carved it out in July, then agreed ulators. Chinas State Administration of portfolio, adds Florence,
to sell it to the IDG-led three-company Foreign Exchange has now cleared it. Carmen, and Strada products
consortium for around 400M, or $423M. The deal means that co-owner MLS will LEDiL has announced additions to its
By late October, German regula- now give LEDvance better pricing than it Florence, Carmen, Zorya, and Strada LED
tors derailed the agreement, saying had been paying, a LEDvance spokesper- optics families. In the Florence family, SSL
they wanted more information (http:// son told LEDs. MLS is one of Chinas larg- product developers can now specify ver-
bit.ly/2j9GSxP). In the US, the Com- est LED and lighting companies, and owns sions with elevated ingress protection (IP)
mittee on Foreign Investment in the US lighting company Forest Lighting. support for challenging dusty or moist envi-
United States (CFIUS) also voiced con- MORE: http://bit.ly/2mZB5At ronments. A new hybrid reflector/lens optic
in the Carmen family targets demanding

1704LEDS_12 12 3/14/17 7:53 AM


news+views
high-end retail applications. New Strada maximize pole spacing through the wide beam control, but for an entirely different
family products deliver additional beam dis- beam distribution. LEDiL further added application. The product can support globe,
tributions for street and area lighting and IP67 capabilities in the larger optic that candle, or A-lamp form factors. And develop-
one model is intended for geographies that can increase the reliability of luminaires ers can use LEDs as large as 77 mm in foot-
have frequent rain. And a new Zorya product in a harsh environment. print with the hemispheric-shaped design.
can deliver 340 beam distribution for omni- The third new Strada-2X2-MEW is Indeed, LEDiL said the intent of the product
directional replacement lamps. designed specifically for lighting streets in is to give retrofit lamp developers more free-
Perhaps the most significant expan- a wet environment. The optic meets Nor- dom in LED selection.
sion of SSL optics came in the Strada fam- dic wet street lighting requirements and The final family we will discuss is the
ily. The 22- and 26-array Strada-2X2-FW delivers a Type II beam. Photometric prop- Florence and another example of an optic
and Strada-IP-2X6-FW optics deliver erties that favor use in a wet environment product that offers IP67 protection. A fea-
what the company calls a forward-wide include very low glare and uniformity across ture article that we published on the need
light distribution and Type III street light two traffic lanes with minimal ref lec- for venting luminaires includes a com-
beams. For more information on outdoor tion. LEDiL further added the Strada-SQ- prehensive discussion of IP levels (http://
beam patterns, see a basic primer on the T2-B single-LED optic with a Type II beam bit.ly/2mmC0K5). The first number in the
topic we published several years back and minimal backlight. sequence covers solid or dust ingress and
(http://bit.ly/1k4eF5T). Moving to retail applications, new Car- 6 is the top rating indicating a dust-proof
The 22 array is intended for applica- men products combine refractive light product. The second number conveys water
tions such as residential suburbs whereas control thats common with total internal ingress and a 7 is the penultimate rating
the 26 array can support busier roadways reflection (TIR) lenses and reflective con- indicating that immersion in water is tol-
and other area lighting including high- trol typical of directional lamps and lumi- erated for 30 minutes.
mast applications. In both cases, the optics naires. The optics family supports COB LEDs The Florence-3R-IP-PC is a 311-array
limit backlight to just the typical sidewalk with an LES as large as 11 mm. optic that includes a silicone gasket to
area. And the optics were developed to The new Zorya-MINI is also all about achieve IP67 protection. LEDiL identifies

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news+views
targets such as industrial applications for Crees SiC technology relative specifically SolarOne buys Inovus in solar-
the optic, although specifically described to power and RF semiconductors, and gem- power-focused SSL business deal
its usage in a luminaire intended for deploy- stones, but not to SiC for LEDs. Still, some SolarOne has announced the acquisition
ment in car washes. observers of the LED business saw the deal of Inovus Solar, although terms were not
MORE: http://bit.ly/2nfvLoQ as a positive step for Cree as the company released. Both companies have focused
could fully focus on its core SSL mission. on LED-based solar lighting systems, but
LED & SSL BUSINESS However, the Wolfspeed business has per- there are apparently few overlaps in their
formed well since the deal was announced. technology and product platforms. Inovus
Cree cancels Wolfspeed deal The end of the deal comes courtesy of operations have been funded by private
with Infineon based on US the CFIUS. Cree and Infineon did not detail equity investments, and SolarOne is a pri-
government concerns the CFIUS concerns and only said the duo vately held corporation.
The US government has scuttled another could not work out a way around the obsta- LED technology has revived interest in
technology business deal, as Cree will cles raised by CFIUS. Infineon is based in powering lighting from the sun. After Strat-
not sell the Wolfspeed silicon carbide Germany and the stock is traded on the egies in Light 2014, we published a feature
(SiC) power and RF business to Infineon Frankfurt Stock Exchange. But the com- article that included a section on solar street
Technologies. Presumably, national secu- pany does have significant engineering and lighting (http://bit.ly/1kXzh1e). Stalled solar
rity concerns are behind the cancellation. manufacturing resources in China. And the panel efficiency had made the technology
For now, Cree plans to operate Wolfspeed as SiC technology is widely used in military largely insufficient to power legacy light
a business division, and drive growth in the among other applications. sources. But efficient LED sources made
sector that is separate from its LED compo- The Cree announcement stated that the outdoor solar-power area lighting feasible.
nent and SSL businesses. company would receive a termination fee of Boise, ID-based Inovus Solar brings
The Cree and Infineon Technologies deal $12.5M from Infineon apparently as part to the new organization what it calls a
for Wolfspeed was struck in early summer of the terms of the original deal. wrapped pole, essentially a solar-panel skin
2016 (http://bit.ly/2mGQR2I) and involved MORE: http://bit.ly/2mmzmUD for the poles (http://bit.ly/2lZApX1) that

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1704LEDS_15 15 3/14/17 7:53 AM


news+views
Lynk Labs, Acuity Brands, and Schneider
Electric resolve LED legal action
Lynk Labs has announced that it reached a settlement with Acuity
Brands and Schneider Electric over an AC-LED-centric patent law-
suit that Lynk filed in 2015 against Juno Lighting. Terms of the set-
tlement are confidential, but Lynk is almost certainly being com-
pensated for past damages and for ongoing usage by Acuity of its
intellectual property (IP). Indeed, Lynk said Acuity received licenses
to a portion of the Lynk Labs SSL patent portfolio.
We initially reported Lynks lawsuit against Juno in June 2015
(http://bit.ly/2lENkT3). Schneider was the primary owner of Juno at
that time, and Lynk later filed to add Schneider to the suit. Later that
year, we reported on Acuitys acquisition of Juno that subsequently led
to Lynk adding Acuity to the suit (http://bit.ly/1njuNrL).
the company has said is more reliable than traditional flat panels, The suit covers actions that occurred much earlier in the 2008 time-
not susceptible to wind, and aesthetically pleasing. The company frame. According to the details in the court filing, Lynk Labs entered
has supplied such poles with internal batteries for off-grid usage a nondisclosure agreement (NDA) with Juno as a precursor to Juno
and in on-grid models that return energy to a utility during the using Lynks AC-LED technology in its lighting products. Ultimately,
day, while using grid energy at night. Lynk manufactured an LED module that Juno used in the first and sec-
SolarOne has focused on off-grid systems throughout its history ond generations of the successful Trac 12 lighting system. Indeed, the
including the Solo platform for residential streets and commer- filing indicates that Lynk supplied around 300,000 modules to Juno.
cial pathways (http://bit.ly/2mZHGLu). The company said it has The filing states that Juno ultimately asked for exclusive rights to
installed projects in 15 countries. the technology, which Lynk was not willing to offer in a license. And
MORE: http://bit.ly/2mZK9pd according to the court documents, Juno presumably took the module
design to other third-party OEMs for module manufacturing, both dis-
continuing its purchases from Lynk and violating the terms of the NDA.
The settlement was almost certainly a positive development for
Fast Labor-Saving Installation Lynk Labs. This is a significant achievement and winning milestone
Easy Tool-Free Adjustability for Lynk and its shareholders, said Mike Miskin, chairman and CEO
of Lynk Labs. This settlement validates the value and contribution
made by Lynk and our intellectual property in the LED industry.
The LED Revolution is Now MORE: http://bit.ly/2lEKtcE

LSI Industries acquires Atlas Lighting


Products in LED-centric deal
Rincon LSI Industries has announced the acquisition of LED-lighting man-
Powered Suspension System
ufacturer Atlas Lighting Products for cash and stock warrants. LSI
Power & Suspend Class 2 LEDs called the deal highly strategic and indicated that it was the big-
No power cords needed gest investment by the company to date. The near-$100M transac-
up to 100lbs SWL per suspension
U.S. & other Patents tion will be funded by cash on hand and a $100M commercial credit
arrangement with PNC Bank.
Cityscape LED Pendant Hubbardton Forge Cincinnati, OH-based LSI Industries is paying $97.5M for all the
capital stock in Atlas Lighting $96.9M in cash and the remain-
der in stock warrants. LSI said Atlas recorded $56.5M in revenue
Lightweight Cable Suspension during fiscal 2016 and $8.8M in income after adjustments for pri-
Elegant & Strong vate company expenses.
Smallest 1/32 cable 18/3-22/2 Burlington, NC-based Atlas is a pureplay lighting company while
Low-profile grippers AWM2661 LSI differentiates itself as delivering complete systems across lighting,
Fully adjustable
5 conductors network and control, and signage/graphics applications. Both compa-
Fluxwerx LED Fixture 18 gauge power nies have heavily invested in a transition to LED light sources. Back
22 gauge control
in September 2016, LSI celebrated 40 years in the lighting business
.26 diameter
(http://bit.ly/2mGSsWm). Gaining the products and intellectual assets
Booth www.griplocksystems.com of Atlas is expected to immediately broaden the LSI portfolio, pro-

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1704LEDS_18 18 3/14/17 7:53 AM


+ funding
programs
LightingEurope and IALD
DOE Gateway report
documents LED lighting
performance in four
indoor applications
The US Department of Energy has
released another report in its Gateway
series covering real-world installa-
tions of solid-state lighting (SSL) tech-
nology in general-lighting applications
in this case focused on four very dif-
ferent indoor applications. The proj-
issue position paper on ects span new construction to large-
scale retrofits and involved the Hilton
human-centric lighting Hotel in downtown Columbus, OH; St.
Anthony Hospital in Gig Harbor, WA;
In a jointly-issued position paper, LightingEurope and the International Association of the Carl Icahn Laboratory at Princeton
Lighting Designers (IALD) have attempted to place a virtual fence around the concept of
human-centric lighting (HCL). The goal of the paper appears to be delineating what is and
is not HCL and paving the way forward for a smoother proliferation of the technology that
is being enabled by a transition
Noon
High 12:00 to LED sources. Meanwhile,
alertness Best
coordination the concepts laid forth in the
paper should make it easier to
Start Fastest
reaction spot companies and products
waking
up time that are attempting to lever-
age HCL momentum in the
Morning Evening
06:00 18:00 market while not meeting the
core tenets.
Of course, its fair to ask if University in Princeton, NJ; and the
HCL is an appropriate term for University of Marylands Clarice Smith
Start lighting of any type. Many in the Performing Arts Center (CSPAC) in
Deepest sleep
and restoration feeling industry have started to avoid College Park, MD. The long-term study
of the body sleepy
00:00 the term and use other descrip- does reveal energy savings, but the DOE
Midnight
tors such as lighting for health concluded that the projects illustrate
and wellbeing. But the IALD other reasons ranging from mainte-
and LightingEurope appear to nance savings to controls to improved
have embraced the HCL term light quality that justify the installation
Morning Afternoon Evening Night
Cool light, White light, Warm light, No light
and attempted to define ele- of LED-based lighting.
high intensity high intensity low intensity ments inherent in HCL prod- The projects covered in the Gateway
Source: LightingEurope and IALD.
ucts and installations. report, while all indoors, cross a broad
The position paper notes that application space and also include
HCL should deliver some combination of excellent visual, biological, and emotional effects new construction and retrofit appli-
of light. The CIE (International Commission on Illumination) is advocating similar concepts cations. The Columbus hotel was new
for what it calls integrative lighting. construction and involved 3700 down-
Visual benefits are fairly well understood at this point. The position paper defines biolog- light luminaires in 2012. St. Anthony
ical benefits as alertness, cognitive performance, and good sleep-wake cycles among others. Hospital was completed in 2014 and
Examples of emotional benefits might be an improved mood or impulse control. involved 1262 integral lamps installed
The paper further defines the concepts of both technical and content enablers of HCL. as replacements for compact fluores-
On the technical side, we have tunable color or white capabilities and controls. On the con- cent lamps (CFLs). The Icahn Labora-
tent side, you might find circadian light or a 24-hour programmatic pattern, or presets tied tory included LED retrofit kits for both
to specific activities. CFL downlights and troffer page 20
Last, the paper addresses applications or the connection between the enablers page 21

LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 19

1704LEDS_19 19 3/14/17 7:54 AM


Indoor lighting from page 19
fixtures. And the CSPAC project included 135 LED modular
light engines installed in existing wall-wash fixtures in 2014.
The DOE had previously published a Gateway report on the
CSPAC project back in 2015 (http://bit.ly/1O6rBcO). The early
results indicated lower light levels than the incumbent light-
ing, but lighting that was considered acceptable by the facil-
ity. Meanwhile, the LED retrofit has greatly reduced what had
been near-constant maintenance on the old halogen lighting
that operated 7300 hours per year.
The CSPAC project was based on small linear modules from
TerraLux. The company first announced the products back in
2012 (http://bit.ly/2mLLLCx) and has continued to improve
the design with new models since. CSPAC retrofitted a total
of 87 luminaires with larger versions using two of the modules
and smaller versions one.
After 17,000 hours of operation, the university is happy
with the project given that there has been essentially zero
required maintenance. But the DOE did document chroma-
ticity shift at 12,000 hours that may be greater than what
would be acceptable in some applications. Energy Star arbi-
trarily sets acceptable shift at 0.007 in the uv color space.
Some of the luminaires have remained under that level but
most are over, with a high around the 0.02 range and average
performance well above Energy Star although its import-
ant to note that TerraLux did not claim color maintenance
within the Energy Star guidelines. Meanwhile, the SSL instal-
lation has delivered 80% energy savings relative to the prior
halogen lighting.
The Hilton project utilized Eaton (formerly Cooper Light-
ing) Business Portfolio downlights. The DOE measured seven
of the lights 17 months after installation or at about 4900
hours of operation on average, and then again two years
later at the 12,000-hour mark. The DOE did not gather data
required to calculate uv shift but measured changes in CCT
have been slight. And color rendering (both Ra and the red R9
sample) remained consistent, leading to the conclusion that
the LED lighting had remained stable.
Lumen depreciation was even more impressive. Indeed, light
levels increased 37% in different areas of a guest room. Note
that it is common to see an increase in the early lifetime of LED
sources. The DOE stated that the light levels met Illuminating
Engineering Society (IES) requirements for guests of any age.
Reliability has also been excellent in the hotel project.
Early on, six drivers had to be replaced in the luminaires, and
after 14,500 hours of operation four flickering luminaires
have been replaced. The DOE did evaluate installed dimmer
controls, which work properly but use a small slide dimmer
that some guests have not intuitively understood how to use.
Occupancy sensors in bathrooms have largely worked well
with the exception that some guests have gone to the trou-
ble of disabling the sensors that were set to extinguish the
lights after 30 minutes of vacancy.
The hospital project was unique in that it involved the

LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_20 20 3/14/17 7:54 AM


funding programs +
LightingEurope from page 19 and what humans
might do during their day that would benefit Indoor lighting from page 20 installation of ballast-compatible Lunera Lighting
from different lighting conditions. The docu- Helen LED lamps in existing fluorescent fixtures. The DOE has monitored the per-
ment states, Human Centric Lighting is aimed formance of seven downlights in a surgical waiting area and ten fixtures near the
at providing the right light for our activities at radiology imaging center. The DOE noted that leaving the ballast in place was by
the right place at the right time. Indeed, the far the lowest-cost option for the hospital looking to retrofit public spaces. But the
paper includes a graphic that suggests a poten- agency also warned that the project will warrant a reexamination of the economics
tial cycle for a 24-hour day (shown). as the CFL ballasts reach their rated lifetimes. The CFL fixtures were five years old
LightingEurope and the IALD did specifically at the time of the retrofit.
suggest that the industry needs to resist improper The report documents the hospital lighting after 8800 hours of usage. Chromatic-
use of terminology including HCL and the tenets ity is largely within the Energy Star 0.007 level, although a few products measured
of the technology. Moreover, the paper concludes above that number. Still, average performance is very good. And the products have
with stating that promised benefits of an HCL exhibited lumen maintenance in the 8090% range.
installation should be backed by scientific evi- We briefly covered the Icahn Laboratory retrofit as part of a larger Princeton initiative
dence and must be realized through a dedicated launched in 2014 to install 100,000 LED fixtures across the campus (http://bit.ly/2m-
design and specification process. FIc09). Energy savings at the lab are good but not great. There were 245 downlights ret-
LightingEurope has been among the most rofitted in corridors, lobbies, and conference rooms using TerraLux DR8 modules. And
aggressive proponents of HCL in representing those products are delivering 60% savings relative to the prior CFL lamps. But the 815
European lighting manufacturers and national 22-ft troffers installed in labs and offices and that used linear fluorescent lamps were
lighting organizations in the region. In our March already quite efficient. The MaxLite retrofit kits deliver only 24% savings.
2017 issue, in fact, we have an article on lighting You can read the detailed DOE Gateway report on the indoor lighting projects at
regulations in Europe and a model for transition the DOE Solid-State Lighting website (http://bit.ly/2m7kKFW).
to a converged smart lighting and HCL future. MORE: http://bit.ly/2nf0VgL
MORE: http://bit.ly/2mKzA8r

LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 21

1704LEDS_21 21 3/14/17 7:54 AM


Progra
Programmable
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1704LEDS_22 22 3/14/17 7:54 AM


regulations | EFFICIENCY & COLOR

LRC scientists continue the


SSL regulatory conversation
The issue of color fidelity and CRI as a metric has sparked some controversy in
the solid-state lighting (SSL) community. MARK REA and JEAN PAUL FREYSSINIER
comment on recent debate.

W
e were pleased to see the article The utility of CRI or color fidel- effects on the expected benefits
from Papamichael, Siminovitch, ity is beside the central point of provided by LED lighting (e.g.,
Veitch, and Whitehead in LEDs our article, however. The point start time, lamp life, flicker)
Magazine (http://bit.ly/2l85Nlu) in response of our article was that current This does not mean that min-
to our article, CRI should never be used in luminous efficacy requirements imum color quality criteria
efficacy regulations but a new lumen defi- based upon the long-wavelength couldnt be included in govern-
nition should (http://bit.ly/2gyozEC). Its biased photopic luminous effi- ment regulations, only that they
good for the lighting industry to have these ciency function, V(), should be need not be introduced to offset
open, written discussions because too often replaced with luminous efficacy the spectral bias of V(). What
people delegate their understanding of tech- requirements based upon an unbi- JEAN PAUL we are saying, again, is that
nical information to experts or to standards ased universal luminous efficiency FREYSSINIER these potential barriers to mar-
organizations, whether or not their trust function that captures the full ket adoption of energy-efficient
can be justified. Truth and dogma are often spectral sensitivity range of the human visual lighting technologies should be, and logi-
metameric to people, including experts, as system. If this were done, the myth that there cally are, independent of luminous efficacy
Galileo observed many centuries ago. is a tradeoff between luminous efficacy and requirements if they are based upon an unbi-
In response to their article, our first ques- color rendering disappears, so there would be ased universal luminous efficiency function.
tion is rather narrow but really simple: Do no need to have a compensatory color render- Just because a light source has high univer-
Papamichael and colleagues ing patch to luminous efficacy sal luminous efficacy guarantees nothing
really believe CRI, or indeed any regulations. Moreover, utiliza- about its starting characteristics, whether it
color fidelity metric, is use- tion of the universal luminous flickers, or, indeed, its color rendering prop-
ful by itself for predicting color efficiency function would pre- erties. Isnt that rather obvious?
rendering benefits from sources vent regulatory biases against
of illumination? There are no other lighting benefits, like off- LINKS
studies showing that CRI, by axis detection, brightness per-
LEDs Magazine staff and contributors have
itself, can reliably predict which ception, and circadian regula- routinely addressed controversal issues
light source people will prefer, tion, all of which depend upon concerning the solid-state lighting industry,
or at least not dislike, to illu- MARK REA the retinaes short-wavelength such as the effects of regulations on LED and
minate colored objects. Mike sensitivity. Isnt pointing out the SSL product developers as well as specifiers,
Royer recently showed in a US Department inherent bias of current luminous efficacy and the impact of metrics on technology
of Energy (DOE) presentation, for exam- requirements against these lighting benefits advances. Get a well-rounded perspective on
ple, that there were no studies supporting also our professional obligation? such topics via the following articles.
the utility of color fidelity metrics for pre- And we never suggested that luminous Californias SSL regulations support
dicting user preference. So, isnt it, to use efficacy should be the only consideration efficient quality lamps for consumers
Papamichaels and colleagues term, our by regulators. In fact, we said the opposite: http://bit.ly/2dub325
professional obligation to point out the governments want to make sure that California missteps with Title 20 LED lamp
limitations of CRI currently used in lumi- increasingly restrictive luminous efficacy regulations http://bit.ly/1q5q6Dw
nous efficacy regulations? requirements do not have collateral negative SSL industry progresses toward new color
quality metrics http://bit.ly/1LlOWn9
MARK S. REA , PhD, is the director of the Lighting Research Center (LRC) and professor
The focus on efficacy is hurting the lighting
of architecture and cognitive sciences at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. JEAN PAUL industry http://bit.ly/2nfLnIS
FREYSSINIER , MS, is a senior research scientist at the LRC (lrc.rpi.edu).

LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 23

1704LEDS_23 23 3/14/17 7:54 AM


1704LEDS_24 24 3/14/17 7:54 AM
interview | MARKETS & IOT

Tridonic CEO discusses US entry


and smart lighting transition
MAURY WRIGHT discusses the entry by Tridonic into the North American market and the transition to
smart lighting and the Internet of Things with CEO GUIDO VAN TARTWIJK .

I
n early January, Tridonic announced that hunky dory, but everybody has been talking ally brings you extra benefits from lighting,
it would enter the North American mar- about the whole IoT wave thats coming. that is starting from scratch and then to step
ket, with that entry coming about three Everybody sees the press announcements. from not-smart or dumb lighting to smart
months after Guido van Tartwijk took the They see the Nest thermostat. They see all lighting is a very easy one to make.
helm as CEO (http://bit.ly/2kSgWvo). Tridonic the stuff happening. But lets also be very And I think the number of technologies
is an Austria-based manufacturer of LED clear. In Europe things
drivers, light engines, and other enabling are not moving at the
technologies for lighting, and part of The same speed. We also
Zumtobel Group of companies. The com- understand why. And the
pany has been what van Tartwijk described US is the market where
as a very European-focused manufacturer of this is happening at fan-
high-end electronics for lighting. Arriving at tastic speed. So in order
Tridonic, van Tartwijk counseled manage- for Tridonic to retain a
ment that US entry was critically important strong position as a lead-
as a complement to the companys business ing electronics player for
in Europe, Asia, and Australia. Of course, the lighting, we need to be at
move comes at a time when Tridonic is also the forefront of this mar-
embarking on a smart-lighting-centric future. ket development and the
At Light+Building last year, Tridonic intro- best way to do this is to
duced its net4more Internet of Things (IoT) join to be in the mar-
platform and products will come to market ket and to build success.
this year. Moreover, the company had previ- It works both ways. Weve Tridonic CEO Guido van Tartwijk.
ously established an IoT-centric engineering been approached already
organization in Rancho Santa Margarita, CA by a few American companies that have being explored by big companies in the US,
(in Orange County south of Los Angeles), and interest to enter the European market in and startup companies everybody has a
more recently opened a North American head- the IoT domain. And they are asking for our flavor; there are different protocols, different
quarters in Highland, NY near New York City. help because theyre also seeing that Europe control systems. There is no winning standard
LEDs Magazine: Welcome to the North is very different. or winning technology yet. We believe that
American market. Tell us a little about the I think the best way to describe the differ- with net4more we have a very significant and
motivation to come to a new market. ence is that the European market, in the pro- meaningful offering to the main US market. If
Guido van Tartwijk: When I met with fessional domain, has been for years already were successful, which we are very confident
the previous management, I said, Listen, used to very sophisticated controlled light- about, this is also going to help our European
guysLook, you need to be in the US because ing. Its all DALI [digital addressable lighting market activities because there we already
there is a fantastic leverage to be gained by interface] based and thats almost, I want to have a very strong base in DALI. So I think its
being both active in Europe and in the US say, a commodity, but its a bread and butter our attempt to achieve the best of both worlds.
and in Asia. So that global game is really offering of the majority of all lighting installa- Long story! I hope you can follow it.
going to be essential to be a winner. Tridonic tions in Europe. Where in the US, DALI never LEDs: We assume you were aware of Tri-
has a strong history in bringing electronics made it. So in the US, the lighting has been for donic as a company and of its technology direc-
for lighting manufacturers in a professional a very long time still fluorescent based. Dim- tion. But in terms of chronology and how you
domain in Europe, especially in the indoor ming is a big need in the US market and the approached the decision to join the company,
arena. We have strong customer relations. jump from fluorescent to LED is now done. what was most important and how did factors
The group market share and everything is But still, having controlled lighting that actu- like the US entry and IoT come into play?
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 25

1704LEDS_25 25 3/14/17 7:55 AM


interview | MARKETS & IOT

van Tartwijk: Yeah, I think that the it would be just another driver supplier and
lighting industry, especially the LED lighting I think that is not a very attractive way. So
industry, is not a big group of people so you we have been waiting for the right trigger
tend to meet each other at the various light to enter the market. You could indeed have
USA based designed, manufactured fairs in the US and at Light+Building. You do argued a little bit sooner would have been
and supported drivers for every meet customers, suppliers, and sometimes better. But it also needs to be based on how
application, with custom & turn-key
even competitors. So I have known Tridonic ready Tridonic is with our offer. So we have
solutions.
as a brand for quite a while and always with worked on the net4more technology now for
quite some respect, because they have done one and a half years and it was announced
a fantastic job in the European market. And to selective customers at the Frankfurt
then you talk about the general trends in the Light+Building last year, and I think thats
industry and its also quite available in mag- when all the realization started all this and
LED Drivers azines like the ones you publish. There has we need to at least do the same thing and
From 12W to 400W, ERG Lighting been a debate [about] whether you need to be better in the US. I think that LightFair is the
oers a wide range of LED drivers truly global to be successful in LED lighting. right moment to do this, and I think the last
with icker-free dimming and And that I think that stems from the old world LightFair was a bit too early.
user-adjustable output voltages. All of conventional compact florescent bulbs LEDs: I have what is almost a logistics
drivers are UL-Listed/Recognized for where you need to have volume on a global question about you entering the market.
US and Canada and come with a
5-year warranty. level to be competitive. Thats a cost question. The press release said you will offer US-spe-
I think what we are now seeing in LED cific versions of products such as drivers. But
LED Modules & Retrot Kits lighting is that you dont need to be global there are clearly global- or universally-com-
in a volume perspective, because you can be patible power-supply products in the con-
competitive at volumes from a sub-region, sumer market, so universal drivers would
if you are really good from a single country. seem plausible. Will you sell the same prod-
But exploring different technologies that are ucts globally, or will you sell products that
popping up around the world, every market are unique to geographic markets?
has its own needs. I think its a generic truth van Tartwijk: I think the answer is both.
Ideal for all high-performance linear
applications such as troer, cove, that the best way to find out is to do it and If you think about Power over Ethernet [PoE],
undercabintet, retail, refrigeration, the proof of the pudding is in the eating and for instance, there will be something like a
and display lighting. Easy to install not in the PowerPoint analysis mode. I think power box which you can compare to a lap-
and available with wireless remote thats where everybody agrees. You need to top power control, so its universal. When
control dimmer and emergency be smart in choosing what options you want volumes start to become interesting, there
backup kits.
to explore in the various markets. Being is always a very logical moment where you
globally active in this respect means just decide to make it US specific. Mind you that
that it will be really strange to sit in Europe the US driver needs detailed specifications
and wait for the US market to make up its that are, in a number of aspects, quite differ-
mind on the winning technologies in con- ent from the European specs. It goes down to
nected lighting, and then say, Okay, now we something as mundane as the wiring.
know what to do and lets do it in Europe. So there is a clear need for US-specific,
No one will think thats a smart approach. UL-approved products and thats what Tri-
Booth #332
LEDs: If I just think about Tridonic as a donic is of course going to make available.
driver company, why now in terms of the There will be a stepped approach. So we start
move to North America? You could have with universal and go to indoor and outdoor.
moved into the US two years ago. You could The scale of diversity is huge. Today, I had a
have moved before controls had to be a part discussion with product management that
of your product portfolio. Is it controls that was indeed about wiring and cables. There
made now the critical junction? is not that universality yet in lighting prod-
van Tartwijk: I think that is a good ucts as, lets say, that Nokia chargers have. I
question. I cannot give too much comment think thats just the history of the industry.
on what happened in the past. Choosing the LEDs: You said earlier that the net4more
right moment to enter a new territory is not development effort was well over a year in
an easy one. I do think that it does not make the making already. How important was Tri-
Endicott, NY - USA
607-754-9187 / sales@erglighting.com a lot of sense, being Tridonic, to enter the donic having undertaken that effort to your
www.erglighting.com US market to say, Yes, we are an LED driver decision to join the company? Were you
company. For a majority of the customers, looking for an opportunity where you had a
26 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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interview | MARKETS & IOT

commitment to a controls strategy? easily have sourced a third-party wireless


van Tartwijk: Well, I think for me the module for integration into your drivers.
menu of opportunities that Tridonic is offer- You could have used a more-established soft-


ing, its by nature very interesting. And one ware base such as ZigBee rather than rely-
of them is indeed having an embryonic con- ing on an IP [Internet Protocol] base. We still

trol IoT plan already in the making. That


was very attractive. Is it as perfect as I would
dont know if IP platforms will overtake Zig-
Bee. Tridonic has really put itself out there
like it to be? No. So I am now here to give it a bit in saying, This is what we think is the
some shape and some drive. way forward. How do you view the decisions
I like the fact that Tridonic has some very given that its not what the bulk of the light-
clear strengths recognized by our exist- ing industry is doing today?
ing customer base. I always use the [term] van Tartwijk: I think its gutsy, looking
we are world champion in dimming, world back at my predecessors, to basically start
champion in color rendering and in tun- communicating about net4more having
able white. Its really high-end lighting-spe- a fully IP-based Thread network lighting
cific stuff that has created a lot of customer opportunity as a vision of the future. When I
intimacy and very high [satisfaction] scores started here a few months ago, I said, Okay,
with our customers. And using that as a base thats great. Now its time to show. Now you
to get to the next stage of lighting is a fantas- need to live up to all your stories, so I want
tic starting point. to see us actually demonstrating this stuff

It doesnt guarantee anything about the in actual projects. And if you dont do that,
future, as LEDs have shown in the past. You no matter now fantastic your technology is,

know how lighting works and how we can you will be caught up by technology that you
get very high-reliability drivers and light may find inferior but they are there.
engines. Getting to what I think is this tech- I think ZigBee is one but there are many
nical competency level is also very quickly others like Bluetooth. We know all the com-
recognized by the new kids or the new panies that are working at it and everybodys
companies on the block. So we have been racing towards getting a first viable prod-
engaged with a few players in the court at uct offer to market as a success. So its gutsy.
the IoT level. Companies that are working The beauty of net4more, however, is that I
already with lighting are trying to do smart am getting more and more convinced that
lighting in offices and schools in the US and we are getting to the right speed. We have a
elsewhere. When their architects in the end team in Orange County that is important but
talk to Tridonic architects, they say, You it is also a small part of our full team. Having
really get it. them there is extremely helpful and it also
So our team has a certain competence in teaches our team around the globe what it
that area that we need to put to market. I means to be in the startup mode. I think
think the other attractive part of Tridonic is thats all about speed. We are on the right
that its relatively standalone as a business track to have the right things available for
within The Zumtobel Group. So we have the market, and the beauty of it is that when
great independence in the group. We have I talk to the guys that do Bluetooth, they all
our own brand. So for myself personally its agree that in the end things will gravitate
a great way to run a business without hav- towards a fully IP-based network.
ing, Yeah, its a big company, and interfer- So my challenge is to not help gravitate
ences from every possible angle. That makes towards Bluetooth but to let Bluetooth move
it also very attractive. So its small but not how can it be moved into our system? We
[too] small, has strong assets in the techni- need to be agnostic on the type of protocols
cal arena, has a strong customer base, and being used and that I think is within grasp.
a great technology in the making for the If you dont choose a direction, we dont
future. So I would be stupid not to take that have infinite funds to explore many differ-
opportunity. I have no regrets, although Im ent technology options at the same time. This
still in my first 100 days. being said, listen, we said, If you want to dif-
LEDs: When I was first exposed to the ferentiate, we go for the real thing and it wont
net4more technology platform, I was sur- be easy. And it isnt easy, but we are getting
prised by the ground-up approach. You could there and we are on track to have a fantastic
28 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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interview | MARKETS & IOT

there are hun- especially with companies like Cisco push-


dreds of compa- ing lighting-centric initiatives. How does
nies that offer PoE fit in your overall net4more platform as
c loud s er - a companion alongside wireless networks?
v ices around van Tartwijk: I think PoE will be one of
the world. So Im the first executions of net4more. Net4more
not going to build my will also be offered in wireless. PoE to me
own cloud, and I think is a beautiful concept. I think designers in
the same thing goes for secu- stores, architects love it. But there are not
rity. So we will team up with that many new buildings being built around
the right security provider giving the world, especially in Europe and the US.
us proper security. This is not just a So most of the buildings are being refur-
Tridonic issue; its our customers issue. bished. If theres already wires in the build-
Everybodys asking for it as is to be expected ing, then the business case that will follow
after the recent months of black hat activity for PoE is not always that fantastic. So it
The Engine QLE Premium system is around the world. Im a little bit allergic to depends on the application and can be super
one of the integrated smart tunable put proprietary things on something like a clean with lean tracklights with no shoebox
components Tridonic has developed for network because the whole concept of net- electronics that retract; thats fantastic.
use in SSL luminaires. 4more is a lot of open architecture. The secu- Although Ethernet has a certain virility in
rity needs to be handled by an outsourced the market, but in my view it wont conquer
show at LightFair. We are going to create some partner. We have a few candidates there and the insider market because of the enormous
LightFair meetings with a few potential cus- it may be different per region. potential of refurbishment in both Europe
tomers in the US to make it work. Its not the LEDs: You mentioned PoE earlier and and US. I think also in China the number of
usual thing in business. Its a calculated risk. thats been a popular topic for us of late, new buildings is not exploding as it was in
LEDs: LightFair will offer you the ability
to do demonstrations, but thats still quite a

LED Horticultural Light Testing


bit different from doing actual projects and
networking a building. When will you expect
to show the world a pilot installation?
van Tartwijk: It will be shortly before
LightFair, [that] is the target. We have a few
projects lined up. There are actual buildings. Get a complete picture of the effectiveness and efficiency of your lamp
They need to be up and ready, targeted to
do that just before LightFair, which is May
8th and 9th. We are on the day-to-day proj-
ect planning here. Youre right; demonstrat-
ing is nice but the real installation is what
matters, and it needs to be live and custom-
ers need to be able to see that the big data is
coming full steam, etc.
LEDs: What about the fact that all wire-
less and even wired networks face security
issues these days? Thats not a phenome-
non just for net4more, but for everyone. We
know the software community is working
to embed security in network stacks. What
is Tridonic doing in the area of security? At
Strategies in Light Europe, an Osram exec-
utive said one bad thing about standards in llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
this area is that the bad guys know what you l
are doing. That exec said you almost have to
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll
add a proprietary layer to secure a network.
van Tartwijk: Im a big fan of not try-
ing to do things that other people can do CSllGlllllSlllllllll(425)l605-8500lllllllllllllll@llllllll.llllll
better same like building a cloud. I mean,
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 29

1704LEDS_29 29 3/14/17 7:55 AM


interview | MARKETS & IOT

the past. Our net4more offer, to summarize, will be agnostic of the van Tartwijk: For Tridonic, I think there is no escape from the fact
driving mechanism can be PoE, can be something else. Our PoE that price erosion is around us. But if you think you can escape price
itself is something we will offer that will be, I think, in tracklights. erosion by moving into connectivity, then its wrong thinking. You need
Its for shops, very interesting designer stuff like that with those big to be competitive at cost levels that allow you to compete even in the
nasty driver boxes sitting above their heads. space that is under serious price erosion, because its not stopping at
LEDs: There a lot of different aspects of PoE that are very ele- the driver and the modules. It is going up again towards the higher
gant, including DC power distribution and improved conversion effi- value anyway... Yeah, no matter how you say it, you need to move on.
ciency. We have written favorably about other DC-grid technologies You need to keep innovating. The next innovation wave is in the con-
such as the EMerge Alliance platform (http://bit.ly/1lgXrSV). Do you nected lighting domain. But it doesnt mean that you are excused from
think, outside of connectivity, just about the fact that we can be more working hard on your competitiveness. Only then you will survive. You
energy efficient with a single power conversion? need to innovate both in value and your features, and all of a sudden
van Tartwijk: There are various options when it comes to you go to market in your crawl space. There is no excuse not to inno-
low-voltage grid. The one I think is a logical one and quite fitting vate anywhere in the company. Thats my mantra. So innovation is not
also in our portfolio is the 48V grid. But its also true that if the indus- something that I will restrict to the R&D department.
try doesnt gravitate towards some consensus there in the end, you LEDs: Back to Tridonics position in The Zumtobel Group, you said
still need the 48V power supply and that needs to be discerned. We you get to operate with a high level of autonomy. There has to be some-
have something on the DC string and its a low-voltage offer. From my thing when you are sitting with a luminaire maker, a potential cus-
perspective, I dont have a clear view of whether it should be 48V or tomer, outside of Zumtobel, where that manufacturer must wonder
36V or anything else. I know that people love 60V [or lower] because why they should buy a driver or light engine from you when you are also
that helps a lot in miniaturizing electronics. Its a beautiful concept. driving innovation up though Zumtobels lighting products, including
LEDs: We had an article recently from another SSL industry exec the coming net4more technology. How do you address that?
who said that people running businesses in the sector need to move van Tartwijk: Actually, its different per customer. In the end, its
rapidly to the IoT and smart lighting technology or basically face the way that you work with customers is always based on building
extinction (http://bit.ly/2hSlifP). Do you agree with that message? a relationship and getting into a trust. If you dont have the trust, it
will never work. Tridonic is a company that has an extensive list of
[customers] and yes, all of them compete with the luminaire com-
panies in The Zumtobel Group. So all my customers expect me to
maintain a very strict firewall between myself and the luminaire
companies in The Zumtobel Group. And if they smell that some-
thing is wrong, they will call me immediately. This is how it works.
That has worked exceptionally well and, in fact, it goes almost
the other way around where sometimes I get some critical remarks
from my colleagues from within The Zumtobel Group, whether Im
not giving their competitors too much of a discount on certain prod-
ucts. Im not kidding, and that happens in a good spirit, but it also
shows that the firewall is working and the only way to demonstrate
the firewall is working is to show it and is to do it. That was not dif-
ferent from, lets say, a company I used to work for in Philips. We had
exactly the same challenge and also there you can make it work.
In fact, with Tridonic we are really a standalone company in The
Zumtobel Group. We have our own brand, we have our own email
addresses, we have a different site. Its all quite perfect. The firewall
is real, its tangible, and I think that customers that visit us also see
that and thats how you build the trust. Trust is one thing you deliver
on. Customers have more than one option, so they will kick you out
as soon as they smell something is wrong. Its a beautiful self-reg-
ulating process.
LEDs: About the office in Highland, NY is that the headquar-
ters for sales and marketing in North America?
van Tartwijk: Correct, we have a number of sales and mar-
keting people around the country, and you will not be surprised
at some strategic places San Francisco, Atlanta, New York, and
Boston. We start with a small team and we are supported by the
R&D team in Los Angeles and the R&D teams in Europe. New York
is our go-to address.
30 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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ssl projects | ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

Soaring new symphony hall


orchestrates soft lighting with LEDs
Hamburgs glorious Elbphilharmonie has been over a decade in the making. Forward-thinking
architects prescribed solid-state lighting from the start, even before the technology was ready
for ambience. A thousand handblown glass balls from the Czech Republic made the difference,
MARK HALPER discovers.

T
hink back to 2006. The lighting rev-
olution was rising. LED lamps and
luminaires were about to make sig-

Source: Herzog & de Meuron/Elbphilharmonie und Laeiszhalle Service GmbH; Grafik: bloomimages.
nificant inroads. Early adopters could see
enormous potential for energy savings, and
would soon begin placing orders both for
commercial deployment and for retail sale.
In those dawning days, though, even die-
hard enthusiasts had to admit that LED light
quality warmth, for example couldnt
match that of venerable, flame-like incan-
descent technology.
That didnt matter to some users. But it
mattered a lot to the Swiss architects who
at the time were designing the soaring and
illusorily sailing Elbphilharmonie concert
venue along the Elbe River in the busy port
city of Hamburg, Germany. They insisted on
pioneering the use of modern, energy-saving
LED illumination in the performance hall,
but they needed a way to soften its light.
Their firm, Basel-based Herzog & de Meu-
ron, is renowned for Beijings birds nest
Olympic stadium, Londons Tate Modern and The Elbphilharmonie joins together an old warehouse and a soaring new glass
San Franciscos de Young museums. It had structure, as this cross-section shows. Architects Herzog & de Meuron chose LEDs
nothing less inspiring in mind for the Elbphil- for much of the internal lighting.
harmonie, a glorious but troubled project that
would take more than a decade to complete, angles, and forms. It would include 10,000 cal progress, prescribed SSL, prevailing over
having finally opened in January of this year acoustic gypsum fiber panels, each with other voices that wanted halogen. To take
after long delays and a budget that escalated a unique pattern. And it would feature an the edge off, the architects had a solution:
tenfold to around $840 million. inverted mushroom-shaped structure point- handblown glass balls. Or more precisely,
The Grand Hall inside the complex was ing like a ships horn down from the center of 1200 handblown glass balls that house the
to become a modern, classical music venue, the high ceiling to deflect sound back to the halls dimmable LEDs, adding a luminescent
seating 2100 people. It would be asymmetri- ears of musicians and the audience. ambience while at the same time evoking the
cal and in the round like the renowned Berlin Good lighting would enrich the elegance. look of water bubbles in homage to the Elbe
Philharmonie, but with its own shape, swirls, Harsh light would ruin it. Yet from the that flows outside (Elbphilharmonie trans-
designs inception in the days when LED lates as Elbe Philharmonic Hall).
MARK HALPER is a contributing editor with light was harsh Herzog & de Meuron, with The thick handblown glass was interesting
LEDs Magazine (markhalper@aol.com). an unflagging commitment to technologi- for us because it brings back a material quality
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 33

1704LEDS_33 33 3/14/17 7:55 AM


ssl projects | ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

Each of the handblown glass balls, like each of the gypsum


panels, is unique. Zumtobel had to engineer the luminaires to
eliminate reverberation and other unwanted acoustic effects.

which you typically lose when you work with LED light, said Herzog &
de Meuron senior partner Ascan Mergenthaler, recently reflecting on
the project for LEDs Magazine. Theyre great light sources, very energy
efficient and good to play with. But theyre banal somehow. Through
that handblown glass, you get almost like an old-school quality back
to it, something we all like about lighting.
The 1200 glass balls line the underside of the terraced balconies
in the hall, undulating in yet another evocation of the river that runs
outside to the North Sea and is the artery that makes Hamburg the
second largest port in Europe after Rotterdam.

Easier said than done


Its one thing to specify handmade glass LED luminaires. Its another
thing to implement them; its not something that most LED lighting
vendors happen to have in their catalog.
The task fell to Austrian lighting supplier Zumtobel.
Its a design feature the architects Herzog & de Meuron wanted
to have, recalled Julian Lonsdale, a Zumtobel designer. The way it
appears in the room, it looks fantastic, because it looks like little water
Source: All photos Iwan Baan.

drops. It was their design approach and idea. Its the way they wanted
it, and its the way we did it.
It wasnt easy. The first hurdle: Herzog & de Meuron specified a glass
shape that would be thicker on the top than on the bottom, which, as
Lonsdale noted, runs counter to typical glassmaking.
This was one of the issues we had to tackle, which was very diffi-
cult, said Lonsdale. We could hardly find any manufacturers who
could manufacture this ball industrially.
Zumtobels two-year search for a glassmaker eventually led the ufacturers worldwide. Tanz turned to the Cerveny glassmaking
company to Detlef Tanz, an individual glass specialist in Wegberg, company in the Czech Republic to produce the glass balls.
Germany, who had previously worked with Herzog & de Meuron, Finding Tanz was a big step forward. But other challenges fol-
and who Lonsdale described as an artist with a network of man- lowed. One handblown glass item is by nature different from the
next of its kind. Cervenys glass works were
no exception. As Lonsdale tells it, the differ-
ences were often enough so that each would
disperse light differently than the next.
Every glass has its own irregularities, he
said. We had to measure the different balls
to apply them in different areas of the build-

The Grand Halls lighting includes 1200


handblown glass balls that house LEDs on
the underside of the undulating terraces.
Other lighting includes tubes inside the
ceilings upside-down mushroom-shaped
acoustic deflector, which shine through
translucent mesh to light the ceiling. LEDs
on the mushrooms rim illuminate the
mesh fabric. LED stage lights shine on the
performance floor from the mushrooms
cap, and halogen stage lights point from
the ceilings catwalk areas.
34 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_34 34 3/14/17 7:55 AM


1704LEDS_35 35 3/14/17 7:55 AM
ssl projects | ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

ing. Its not like a standard luminaire where


the light distribution is always identical.
These have quite severe differences in them.

The more things change, the more


they dont stay the same
Further compounding the problem: The
Elbphilharmonie experienced protracted
and controversial delays, a lawsuit, and
calls for an investigation into cost overruns.
At one point construction even stopped
for a year out of structural concerns. In
the decade or so from commissioning to
Januarys grand opening, the quality and
properties of LED light sources changed
many times, often becoming more lumi-
nous and complicating the matter of how
each would emit light through whichever of
the 1200 glass balls it ended up in.
It all added up to a painstaking process The Plaza features plenty of natural light, a stunning view of the port and city, and
of deciding exactly where to place and how 870 plastic balls that house LEDs, spaced in rhomboid-shaped groups to provide
to space each luminaire within the hall and subtle modulations in brightness.
its several terraces of seating. Nicole Drong,
head of sales for Zumtobels Hamburg office,
noted that new LEDs could emerge every two
or three months. Each time, she said, The
lighting calculations had to begin anew.
Eventually, Zumtobel had to insist that
construction company Hochtief the lead
building contractor for the Elbphilharmonie
place its final order.
Over this long run, we never really had a
final fixed design suite of the product. It was
always in progress, said Lonsdale. Until at
some point we had to say we have to stop
developing this. With one of these projects,
which is so exposed and really so beautiful,
you have to take high risks and do all of the
things that maybe other companies cant do,
but we also needed to do very intense devel-
opment to keep up with the evolving tech-
nology. It was difficult. It cost a lot of time
and money. As if that were not enough to worry about, power supplies can also hum.
We often have this kind of issue with Drong recalled that her biggest problem That would of course be a big issue for the
long-running projects worldwide. If we have a with the glass ball project was the constant musicians in a concert hall, said Lonsdale.
specification from 2010 or 2012 and we have to uneasiness associated with having only one There were no real rules saying acoustic
deliver in 2017, theres been such a long change supplier. I was always thinking, What if luminaires should do this, that, and the other.
in between that we often have issues with these something happens to Mr. Tanz? So we just had to find out how to proceed.
questions. We guarantee a certain luminous The Elbphilharmonie being a concert To eliminate noise from the electronic com-
lux level, and all of a sudden, the modules we hall, there were acoustic challenges related ponents, Zumtobel collaborated with Switzer-
get from the market are a lot more powerful, to the lighting, too. Drong and Lonsdale lands Lucerne University of Applied Sciences
so they make more light. These are aspects we recalled how the metal housings in the fix- and Art. To stop the housing from reverberat-
have to deal with. It was an aspect of the Elb- tures that hold the balls to the ceiling can ing, Zumtobel applied a cushioning material
philharmonie, because it was one of the longest noisily resonate in response to certain musi- based on a specialized silicone that avoids the
running projects ever. cal frequencies. LED driver boards and harmful effects silicone can cause on diodes.
36 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_36 36 3/14/17 7:55 AM


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ssl projects | ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

A dim view
Then there was the issue of lighting
controls. In the early days, Herzog &
de Meuron wanted to be able to adjust
the LED lighting both by brightness
and color temperature.
While Zumtobel was able to pro-
vide one or the other, technological
limitations prevented it from provid-
ing both controls, forcing the archi-
tects to choose.
Along the way, as the ten years
went by, LEDs color temperature
fell (warmed, in the counterintui-
tive language of color and the Kel-
vin scale) to 2700K, on a nominal par
with incandescent. With the lighting
now at a satisfactory warmth, Her-
zog & de Meuron chose to go with
dimming only.
The LED glass balls are not the
From the outside, the Elbphilharmonie looks set to sail. Architects Herzog & de Meuron wanted
only light sources in the concert
just as striking an appearance on the inside, where LED lighting from Zumtobel is a key part of
hall. There are at least two others.
the picture.
The upside-down, fabric-wrapped
mushroom, which as its primary mission As a third light source, LED stage lights like glass sails formed by 1000 curved
buttresses the acoustics, also serves a light- point down to the performance floor from window panels that also house a hotel,
ing function. It houses LED tubes from the upside-down mushroom cap, and hal- apartments, and one of the two smaller
Germanys Flashaar LEDLight that shine ogen stage lights shine from the ceilings music halls. The sails reach about 350 ft
through the mushrooms translucent mate- catwalk areas, provided by Middleton, into the sky, making the Elbphilharmonie
rial up at the ceiling. That light in its own WI-based entertainment lighting company the tallest occupied building in Hamburg.
right washes out the appearance of the fab- ETC. And thats just the concert hall. They rise up from the hull an old cocoa,
ric, so another series of Flashaar LEDs along The Elbphilharmonie is a combination of tea, and tobacco red-brick warehouse, gut-
the wide bottom of the structure point up at old and new. The Grand Hall sits inside the ted and refurbished to house restaurants, a
the stem and restore the fabrics appearance. new portion, which from the outside looks performing studio, a parking garage, and a

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38 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_38 38 3/14/17 7:55 AM


ssl projects | ARCHITECTURAL LIGHTING

tubular escalator winding its way up from boid fields, rather than spread out evenly was no bargain-basement deal for anyone.
ground level. this allows for modulation of light on the When you talk about the issues and the
It all needs artificial lighting, including the plaza, said Mergenthaler. complexities we had, the development costs
so-called Plaza, the area atop the old ware- In yet another area the foyer and cloak- were of course very, very high, said Lons-
house that serves as a bright and airy public room the architects specified 750 lights in dale. But on the other hand, we have a beau-
concourse bestowing a tremendous view of a third style, which combines LEDs and tubes tiful project on our hands as a reputation.
the city and leading to the main concert hall. that Zumtobel describes as fluorescent and And the work with the architects they
the architects refer to as neon, all in one fit- really gave us so much input and fresh ideas
Extending the ball game ting. The curved tubes provide a stylish look and new perspectives. So this is something
For the Plazas artificial lighting, Herzog & and general illumination. The Philharmonie that doesnt necessarily pay off in one proj-
de Meuron also specified ball-shaped LED can use the LEDs to change colors that suit ect. It pays off over the years.
luminaires, carrying through with the water different moods and events, via RGB controls. The Grand Hall opened in January, with
bubble motif, further honoring the impor- Not all of the lighting at the Philharmo- German chancellor Angela Merkel on hand
tance of maritime commerce to Germanys nie is Zumtobels. The Grand Halls mush- and the newly renamed NDR Elbphilharmo-
second largest city after Berlin. But rather room and catwalk lighting from Flashaar nie Orchestra formerly the NDR Symphony
than stipulating handblown glass, the archi- and ETC, for instance. Likewise, Germanys Orchestra performing. The Chicago Sym-
tects settled for a polycarbonate material, S[quadrat] GmbH provided the giant LED phony Orchestra played during the inaugural
which is a type of thermoplastic. Zumtobel display screen at ground level, which serves week. The New York Philharmonic is on its
provided 870 of them. Herzog & de Meuron as an information board and also delivers way in April, as are many other top acts from
prescribed a layout that groups them into eye-catching visual shows. classical, jazz, folk, and other genres (Nash-
sets of rhomboids, creating intermittent So how much did all the lighting cost? Nei- villes Lambchop alternative country band
patterns of brightness across the concourse, ther Zumtobel nor the architects would say. was booked in February), filling the place
adding to its visual interest. But as plans and technologies changed, and with what should be magnificent sound. The
The luminaires are arranged in rhom- with 1200 handblown glass balls on hand, this LED light wont be bad, either.

THE ENTIRE SPECTRUM OF THE LIGHTING INDUSTRY AT YOUR FINGERTIPS


NEWS AND PRODUCT COVERAGE EXTENSIVE ONLINE RESOURCES EVENTS ACROSS THE GLOBE

THE LEADING RESOURCE BRIDGING THE SPECTRUM OF LIGHT


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LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 39

1704LEDS_39 39 3/14/17 7:55 AM


1704LEDS_40 40 3/14/17 7:55 AM
life science | HORTICULTURAL LIGHTING

Understand energy efficiency of LED


horticultural lighting systems
The true efficacy of LED fixtures for horticultural lighting depends on many factors, explains
JOSH GEROVAC, and lighting manufacturers and growers need to take a broad view to ensure optimal
yields and energy efficiency.

T
here are multiple considerations
that a business faces when evaluat-
ing light sources to use for horticul-
tural lighting, including but not limited to:
light intensity, spectrum, uniformity of light
distribution, energy efficiency, and fixture
lifespan. Horticultural lighting systems con-
vert electrical energy into light that plants
use to drive photosynthesis for growth and
development, and LED-based sources can
offer a spectrum tuned for the application.
Still, ascertaining the efficiency or efficacy
of such solid-state lighting (SSL) systems is
a challenge. There are several factors that
impact the overall efficiency of a lighting
system, relative to the specific application
at hand. This article will discuss how the
design of a lighting fixture influences energy
efficiency and how in turn this reality can
influence the overall profitability of a con- FIG. 1. The ability to deploy lighting solutions within inches of a crop canopy is a
trolled-environment plant growth facility. breakthrough for vertical farming applications. Properly designed LED solutions
Indeed, the efficacy with which a horticul- enable higher yields per square foot compared to poorly designed LED solutions and
tural light fixture converts electrical energy other lighting technologies such as HPS and fluorescent.
into usable light for plant growth is critical
to the success of any controlled environment primarily use wavelengths of light within the Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD)
plant growth facility often called CEA (con- visible range of 400700 nm to drive photo- measures the amount of PAR that arrives at
trolled environment agriculture). Fig. 1 shows synthesis (Fig. 2), which is why this range is the plant canopy. PPFD is a spot measure-
a vertical farm that is one example of CEA. also called photosynthetically active radia- ment of a specific location on your plant can-
Realize that the efficacy consideration is nec- tion (PAR). Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) opy, and it is measured in micromoles per
essarily far different for lighting tuned for measures the total amount of PAR that is pro- square meter per second (mol/m2/s).
plants compared to lighting tuned for humans. duced by a lighting system each second. This Last, we will discuss photon efficacy,
measurement is taken using a specialized which refers to how efficient a horticultural
Metrics for horticulture instrument called an integrating sphere that lighting system is at converting electrical
We will start by defining the proper metrics captures and measures essentially all photons energy into photons of PAR. If the PPF of the
used for horticultural lighting applications to emitted by a lighting system. The unit used to light is known along with the input wattage,
add context for the rest of the article. Plants express PPF is micromoles per second (mol/s). you can easily calculate photon efficacy for a
horticultural lighting system. Given the unit
JOSH GEROVAC is a horticulture scientist at Fluence Bioengineering (https://fluence.science/) for PPF is mol/s, and the unit to measure
and has spent the last decade working in controlled environment agriculture, ranging from watts is joules per second (J/s), the seconds
growth chambers to commercial greenhouses. He has a Bachelor of Science in Horticulture in the numerator and denominator cancel
Production and Marketing, and a Master of Science in Horticulture, both from Purdue University. out, and the resulting unit becomes mol/J,
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 41

1704LEDS_41 41 3/14/17 7:55 AM


life science | HORTICULTURAL LIGHTING

which is the unit of measure used to repre- as double-ended HPS fixtures (http://bit. they will produce heat in the same general
sent efficacy. The higher this number is, the ly/2kRoP4H). The long lifespan (L70 50,000 range from a magnitude perspective.
more efficient a lighting system is at convert- hours) compared to that of an HPS bulb The major difference between LED and
ing electrical energy into photons of PAR. intrigued several growers to switch to LEDs. HPS systems is how much PAR energy is pro-

Common approaches to One drawback to using HPS fixtures for


horticultural lighting
Now that we have covered the proper met- horticultural lighting is the large amount of
rics to characterize horticultural systems,
we can dive into the nuances of fixture radiant heat that is produced.
design and what makes a horticultural light-
ing system energy efficient. The most com- However, the relatively high cost of LED- duced from those 600W (goes back to effi-
monly used horticultural lighting systems based horticultural lighting systems com- cacy), and how the heat is radiated from the
worldwide are based on high-intensity dis- pared to HPS fixtures limited the transition fixture. Most heat from HPS lamps is radi-
charge (HID) lighting and mainly high-pres- to SSL despite comparable efficacy. ated down towards the crop canopy, whereas
sure sodium (HPS) lamps. HPS fixtures were LED chip manufacturers have improved LEDs produce most of their heat at the con-
not designed specifically to grow plants. the efficacy of components available to hor- nection site of the component where it is
They were designed to light roadways and ticultural lighting manufacturers over the assembled to a printed circuit board (PCB).
parking garages. Ready availability and high last several years, which has enabled them And the heat is typically conducted to the
output levels, however, led to deployment in to significantly improve photon efficacies PCB and maybe a heat sink, and removed via
horticulture and subsequently their popu- that now surpass HPS fixtures, and they upward convection.
larity in the application can be attributed continue to improve every year. Indeed, So the proximity at which a fixture can be
to the fact that they deliver very high light LED-based horticultural lighting systems placed near plants without damaging tissue
intensities and most of the light emitted is are now capable of achieving photon effi- from radiant heat is one of the major ben-
in the 565700-nm range Relative photosynthetic efits of LEDs as a source for horticultural
effective wavebands that can efficiency (%) lighting systems. However, if this heat is
drive photosynthesis. PAR not removed effectively from the PCB with
One drawback to using 100 an appropriate thermal management sys-
HPS fixtures for horticultural 80 tem, the longevity of the LED components
lighting is the large amount will decrease significantly.
of radiant heat that is pro- 60 There are two ways to cool lighting sys-
duced. The surface tempera- 40 tems in commercial horticultural environ-
ture of HPS bulbs can reach ments that will impact the photon efficacy
temperatures above 800F, 20 of the fixture. Passively cooled fixtures uti-
which necessitates adequate 0 lize heat sinks to dissipate heat from the
distances between the plant 300 400 500 600 700 800 circuit board, while actively cooled fix-
Wavelength (nm)
canopy and the fixture to tures rely on fans or water to dissipate heat.
avoid damage to plant tis- FIG. 2. The graph depicts the average plant response to Fans that are used to cool fixtures consume
sues. The inverse square photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). energy and will decrease the overall photon
law comes into play as you efficacy of a fixture. Additionally, if a fan
increase the mounting height of a fixture, cacies 45% greater than double-ended HPS fails during the operation of the fixture, the
which can reduce the coefficient of utiliza- fixtures. While the improved efficacy of LEDs on the PCB are likely to overheat and
tion (CU), a term used by lighting profession- individual components has improved the burn out. Even if they dont fail catastroph-
als to describe how effective a luminaire is efficiency of LED-based horticultural light- ically, reduced power output will dramat-
at delivering light to a target plane. The ing, it is also just one variable responsible ically reduce the usable life of the LED fix-
energy efficacy of HPS fixtures has increased for the improvement over HPS technology. ture. This is a very important feature that
over the years and with the advent of dou- growers need to consider when comparing
ble-ended HPS fixtures that are now capable LED system thermals horticultural lighting systems.
of achieving photon efficacies of 1.7 mol/J. There is a common misconception surround-
ing LED lighting when it comes to heat pro- Spectrum and efficacy
Moving toward LEDs duced by the fixture. Many growers believe Another important feature that will influ-
Lets consider the chronology of the applica- that LEDs produce less heat than HPS fix- ence the photon efficacy of a horticultural
tion leading to LED use in horticultural light- tures, which is only true if the LED fixture is lighting system is the spectrum of light emit-
ing. In 2014 the most efficient LED-based hor- driven at a lower wattage. If you have a 600W ted. The most efficient wavelengths that are
ticultural lighting systems were as efficient LED fixture and a 600W double-ended HPS, used for horticultural lighting systems are
42 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_42 42 3/14/17 7:55 AM


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FIG. 3. Harsh and dirty environments such as those in greenhouses can quickly cause active cooling systems to fail, and in turn,
cause the entire lighting system to fail. In addition to improved energy efficiency, passive cooling systems do not require moving
components prone to breaking and clogging.

red (660 nm) and blue (450 nm). Traditional thesis. Prior to this research, it was a com- tural lighting is that researchers finally have
LED-based horticultural lighting technology mon misconception that since chlorophyll the tools available to stand on the shoulders
uses mainly red LEDs with smaller propor- absorbs light mainly in the red and blue por- of Drs. McCree and Inada and explore photo-
tions of blue to achieve the highest photon tions of the visible light spectrum (leading to biology even further, developing light recipes
efficacy possible. the green color of plant leaves), green light for optimal growing.
While red LEDs have the highest photon was not used by plants for photosynthesis.
efficacy, plants did not evolve in nature under The work conducted by Drs. McCree and Form factor and beam control
narrowband wavelengths. So red LEDs alone Inada was fundamental in understanding the The last topic we will cover has to do with
dont produce the most efficient spectra with influence of spectral light quality on photo- the form factor of a fixture, beam optics,
regard to optimizing plant growth and devel- synthesis; however, they developed their and light intensity. When you are thinking
opment. This is especially true in situations action spectra based on single leaf measure- about the overall efficiency of a horticul-
where lighting systems are used for sole-source ments of photosynthesis at low light inten- tural lighting system, PPFD and CU need to
lighting as in vertical farms, as compared to sities. Over the past 30 years, several stud- be considered. But while photon efficacy of
supplemental greenhouse lighting (Fig. 3). ies conducted on whole plant photosynthesis the fixture itself is very important for horti-
Several horticultural lighting manufac- with higher light intensities indicate that cultural lighting, if the light being produced
turers market their products special spec- spectral light quality has a much smaller in an actual application is not landing on a
trum based on the absorption peaks of effect on growth rate than light intensity. crop evenly and efficiently, the true energy
chlorophyll a and b; however, they fail to Spectral light quality does strongly influ- efficiency of that solution is greatly reduced.
mention that those chlorophyll pigments ence plant developmental responses, such as: HPS fixtures rely on reflectors to spread
are extracted from plant leaves and mea- seed germination, stem elongation, and flow- light evenly over a crop canopy since there is
sured in vitro. The action spectra of light ering; along with secondary metabolites and only a single light source (360 light bulb) per
quality on photosynthesis (Fig. 2) was cre- flavonoids, which influence the taste, look, fixture. Another advantage LEDs have over
ated from research that was conducted in and smell of plants. Therefore, LED manufac- HPS is the ability to have hundreds of light
the 1970s by Drs. McCree and Inada, which turers need to find a balance between using sources spread across a fixture with cus-
showed while there is a correlation between the most electrically-efficient LEDs and ones tom beam optics that can create very uni-
photosynthesis rates and the action spec- that elicit optimal plant growth and develop- form light patterns without the use of reflec-
tra of chlorophyll a and b, they are not the ment habits that growers desire. The excit- tors. Fig. 4 depicts a typical LED light engine.
only wavelengths responsible for photosyn- ing thing about LED technology for horticul- When designed appropriately, this flexi-
44 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_44 44 3/14/17 7:55 AM


bility in form allows solutions with very high
CUs where the majority of the light gener-
ated is landing on the plant canopy and not
wasted on aisles or walls in controlled-en-
vironment plant growth facilities. After all,
any light generated that doesnt reach a crop
canopy is wasted energy (and money). This is
critical for growers to consider when choos-
ing a horticultural lighting system.

Takeaways
Not all LED lighting systems are created
equally, so it is important for growers to
get lighting designs from manufacturers FIG. 4. The spectrum (i.e., color) of light emitted from a horticultural lighting solution
that show average PPFD at defined mount- has a significant impact on both energy efficiency and overall plant growth and
ing heights and the light distribution pat- development. While red and blue light is more energy efficient to produce, a broad
tern for their plant growth facility. The form spectrum achieved with a light engine such as the one pictured will target more
factor and light distribution of a horticul- photoreceptors for improved cultivation.
tural lighting system will influence the num-
ber of fixtures needed in a facility, which is systems is based on several factors, not just itability of a controlled-environment plant
another factor that will impact the overall one. Using the correct metrics and under- growth facility.
energy efficiency of a plant growth facility. standing the factors that inf luence the For more information on this topic, please
The take-home message is that the energy efficiency of a horticultural light- see How to compare grow lights at http://
energy efficiency of horticultural lighting ing system will influence the overall prof- bit.ly/2lkXDGD.

1704LEDS_45 45 3/14/17 7:55 AM


focus on Sapphire Awards
Sapphire Awards scores reflect
smart SSL developments
The post-Gala glow continues with the publication of the products and technologies that scored 3.25
Sapphires and above, CARRIE MEADOWS reports.
During Strategies in Light week in Anaheim, CA, on Mar. what might constitute a perfect solid-state lighting
1, 2017, the winners were revealed at the third (SSL) product in the intended application. To
annual Sapphire Awards Gala. LED and light- achieve a score of 3 Sapphires, an enabling
ing executives and professionals were on technology or lighting product was expected
hand to celebrate with PennWells LED & to be suitable for commercial deployment.
Lighting Network team, including repre- Higher scores were given to products that
sentatives from LEDs Magazine, Strategies were judged to perform efficiently and reli-
Unlimited, and Strategies in Light confer- ably, contribute to profitability, and dem-
ence management. The celebration contin- onstrate ease of use. The quality and inno-
ued well into the evening with accolades on all vation demonstrated in the submissions
sides for market-leading innovations throughout the made such an undertaking truly challenging, but
supply chain, from enabling components to smart light- as industry professionals, designers, and lighting indus-
ing technologies. Indeed, the coverage continues with try leaders, our industry experts are well qualified and
video (http://bit.ly/2mBKgq6) and images on our website were equal to the task. Additional scoring information
(http://bit.ly/2lE1x2h) and social media channels, as well and judges comments will be made available privately to
as in the pages of LEDs Magazine where we now publicize all entrants. For more details about the winning entries,
the results for those product and technology entries that see our feature article at http://bit.ly/2mm5dER. Stay up
receive scores of 3.25 Sapphires and above. to date with information about the Sapphire Awards, the
Scoring ranged from 05 Sapphires. Each entry was upcoming call for entries, and more at ledsmagazine.com/
considered upon its own merits while taking into account sapphireawards.

American Bright Optoelectronics Linear Technology


3.25

Tri-White 5050 PLCC SMD LED Packaged LEDs and LT3922 step-up DC/DC converter ICs and
OLEDs Electronic Components for SSL
Elemental LED Osram Opto Semiconductors
Fluid View LED tape light (24V) Modular LED Light Hyper Red Oslon SSL Packaged LEDs and OLEDs
Engines
SoraaLaser
Elemental LED LaserLight SMD Packaged LEDs and OLEDs
Lo-Pro junction box series SSL Enabling
Technologies Superior Essex
PowerWise Category 5e+ 1 Gigabit 4-pair PoE cable
Eye Lighting SSL Enabling Technologies
LEDioc post top retrofit kit with integrated wireless
control Outdoor Street and Area SSL Luminaire Venntis Technologies
Design TotalGrow TG1A lights Horticultural Lighting
Green Creative
6-in. new construction downlights Indoor Ambient,
Track, and Accent SSL Luminaire Design
Green Creative
Innofit commercial downlight series Indoor Ambient,
Track, and Accent SSL Luminaire Design

46 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_46 46 3/14/17 7:55 AM


Amerlux, LLC Lighting Science
3.50 Cynch LED accent luminaire Indoor Ambient, Track, Durabulb (A19) lamp Commercial-
and Accent SSL Luminaire Design Quality SSL Lamp Design
Architectural Lighting Works Lighting Science
Double Slot Optics SSL Enabling Technologies LBar Linear LED tube
Linear T8 SSL Lamp Design
Architectural Lighting Works
Hylytr grazing luminaire Indoor Ambient, Track, and LSI
Accent SSL Luminaire Design AirLink luminaires Indoor Troffer,
Linear, and Recessed SSL Luminaire Design
Bridgelux
Vero Series SE array Packaged LEDs and OLEDs LumenOptix Inc
Stratos high-bay rack lighter Industrial SSL
Buck Luminaire Design
Mistral 4 outdoor luminaire Outdoor Street and Area
SSL Luminaire Design Lutron Electronics
Hi-lume Premier 0.1% constant voltage driver LED
Elemental LED Drivers
Diode LED Spotmod Tile fixture Indoor Ambient,
Track, and Accent SSL Luminaire Design Molex
Transcend connected lighting system Smart and
Elemental LED Connected SSL Technologies
Fluid View 12V LED tape light amber Outdoor
Landscape and Accent SSL Luminaire Design Ophir Photonics
FluxGage Tools and Tests in SSL Design
Elemental LED
TouchDial Color Control System Smart and Orion Energy Systems
Connected SSL Technologies ISON Class LED high bay Industrial SSL Luminaire
Design
Energy Focus, Inc
500D network-ready TLED Linear T8 SSL Lamp Osram Americas
Design Optotronic 347V linear indoor programmable LED
driver LED Drivers
EnOcean Inc.
LED Relay Zone Controller ICs and Electronic Osram Americas
Components for SSL Optotronic linear programmable Dexal driver LED
Drivers
ERG Lighting
Driverless LED light modules Modular LED Light Osram Opto Semiconductors
Engines Duris S 5 Color LEDs Packaged LEDs and OLEDs
Heliospectra P.L. Light Systems
Heliospectra LX601C light fixture Horticultural HortiLED MULTI fixture Horticultural Lighting
Lighting
P.L. Light Systems
Hubbell Lighting HortiLED TOP fixture Horticultural Lighting
Columbia Lighting LZPT Indoor Troffer, Linear, and
Recessed SSL Luminaire Design United Power Research Technology
UPRtek MF250N Flicker Meter Tools and Tests in SSL
Hubbell Lighting Design
Dual-Lite EV4R LED emergency light Industrial SSL
Luminaire Design Venntis Technologies
Precision scattering optic SSL Enabling Technologies
Hubbell Lighting
Triple H LED high bay/low bay Industrial SSL
Luminaire Design
Igor
Igor Intelligent PoE lighting solution Rev. 5 Smart
and Connected SSL Technologies
LED Engin
LuxiTune tunable white and warm dim module
Modular LED Light Engines

APRIL 2017 47

1704LEDS_47 47 3/14/17 7:55 AM


Cree
3.75 Cree HXB Series LED high-bay luminaire Industrial
SSL Luminaire Design
Eaton
Distributed Low-Voltage Power (DLVP) System Smart
and Connected SSL Technologies
Eaton LED Engin
Metalux WSL Linear WaveStream LED luminaire Indoor LZP multi-wavelength horticulture LED Packaged
Troffer, Linear, and Recessed SSL Luminaire Design LEDs and OLEDs

Echelon Lumileds
Power Line Lighting Controller Smart and Connected Luxeon CoB with FreshFocus technology Packaged
SSL Technologies LEDs and OLEDs

Elemental LED No. Eight Lighting


Hydrolume 24V LED striplight Outdoor Landscape 400 Series LED Spotlight Indoor Ambient, Track, and
and Accent SSL Luminaire Design Accent SSL Luminaire Design

Energy Focus, Inc Phoenix Contact USA


Redcap battery-integrated emergency TLED Linear T8 Wind Tower Lighting System Specialty SSL Design
SSL Lamp Design Plessey Semiconductors Ltd
Enlighted PLWS3000 Series Orion beam-forming module
Enlighted Smart Sensors Smart and Connected SSL Modular LED Light Engines
Technologies P.L. Light Systems
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48 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_48 48 3/14/17 7:55 AM


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LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 49

1704LEDS_49 49 3/14/17 7:55 AM


1704LEDS_50 50 3/14/17 7:55 AM
networks | SECURITY

Network security can be achieved in


commercial smart lighting systems
While some are questioning the feasibility of securing the Internet of Things, RAFAL HAN and SIMON
RZADKOSZ write that focusing on the right tactics and protocols can deliver secure smart lighting.

S
ecurity is clearly among the hottest therefore considered safe. While taking con- particularly hard. Flawless security measures
topics regarding the Internet of Things trol of such a system is theoretically possible, and guarantees cannot be achieved by copy-
(IoT) today. Multiple media reports the effort required to do so is simply bigger ing the solutions and methods known from
on security flaws found in all kinds of smart than the reward. If a criminal were able to traditional IT systems, since smart things usu-
devices keep heating things up (http://bit.ly/ enter a building and drill through its walls, ally offer very small storage space and very low
2j6gepi) to the point where some even her- then lighting controls would probably be the processing power. Plus, there is the security
ald that the proliferation of connected things last thing hed be interested in anyway. versus ease-of-use challenge that developers
will trigger the coming of a massive wave of But smart lighting is a different story. Con- struggle with. If a given security scheme is too
cybercriminal activity that could potentially nected LEDs with flawed security can poten- time consuming or too difficult to apply, cus-
affect any of us. There is no reason to panic, tially be taken over remotely by someone tomers will stay away from products using it.
though. Doomsday scenarios always sell well, whos not even inside a given building. Fur- In many applications, security is often mis-
as opposed to gradual, painstaking work car- thermore, such an intruder might get access takenly associated almost exclusively with
ried out by security experts day by day. What to much more than lighting controls. The encryption. A system is considered secure
we must be aware of is that when it comes to abundance of data that can be generated by if no one can find out whats going on inside
connected technologies, we are all still early sensory networks is one of the biggest ben- of it, e.g., what commands are exchanged
on the learning curve. This mirrors the chal- efits of commercial smart lighting systems between individual devices. While encryption
lenges faced by the technology industry in the (http://bit.ly/2lfvxjd), but this data might is an important part of the security architec-
early days of networking. Security was a mess also be attractive for cybercriminals. In cer- ture, it is not what security is all about. The
back then, but effective mechanisms were tain scenarios, configuration data obtained exchange of data between a wireless switch
eventually developed, allowing us to use the from smart LEDs might even allow them to and a lighting fixture basically wouldnt have
Internet and all types of electronic devices on gain access to companies internal IT net- to be encrypted in any way. If someone eaves-
a regular basis to process payments and man- works. This would require multiple errors drops on the signal sent between the two, the
age confidential information. As long as we to be made in the process of smart lighting obtained information is going to be pretty
end users follow common sense, todays network design and implementation, but it is much useless. You dont need sophisticated
information technology (IT) can be considered certainly possible in specific circumstances. decryption techniques to guess what a switch
safe. The IoT will be safe, too, and smart light- Finally, many risks will become more relevant could say to an LED, and just by looking at a
ing will be no different. as IoT solutions mature. With modern build- given space or an office building window you
That said, security threats of course need ings embracing technology at a rapid pace, can determine what types of commands are
to be taken very seriously particularly now, smart lighting systems can be expected to being exchanged at a given time. Sensor data
at the beginning of the technology adoption become more and more integrated with might be a bit more sensitive, though. While
curve. The IoT undeniably offers new levels of building management systems and other some sensors transfer publicly available data,
exposure to security threats, and smart light- key infrastructure, such as HVAC systems. others might generate more or less commer-
ing is a perfect example. In the era of tradi- Ultimately, this means that connected LEDs cially sensitive information. In such cases,
tional wired lighting control systems, security will be an even more tempting target for appropriate encryption mechanisms obvi-
wasnt even an issue. It simply wasnt needed, cybercriminals. ously need to be applied.
which is why wired protocols such as For these reasons, security is a must in a So if encryption isnt the crucial part,
BACnet, DALI, or KNX had virtually no wireless environment. This is one of the most then what is more important? Authentica-
security mechanisms implemented. Instead, profound differences between wired and wire- tion. This is what prevents unauthorized
cables were hidden deep in the walls and were less lighting control systems. And part of the access to the lighting control infrastructure.
reason why we hear about security issues so A smart fixture needs to be sure that a com-
RAFAL HAN is CEO and SIMON RZADKOSZ often is that the resource-scarce nature of mand it receives originates from an autho-
is a writer at Silvair (silvair.com). connected devices makes designing security rized entity, be it a smartphone or a wireless
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 51

1704LEDS_51 51 3/14/17 7:58 AM


networks | SECURITY

switch on the wall. In addition, the integrity low-power technologies will become avail- ing any data it contains. Do all the vendors of
of the exchanged data must be ensured so able by that time, allowing us to use stron- smart LEDs use such preventive measures?
that no one can alter the message before it ger encryption methods, such as AES-256, Few of them, unfortunately.
reaches its recipient. Authentication is also an which is a bit too power-hungry for todays Last but not least, if you really care about
absolutely crucial part of the onboarding pro- generation of smart devices. security then you should go for open stan-
cess, preventing potential intruders or Trojan This shows that encryption isnt an issue dards and forget about proprietary solutions.
horses from sneaking into the system when a in smart lighting security today. Com- Not only is a proprietary technology unlikely
new device joins the network. monly used technologies are good enough to to be as secure as the one developed by multi-
Before data exchange can be authenticated ensure that encrypted data cannot be deci- ple leading companies that share their exper-
and ultimately processed, devices must first phered. As already pointed out, authentica- tise during the process, but the transpar-
exchange authentication keys. What is cru- tion is much more sensitive and thus much ency of open standards guarantees that any
cial is the secure delivery of these keys. If this more important. It is also the only effective potential vulnerabilities can be identified and
process is sabotaged, an unauthorized party weapon against the so-called replay attack, addressed before someone decides to exploit
can obtain some very sensitive security infor- also referred to as playback attack, which can them. In the case of proprietary technologies,
mation. This was the case with the infamous easily get around even the strongest encryp- its basically impossible to state whether one
security flaws in ZigBee devices that were tion solutions we could ever come up with. or another solution is secure. At most, it can be
presented during the Black Hat USA 2015 con- Long story short, a replay attack is about stated that it hasnt been broken so far but
ference. Despite the fact that the protocol uses recording certain data packets and playing only open standards receive the scrutiny and
a 128-bit AES algorithm for data encryption, them back later on to achieve a desired result. attention that is necessary for true security.
as well as three types of keys for managing The intercepted message does not have to be This is part of the reason why we at Silvair
authentication, it was demonstrated that Zig- decrypted at any point. Its re-transmitted in decided to join the Bluetooth SIGs Mesh Work-
Bee communication could be easily hijacked exactly the same form in which it was origi- ing Group almost two years ago, and share our
due to a vulnerable device pairing proce- nally sent, to produce exactly the same result. expertise and secrets to drive the development
dure that allows external parties to sniff the Since encryption is helpless against such an of Bluetooth Mesh. At that time, we were more
exchanged network key. attack, how can it be prevented? By appropri- than satisfied with the performance of scalable
As far as encryption is concerned, the ate authentication mechanisms, again. Once networks using our proprietary mesh protocol
abovementioned data encryption standard they are applied, the network from which based on Bluetooth Low Energy, and we were
AES-128 is currently used by all the lead- the intercepted data packets originate wont successfully developing advanced application
ing low-power wireless communication pro- allow such re-transmitted messages to be models for integrating lighting solutions with
tocols. Its been around for a while, so one executed. Authentication is also the only our pioneering mesh networking architecture.
might wonder whether it remains computa- effective tool against man-in-the-middle But we were also very aware of the fact that by
tionally secure against brute-force attacks. (MITM) attacks, which occur when commu- ourselves we wouldnt be able to address the
After all, technologies aimed at breaching nication between two devices is secretly mon- two major challenges: security and interoper-
popular security mechanisms keep devel- itored, captured, and potentially altered by an ability. Both of them can only be solved by fully
oping rapidly just like security technolo- unauthorized third party. open standards.
gies themselves. But there is a good reason What authentication cant prevent is the Now, as were approaching the adoption of
why governments and businesses place such so-called trashcan attack. Building adminis- the Bluetooth Mesh specification (expected
a great deal of faith in AES-128. The standard trators need to get used to the fact that each to be published in mid-2017), were even more
remains, realistically speaking, unbreak- smart device within a network stores cer- certain this was the best thing we could do
able. Thats because today there is no com- tain sensitive access data, such as network (http://bit.ly/1XrFgiG). No details can be
putationally feasible method to crack it. keys. Therefore, it would be wise to have cer- revealed just yet about the content of the
Doing so would require ridiculous amounts tain carefully thought-out procedures imple- specification, but we can already say that
of time even if multiple supercomputers were mented for discarding broken or worn-out the security architecture of Bluetooth Mesh
involved in the process (and were talking devices. Unauthorized persons should be does look impressive. Weve even heard opin-
about thousands and millions of years here). prevented from being able to retrieve secu- ions that introducing such efficient secu-
Even if cracking AES-128 becomes technolog- rity keys manually from devices such as a dis- rity mechanisms is not possible in the case
ically feasible in any foreseeable future, such carded bulb, because such attempts might of low-power technologies. But Bluetooth
an attempt still wouldnt make much sense, be highly successful if non-volatile memory Mesh does have them all in place. This new
since it would be more expensive than the is poorly protected in such devices. What low-power communication protocol, the first
value of whatever the key is protecting. Cur- can manufacturers do to prevent that? Use one designed with commercial lighting appli-
rently, the US National Institute of Standards only integrated memory instead of separate cations in mind, will be setting new stan-
and Technology (NIST) claims that AES-128 memory chips and disable debugging inter- dards for smart lighting also in this regard.
will be a totally secure encryption method at faces, while at the same time ensuring that For now, youll have to take Silvairs word for
the very least up to 2030. What can be said attempts aimed at retrieving security keys it, but soon the entire market will find out
for sure is that cheaper and more efficient will result in damaging the chip and destroy- whats inside.
52 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_52 52 3/14/17 7:58 AM


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1704LEDS_54 54 3/14/17 7:58 AM


light sources | FLICKER & AC DRIVE

Understand a new flicker metric and its


application to AC-LED light engines
PETER ERWIN and PETER SHACKLE describe a new metric for characterizing the flicker of light sources and
illustrate how some popular sources, including AC-LED light engines, perform based on that metric.

H
uman vision is adversely affected by for characterizing time variant light quality. to be aware that a great deal of statistical
light fluctuations at frequencies up Indeed, we will chronicle the history and variation is involved. For example, younger
to 200 Hz, even though people can mathematical basis of the new CFD measure subjects are generally likely to perceive low-
only directly perceive fluctuations at fre- for flicker. Examples of the use of this tool er-level and higher-frequency TLAs than older
quencies up to about 70 Hz. The fundamen- in application to AC-LED light engines, flu- observers can see. Ten different observers
tals of the sensitivity of the human eye to orescent lamps, and incandescent lamps will will, in detail, produce ten different sensitiv-
rapidly changing light (transient light arti- then be detailed. Using this new tool, it can ities for a given frequency data point. For this
facts or TLAs) as a function of frequency have be seen that some driverless AC-LED light reason, a commonplace procedure is to derive
been well known to science for a decade or engines that use higher frequencies to con- a signal level that 50% of observers can dis-
more. Despite this, the lighting industry has trol the light output have light quality for the cern. To add to the complication, the central
so far limited itself to only characterizing human eye which is comparable
Modulation for perception (%)
light sources over the range of frequencies to an incandescent light bulb.
100
which the human eye can perceive directly.
This range is below 100 Hz. However, it is well Flicker research history
documented that human visual performance In recent years, there have
10
is degraded by the presence of light fluctua- been several attempts to cre-
tions at frequencies in the range from 100 to ate a judgment standard for the
200 Hz. Here we will describe a new flicker acceptability of light containing
1
metric/tool that includes consideration of TLAs. Examples of light contain-
higher frequencies and further discuss an ing TLAs are LED lights with
AC-LED light engine relative to performance pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) 0.1
against the new metric. dimming, AC-LED light engines 10 100 1000
Specifically, we will discuss a software with 120-Hz modulation, and Frequency (Hz)
tool called CFD (compact flicker degree). especially LED filament lamps. FIG. 1. Pierre Beeckman of Philips documented
Mathematician Peter Erwin (co-author of The basic physiological data for flicker sensitivity relative to frequency at Strategies
this article) first presented CFD at the LED the sensitivity of the human eye in Light 2016.
Professional Symposium (LPS) 2016 confer- to light variations at a given fre-
ence in Bregenz, Austria in September. The quency has been well known for many years. field of view of the human eye (the macula)
CFD tool can characterize any light source For example, see the seminal work of Kelly is less sensitive to TLAs than the outer parts
for its flicker acceptability, based on well- in 19601 that was funded by the Technicolor of the retina, which contribute to so-called
known and published characterizations of company. Similar studies were reported as peripheral vision. For this reason, studies
the human eye/brain interaction as a func- part of a doctoral thesis by Farhang Ghasemi sometimes show two response curves, one for
tion of frequencies extended out to 2000 Hz. Afshar in 20082. In 2016, Pierre Beeckman of central vision and one for peripheral vision. In
This tool has met with widespread accep- Philips provided the sensitivity versus fre- this article, we shall by default mean central
tance in Europe because of its consistency quency curves shown in Fig. 1, which he has vision when we refer to perception.
with everyday common-sense observations, presented at various meetings including It is also important to realize that the
and in particular has been adopted by the Strategies in Light 2016. response of the human eye to higher fre-
German laboratory TV Sd as its criteria In reviewing this data, the reader needs quencies can be augmented by stroboscopic
effects. A rapidly moving object for exam-
PETER ERWIN is the founder of Der Lichtpeter (https://www.derlichtpeter.de/) and works as a ple, a pencil, a wand, or a spinning disk with
lecturer at Baden-Wrttemberg Cooperative State University. PETER W. SHACKLE is an inventor radial markings on it will show a series of
with 60 issued US patents to his name and through Photalume (http://photalume.com) works as a images in the presence of flicker at a frequency
consultant on LED circuits. that is too high for the human eye to observe
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 55

1704LEDS_55 55 3/14/17 7:57 AM


light sources | FLICKER & AC DRIVE

directly. For example, Fig. 2 shows a moving


pencil being illuminated in front of a night-
time window by a relatively high-flicker-con-
tent (flicker index 0.34 at 120 Hz) light source.
Graphs of the human eye response com-
monly have a separate, higher-frequency sec-
tion where the human eye cannot perceive the
flicker directly at all, and yet it can be per-
ceived with a mechanical aid such as the
moving pencil of Fig. 2. A closely related effect
takes place when the human eye scans across
a light source with high flicker content.
Instead of perceiving a single light, the eye
may perceive several lights, a so-called phan-
tom array. This may sometimes be observed
with automotive LED taillights, which may
be dimmed at 100 Hz. These effects were
described by Roberts and Wilkins3. Experi-
ments have shown reproducibly that human
beings cannot directly perceive sinusoi-
dal flicker over 100 Hz. However, there have
been experiments that have detected the sig-
nal going down the optic nerve to the brain,
which have shown that the human brain does
in fact receive signals at frequencies up to
200 Hz4. Experiments by Jaen et al. in which FIG. 2. Its easy to visualize the stroboscopic effect from a moving pencil in front of a
subjects were required to perform standard light source with a flicker index of 0.34.
tests under varying light frequencies have
shown decreased performance at frequencies 1789. The characteristics of the incandescent the publication Recommended metric
between 100 Hz and 200 Hz, even though the bulbs are shown as a line because lamps of for assessing the direct perception of light
subjects could not perceive any flicker5. different power levels have different flicker source flicker from the Lighting Research
levels. Big lamps have the lowest percentage Center (LRC)7. This publication describes a
Introducing flicker measurements flicker. All the 50-Hz incandescent light bulbs good procedure for reliably acquiring a light
There have long existed simple measures of and some of the 60-Hz light bulbs show up in waveform, resolving it into Fourier compo-
flicker such as the flicker index and percentage the dangerous category, which is contrary to a nents, weighting these components accord-
flicker, both defined by the IES in RP-16-106. century of experience in the lighting industry. ing to human perception, and producing a
These measures are not frequency sensitive, Another criticism of IEEE 1789 is the normalized flicker content known as the
and are therefore of limited use for charac- discontinuity that appears at
terizing complex waveforms. For example, a 90 Hz since this is a reflec- Modulation (%)
PWM-dimmed LED light operating at 2000 Hz tion of a biological response,
100
would have 100% flicker even though the light the existence of a discontinu-
is excellent for all human purposes. An earlier ity would seem to be inconsis-
landmark in flicker evaluation was the stan- tent. A limitation of the IEEE 230V, 50-Hz
dard IEEE 1789-2015. This standard attempted 1789 approach is that it is basi- 10 incandescent
120V, 60-Hz
to define universally safe levels of flicker. This cally limited to sinusoidal vari- incandescent
is a difficult thing to do, and the resulting rec- ations. So in principle the sensi-
ommendations (which were only for sinusoi- tivity charts of the kind shown
1
dal flicker waveforms) have been a source of in IEEE 1789 could not be used IEEE 1789 safe area
controversy in the lighting industry (http:// to handle general, non-sinusoi-
bit.ly/1hNX4TT). Fig. 3 shows the low-risk and dal waveforms.
high-risk flicker levels per IEEE 1789 with the 0.1
10 100 1000
flicker levels of 60 Hz and 50 Hz incandescent Moving beyond sinusoid
Frequency (Hz)
light bulbs shown for comparison. The extension of these kind of
Any light source that appears below the charts to generalized wave- FIG. 3. The IEEE-1789 standard attempts to define a
line is deemed to be safe according to IEEE forms was well described in safe area relative to flicker.
56 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_56 56 3/14/17 7:57 AM


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1704LEDS_57 57 3/14/17 7:57 AM


light sources | FLICKER & AC DRIVE

LRC flicker metric.


The LRC work has the property that Subjects performing standard visual tasks
a metric above unity is likely to be per-
ceived, while a metric of less than unity do not perform as well when the task is
is unlikely to be perceived. The weakness
of this metric is that it is well known that illuminated by high-frequency flicker.
there are human flicker sensitivities in the
frequency range from 100 to 200 Hz, even fast Fourier Transform (FFT) frequency be higher than 100% with artificially cre-
though the human eye cannot directly analysis and the computation of the root ated waveforms. Fig. 4 shows the sensitivity
perceive this flicker. Subjects performing mean square sum of the weighted individ- of the CFD as a function of frequency com-
standard visual tasks, such as searching ual frequencies. The difference is that CFD pared with the IEEE 1789 work, Beeckmans
for something on a page, do not perform as takes into account all Fourier frequencies curves (smoothed), and the measurements
well when the task is illuminated by such up to 2000 Hz, instead of stopping around of Kelly.
high-frequency flicker. Human beings can 100 Hz. The curves are presented relative to some
be confused by stroboscopic effects and The mathematical construction will allow common light sources. In interpreting these
by phantom array effects. For this reason, any frequency range to be used if human curves, for a light source like the incandes-
Beeckman continued his sensitivity curves response data is available. After the pre- cent bulb and magnetic ballasted fluores-
out to 2000 Hz, as shown in Fig. 1. sentation at LPS 2016, CFD has been well cent tube shown, higher up is worse. For
received in Europe. Major European labo- light sources, the vertical axis is the percent
A new metric ratories including TV Sd are preparing flicker as defined by the IES. For the human
Now we will discuss the new metric, called to adopt it as a standard. The CFD is pre- sensitivity curves (Beeckman, Kelly), the
CFD, which is similar in nature to the LRC sented as a percentage, with higher percent- vertical axis is the modulation percentage
flicker metric. Essentially, the work of the ages corresponding to more troublesome needed for perception, if necessary with a
LRC laid the foundation for the CFD with flicker. Theoretically, the CFD number can mechanical aid at higher frequencies.

58 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_58 58 3/14/17 7:57 AM


Modulation (%), Magnetic CFD 12%:
Flicker (%) ballasted Acceptable
fluorescent
100
Kelly

230V, 50-Hz
10 incandescent
Beeckman
120V, 60-Hz incandescent

1 IEEE 1789 Low risk

0.1
10 100 1000
Frequency (Hz)

FIG. 4. The graph depicts percentage modulation needed for


perception based on several flicker metrics and illustrates the
performance of some common light sources.
Comparing curves
For the CFD curve, the vertical axis is the percent modulation that
will produce a CFD rating of 12% at each individual frequency. By
design, the CFD curve follows the data of Kelly at low frequencies and
that of Beeckman at higher frequencies. The most dramatic obser-
vation is that the CFD measure takes account of flicker at frequen-
cies above 100 Hz, consistent with the curves of Beeckman. These
frequencies are ignored by the LRC metric.
The CFD metric was programmed to follow the data of Kelly up to
around 70 Hz, because his work was so well documented. The data
of Beeckman is very similar in nature in this frequency range but
systematically higher, perhaps reflecting a difference in the exper-
imental methodology. At higher frequencies, there is only the data
from Beeckman and the CFD response curve is set close to the data
from Beeckman on up to 1000 Hz.
Since Kelly did not incorporate the consequences of stroboscopic
effects and phantom array effects, the Kelly curve rises swiftly to
100% above 70 Hz. For this reason, the CFD weighting curve follows
the data from Beeckman above 100 Hz, since Beeckman measured
a weighting curve for these frequencies. Beeckmans original data
showed a discontinuity between where directly perceived flicker
ends and where stroboscopic and phantom array effects begin.
Since we are charting a biological response in which every fre-
quency must have some consequence, the CFD weighting curve has
been set to interpolate smoothly from the Kelly curve to the high-
er-frequency branch of Beeckmans data. Fig. 5 shows an assort-
ment of commonplace lighting waveforms with their associated
CFD measurements.
The incandescent bulb shown has a CFD rating of 6.7% at 100 Hz,
for example; however, incandescent bulb ratings vary by a factor of
two from the largest to the smallest bulbs, with larger (say, 300W,
120V) bulbs having the least flicker and smaller (say, 50W, 230V)
having the most flicker.

Interpreting CFD measurements.


The results of CFD measurements are categorized as follows: Less than
1% is classified as flicker free and CFD values from 1% to 12.5% are
classified as imperceptible. In Fig. 4 it is the 12.5% line that is shown
LEDsmagazine.com

1704LEDS_59 59 3/14/17 7:57 AM


light sources | FLICKER & AC DRIVE

to represent the CFD metric. CFD readings which have been noted as Photalume light engine:
CFD = 13.7%, flicker index = 0.12
between 12.5% and 25% are classified as having f licker issues. There
acceptable. This means that in the course exist on the market numer- Flux
of most human activities, the modulation will ous AC-LED light engines that
6
rarely be perceptible. use arrays of high-voltage sol-
5
CFD readings from 25% to 50% are classi- id-state switches to automati-
4
fied as moderate. Moderate means modula- cally connect and disconnect
tion may be perceived by some people under LEDs in the light engine from 3
some circumstances, and people may pos- the power line. The resulting 2
sibly experience discomfort after prolonged light output goes to zero at 1
exposure for example, with increased the line-voltage zero crossing. 0
0.00E+00 4.00E-03 8.00E-03 1.20E-02 1.60E-02
eye strain at work. With CFD readings from This produces a modulation at Time (s)
50% to 75%, the classification is strongly twice the power-line frequency
FIG. 6. An AC-LED light engine developed by
affected. In this performance tier, 50% of that some people can detect.
Photalume performs well based on CFD and flicker
the population may either directly perceive For example, the light source
index metrics.
flicker or notice stroboscopic effects. There for the moving pencil in Fig. 2
is likely to be discomfort after prolonged was from such a light engine. The light sig- of ERG Lighting in Endicott, NY. These light
exposure and such light is judged barely nature from such a light engine is shown engines use Photalume technology. The light
suitable for work. in Fig. 5. signature from one of these is shown in Fig. 6.
CFD readings of above 75% are classi- This kind of commonplace light engine is
fied as extremely affected, meaning that characterized by a flicker index of 0.34 and a AC LED with low flicker
f licker and/or stroboscopic effects will CFD rating of 53%. For this reason, the light- By the older non-frequency-sensitive cri-
be noticed by more than 75% of the pop- ing specifier community has been reluctant teria of flicker index, the ERG light engine
ulation. Prolonged exposure will lead to to specify these light sources for major instal- already scores low, with a flicker index of
impaired physical condition (headache, lations, even though they are cost effective 0.12, compared to 0.34 for the older tradi-
feeling of general malaise) and there is risk and easy to assemble into luminaires. If the tional AC-LED light engines. Using the CFD
of epileptic seizure. Such light quality is light quality from driverless AC light engines tool, which takes frequencies up to 2000 Hz
dangerous in workshops with rotating or was comparable to that from an incandes- into account, it has a CFD rating of 13.7%,
reciprocating machinery, as mentioned in cent light bulb, then a large fraction of LED compared to 53% for a conventional AC-LED
EN12464-1. luminaires would probably already be using light engine or 6.9% for a 230V incandescent
AC-LED light engines. When light signatures light bulb. A magnetic ballasted fluorescent
AC-LED light engines and flicker from all the available driverless light engines lamp has a CFD rating of 20%.
Having described CFD, lets turn our atten- are compared, a notable exception is the light Thus, the light engine from ERG scores
tion to AC-LED light engines some of signatures from the AC light engine products dramatically better in flicker performance,
being 1.5 better than a magnetic ballasted
Fluorescent tube with Fluorescent tube with fluorescent tube and 3.8 better than a con-
electronic ballast magnetic ballast Computer monitor
CFD = 0.7% CFD = 20.2% CFD = 1.9%
ventional driverless AC-LED light engine.
These ERG light engines have been previ-
1000 Avg: 97.55% 1000 Avg. 76.95% 1000
ously described in LEDs Magazine (http://
800 800 800
Flux 600 600 600 Avg. 95.43%
bit.ly/2fsBcS5). The light engines are char-
400 400 400 acterized by storing up small amounts of
200 200 200 electrical energy and then using it to gener-
0 0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 20 40 60 80 ate light pulses at a rate of around six pulses
per power-line cycle, i.e., 270360 Hz for a
AC LED light engine using Driverless AC light engine 60-cycle power line. These frequencies are
Incandescent light bulb high-voltage switches from ERG Lighting
CFD = 6.9% CFD = 52.8% CFD = 13.6%
completely invisible to the human eye. New
products under development are reported
Avg. 88.03%
1000 1000 1000 to have flicker performance that is about
Avg. 74.01%
800 800 Avg. 58.25% 800
30% better.
Flux 600 600 600
400 400 400
200 200 200 Conclusions
0 0 0 Previous attempts to provide a metric for
0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (ms) Time (ms) Time (ms) characterizing the acceptability of light
with high frequency f luctuations have
FIG. 5. The graphs illustrate CFD measurements for some common light sources. been limited by only taking account of
60 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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light sources | FLICKER & AC DRIVE

directly visible light-fluctuation frequen- An executable file to perform the CFD 3. J.E. Roberts, A.J. Wilkins, Flicker can be
cies. Research documents that human analysis of light signatures on one Windows perceived during saccades at frequencies
visual performance is impaired in the pres- computer can be downloaded free of charge in excess of 1 kHz, Lighting Res. and
ence of higher-frequency, not directly visi- from the Der Lichtpeter website (https:// Technol., 45, 124132, 2012 (http://bit.
ble, fluctuations. The new CFD metric from www.derlichtpeter.de/), in return for iden- ly/2mfoHrX).
Der Lichtpeter extends the techniques pre- tification. This software can also detail 4. S.M. Berman, D.S. Greenhouse, I.L.
viously described by the LRC from a max- other standard indexes, such as the flicker Bailey, R.D. Clear, T.W. Raasch, Human
imum of 100-Hz bandwidth up to and index and the percentage flicker. The afore- Electroretinogram Responses to
beyond 2000-Hz bandwidth. mentioned Photalume technology uses US Video Displays, Fluorescent Lighting,
Any arbitrarily shaped light signatures patent 9,491,821 and US patent application and Other High Frequency sources,
can be analyzed by CFD. The results of 20160100464 (now allowed.) Licenses to use Optometry and Vision Sci., 68, 645662,
applying this new metric to AC-LED light this technology can be obtained from Pho- Aug. 1991 (http://bit.ly/2lnKLRT).
engines give a dramatic new insight with talume (http://photalume.com). 5. A simple visual task to assess flicker
respect to the performance of light engines effects on visual performance, Lighting
that use higher frequencies for modulation References Res. Technol., 43, 457471, 2011 (http://
of the light. Specifically, some of these light 1. D.H. Kelly, Visual Response to Time- bit.ly/2kROGUX).
engines were 2 superior to the old 120-Hz Dependent Stimuli. I. Amplitude 6. Nomenclature and Definitions for
light engines on the old, non-frequency-sen- Sensitivity Measurements, J. OSA, 51, 4, Illuminating Engineering, Illuminating
sitive metric of flicker index. Evaluated with 422429, 1961 (http://bit.ly/2kESWMA). Engineering Society publication RP-16-
the new CFD index, these higher-frequency 2. F. Ghasemi Afshar, Electronic Drive 10 (http://bit.ly/2kRwkUf).
light engines show up to be 4 superior when for Low Wattage Metal Halide Lamps 7. Recommended metric for assessing the
frequency of modulation is considered, per- Focused on Acoustic Resonance in HID direct perception of light source flicker,
forming with flicker properties in a range Lamps, Table 2.1, 39, 2009 (http://bit. Assist Recommends, 11, 3, Jan. 2015
comparable to incandescent light bulbs. ly/2kERuJX). (http://bit.ly/2mfAI0w).

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developer forum | SSL METROLOGY

Understand luminous
and radiant intensity, and
uniformity characterization
In this excerpt from a reference book entitled Handbook of LED and SSL Metrology,
GNTHER LESCHHORN and RICHARD YOUNG explain the fundamentals behind luminous and radiant
intensity measurements and how to characterize uniformity and glare.

I
n the October issue of LEDs Magazine, One method of determining luminous detector size. The LED is positioned in such
the article Understand how to measure intensity Iv involves calibrating the detec- a way that its mechanical axis is directly in
luminous flux and radiant power cov- tor in illuminance Ev and calculating lumi- line with the center point of a round detector
ered some of the basics of metrology for the nous intensity using the inverse square law: with an active area of 1 cm2, and the surface
solid-state lighting (SSL) industry (http:// of the detector is perpendicular to this axis.
Iv
bit.ly/2gaViPG). This article continues the Ev = The CIE gives two recommendations
r2
metrology theme, covering luminous and for the distance between the LED and the
radiant intensity measurements and pro- Apart from maintaining the far-field con- detector surface (see table). Condition B is
viding a discussion of uniformity and glare. dition, the validity of this calculation requires the most commonly used geometry since it
The prior article and this article have been the precise measurement of the distance r is also suitable for weak LED light sources.
excepted from a chapter of the newly-pub- between the detector and The front tip of the LED is always taken as
lished Handbook of LED and SSL Metrology LED. The many different the reference point for the distance.
reference book. designs available make
it difficult to determine
Luminous intensity and radiant intensity the precise position of the
Luminous intensity is the most frequently emission center (also known as the
measured parameter for low power LEDs. goniometric centroid) of the LED.
According to the definition, luminous inten-
sity must be measured at a distance where The averaged LED intensity concept
the sample can be considered as an approx- Many LEDs have a relatively large emitting
imated point light source. The distance of area compared to the short distance that is
the detector from the test specimen required generally used for a measurement. Lenses, if FIG. 1. Intensity probe that conforms to
for conformity with this criterion is known present, may dramatically shift the apparent the standard CIE condition B for 100-
as the photometric distance. It varies with position of the emitting center. A point source mm distance together with a precision
the size of the light source to be measured. cannot be assumed and therefore the inverse test socket for mounting the LED. The test
The minimum factor, given by the ratio of square law no longer holds. The irradiance socket is inserted into the tube of the
the distance to the detector and the max- measured at the detector is not easily related condition B adapter during measurement.
imum extent of the light emitting surface, to the intensity of the source. Therefore, mea-
varies between 5 and 15 depending on the surements done with different geometrical This guarantees that the same geometry
applied standard and the prevailing spatial setups will most likely lead to different results is always used when measuring luminous
radiation pattern. and are difficult to compare. intensity in different laboratories irrespec-
Because of this, the CIE developed the con- tive of the design of the LED.
GNTHER LESCHHORN is head of product cept of averaged LED intensity to solve the Fig. 1 shows the realization of this con-
management at Instrument Systems problem that occurs under near-field condi- cept in practice. The intensity probe com-
(instrumentsystems.com). RICHARD YOUNG tions. This concept no longer corresponds prises a tube with a length corresponding to
recently retired from his role of chief scientist to the physically precise definition of lumi- the desired CIE condition into which an LED
and is now working as a consultant for nous intensity but relates more to a measure- test socket can be inserted. The distance
Instrument Systems. ment of illuminance at a fixed distance and between the tip of the LED and the detec-
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 65

1704LEDS_65 65 3/14/17 7:58 AM


developer forum | SSL METROLOGY

Cosine-corrected results would vary if apertures of different


detector
LED, x sizes were used for the same cone angle.
For the measurement of partial LED flux,
50-mm diam.
an integrating sphere with for example
Precision Baffle
250 mm in diameter can feature an input
d aperture
port with a precision aperture of 50 mm in
x
Test LED diameter (see Fig. 2 right). By varying the
50 mm distance d, different cone angles can be
realized and measured.
Although the unit of partial LED luminous
flux is the lumen and hence the same as the
d total luminous flux, the quantities are differ-
ent and should not be confused. Total lumi-
Auxiliary lamp nous flux is a measure of all the light emit-
ted by the LED, whether 2 or 4. Partial LED
FIG. 2. Concept (left) and experimental realization (right) of partial LED flux. flux is the flux within a set measurement
geometry and hence may be all or a fraction of
tor is exactly 100 mm in the case shown in (forward flux) in which case, d = 0. Any flux the total flux emitted depending on the LED
Fig. 1. Two baffles in the beam path help to emitted in the directions other than in the radiation pattern. Care should therefore be
reduce stray light. A fiber bundle is located given cone angle is ignored. Fig. 2 left shows exercised in comparing partial LED fluxes to
behind the diffuser to guide the light into a the basic concept. ensure the same cone angle, x, is used and is
calibrated spectroradiometer. The reference point of the LED is the tip appropriate for the application.
of the enclosure of the LED, though it may
The partial LED flux concept not be the effective center of light emis- Spatial radiation characteristics of LEDs
Sometimes neither the luminous intensity sion, because it can be easily identified for The many different packages and types
nor the luminous flux represent the usable any type of LED while the effective center of of LEDs generate different spatial radia-
light for a particular application and some-
thing in between is required. The quantity of CIE recommendations for the concept of averaged LED intensity.
partial LED flux was introduced in CIE pub- CIE recommendation Distance between LED tip and detector Solid angle
lication 127-2007.
Condition A 316 mm 0.001 sr
Luminous intensity involves a flux and a
solid angle and is the ratio of the two; hence Condition B 100 mm 0.01 sr
its unit is the candela which is the lumens
per steradian. Partial LED luminous flux emission is difficult to determine and some- tion characteristics. Precise knowledge of
also involves a flux and an angle but is times unknown. It is chosen for simplicity the angle-dependent distribution of radia-
expressed as the flux within the angle as and reproducibility of measurement. The tion is necessary for some applications. For
opposed to a ratio; hence its unit is lumens diameter of the aperture (50 mm) is fixed in example, a full-color (red, green, blue) LED
(with the angle specified). order to achieve reproducibility in measure- display may appear white when observed
Like averaged LED luminous intensity, it ment. As this is a near-field measurement, at a normal angle if all three colors are
is a near-field measure and hence is similarly Calculated
defined in terms of physical geometry rather brightness (cd)
0
than being a fundamental unit. This is why 115.4
the term LED is included in the quantity. 92.78
This distinguishes it from the partial flux
70.17
that may be calculated from far-field gonio-
metric measurements. 47.57 90
Distance d is set for a desired half cone 24.96 180
angle x as given by 2.356
25
d = tan x [mm] where 0 x 180 -90
2
180
The symbol for this quantity is LED,x, with
90
the value of x being the cone angle (diame-
ter) in degrees. For example, LED,180 is the FIG. 3. Luminous intensity distribution in 3D representation (left) of a filament LED bulb
flux emitted in the front half hemisphere (right). The spatial radiation characteristics of the six filaments are clearly visible.
66 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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developer forum | SSL METROLOGY

Calculated luminous intensity (%) Spherical x


90 0.3346
180
100 80
70 0.3251
-150 150
60
80 0.3156
50
40 0.3061
60 30
-120 120
20 0.2966
40 10
180 0 0 0.2871
20
0.2776
0
-90 90 0.2681

0.2586

0.249

-60 60 0.2395
270
FIG. 5. Color coordinate x of an angle-dependent measurement
of a white LED in a spherical plot. A significant blue shift is
-30 30
seen in the center and edges of the beam.
0

FIG. 4. Different luminous intensity distribution curves eral, different display options for spatial radiation patterns like radial,
displayed in a radial plot. semi-radial, Cartesian, spherical and 3D are common and used for
data evaluation.
illuminated simultaneously. However, if the LEDs have a differ- The data generated in goniophotometry can be used in lighting
ent spatial distribution of radiation for the individual colors, a color simulation programs. Lighting fixture manufacturers and others
change occurs when the display is observed off axis. are using two different types of file format for specification of lumi-
naire photometry, especially luminous intensity distributions from
Luminous intensity distributions light sources. One is the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) stan-
Characterizing luminous intensity distributions of LEDs and SSL dard and the other is the EULUMDAT data file format. The file exten-
sources is a pure photometric measurement task that can be per- sions are .ldt and .ies. The IES standard is defined in the document
formed by a goniometer unit used together with a spectroradi- LM-63-02. The EULUMDAT format is the European equivalent to
ometer or photometer. A photometer allows very fast on-the-fly the IES file format.
measurements and is recommended for pure photometric mea-
surements and for time critical test sequences.
2850
Spectroradiometers offer the distinct advan- CCT (K)
2826 CCT
tage that all characteristics radiometric, 2800
2803 0 (K)
colorimetric and photometric can be deter-
2781 2750
mined with maximum precision. Nevertheless, 2758
goniospectroradiometers have longer measure- 2735 2700
90
ment times. 2712 2650
0
Luminous intensity is measured in the far- 2689
field (maintaining the photometric distance) for 2666 -90 2600
different azimuth and elevation angles. Using a 2643 180
2550
2620 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80
C, coordinate system leads to a complete spa- 90
2598 Theta ()
tial radiation pattern of luminous intensity
(luminous intensity distribution). As an exam- FIG. 6. CCT variations with angle for an LED module. 3D plot (right) and angular
ple, refer to the luminous intensity distribution profile (left).
in 3D representation of a filament LED bulb (Fig.
3). A single profile generated by scanning the angle is also known as Colorimetric spatial radiation patterns
a luminous intensity distribution curve of a single C-plane. An exam- Colorimetric spatial radiation characteristics can only be measured
ple of different luminous intensity distribution curves gives the radial using a goniospectroradiometer (or a gonio-colorimeter but this fil-
plot of Fig. 4. A source with near-lambertian distribution (blue curve), ter based method is not recommended for absolute measurement of
a narrow-angled source (red-curve) and a LED with distinct inten- color quantities). With a goniospectroradiometer, all relevant color
sity shape for special applications (green curve) are shown. In gen- information such as color coordinates, dominant wavelength, color
68 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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developer forum | SSL METROLOGY

temperature, color rendering index, etc. can be recorded simultane- and a spectroradiometer in autoranging mode. The fixed integration
ously in an angular resolved measurement. Analyzing a potential angu- time is set by adjusting the spectroradiometer near saturation at the
lar variation of colorimetric quantities is important for LED manufac- angle with highest signal level. The autoranging measurement will
turers as well as for module and luminaire manufacturers. For example, adjust the integration time of the spectroradiometer automatically
the color coordinates of a white LED often show a significant blue shift during the angular scan (each change in integration time must follow
because the light path through the yellow phosphor is angle depen- a dark current measurement). Obviously, this procedure is the slowest.
dent (see Fig. 5). To cover the aspect of anticipated resolution, the deviation of the
Significant variations of correlated color temperature with angle measurement result to the real value of luminous flux is evaluated
can be observed for LED modules. Fig. 6 shows CCT variations with for measurements using different angular increments.
angle for a LED module in 3D representation and the angular pro- The results are summarized in Fig. 7. The upper half and the lower
file in a Cartesian plot. half of the figure correspond to a single C-plane scan of samples hav-
ing a broad and a narrow angular distribution, respectively. The left
Typical measurement times side shows the measurement time in minutes versus the used angular
The measurement of angular resolved photometric or colorimet- increment. An on-the-fly measurement is obviously the fastest mea-
ric distributions is time consuming. The measurement time highly surement and with approximately 15 seconds per C-plane nearly inde-
depends on the details of the measurement. The type of detector pendent of the used resolution. Both measurements with the spectro-
used, the characteristics of the sample and the anticipated resolu- radiometer (fixed integration time and autoranging) show a similar
tion contribute to the time a user has to invest. Although it is impos- behavior. The measurement time rises steeply approaching a finer res-
sible to give a reliable answer to the question of measurement time olution. From these measurements recommendations for the antici-
for all cases, typical times can be estimated. The basic idea is to ana- pated resolution and also an estimation of measurement time can be
lyze the behavior of two typical sources. One with a broad, and one given. Since a narrow angular distribution leads to a rise in the devia-
with a narrow luminous intensity distribution. tion of luminous flux with increments >23, a scanning increment of
To cover the contribution of the detector, both sources are measured approximately 2 is the optimum choice. If the task is to measure such
using a photometer, a spectroradiometer with fixed integration time a source with a spectroradiometer, the recommendation would be to

Measurement time (min) Deviation of luminous flux (%)

25 1.0
20 0.5
15 0.0
10 -0.5
5 -1.0
0 -1.5
0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8
Increment () Increment ()
Measurement time (min) Deviation of luminous flux (%)

20 1.5

15 1.0
0.5
10
0.0
5 -0.5
0 -1.0
0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8
Increment () Increment ()

Spectrometer in autoranging mode


Spectrometer with 300-ms fixed integration time
Spectrometer with 150-ms fixed integration time
Photometer on-the-fly

FIG. 7. Results of an analysis to estimate typical measurement


times. The upper half corresponds to a source having a broad
angular distribution. The lower half corresponds to a narrow
distribution. The left side shows the result of measuring time
versus used angular increment of one C-plane. Deviations of
luminous flux with angular increment are shown on the right-
hand side.
70 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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developer forum | SSL METROLOGY

Discomfort glare is the sensation of annoyance or even pain


induced by excessively bright sources. Both types of glare are sub-
jective and vary from person to person. However, there is a general
increase in sensitivity to glare with age.
For indoor sources the most commonly employed measure of dis-
comfort glare is the CIE unified glare rating, UGR. It is defined as:

( )
UGR = 8 log10 0.25 . L2
Lb p2

Where Lb is the background luminance [cd/m2].


FIG. 8. Example panels illustrating problems in the definition of L is the luminance [cd/m2] of the luminous parts of each lumi-
uniformity for SSL general lighting. Both panels have the same naire in the direction of the observers eye.
uniformity. is the solid angle [sr] of the luminous parts or each luminaire
at the observers eye.
use a fixed integration time (the deviation is nearly the same for fixed p is the Guth position index (displacement from the line of sight)
integration time and for autoranging). From the lower left plot in Fig. for each luminaire.
7, one can estimate a measurement time of 2.5 minutes per C-plane
for this increment. A measurement of 16 C-planes in this configura- ACKNOWLEDGMENT
tion would therefore last approximately 40 minutes. The complete Handbook of LED and SSL Metrology is available under
the following ISBN numbers: ISBN 978-3-86460-643-4 (paperback,
Uniformity and glare EUR 40), ISBN 978-3-86460-644-1 (hardcover, EUR 78) or ISBN 978-
The definition of luminance uniformity (or non-uniformity) often 3-86460-917-6 (e-book, EUR 39.99). More information at www.instru
depends on application. For displays, uniformity with respect to mentsystems.com/handbook.
position on the display and angle to the display are required. In gen-
eral uniformity if defined as:
Lmin
U = 100% L
max

And non-uniformity as:

N=100% 1 ( Lmin
Lmax ) (
L L
=100% max min
Lmax )
For SSL general lighting, the uniformity of irradiance is important
but often the luminance uniformity is not considered. This is chang-
ing, with several groups working on definitions of uniformity that can
be generally applied. However, the above definition is inadequate as
the locations of Lmin and Lmax are irrelevant. This means that the pan-
els in Fig. 8 have the same uniformity because they have the same
Lmin and Lmax.
Clearly, the eye perceives these as different uniformity because it is
sensitive to the rate of change of luminance and not just their absolute
values. Several possible methods for describing uniformity based on
frequency or values over a specific pattern are currently under discus-
sion but none are standard as yet.

Glare
When bright sources such as the sun or its reflections in water are in
a persons field of view, they can affect their ability to see the other
details of a scene. Glare is generally divided into two types: disabil-
ity glare and discomfort glare.
Disability glare is the reduction in visibility caused by intense
light sources in the field of view but is not necessarily uncomfort-
able. In fact, some lighting designs deliberately create disability glare
to add sparkle to a scene.
LEDsmagazine.com APRIL 2017 71

1704LEDS_71 71 3/14/17 7:58 AM


last word

The industry needs better LED


measurements
Achieving advances in SSL technology will require the industry to no longer tolerate a
4% uncertainty in performance measurements, says JEFF HULETT of Vektrex.

T
hree hundred years ago, global nav- Like uncertainty in navigation, LED mea- output is continually declining.
igation was a dangerous undertak- surement uncertainty has profound nega- The first step to improved measurements
ing. Ships sailing east and west had tive consequences for our industry. The most is to use new test methods such as IESNAs
to determine their longitude by a tedious elementary is that labs, even labs within the LM-85, Laboratory Method for Electrical and
method known as dead reckoning. Errors same company, cant compare device perfor- Photometric Measurements of High-Power
were commonplace and calculations were mance. Without the ability to measure devices LEDs. LM-85 ties measurements to the LEDs
typically off by a few percent at the end of a precisely, it is impossible to know if two differ- semiconductor junction temperature, a key
long voyage often enough to make landing ent production lines are manufacturing inter- step to ensure measurements are reproduc-
in port or on a rocky reef equally likely. changeable parts a fundamental underpin- ible when performed by different laborato-
This problem was so costly that heads of ning of modern industry. Manufacturers close ries. LM-85s Continuous Pulse method also
state offered cash prizes for someone to solve this knowledge gap by widening performance reduces LED-temperature rise, increasing flux
it. The prizes motivated many theoretical solu- specifications to encompass measurement measurement accuracy, as discussed in the
tions, but the most promising required precise uncertainty, but this just pushes the problem March LEDs Magazine article Ensure your
timekeeping devices that were unavailable. By down to lighting designers. light measurement method doesnt undervalue
keeping time accurately, sailors could relate Variation in relative measurements is your LEDs (http://bit.ly/2mXGzvg).
shipboard astronomical sightings to shore- another costly issue. Even a small amount of To guarantee that measurements occur
based observations and calculate longitude. variability can make it impossible to distin- at the exact same point in time, better test-
In 1730, an English clockmaker named John guish a trend from noise. This problem forces ing equipment is required. Instruments in
Harrison took the first step to a practical lon- longer test times for critical LM-80 qualifica- use today are frequently adopted from other
gitude solution by devising a clock that would tion tests, and it forces labs to test many more industries or earlier technologies, such as
keep accurate time. He refined his invention samples, greatly increasing testing cost. incandescent lighting. These instruments
throughout his life and finally achieved a As was the case with Harrisons tempera- focus on steady-state accuracy, often at the
watch that was accurate enough to allow lon- ture-sensitive clock mechanisms, thermal expense of timing accuracy. Instruments
gitude to be calculated to within a fraction of issues are a root cause of LED measurement with good timing characteristics, such as
a percent close enough to navigate safely. challenges. LEDs are tremendously sensitive pulsed current sources and spectrometers
Many innovations were needed for Harrisons to changes in temperature. A typical white with hardware-based triggering, are needed
breakthrough, including improvements to the LED output drops an astonishing 0.25% for a so test developers can be sure exactly when
way clocks stored energy, the way they were 1C rise a temperature sensitivity slightly measurements are being made.
lubricated, and most importantly the way they greater than the widely-used 100 platinum The prosperity associated with rapidly
reacted to changes in temperature. RTD temperature sensor. improving LED technology has allowed the
Todays LED industry faces a challenge Labs can compensate for thermal sensi- industry to bear the costs and technical uncer-
not unlike the 18th century navigation prob- tivity by controlling the LEDs temperature tainty associated with 4% measurements.
lem routine LED and lamp measurements during the test using thermoelectric cool- This strategy will become burdensome as the
are good only to a few percent. In fact, last ers that regulate temperature precisely. This industry moves into its next phase, character-
year NIST published the results of its Mea- approach works well for tests under steady- ized by incremental technology improvements
surement Assurance Program in which 118 state conditions. However, tests using pulsed and product differentiation. To avoid this, we
lamps were tested by laboratories world- current result in dynamic heating that causes need to recognize that there is a problem, com-
wide. The tests showed that luminous flux the LED temperature to rise throughout the bat it using better test methods and instru-
measurements for these identical lamps dif- pulse. For these tests, the timing of the light ments, and promote improved measurements
fered by a surprising 4%. measurement is also critical, because the light throughout our organizations.

72 APRIL 2017 LEDsmagazine.com

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