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61

4.1


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[4].
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[19].
-
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. [31].

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[3,4].
62


(1.14)

, .

4.2

,
[ ]
n x n y n z Ax XYZ
T

:
a X uax u~a 0 x 0 0 0 ryX
a = M ~ ~
a Ca uay ua 0 y X Y + Z
~ ( X + Z ) Y Z X ryY
2 2
Y
a Z uaz u~a 0 z 0 0 0 ryZ
(4.1)
0 0 0 zX
r
0 0 0 r
zY
X Z Y Y Z + X ( X2 + Y2 ) rzZ

~ ~
M a , Ca , u~a 0 x , u~a 0 y , u~a 0 z (1.7),
(3.1),(3.2) (3.4) ;
rij Ax
Ai , i = y, z , j , j = X , Y , Z ,
;

[
] [ ]
= x y z , = x y z
Ax XYZ .

[ ]
= x y z
.

[ ]
= x y z
~ ~
M ,C ,u~ (1.4),
g g 0
:
X ux u~ 0 x
= M ~ ~ ~
Y C uy u 0 y . (4.2)
Z uz u~ 0 z

4.3


, ,
, ,
,
.
,
,
63

. ,
,
.
.

,
:
;

;
.

. ,
.


,
OXYZ
OENH ,
OENH .
T OENH c

( ) ENH = [ ] ,
T


(. 4.1). ,
,
.

.4.1.
ENH

[4,
49]:
tg VE
= N E + V E + ( cos + ) H ,
R R cos 2
64

1
= N + H V N E , (4.3)
R
1
= E H +
V E sin N ,
R
E , N , H
"" ;
E X
= C XYZ , C XYZ ;
N ENH Y ENH

H Z
, : ;
R , R ;
;
VE , V N , VH ;
= , = ( + ) cos , = ( + ) sin
E N H
.



OENH ,
[4, 49]:
VE = n N nH + a E a + g 0 g ,
V = n + n + a a g ,
N E H N N 0 g (4.4)
VH = n N + nE + a H a g + g ,
a E , a N , a H
;
a E a xb
a = C b a ;
N h yb
a H a zb
a , a N , a ""
;
( )a E = VH ( 2 + ) cos + VN ( 2 + ) sin + [Vh ( 2 + ) sin + VN ( 2 + ) cos ]
(VH cos VN sin );
( )a N = VE ( 2 + ) sin VH VE ( 2 + ) cos VH V E sin ;
( )a = V ( 2 + ) cos + V V ( 2 + ) sin + V cos + V ;
E N E E N

, ;
g ,
;
g , g , g
;
g 0 = g e ;
65

n E , n N , n H
( ) ( ) ( )
, nE = VE + VH 2 + cos VN 2 + sin , n N = VN + VE 2 + sin + VH ,
0 H E ( )
n = g + V V 2 + cos V .
H N




: , [4, 49]:
1 1 V sin
= V N , = V E + E 2 , h = V H , (4.5)
R R cos R cos

(4.3), (4.4) (4.5)


.

MATLAB (Simulink).
,

.

4.4


a
:
~ ~ ~
( )
i = i i = M i Ci (ui u~i 0 ) M i Ci ui ui 0 ui , i = a, . (4.6)

= 0 + M + C + + + , (4.7)
a = a0 + a M + aC + a + a . (4.8)

~ ~
i0 = M i Ci ui 0 ,

;
M ix 0 0 iX , M
,
iM = 0 M iy 0 iY ;

0 0 M iz iZ
0 0 0 a X ,
,
aC = Ayz 0 0 aY
Ax ,
Azy Azx 0 a Z
A yz , Azx , Azy (.4.2);
0 Gxz Gxy X ,

C = G yz 0 G yx Y
(.4.2);
Gzy Gzx 0 Z
66

[
A = Ax Ay ]
Az , Aj = M j Aj
2
, j = x, y, z

, M j
Aj ;
i , ;
~ ~
i = M i Ci ui ,
.
Z
GZ AZY AZ
GZX
GZY AZX

GY
Ax GYX
GYZ
G XZ
AYZ Y
AX , X G XY

GX AY
.4.2 Ax XYZ .
, ,
( , ),
(
, ).
67

4.5


-
[4,64,3,4]:
xk +1 = k / k +1 xk + k / k +1 wk ,
(4.9)
z k +1 = H k +1 xk +1 + vk +1 ,

x = [ VE VN VH h 0 a0 M A G a g ]
T
(4.10)
,
VE , VN , VH
, , h ;
0 = [0 x 0 y 0 z ], a0 = [a0 x a0 y a0 z ]
;
[
= + x +y y +z z ax ay az ]
M +i , M i
i M ai ;
G = [Gxy Gxz G yx G yz Gzx Gzy ] , A = [Ayz Azx Azy ]
Gij (i, j = x, y, z ) Aij ;
= [ y z ]
;
[ ]
= y z = x zx ; [ ]
yx , zx Y Z X;
x , y , z ;
k / k +1 Tz (4.9)
t k +1 , [4] F (t k ) ,
1 / dT ;
F (t k ) , F = [ f i , j ], (i, j = 1, n ) ;
n ;
k / k +1 k / k +1dT , wk
Qk ;
z k , H k (4.19), (4.20) ;
k Rk .
k / k +1 Tz
:
j / j +1 En n + F (t j ) dT +
1
2
[
F (t j ) dT ]2 + ...;
k / j +1 = j / j +1 k / j ; (4.11)
j = k k / j +1 = k / k +1 k / k +1 ; k / j =0 = Enn ;
E nn ( n n ) ; F (t k )
68

; j 1 / dT , dT = t j +1 t j ; k
1 / Tz , Tz = t k +1 t k .
( )
F (t j ) = [ f i , j ], i, j = 1, n
(4.1), (4.3), (4.5), (4.7), (4.8)
.
ia i , ,
i (i = x, y , z ) , ,
, [31] :
di a
i = i . (4.12)
dt
, (4.12),

f 4,34 = 11 d x / dt ; f 4,35 = 12 d y / dt ; f 4,36 = 13 d z / dt ;


f 5,34 = 21 d x / dt ; f 5,35 = 22 d y / dt ; f 5,36 = 23 d z / dt ; (4.13)
f 6,34 = 31 d x / dt ; f 6,35 = 32 d y / dt ; f 6,36 = 33 d z / dt ,
ij, i, j = 1,2,3 COENH OXYZ
.

da a ( j + 1) ai ( j )
1 / dT i = i , (i = x , y , z ) .
dt dT


i , (
) :
d
i = i i , i = x, y, z . (4.14)
dt
F (tk ) = [ f i , j ], (i = 1,2,3; j = 37,38,39 )
(4.13). , ,
.
,

(1.17)
.
, yx , zx
Y Z X,
, ,
.
yx , zx
(1.17),
:
1
z = max ymax yx , yx = y x ,
2
1
y = xmaxzmax zx , zx = z x , (4.15)
2
imax (i = x, y , z ) .
69

F (tk ) = [ f i , j ], (i = 1,2,3; j = 37,38)


1 1
f1,37 = max ymax 33 ; f1,38 = maxzmax 32 ;
2 2
1 1
f 2,37 = max ymax 13 ; f 2,38 = maxzmax 12 ; (4.16)
2 2
1 1
f 3,37 = max ymax 23 ; f 3,38 = maxzmax 22 .
2 2


1 / dT
:
( j + 1) i ( j ) n ( j + 1) ni ( j ) a
i + = i + i i , ni + = ni + i i , ( i = x, y, z )
dT dT

4.6


[4,3,4].
:
z (tk +1 ) = (tk +1 ) et (tk +1 ),
z (tk +1 ) = (tk +1 ) et (tk +1 ),
zh (tk +1 ) = h(tk +1 ) h et (tk +1 ), (4.19)
, , h (, )
; et , et , h et .
:
zV (tk +1 ) = Vi (tk +1 ) Vi et (tk +1 ), (i = E , N , H ) (4.20)
i

[ ]
T
VAx ENH = VE VN VH
,
[ ]
T
ENH ; VAetx ENH = VEet VNet VHet
.
[ ]
T
VAetx ENH = VEet VNet VHet
Ax :

et f
VAx ENH = C AAxxENH VAetx XYZ , VAetx XYZ = ( C AOENH OENH ) ax ,
XYZ Ax XYZ
x XYZ
(4.21)
dT

VAetx XYZ

CC; f Ax XYZ (1 / dT )

, ; OENH
;
ax = [r0 r0 r0 ]T O

; C AOENH
x XYZ
= C AAxxENH
XYZ
( )1

OENH .
70



(4.22).

4.7


,
.
[4, 20, 26]
.


~x i (t 0 ) i -
. ~x i (t c ) / ~x i (t 0 ) 0.10.2
.

[3,4].
:
360, 20
3- 90
, ,
, .

180 25 (
2 = 30, 1 = 35.264, = 45 ),


i (i = x, y, z ) , X yx ,
zx .
xa , ya , za

180 20
, ,
, ,
.
,
(4.6), (4.7),
,
(4.10).