5 - Piles

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5 - Piles

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Piled footings

References

Poulos and Davis; Tomlinson; AS2159 SAA Piling Code; BHP Steel Piling Booklet;

http://sbe.napier.ac.uk/projects/piledesign

3m diameter columns (80 000kN) are

supported by eight 1.5m diameter bored

piles up to 50 m long.

(Ground Engineering, 31, 6, 1988)

Scope

Pile types and uses

Axial load capacity

o Settlement of piles

Lateral capacity of piles

o deflection of piles under lateral load

Pile group effects

Load testing

o static

o dynamic

Piling code AS2159

Function

Transmit structural loads through soil strata of low bearing capacity (and/or

stiffness) to deeper soil or rock having high bearing capacity (and/or stiffness)

Resist uplift forces. eg due to wind or wave loading

Resist horizontal loads. eg wharfs, oil platforms

Structures on reactive soils

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Displacement piles - Driven:

o Driven

Large displacement - Timber, steel tube, concrete

Small displacement - Steel H section

o Screw pile

o Jacked pile

Replacement pile - Drilled shaft:

o Bored and cast in place

o Cased - temporary or permanent

o Uncased (with bentonite support)

o Non-rotar - eg. Percussive, clamshell grab

Driven & cast in place. eg Franki, Western pedestal, Wests shell pile.

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

At all stages of loading the total pile load = sum of shaft friction and end bearing

components

End bearing pile - Founded in hard strong layer. Large end bearing component, small

shaft friction.

Friction pile (floating pile) - No distinctly different layer at base of pile. (End

bearing component and significant shaft friction).

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Mobilisation of full base resistance (and hence ultimate capacity) at settlement = 10%

of base diameter (about 120 mm)

Typically if a structure can tolerate say 15mm settlement then full shaft resistance is

mobilised but only about 50% of the base resistance.

Static analysis

Dynamic analysis and testing

Test loading

Static analysis

Pult = Ps + Pb

Ps = ultimate shaft resistance (or skin friction) of pile

Pb = ultimate resistance of soil at pile base

Shaft resistance

Ps = A s .q s

is the average skin friction resistance / unit area at full slip

qb is the ultimate bearing capacity (pressure) of the soil at the base of the pile

immediate undrained capacity

rapid loading

short term capacity

For piles in clay the undrained capacity is usually less than the drained capacity

except for HIGHLY overconsolidated material. The undrained capacity is usually

used for design.

Base:

Nc = 9 for deep footings (L/d > 4) - use smaller value for short piles

Nq = 1, N = 0, p = L

Pb = Ab (Nc.cu + p)

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Shaft:

The skin friction usually varies with depth, z, due to increasing strength.

qs(z) = . cu(z)

depends on:

soil type

type of pile

cu of soil - decreases with increasing cu

time

nature of soil overlying the clay

In absence of better data use chart on handout, textbooks or AS2159

L

1

q s = . c u dz

L0

We have,

Pcapacity is the maximum net load that can be put on the top of the pile.

so,

drained analysis

slow loading

long term analysis

Base:

Nc,c' & .B..N terms are small compared to the other term (c' and B are small).

Usually neglect these. Hence,

qb = Nq.p, where p = 'vb is the effective vertical stress at the base of the pile

but in sands this leads to and overestimate in the capacity of long piles. The maximum

value of 'vb is therefore limited to the value of the effective vertical stress ('v) at the

critical depth zl ( see figure). The limiting depth is about 6d in loose sand and 15d in

dense sand (where d is the pile diameter).

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Shaft:

L

1

q s = K v tan dz

L0

where,

is the friction angle between the pile and the soil

K is the earth pressure coefficient (ratio of horizontal stress / vertical stress) Kp, Ko, or

Ka ???

but again in sands this leads to an overestimate in the capacity of long piles. The

maximum value of 'v is therefore limited to the value at the critical depth zl ( see

figure).

qs = . 'v tan

qs = . 'v

In stiff clay it appears that is fairly constant (0.24 - 0.29 for values of ' between 20

and 30)

Overall factor of safety about 2 to 2.5

Separate factors on shaft and base resistance (shaft resistance factor 1.0 to 1.5,

base factor usually about 3.0)

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

ie. the maximum working load capacity, Pdesign, of a pile is the lesser of:

where Ps is the shaft resistance capacity and Pb is the base resistance capacity

Strength and serviceability limit states must be checked

Design geotechnical capacity, Pg* = g.Pult = g (Ps + Pb)

Design structural capacity, Ps* = s.Nu

The design pile capacity P* is therefore the smaller of these two values

s is usually given in the structural design standard

g is given in the piling standard (about 0.45 to 0.6)

As usual in the limit state methods P* S* (S* is the ultimate load which includes the

weight)

structure.

In general friction between pile shaft and the ground tends to increase the load

carrying capacity of piles.

In special circumstances - eg. piles driven through a soft consolidating soil - a drag

force on the pile shaft will act downwards adding to total pile load. Such a force is

known as negative skin friction or down drag.

failure.

Downward forces:

P - load on top of pile

W - weight of pile

Psd - Negative skin friction

Resistance forces:

Pb - Base resistance

Psr - upwards skin resistance

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

P + W + Psd (Psr + Pb) / 2.5

Strength

P* = g (Psr + Pb)

S* does NOT INCLUDE the load Psd because negative skin friction is a serviceability

load, and does not occur at the strength limit state.

Serviceability

Psd must be included as an adverse load when calculating settlement.

Settlement is mostly due to deformation in shear of surrounding soil (not volume

change)

Clay soils - most settlement is immediate (undrained)

Typically for L/d = 25 immediate settlement is about 75%, consolidation

settlement is about 25%

Sandy soils - final settlement occurs almost immediately on application of

load.

Estimates of settlement

Pile load test on prototype pile - Most accurate

Using elastic theory (Poulos and Davis) or empirical equations

Back analysis of load tests to give elastic parameters for above

From dynamic stress wave analysis

Advanced numerical analysis such as finite or boundary element analysis. It is

very difficult to get sufficient data of appropriate quality to obtain worthwhile

results.

Elastic theory

Use published solutions to the elastic problem.

P

s = I ; where I is a function of L/d and K.

L.E s

Ep

K= RA ; is called the relative stiffness or pile stiffness factor.

ES

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

100.0

P

d

Settlement Influence Factor, I

10.0

200

100

70

50

30

20

15

10

7

5

1.0

3

0.1

10 100 1000 10000

Pile stiffness factor, K

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

P is the load on the pile

L is the pile embedded length

Es is the Young's modulus of the soil

Ep is the Young's modulus of the pile

RA is the area ratio of the pile = area of section / gross pile area

(eg for a solid pile RA = 1)

P.L

s= M

E .A R

p p

MR is the movement ratio (from tables)

The term in brackets is the axial shortening of a free standing column in compression.

MR is the interaction effect of the pile and the soil

It is not simple to determine a suitable value of the soil modulus Es (table in code

gives estimates for various types of soil which may be used for preliminary

calculations).

o sample disturbance

o loading conditions

o small strain stiffness not measured in triaxial test

Back-calculate Es from test pile results for reliable calculations

Pile groups

Groups of piles typically spaced at 2d to 4d (d = diameter of pile)

Connected by a rigid pile cap - uniform settlement for all piles

All piles in the group do not necessarily carry equal load (edge piles carry more

load)

The ultimate load of a group is less than the total of the individual piles. The

group efficiency factor is typically about 0.7

Settlement of group > settlement of single pile with same average load

average group settlement

Rs =

settlement of a single pile with the same average load per pile as in the group

The ultimate capacity of a group Pu is the lesser of:

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Pu = n . Pu1

Where n is the no. of piles in the group.

Pu1 is the ultimate capacity of a single pile in the group.

Pu = the ultimate capacity of an equivalent block, containing the piles and the

soil between the piles.

The capacity of the block is calculated using the previous theory for single

piles and treating the block as if it were a large short pile.

Interaction between piles increases the deflection of a pile group.

With a rigid pile cap all piles settle by the same amount.

s is the settlement of a single pile at the same average load as a pile in the group

Rs is the settlement ratio for the group - obtained from tables based on elastic

solutions.

Marine Structures - ship impact, berthing loads, wave action

Bridge piers - water flow, traffic load, curved bridges

Transmission line tower foundations

Pile supported retaining walls

Structures in seismic areas

Design requires:

Adequate factor of safety against ultimate failure

Adequate deflection at working load

Statics of problem are complex

o Soil resistance force depends on interaction of soil and pile movement

o The load deflection relationship is nonlinear

Design methods are based on

o semi-theoretical (Broms)

o empirical (pressuremeter)

o p-y method

o finite element or boundary element analysis - (quality of data)

Room for improvement and more research

Most exact method method is well planned and executed in-situ load test

Soil type - failure may occur by failure of the ground. Short stubby piles.

Pile type - failure fails in bending. Long slender piles.

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Capacity of a pile with restrained pile head > pile with free head.

Method of Broms

assumed pressure distributions and magnitudes of earth pressure at failure.

considered short / long and free / restrained cases.

derived solutions from simple static equilibrium.

produced dimensionless design charts for ultimate lateral resistance (Theory and

eqns presented in Poulos and Davis)

must calculate capacity using BOTH short and long assumptions and choose the

lesser. This will also indicate the mode of failure.

for cohesionless soil the value ok Kp used in the charts is the RANKINE value.

p-y method

models the pile as a beam (vertical) supported by springs (horizontal)

spring constant is obtained from the coefficient of subgrade reaction

load deflection curve specified for each spring (p-y curve) - nonlinear

need to limit spring force to a maximum value (three times the Rankine value?)

Lesser of :

n x the ultimate lateral resistance of a single pile

ultimate lateral capacity of a block containing piles and soil between them, but

with the "dead zone" near the top of the pile equal to the lesser of 1.5 d and 0.1

L

Use published solutions based on elastic calculations. These are usually in the

nondimensional form.

Free headed pile:

H M

translation, = I H + I

2 M

E s .L s

E .L

H M

rotation, = I +

2 H

I

3 M

E s .L E s .L

H

= I F

E s .L

Where the terms, IH, IM, etc are influence factors, determined from charts. They are

a function of the flexibility factor:

E p .I pile

KR =

E s .L4

When using published results and tables ensure the notation, meaning and definitions

of all terms is clearly understood.

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

Expensive procedure.

Load pile and measure settlement.

o pre-contract: to confirm design parameters.

o during construction: to check quality control and design.

Usually 1 to 3 weeks between construction and testing (to allow for pore pore

pressure dissipation).

Usually load to about 2 times the "allowable load". Sometimes load to failure.

Refer to ASTM D-1143 1974 and also AS2159 for procedures.

Usually apply a slow maintained load.

European method is constant rate of penetration (0.5mm / minute).

Load with kentledge

Jack against kentledge

Jack against tension piles

(Ground Engineering, 31, 6, 1988)

Analysis during driving Hiley formula and stress wave analysis

Testing after installation (driven, cast in place) Stress wave analysis

traditional method of assessing load capacity of driven piles

pile driven until acceptably small displacement (set) per hammer blow is

achieved

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

under impact. ie Newtonian impact dynamics. The application of this theory is

fundamentally invalid !!. Two invalid assumptions are made:

o Dynamic resistance of pile to driving can be estimated from the kinetic

energy of the hammer at the point of impact and distance penetrated under

the hammer blow

o Ultimate static resistance of soil is equal to the dynamic resistance of pile

to driving

However formula have been developed and used on this basis.

Hiley formula:

n.W.h

Pu =

c

s+

2

where,

Pu is the average resistance to penetration = ultimate static pile load

n is a hammer efficiency factor - depends on mass on pile and hammer and coefficient

of restitution

W is the weight of the hammer

h is the hammer drop distance

s is the set per hammer blow

c is an energy loss term (compression of packing, pile and ground)

Wave equation analysis is better and more widely used - test after installation

Dynamic pile load testing commenced in Australia in the early 1980's in

Australia (in the early 1970's worldwide).

Dynamic pile load testing involves recording the force (via strain gauges) and

velocity (via accelerometers) in the top of a pile, as it is subjected to one or

more hammer blows.

The measured responses are analysed for pile integrity and the estimation of

pile load capacity.

Dynamic pile load testing is rapid and cheap.

The main criticism of the use of dynamic pile load testing to estimate pile load

capacity is that the displacement of the pile under a hammer blow is very

small. This may restrict the mobilisation of shaft resistance, but will almost

certainly severely limit the mobilisation of end bearing.

In uniform clays, in which the majority of the pile load capacity will come

from the shaft, this limitation is of little importance.

In sands or end bearing situations, the end bearing capacity will be

underestimated by dynamic pile load testing.

Dynamic pile load capacities are far more reliable than the results of simplistic

Hiley pile driving formula, but should be calibrated against static pile load

testing taken to failure.

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

A hammer blow sends a compressive wave down the pile.

A free end (floating pile) or crack in the pile will reflect a tensile wave

A crack will transmit a compressive wave

A rigid base of a pile will reflect a compressive wave

An increase in pile section will reflect a compressive wave and transmit a

tensile wave

Coinciding waves in the pile superimpose.

The compressive wave delivered by a hammer blow causes compressive stress

and velocity in the pile to rise together. As the wave meets shaft resistance a

compressive wave will be reflected and a tensile wave transmitted, raising the

force and lowering the velocity recorded at the top of the pile. The separation

of the stress and velocity curves is a measure of the shaft resistance.

When the wave reaches the toe, it will

Almost totally reflect as a tensile wave if there is essentially no end bearing.

This can have significant implications for concrete piles with limited tensile

capacity. Prestress and/or limited hammer weight and drop will accommodate

this.

Almost totally reflect as a compressive wave if the base is essentially rigid.

This can have significant implications for the integrity of the pile where the

reflected compressive wave and a subsequent compressive wave meet.

In most cases, the behaviour is between these two extremes.

Analysis of data

Shaft resistance separation of stress and velocity curves.

Soil shaft resistance can only produce compressive reflection.

Any tensile reflection arriving at the gauge location (near the top of the pile) is

due to:

o Reflection from base

o Reflection from change in cross section of the pile

o Damage

The first two are expected the time of arrival of the tensile wave is known. If

the tensile wave does not correspond to the first two than damage is likely.

By comparing the size of the tensile reflection with that of the incident

compressive wave, corrected for the shaft resistance above the point, a or

integrity factor can be calculated.

PILE CONDITION

1.0 Undamaged

Wave equation

The University of Queensland CIVL3210 Geotechnical Engineering Piled footings

given by

Stress-Wave Equation:

2u 1 2u

=

x 2 c 2 t 2

where u is the pile displacement

x is the longitudinal co-ordinate

c is the wave velocity

t is time

The solution to the stress-wave equation is

u(x, t) = f(x - c.t) + g (x + c.t)

The two functions f and g correspond to two stress waves propagating at the

same velocity in opposite directions.

The pile and hammer are approximated by lumped masses connected by

elastic linear springs, with dashpots and springs representing the soil

resistance. Smith (1960)

Using this model Goble developed the Case Method of calculating pile

capacity and the CAPWAP model for matching force and velocity responses.

The Case Method Capacity (called the RSP) is a closed-form solution of the 1-

D wave equation Assumes: rigid plastic soil model, all damping occurs at the

toe and uniform pile section.

The CAse Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP) separates the pile into a

series of discrete elements, usually 1m long, allowing piles of non-constant

impedance to be analysed.

A soil model is attached to each or every second pile (shaft) element and to the

pile toe. In its simplest form it comprises a viscous damper to model dynamic

resistance and an elastic spring with a slip element to model elasto-plastic

static resistance.

A distribution of shaft resistance and a toe resistance and damping factors are

first assumed.

The program applies the measured pile velocity to the pile top, and calculates

the stress at the measuring point. This is compared with the measured stress.

The assumed parameters are then varied until the computed force is in

agreement with the measured values.

Although the match obtained is not unique, independent CAPWAP analyses

on particular data show very good agreement on predicted total capacity, and

good agreement on predicted distributions.

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