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History of Computers

The evolution of the modern computer can be given by 5 generations

1stGen 2ndGen 3rdGen 4thGen 5thGen

Features that reduced over time # Size, Consumption of Electricity" Heat generations
Features that increased over time # Processor speed" Performance

The Computer System

The operation of the computer can be given by the following block diagram.

Volatile Memory
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Performs calculations and controls the operations of the computer. Speed of CPU is measured in MHz or GHz.
There are two parts.
1. Control Unit (CU) - Controls the entire functions of the computer
2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) - Perform calculations and logical comparisons

Main Memory (Random Access Memory - RAM)

A temporary, volatile memory that stores the data, instructions and
programs before being sent to the processor and the results after processing.
Cache Memory
A volatile memory type that is placed between Registers
the RAM and the CPU to increase the efficiency High speed memory locations in the CPU which holds the data
of the overall performance and instructions and the results immediately before and after

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Computer Hardware
Input Devices Output Devices Processing Storage

Keyboard Hard Copy (Printed) Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU) Primary
Mouse, Touchpad, Trackball (Printers, Plotters) (RAM, ROM, Cache)

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Scanner, Digital Camera Soft Copy (Electronic) Control Unit (CU) Secondary
Microphone (Monitor, Projector) Optical
Automatic Input Devices Sound
Barcode Reader (Speakers, Headphones) Magnetic
(Hard Disk, Floppy,
Optical Mark Reader (OMR) Tapes)

Optical Character Reader (OCR) Solid State

(Flash Memory, Memory

Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) Cards)
According to Size

3. Mini Computers
1. Super Computers

2. Digital Computers

3. Hybrid Computers
1. Analog Computers
2. Mainframe Computers

According to Technology

According to the Purpose

Build for a specific task in mind.

2. Special Purpose Computers
Perform by measuring physical data.

1. General Purpose Computers

Perform by electronic devices and discrete data.

Computers that can be used for many purposes.

Computer Classification

Input & output in analog and processing in digital.

4. Micro Computers (Personal Computers)

General Information Technology

Number Systems
The computer uses electronic circuits which are based upon 1 and 0. There are four number systems.

Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal

Number System Conversions

The conversions between between the different number systems can be classified as follows.
1. Decimal / Others (2,8,16)
2. Others fjk;a (2,8,16) x Decimal
3. Between the other number systems.

Decimal to Binary Decimal to Octal Decimal to Hexadecimal

Octal & Binary Hexadecimal & Binary Octal & Hexadecimal

Measuring Units used in Computers

Capacity Processor Speed Network Speed
1 bit = Binary Digit 1024MB = 1 GigaByte Hz - Hertz bps- bits per second
8 bits = 1 Byte 1024GB = 1 TeraByte 1000Hz = 1KHz 1024bps = 1Kbps
1024B = 1 KiloByte 1024TB = 1 PetaByte 1000KHz =1MHz 1024Kbps = 1Mbps
1024KB= 1 MegaByte 1024PB = 1 ExaByte 1000MHz = 1GHz 1024Mbps = 1Gbps
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Logic Gates
A logic gate is a basic electronic component from which electronic circuits are built. These can be combined together to
perform complex arithmetic calculations and logic comparisons.

There are three basic operators in Boolean Algebra.

AND - Boolean Multiplication
OR - Boolean Addition
NOT - Boolean Negation

Basic Logic Gates

1. AND Gate
Outputs a 1 only when all the inputs are 1s.

2. OR Gate
Outputs a 0 only when all the inputs are 0s.

3. NOT Gate
The input is inverted and produced as the output.

Logic Circuits
Logic gates can be used to implement the logic of a Boolean expression.

(i) Q = A.B + A.B (ii) Q = A.B + B.C

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Truth Tables
Truth tables are used to show how the output changes according the variations of the Inputs.
The number of rows is 2n, where n is the number of input variables.
The number of columns include the input columns and a column for each gate or operator.
The Half Rule method is used when filling out the input columns.

Draw a truth table for the given circuit.



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Draw the logic circuits and the truth tables for the following expressions.

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Software uDldx.
System Software Application Software

Operating Systems Utility Software Tailor-made Software Off the Shelf(Packaged)

CLI Antivirus Software Word Processors
GUI Disk Management Database Systems

Backup Software Presentation Software

Assembler / Compiler Spreadsheet Software

Operating Systems
The main Software of a computer is known as the Operating System. All other software are installed on top of the Op-
erating System. The main faunctions of the OS can be categorized as follows.

1. Providing a User Interface

The users interact with the computers hardware through the user interface.
There are two types of User Interfaces.

Graphical User Interface (GUI) Command Line Interface (CLI)

Easy to use but has Difficult to use but has more

less control over the control over the computer.
Windows, Icons, Menus, Computer is operated by
Pointers are used entering commands.
to interact with the

Eg: Windows, Ubuntu, MacOS Eg: MS-DOS, Unix

2. Managing all the aspects of the computer

The main functions of the Operating System can be categorized as follows.

1. Process Management
Managing the multiple programs running on the computer.

2. Memory Management
Allocating and managing memory space
3. Device Management
Controlling and managing input / output devices using driver software.
4. File/folder Management
Creating, managing & deleting files and folders

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Information Systems
The information requirement within an organization depends on the different activities carried out and the level of detail
required. To cater these requirements, different information systems have been introduced.

Information systems can be categorized in the following manner.

Manual" Automated
Management Level

Based on the Management Level

The management of an organization/institute can be decomposed into three levels.
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External Information
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l%fudamdhsl Set Goals

DSS Strategic

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Tactical Arrange Resources

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Operational Carry out operations

1. Transaction Processing Systems - TPS

Efficienty records and processes business transactions.
Helps the operational level managers to make daily decisions.

2. Management Information Systems - MIS

The Outputs of TPS are taken as inputs to produce reports.
Helps the Middle level managers to make daily decisions based upon the
internal information of the organization.

3. Decision Support Systems - DSS

The Outputs of TPS, MIS as well as external information are taken as inputs to produce information.
Helps the Middle level managers to make unstructured decisions.
4. Executive Support Systems - ESS
Internal as well as external information are taken as inputs to produce reports.
Helps the Top level managers to make long term decisions.

5. Expert Systems - ES
The knowledge and the reasoning skills of a human expert is captured into a system using Artificial
Intelligence and is used for decision making.

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Computer Networks
Transmission Media
Two types of transmission Media are used for data transfer.
1. Guided Media / Wired
2. Unguided Media / Wireless
Guided Media
Twisted pair Coaxial Cable Fiber Optic

Two types : STP and UTP

High speed light pulses
Unguided Media
Radio waves Infrared Microwave

Bluetooth , WIFI, TV, Radio Short distance communication Long distance communication

Network Types
There are three network types based on the area covered by them.
Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (LAN)
Two or more computers within a small A network spanning within a city area. A large network between cities,
area such as an office building space. countries and spread at a global

Networking Devices
The following are some networking devices that are commonly used to setup and maintain computer networks.

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Advantages and disadvantages of computer networks
Advantages Disadvantages
Data can be easily shared. Maintaining a network is costly.

Sharing devices such as printers. The whole network depends on the central
device or computer.
Centralized Control.
Viruses can spread through the network.
Increased Security.
Hackers can gain access to the network.
Can reduce the cost of communications.

The Internet is a global network of networks. The following services are provided over the Internet.
1. World Wide Web
2. Electronic Mail
3. File Transfer Protocol
4. Multimedia Streaming

World Wide Web

Web page : A document on the WWW.

Web site : A collection of web pages and other resources

Web Browser : A software used to view web pages

Web Server : A computer which stores the web pages

URL (Uniform Resource Locator): a unique name that identifies a web page on the Internet.

Domain Name Folder File

Top Level Domain

Search Engines : Allows users to find information on webpages and content using keywords.

Emails can be sent and received using an email client. Email clients are of two types.
From : The senders address
To : The recipients Address
Cc : Carbon copy
These recipients can see who the other recipients are.

Bcc : Blind Carbon Copy -

These recipients cant see who the other recipients are.

Subject : Attachments :

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Word Processing Software

There are two types of software used to insert text into a computer.
1. Text Editors (Notepad, Emacs)
2. Word Processors (MS Word, Apple pages, Corel Word Perfect, Open Office Writer)

Microsoft Office Word

Tools in Word

(20) (21) (22) (23)

20. Insert Image
21. Insert Hyperlink
22. WordArt
23. Spelling & Grammar

Copy : Ctrl + C Hyperlink : Ctrl + K New : Ctrl + N
Cut : Ctrl + X Find : Ctrl + F Close : Ctrl + W
Paste : Ctrl + P Find & replace : Ctrl + H Help : F1
Left Align : Ctrl + L Undo : Ctrl + Z
Right Align : Ctrl + R Redo : Ctrl + Y
Center Align : Ctrl + E Print : Ctrl + P
Justify : Ctrl + J Spelling & Grammar : F7
Bold : Ctrl + B Thesaurus : Shift + F7
Italic : Ctrl + I Open : Ctrl + O
Underline : Ctrl + U Save : Ctrl + S

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Presentation Software
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Presentation Software are used as a tool to effectively communicate/share thoughts with an audience.
Eg: Microsoft Powerpoint, Apple Keynote, Open Office.org Impress, Lotus Freelance Graphics, Prezi
Microsoft Powerpoint

View Types
The following view types are used to perform
different tasks in MS Powerpoint.
1. Normal View
Used to create the presentation

2. Slide Sorter view
Rearrange the order of the slides

3. Reading View
Read the content of the slides

4. Slide Show
Present slides to an audience

Tools to make the presentation interesting
1. Slide Design 2. Slide Layout 3. Slide Transitions 4. Custom Animation

Shortcuts used in Presentations

Open a New Presentation Ctrl + N

Create a new Slide Ctrl + M
Start Presentation from begining F5
Start Presentation from current slide Shift + F5
Obtain black screen B
Obtain white screen W
Move to the next slide N
Go to previous slide P

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Spreadsheet Software

Spreadsheet software allows users to automate calculations and represent data in a more meaningful manner using
graphs and tables.
Eg: Lotus 123, MS Excel, OpenOffice.org Calc, SuperCalc, VisiCalc

A single spreadsheet is known as a worksheet and a collection of worksheets is known as a workbook.

A single worksheet may contain 256 (2003) or 16384 (2007) columns which are identified by letters such as A, B, AA,
It consists of 65536 (2003) or 1048576 (2007) rows identified by numbers.
The intersection between a row and a column creates a cell and are identified by the cell address which is a combination
of the column name and the row number.
The currently selected cell is known as the active cell and a range of cells is identified by the start cell followed by the
end cell. Eg# A1, IV65536, XFD1048576

Data Types
There are three types of data that we can include within a cell.
1. Labels 2. Values 3. Formulae

Format Cells
Select the Cells to be formatted and rightclick. Select the Format cells option

(General, Number, Currency...)
(Text alignment, orientation, wrap text...)
(Font, stle, size, effects...)
Border (Line, border...)
Fill (Background color, presets...)

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Formula iQ;% Nd;h
Formulae can be constructed using values, cell addresses, operators and functions. All formulae should start with the =
sign. The Mathematical and boolean operators can be listed as follows.

Simple and complex calculations pre-defined in the software. These are ususally called by a name and the data is passed
into them within brackets.

Copying Formula to adjacent cells

1. Using the fill handle
2. Using Copy and Paste
Absolute and Relative Cell Addresses

Chart types

Column Chart Bar Chart Line Chart XY Chart Pie Chart

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Database Management Systems

A database is a collection of logically related data, which is usually related to a particular subject. It offers an organized
mechanism for storing, managing and retrieving (taking back) information, using tables.

There are two types of databases

1. Manual Databases
2. Automated/Computerized Databases
Eg# Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access, MySQL, OpenOffice.org Base

Relational Databases
The data is organized into topical tables.

Microsoft Access
This uses four main components to manage data.

Table Query Form Reports

Stores Data Select data based upon Input Data to the database Print and output data

Table is the most important object of a database.
A single data item in the table
Data of a single person/item

Data Types
Data in a field belongs to one of the following types.
Primary Key
Uniquely identifies a record in a table.
Eg: AdNo,
BookId, IndexNo

Foreign Key
A Primary key of a table kept in another table to join the tables.
Types of Relationships Eg: AuthorID in the Book Table
One to one Eg: AdNo, BookId, IndexNo
One to Many
Many to many

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Solving Problems Using Computers
The step by step process of solving a problem. These can be represented in two ways.

Flowcharts are used to graphically represent an

An algorithm can be given as a code, which
algorithm using standard symbols.
is not specific to any programming language.
Since the code cannot be executed, it is called
pseudocode (false code). It can be read &
understood by even non-programmers.

Control Structures
Controls the flow of an algorithm. There are three main types.

Sequence Selection Iteration / Loops

Begin Begin Begin

Statement 1 If condition Then While Condition Do
Statement 2 Statement 1 Statement 1
Statement 3 Else Statement 2
End Statement 2 End While
End if End

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ICT towards National Development
Use of ICT in different areas in the society

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