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Igor Marti1, Aleksandar Sedmak2, Radoljub Tomi3, Izet Hot4



Originalni nauni rad / Original scientific paper Adresa autora / Author's address:
UDK /UDC: 620.169:62-988 D'Appolonia Italy (ENI IRAQ), Iraq Energy City, Iraq
Rad primljen / Paper received: 15.03.2016. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mech. Engng.,
Belgrade, Serbia, email: asedmak@mas.bg.ac.rs
Union Nikola Tesla University, Faculty for Strategic and
Operational Management, Belgrade, Serbia
State University Novi Pazar, Department of Technical
Sciences, Serbia

Keywords Kljune rei

pressure vessel posuda pod pritiskom
remaining life preostali vek
inspection inspekcija
welding zavarivanje
Abstract Izvod
Repair and inspection has been performed on a pressure Prikazana je inspekcija i popravka posude pod pritiskom
vessel in the oil refinery for downstream treatment of crude u rafineriji u Iraku, za koju nije postojala tehnika doku-
oil in Iraq, without technical documentation. Two different mentacija. Dva razliita pristupa su dala suprotne zaklju-
approaches have given totally different results for further ke o daljoj upotrebi posude. Jedna varijanta je da se posu-
operation of the vessel. One option is to put the vessel out da iskljui iz dalje upotrebe, a druga je da se nastavi njena
of service, while the other is to keep the vessel in operation. upotreba. Preostali vek je procenjen na osnovu API stan-
The remaining life is determined in accordance with API darda.

INTRODUCTION both local single cracks and net of cracks (mesh of cracks).
Cracks are shown in Figs. 1-8. Results of inspection have
Pressure equipment in all Middle East region is under
demanded necessary repair in accordance to /1/.
jurisdiction of the American Petroleum Institute (API) stan-
dards /1-3/, whereas the Pressure Equipment Directive Table 1. Technical data.
(PED) is valid for Europe, including Serbia. Inspection has Manufacturer HEAVY ENGI. EQUIPM.
been performed for pressure vessels for removing salts Year of Construction 2008
from crude oil, i.e. a desalter. The desalter unit is positioned Shell Material Specific ASTM A 516 Gr 70
between the first and the second separator. Inspection is
Head Material Specific ASTM A 516 Gr 70
difficult due to missing technical documentation, including
previous inspection records and design calculations. Data Design Pressure 13.24bar
for minimum necessary thickness (tmin) is not available, as Design Temperature 100 C
well. With variation of these data, results could be both Working Fluid Hydrocarbons
positive and negative in terms of allowable usage of the Welding process SAW / SMAW
desalter. The design standard and tmin are one of necessary Max Tested Pressure 17.41 bar
data for the Fitness For Service (FFS) evaluation. Volume 150 m3
DESALTER Diameter internal 3400 mm
Orientation Horizontal
Technical data
Construction Code ASME VIII Div 1
Main technical data for a desalter is presented in Table 1. Nominal Shell Thickness 26 m
Inspection of desalter Nominal Head Thickness 27 mm
Inspection has been performed by a contractor in the Corrosion allowance 3 mm
presence of an owner representative, API 510 inspector. Isolation 50 mm
Two NDT methods are carried out: the ultrasonic testing Heat treatment NO
method (UT) for volumetric irregularities; and the magnetic Type Heads Ellipsoidal
particle testing method (MT) for surface and near surface Flange class 150300#
irregularities. The UT method has not found any irregulari-
Tangent length 13500 mm
ties, but the MT method has located 32 cracks including


Vol. 16, br. 1 (2016), str. 4952 Vol. 16, No 1 (2016), pp. 4952
Remaining life determination for pressure vessel in a refinery Procena preostalog veka posude pod pritiskom u rafineriji

Figure 1. Crack detected by MT. Figure 5. Crack detected by MT.

Figure 2. Crack detected by MT. Figure 6. Crack detected by MT.

Figure 3. Crack detected by MT. Figure 7. Crack detected by MT.

Figure 4. Crack detected by MT. Figure 8. Crack detected by MT.


Vol. 16, br. 1 (2016), str. 4952 Vol. 16, No 1 (2016), pp. 4952
Remaining life determination for pressure vessel in a refinery Procena preostalog veka posude pod pritiskom u rafineriji

CLASSIFICATION OF CRACKS Table 3. Heads minimum thickness (mm).

Joint efficiency ASME Section VIII Division 1 EN 13445-3
Cracks are classified in accordance to /2/ as carbonate
E=1 16.37 16.01
stress corrosion cracking (often referred to as carbonate
E = 0.85 19.26 16.01
cracking). It is the term applied to surface cracks that occur E = 0.7 19.26 16.01
adjacent to carbon steel welds under the combined action of
tensile stress in systems containing a free water phase with During inspection activities, ultrasonic measurement of
carbonates, where some amount of H2S is also present. It is thickness is performed. The minimal measured value is
a form of Alkaline Stress Corrosion Cracking (ACSCC). 17.18 mm.
This type of damage has also been observed in other
environments which are outside the scope of this paper.
Those environments include the outside surface of buried In order to calculate the remaining life, the data for
pipelines; and piping and equipment containing aqueous corrosion rate are necessary. Hereunder is presented the
carbonate solutions (e.g. potassium carbonate) used in the determination of the corrosion rate for the shell and heads
carbon dioxide (CO2) removal facilities associated with in accordance to /1/.
hydrogen reformers. Corrosion rate for shell long term, CR(LT):
time between tinitial and tactual (years)
Cracks have been repaired by a four steps procedure:
1. Mechanical removal of cracks by grinding. Drilling 26 17.18 mm
holes is necessary only if hardness is high. Start grinding CR(LT) 1.42
6.2 year
without drilling. If crack continues to expand, perform
drilling before grinding, otherwise, do not. The initial thickness, tinitial, is taken from manufacturing
2. Perform MT for 100% of removal area to confirm cracks data for both shell and heads. The actual thickness, tactual, is
are removed and the area is completely sound. the measured value during inspection activities.
3. Perform welding of in removal area in accordance to Corrosion rate for shell short term, CR(ST):
qualified Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). t previous tactual
4. Perform MT and UT for 100% welding of removal area. CR(ST)
time between t previous and tactual (years)
20 17.18 mm
CR(ST) 1.28
To evaluate the remaining life of any equipment, mini- 2.2 year
mum thickness is necessary. As mentioned in the introduc-
tion, data is not available. The minimum required thickness tprevious is taken from one single available inspection
is presented in Tables 2 and 3 below. Calculation bas been report from date 14.12.2012 for both shell and heads.
done according to two standards: ASME Section VIII Divi- Corrosion rate for heads long term CR(LT):
sion 1 and EN 13445-3, with variation of joint efficiency tinitial tactual
(E). Joint efficiency is a function of NDT. Only values for time between tinitial and tactual (years)
shell and heads are analysed.
27 21.34 mm
Inputs: CR(LT) 0.91
6.2 year
trequired minimal required thickness (in)
P design pressure (psi) Corrosion rate for heads short term CR(ST):
R inside radius (in) t previous tactual
S maximum allowable stress value (psi) CR(ST)
E joint efficiency time between t previous and tactual (years)

Shell 22.8 21.34 mm

CR(ST) 0.66
PR 192.02 66.93 2.2 year
S E 0.6 P 20000 1 0.6 192.02
trequired = 0.647 in. (trequired = 16.43 mm)
Remaining life (RL) for shell:
Heads tactual trequired 20 16.43
PD 192.02 133.86 RL 2.8 years
trequired CR(ST) 1.28
2S E 0.2 P 2 20000 1 0.2 192.02
Remaining life for heads:
trequired = 0.643 in. (trequired = 16.33 mm)
tactual trequired 22.8 16.33
Table 2. Shell minimum thickness (mm). RL 9.8 years
CR(ST) 0.66
Joint efficiency ASME Section VIII Division 1 EN 13445-3
E=1 16.45 14.21
E = 0.85 19.37 16.73
E = 0.7 23.55 20.34


Vol. 16, br. 1 (2016), str. 4952 Vol. 16, No 1 (2016), pp. 4952
Remaining life determination for pressure vessel in a refinery Procena preostalog veka posude pod pritiskom u rafineriji

REFERENCES 2. Standard API RP 571, Damage Mechanisms Affecting Equip-

ment in Refining Industry, American Petroleum Institute, 2011.
1. Standard API 510 Pressure Vessel Inspection Code: In-Service 3. Standard API RP 572, Inspection of Pressure Vessels, Ameri-
Inspection, Rating, Repair, and Alteration, American Petro- can Petroleum Institute, 2011.
leum Institute, 2014.


NT2F16 Fatigue and Fracture at all Scales
Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 24 - 27, 2016
NT2F16 brings together scientists and engineers from around the (Switzerland), Near Merah (Saudi Arabia), Ljubica Milovi (Serbia),
world to discuss how to characterize, analyze, predict and asses Peter Monka (Slovakia), Katarina Monkova (Slovakia), Joko Obolt
the fatigue and fracture of structural materials and components. (Germany), Carmine Pappalettere (Italy), Joko Parunov (Croatia),
NT2F16 intends to be a forum for discussion of the present and Miroslav Piska (Czech Republic), Guy Pluvinage (France), Marko
future trends in experimental, analytical and numerical fracture Rakin (Serbia), Krishnaswamy Ravi-Chandar (USA), Luis Reis
mechanics, fatigue, structural integrity assessment, failure analy- (Portugal), Robert Ritchie (USA), Siegfried Schmauder (Germany),
sis, and other important topics in the field. Special focus will be Aleksandar Sedmak (Serbia), Hseyin Sehitoglu (USA), Ivo
given on multi-scale and multi-physics approaches, applications to Senjanovi (Croatia), Cetin Morris Sonsino (Germany), Zdenko
new materials and environmental effects. Tonkovi (Croatia), Lszl Tth (Hungary), Zhiliang Zhang
A two-days School on fatigue and fracture modeling and analysis (Norway), Irena mak (Croatia)
will be organized prior to the Conference, along with a roundtable Plenary Lectures
discussion on how to teach fracture mechanics in the future.
Guy Pluvinage, Prof. Emeritus, Metz University, ENIM-LaBPS, France
Topics The CTOA as a Parameter of Resistance to Crack Extension in Pipes
Models, criteria and methods in fracture mechanics Submitted to Internal Pressure
Low, medium and high cycle fatigue
Simulation and testing of crack propagation at all length scales Siegfried Schmauder, Prof. Dr. rer. nat., University of Stuttgart,
Finite elements methods and their application Institute for Mater. Testing, Mater. Science and Strength of Materials
Damage mechanics and models (IMWF), Germany
Microstructure scale computational modeling Recent Trends in Multiscale Materials Modelling
Macro scale fatigue prognosis techniques Neil James, Prof., University of Plymouth, School of Marine Science
Multiscale materials modeling & Engineering, Co-Editor of the Int. J of Fatigue
Multiaxial/mixed mode loading Damage Assessment and Refurbishment of Steam Turbine Blade/
Fatigue crack path prediction Rotor Attachment Holes
Effect of residual stresses
Fatigue and fracture of weldments, welded components, joints and Yury Matvienko, Prof., Russian Academy of Sciences, Mechanical
adhesives Engineering Research Institute
Fracture and failure criteria Two Basic Approaches in a Search of the Crack Path
Analytical Models Publications
Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Accepted abstracts will be published in the Book of Abstracts.
Reliability and Life Extension of Components Full papers will be published on electronic media with an ISBN number.
Corrosion, environmentally enhanced degradation and cracking, Authors of selected papers will be invited to submit extended versions
corrosion fatigue for publication in peer reviewed special issues of supporting journals.
Fracture and damage of cementitious materials
Fatigue and fracture of polymers, elastomers, composites and Selected papers presented at the NT2F16 Conference will be pub-
biomaterials lished in a Special Issue of Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Mate-
Advanced crack monitoring techniques rials & Structures (FFEMS), and also in a Special Issue of Material-
Reliability and integrity of engineering structures wissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik / Materials Science and Engineer-
Applications to components and structures ing Technology.
Conference Chair Contact
eljko Boi, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical eljko Boi, NT2F16 Chair
Engineering and Naval Architecture, tel. +385 1 6168536, University of Zagreb, Fac. of Mech. Engng. and Naval Architecture,
zeljko.bozic@fsb.hr Department of Aeronautical Engineering.
Ivana Lucica 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Conference Vice Chair Phone: + 385 1 6168 536
Moussa Nat Abdelaziz, NT2F Chairman Fax: + 385 1 6156 940
Universit des Sciences et Technologies de Lille zeljko.bozic@fsb.hr
Polytech'Lille NT2F16 Administrator
Organizing Committee Phone: +385 1 6168536
Marijan Andri, Robert Basan, Brigita Brekalo, Pejo Konjati, nt2f16@fsb.hr
Lovre Krstulovi-Opara, Marijana Maji Renjo, Marijo Mlikota,
Alen-Pilip Prskalo, Ivica Skozrit, Milan Vrdoljak, Kreimir
Vukovi, Hinko Wolf
Scientific Committee
Moussa Nat-Abdelaziz (France), Abdelkrim Aid (Algeria), Donka
Angelova (Bulgaria), Majid R. Ayatollahi (Iran), Leslie Banks-Sills
(Israel), Sergio Baragetti (Italy), Taoufik Boukharouba (Algeria),
eljko Boi (Croatia), Katia Casavola (Italy), Marko anaija
(Croatia), Lidija urkovi (Croatia), eljko Domazet (Croatia),
Grzegorz Glinka (Canada), Vatroslav Grubii (Croatia), Nenad
Gubeljak (Slovenia), Mohammed Hadj Meliani (Algeria), Alojz
Ivankovi (Ireland), Takayuki Kitamura (Japan), Draan Kozak
(Croatia), Ivica Koar (Croatia), Herbert Mang (Austria), Liviu
Marshavina (Romania), Yury Matvienko (Russia), Edoardo Mazza


Vol. 16, br. 1 (2016), str. 4952 Vol. 16, No 1 (2016), pp. 4952