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8th Power Electronics, Drive Systems & Technologies Conference (PEDSTC 2017)

14-16 Feb. 2017, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

A New Bidirectional Switching Converter Structure


forPHEV

Mohammad Jahani AmirHosein Akbari Jafar Milimonfared Javad Shokrollahi Moghani


Department of Electrical School of Electrical Department of Electrical Department of Electrical
Engineering at Amirkabir Engineering at Iran University Engineering at Amirkabir Engineering at Amirkabir
University of Technology. of Science and Technology. University of Technology. University of Technology.
Tehran, Iran. Tehran, Iran. Tehran, Iran. Tehran, Iran.
Mohammadjahani@aut.ac.ir Amirhosein akbari@elec.iust.ac.ir
_
Monfared@aut.ac.ir Moghani@aut.ac.ir

Abstract-PHEVs with ability of grid connection in addition connecting vehicles a battery is proposed that include a
to decreasing in dependence on fossil fuels provide stability, bidirectional AC-DC converter and a bidirectional DC-DC
voltage control and frequency control. Charger for PHEVs converter as interface between vehicles and grid to transmit
includes a bidirectional AC-DC converter which followed using a power in both sides.
bidirectional DC-DC converter. In this article a proper structure
for bidirectional switching converter of PHEV is proposed. The II. PROPOSED DC-DC CONVERTER
solution proposed in this article has high energy density, low
In aspect of improving in efficiency, size, volume and cost,
volume and low weight. The proposed battery charger has ability
of operation in two modes of charge and discharge. To reach
transformer less converters are more interesting [7], especially
proper performance of battery an integrated controller for both
in high power systems like electric vehicle which weight and
modes of operation is presented. Verification of theoretical
size are the most important problems. To choose bidirectional
results is done by using simulation of a sample converter with DC-DC converter in hybrid vehicles charger there are some
lS.2kW nominal power in the MATLAB software. The results standards like simple topology, high efficiency, size, weight
show effectiveness operation of converter and controller and low cost. The proposed topology is a four-phase
structure. interleaved converter based on buck-boost topology that being
parallel with together Converter in [8] is extended version of
Keywords- PHEV, fossil fuels, bidirectional AC-DC converter, three-state interleaved converter which is transformerless and
integrated controller, MATLAB. in DCM has small inductors. So, the proposed converter is
useful in high power density fields. ZVRT exists for this
I. INTRODUCTION
converter to improve lifetime of switches and increase
Because of increasing in fuel price and environmental efficiency [9]. Multi-phase converters have some advantages
issues application of available and adaptive to environment like low current stress, because of paralleling. Also with aspect
sources are increasing. One of the specifications of smart grid of coupling inductance, it can improve ripple and efficiency
is ability of bidirectional power transmission [I]. In this [10]. Fig. 1 shows a four-phase interleaved DC-DC converter
situation, PREY with ability of grid connection can receive its with soft switching. In LV side, battery pack or super capacitor
sufficient energy by connecting to electric grid. Also at peak of is placed and in RV side high frequency capacitor as energy
consumable power transmits its extra power to grid [2]. buffer is placed in output of AC-DC converter. In this model
Connection of vehicle to grid (V2G) in addition to load switches SJ-S operate in buck mode and boost mode, both.
responding at the peak of consumption can help to stability of Each switch has an antiparallel diode to pass current in
grid including lines [3]-[4]. Supply required power for grid by freewheeling cycle. On the other hand, a capacitor as lossless
these vehicles can reduce unnecessary power plant costs and snubber placed parallel with each switch. Four-phase inductors
besides can be used as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for act as boost inductor in boost mode, although act as filter in
household applications. In these vehicles, bidirectional power buck mode. HV and LV capacitors are energy buffers.
transmission requires a converter which can return battery
DC Link
power to grid. Charger of these vehicles is either two
converters including one bidirectional AC-DC converter and
L
then a bidirectional DC-DC converter or directly a bidirectional Battery Pack
AC-DC converter that connect to energy storage system.
Different topologies for these chargers are proposed in both -----
--

single-phase and three-phase systems which are introduced in --

S2 --

[5]-[6]. Depending on position of charger placement, chargers --


--

can be on-board or off-board. In this article in addition to


discussion about bidirectional topologies for chargers of grid
Fig. 1. Four-phase interleaved bidirectional DC-DC converter.

978-1-5090-5766-5117/$3l.00 2017 IEEE 160


A. DCM operation with n-value at the output. Increasing levels of inverter causes
To reach high power density converter should operate in increasing steps of output waveform. So, total harmonic
DCM to minimize inductors. On the other hand, DCM distortion (THD) will reduce. This increases complexity of
operation increases current ripple, so it is important to use system and makes complex keep balance of various voltages.
multi-phase interleaved converters [II]. The other important Va
advantage of DCM is zero loss when switches are on and also "v
L
reverse recovery loss for diode is very low. Weakness of DCM
is parasitic ringing which produced by output inductor and
capacitors when current is zero. Actually, in tum off mode,
inductor resonates with output capacitor and this reduces
efficiency and produces EMT. Also, other weakness of DCM is LpC
increasing in turn off losses [12]. These problems are solved by
using capacitor snubber and soft switching technique.

B. ZVRT Soft Switching


New soft switching techniques for turning on and turning Fig. 3. Three-phase bridge bidirectional DC-AC converter.
off transistor with capacitor snubber have been introduced in
[13] and [14]. In Fig. 2 the gate signals for each leg of In practical, three-phase bridge [15], numbers of electric
interleaved converter is shown. In buck mode, switches S], S3, elements are less than three-level diode clamp and because of
Ss and S7 are the main switches and the others are auxiliary three-phase bridge has less complex control and make product
ones. When S] is on, the battery charges. In td all switches are easier. In clamp diode converters because of increasing in
off, so inductor current causes C/ charges and C2 discharges. number of switches in each leg, stress of voltage across
When C2 completely discharged, VCI02 closes to zero and switches, in off period, is less than three-phase bridge converter
inductor current flow through D2 and at next cycle S2 under and so switches have long lifetime. On the other hand, because
zero voltage condition will turn on. LV bus voltage (battery of increasing in output PWM levels clamp diode converter has
side) drop reversely on inductor, so inductor current decreases better voltage THD than three-phase bridge in its inverter mode
until it reaches to negative value. At this time, current flows [16]. In diode clamp converters, like floating capacitor
from S2, so diode will tum off without any reverse recovery converters it is difficult to balance voltage of capacitors,
loss. Flowing current from S2 charges C2 and begins to otherwise causes unbalanced and finally causes capacitor to
discharge C/. When C/ fully discharged, Von will be zero and burn out. Such problems do not exist in three-phase bridge
then freewheeling diode, D], will conduct. Then, S] can turn on converter and voltage ripple can be improving. Negative point
under zero voltage condition. After D/ conduction, difference of cascade converters in comparison with diode clamp
between HV and LV will drop on inductor and its current will converters is regulation operation mode. In diode clamp
be positive. In this mode, positive current flows from Sj. So converters has common sources and output voltage produce
both upper and lower switches will conduct under ZVS from cascading two capacitor in output, but in cascade
condition. Transmitting inductor current to freewheeling diode converter, because of existing independent sources, it is
causes parasitic voltage effect of lower inductor removes. difficult to tune voltage in rectification mode. In [17] is
proposed to use cascade converter in V2G chargers. In this
td too td

J1L
article, DC output voltage of each H-bridge tunes some
specified battery cell voltage level. Actually with cascading H
bridge converters, battery cells are cascading, too. To choose

-U
proper DC-AC converter for grid connected hybrid vehicle
chargers three criteria of simply, reliability and cost are in
priority. According to applied comparison, three-phase bridge

:::s;;it4t;::
has a simple schematic and also has a simple control. Three
phase bridge have more high reliability and low cost than
o
multi-level converters including diode clamp, because of less
\LY ii "
elements and simple schematic.
Fig. 2. Gate signal waveform and inductor current in DCM.
A. Converter Model in Charge Mode
Ill. PROPOSED AC-DC CONVER TER In charge mode, battery charges from DC link so in primary
Distribution grid acts as an input supply voltage for side exists a VH source. CH can be neglect if VH would regulate.
charging battery. Bidirectional AC-DC converter regulates AC Drop voltage on RH is very low in comparison with VH.
input voltage and then it should supply DC link voltage and +

battery voltage. Actually, on battery charging mode converter


acts as a regulator and on battery discharging period acts as an
inverter. Among the practical inverters exist two kinds of +
+
inverters with PWM output: Three-phase bridge inverters as
illustrated in Fig. 3 and multilevel inverters. Multi-level
V2
inverters have various topologies. Cascaded H-bridge inverter,
floating capacitors inverter and clamp diode inverter are three
kinds of multilevel inverters. N-Ievel inverters produce voltage
Fig. 4. Simplified model of converter in charge mode.

161
Output voltage transfer function is concluded by solving
small signal equations and solving steady state equations, as
following:

v"u,(s) (I)
d (s)

According to (I) transfer function, Cd-charge, is second order


and it is because of neglecting CH and existing L and Cr. Cd
charge is achieved by the MATLAB software simulation which
is illustrated in Fig. 5. 10' 10'
Frequency (rad's)

Fig. 7. Bode diagram of output voltage versus disturbance in discharge


mode.

From Fig. 7 and (2), it is understood that output voltage


R H D3
have one zero on and two complex poles on
L
RIP +R D ).
on
+j
2L
__

CHL
Frl'!nlll'!nr.v /r;!rllJ;;\

Fig. 5. Bode diagram of output voltage transfer function versus disturbance TV. CHARGE CONTROL
in charge mode.
Tn charge mode, grid voltage is regulated and then produced
From Fig. 5 and (1), it can be understood that output DC link by AC-DC converter. This voltage will reduce till
voltage transfer function has no zero and just have two battery voltage level (which called buck operation) by
I I interleaved converter. This state needs two controllers. One
comp Iex po Ies In
( +j --) .
JLCj
controller is needed on AC-DC converter with goal of dc link
2CLRL voltage control that does not let the DC link voltage to roll off
on full load condition. The other one is needed for battery
B. Converter Model in Discharge Mode charging so that according to battery specification can charge
battery in two modes of constant current and constant voltage.
In discharge mode, battery discharges to electric motor or
In first controller, DC link voltage compares with reference
grid so in secondary exists a voltage source. CL can be voltage and then produces reference current in dqO frame with
neglected if this voltage is smooth. Because of small drop cross from PI controller. Now by using current control in dqO
voltage on RL against VL, it can be neglect. frame, carrier wave will produce for three-phase and by
+ comparing with rectangular wave apply AC-DC converter
switches pulse. Tn battery charge controller with comparing of
battery voltage, if battery voltage be less than nominal value,
v,
battery charges in constant current mode and if battery voltage
+
be more than nominal value, battery charges in constant
voltage mode. Output of this controller is signals which applied
to DC-DC four-phase interleaved converter switches. In Figs. 8
and 9, two charge mode controllers are illustrated. Battery
charge control, with comparison of battery voltage, charges
Fig. 6. Simplified converter model in discharge mode. battery on constant current if battery voltage be less than
battery nominal voltage or charges battery on constant voltage
Similar to charge mode transfer function, Cd-discharge, is if battery voltage be more than battery nominal voltage. Output
second order and it is because of removing Cr. and existing CH of this controller is a square pulse that apply to switches of
andL. four-phase interleaved converter.

Pulse
Cun-ent Controller
with feed-forward
in dqO fiame

Tn Fig. 7, bode diagram of output voltage versus disturbance is MI\


illustrated. Fig. 8. DC link control by using current controller.

162
Fig. 12 shows topology of current mode control where Ud
YBatr D,

bl
Current Controller and Uq are compensator outputs. Ud is produced by processing
idrerid on d-axis. By changing Ud to md, it applies to VSC.
! Similarly, compensator processes iqreriq and then produces Uq,
TBatr ! Volta ge CDntrolier Dv on q-axis. Then according to equations uq convert to mq and
applies to Vsc. Also, VSC with md factor amplifies Vdcl2 and
Fig. 9. Battery charge control by using constant current/voltage controller. mq and then produce Vtd and Vtq. In the mentioned control
system, all the control signals and feedbacks are in their stable
V. DISCHARGE CONTROL DC condition, so PI controller has chosen to track signal.
In this mode, DC-DC converter acts as boost converter and
VI. CHARGE LEVEL CHOOSE
increases battery voltage level then power is injected to grid or
is given to electric motor by DC link or DC-AC converter. This Level-2 charger chooses among different kind of charge
mode has two controllers, too. First controller is only for the levels in PREV and according to future works of this field.
DC-DC converter to regulate output voltage. To reach this Level-l chargers have been produce in some European
purpose, modeling small signal of interleaved DC-DC countries, USA and IRAN but due to low power range, have a
converter is done and a simple PI controller has been chosen. long charge time and each charge cycle takes 6-S hours.
Second controller is for inverter to control injected power to Actually level-l chargers are used to small range driving. For
grid or electric motor. For this purpose, it should use current example, a person who wants driving 150km should wait 6-S
control in dqO frame [IS]. According to SVM advantages, this hours to charge battery again. In level-2 charger and level-3
method of switching uses for DC-AC converter. In Figs. 10 and charger, charging process normally takes 2-3 hours and less
11 two discharge mode controllers are illustrated. than one hour, respectively. Increasing in level causes
increasing in volume and weight of charger and charger would
Voref drs) Vo
be off-board. This problem exists on level-3 chargers, although
PWM Modulator Gplant(S) these chargers are the fastest ones but level-3 chargers need to
very expensive charge stations which cannot build easily.
Because of this reasons, it is better to use level-2 charger which
NV provide proper charge speed and also low cost. According to
SAE J1772 standard [19], Maximum power of level-2 PREY
chargers is IS.2kW. If those supply more power, HEV will
Fig. 10. DC link control with a proportional-integral(PI) controller.
convert to EV. Due to this standard, nominal voltage of battery
is 240V that increases or decreases voltage by any change in
:, AC system
DC-DC converter gain. In TABLE I are illustrated properties
ia R+run I v" of distribution system along with level-2 charger.

ib R+roll
TABLE 1. PROPERTIES OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ALONG WITH LEVEL-2
CHARGER

Distribution Grid 20kV.50Hz


Distribution Transformer 20000/400 DYn
Charger Input Voltage 3ph.400V

DC Link Voltage 600V

Battery Voltage 225V


Relrenee
Signal Charger Power Level 18.2kw
Generator
Battery Type Li-ion

Fig. II. Active power and reactive power control with current mode controller.
VIT. SIMULATION
V"-I
feed-forward Filter According to nominal power of charger and nominal voltage

j
of battery, charger current will be SOA. In Figs. 13 and 14,
AC-side
battery voltage and battery current in charge mode are
igrcf

illustrated, respectively. By using DC link controller in charge
mode, it regulates on 600V very well which shown in Fig. 15.
Decoupling
As mentioned, four-phase interleaved converters build from
Vrx/2 . Voc!2
feed-forward four-bidirectional buck-boost converter with 90 phase

--Lwn
difference. Advantages of these converters are low current
stress on switches and low current ripple. In Fig. 16,
interleaved converter inductances current in charge mode is
illustrated and in Fig. 17, grid current in charge mode is
depicted. This current is sinusoidal with very low TRD,
opposite of diode regulation current. In discharge mode,
battery power injected to grid, so battery state of charge
Fig. 12. Topology of current mode control of VSC systems.
should decrease according to Fig. IS. In Fig. 19 battery

163
discharge current is drawn which after a fast transItIOn,
regulate on 80A. Also by using a PI controller for four-phase
interleaved in discharge mode, DC link voltage reach to adjust 40 ,\/\11\/\1\/\/\/\/'\/\/1\/\I11/\/\/\/\/\/\1\/\11\/\1'\/\/\/\/\/\/1\/\111/\11,/\/\/\/\/\/\11\/\1'\/\/\/\/\/\/\/
C
value which is 600V. In Fig. 21, grid current in discharge
J
mode is drawn. This current convert to sinusoidal current by
using proper grid AC filter which has only a low harmonic. In "(,) 20
>
Fig. 22, injected power to grid by battery is drawn which is m

about 18.lkW. At the end of simulation, the charge and


!
discharge performance is checked, simultaneous. According to .E
integration of controllers, recognition of charge mode or
discharge mode is done by controller, themselves. Actually, by
0.1495 Time (sec) 0.15
comparing battery state of charge, charge or discharge mode
operation choose automatically. Fig. 16. Interleaved converter inductances current in charge mode.

226 ,----,---,---____,--,__-___,-_-,

225.95

o
E 225.9

225 85

OJ
225.8

225.75 L-_---'-_----
-- __
-' -"---_----__
-L --'---_----'-__-'---_---L
- __"---_---'
--
0.145 0.1455 0.146 0.1465 0147 0.1475 0.148 0.1485 0.149 0.1495 0.15 0.05 Time (sec) 0.1 0.15
Time (Sec)
Fig. 17. Grid current in charge mode.
Fig. 13. Battery voltage in charge mode.

,-----,--,----, 70 .--------,--------,---------,

69.9998


69.9995
E'

.c
()
'0 69.9992

69.9989
78 69.9986 '-------'---'
0.14 0.141 0.142 0.143 0.144 0.145 0.146 0.147 0.148 0.149 0.15 o 0.05 Time (sec) 0.1 0.15
Time (sec)
Fig. 14. Battery current in charge mode. Fig. 18. Battery state of charge in discharge mode.

200 ,-------,--,



Cl
600
f'-
E

:; 120
160

400 o
0
>
"
c
80
.c
J u
() 200
Cl 1i 40

0 o ---------------L----------
o 0.05 0.1 0.15
0 0.05 Time (sec) 0.1 0.15 Time (sec)
Fig. 19. Battery discharge current
Fig. 15. DC link voltage in charge mode.

164
MATLAB software. The results show effectiveness of the
proposed structure and effectiveness of integrated controller in
charge mode and discharge mode.

Cl
400 IX. REFRENCES
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"
o communication infrastructure for the smart grid," presented at the IEEE
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o L--------------L--------------L-------------
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u
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]
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10
a.
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proposed topology with control system is simulated in the

165