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SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 1


COURSE CODE : SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922






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This examination question consists of ( 7 ) printed pages only.

SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 2

Q1. (a) Define the term heterotropic bacteria and autotrophic bacteria. What are the
bacterial reactions in carbonaceous and nitrification oxygen demand?
(5 marks)

(b) Define biodegradable organics. Give examples, discuss sources and assess the
impact of biodegradable organics in water.
(5 marks)

(c) Define biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and describe the procedure of
BOD test.
(5 marks)

(d) The BOD analysis was performed on sample A and B at 20C. The data
obtained from the experiment was plotted as in Figure 1.
BOD, mg/L

Sample A

Sample B


(i) The BOD5 concentration of sample A and B at 20C.
(ii) The ultimate BOD of sample A and B.
(iii) The BOD rate constant, K of sample A and B.
(iv) The BOD3 concentration of sample A at 30C.
(v) Assume possible sources of sample A and B. Justify your answer.
(10 marks)
(25 marks)
SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 3

Q2. (a) Suggest possible causes and actions that can be taken to mitigate these
problems associated with the operation of tricking filter:

(i) Disagreeable odors from the filter

(ii) Ponding/blockage on filter media
(4 marks)

(b) Discuss two (2) differences between the sludge from primary and secondary
sedimentation tank.
(3 marks)

(c) Name two (2) methods of sludge stabilization. In your opinion, which one is
more sustainable in term of energy in stabilizing sludge? Justify your opinion.
(6 marks)

(d) A bio tower is designed to treat wastewater at Taman Rossa. These are the
data related to the bio tower:

Population : 20,000 PE
Minimum temperature : 27C
Influent BOD : 180 mg/L
Effluent BOD : 20 mg/L
Hydraulic loading : 0.6 m3/m2.min
Recirculation ratio :2
Medium coefficient : 0.5
Wastewater treatability constant at 20C : 0.06 min-1

Determine the diameter and height of the bio tower.

(12 marks)
(25 marks)
SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 4

Q3. (a) Explain the biological phenomena that occur in facultative pond. Draw a clear
sketch to help your explanation.
(6 marks)

(b) The Environmental Quality (Sewage) Regulations 2009 mentions the

acceptable conditions of sewage discharge of standards A and B. Explain what
is Standard A and Standard B. Discuss the importance of the regulations. Give
values for BOD, COD and SS according to Standard A and Standard B for
new sewage treatment system.
(7 marks)

(c) A waste stabilization pond (WSP) is loaded with a waste flow obtained from a
population of 40,000 PE. The WSP will be operating at temperature ranging
from 27oC to 35oC. Design the system to meet the following standards and the
information given below:

Raw sewage BOD = 200 mg/L

Influent FC = 1 x 108 FC/100mL
K1 @ 20C = 0.3 d-1
KT @ 20C = 2.6 d-1
HRT of maturation pond = 4 days
Ponds Depth = 1.5 m
Effluent Standard: Effluent BOD5 < 20 mg/L
Effluent FC < 5000/100 mL
(12 marks)
(25 marks)
SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 5

Q4. (a) Explain the importance of sewer in sewerage system. Discuss the difference
between a separate sewer and a combined sewer system.
(4 marks)

(b) (i) Draw a flow diagram of a conventional activated sludge system from
primary screen to chlorination.
(3 marks)

(ii) Give two (2) similarities and two (2) differences between a
conventional activated sludge system and a sequential batch reactor
(4 marks)

(c) A 10,000 PE extended aeration system is used to treat sewage from Taman
Jaya Sepakat. The average BOD influent of the sewage treatment plant is 350
mg/L and is reduced by 40% after the primary clarifier. It has two rectangular
aeration tanks (working in parallel) with a dimension of 4 m width, 6 m length
and 3.5 m water depth. The aeration tank maintains a biomass concentration of
about 4000 mg/L.

(i) What is the purpose of having two aeration tanks working in parallel at
the sewage treatment plant?
(ii) Determine the food-to-microorganism ratio of the aeration tank.
(iii) What is the most practical way to reduce or increase the food-to-
microorganism ratio of the system?
(iv) What is the different between hydraulic retention time and solid
retention time? What is the easiest way to increase the solid retention
time of the system?
(v) Calculate the volumetric loading of the aeration tank.
(14 marks)
(25 marks)
SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 6

Q5. (a) List the purpose of:

(i) Grit chamber
(ii) Primary clarifier tank
(iii) Secondary clarifier tank
(iv) Disinfection
(4 marks)

(b) Discuss two (2) similarities between aerated lagoon system and activated
sludge system.
(3 marks)

(c) A development is to be conducted in Bandar Rossa. The following premises

are to be constructed in the area.

Premises Unit Area

800 unit double-storey
Rossa Resident 90 ha
400 unit apartment
Rossa Mall 300 shop lots 1.5 ha
Primary School 1000 students 1.5 ha
To accommodate 10% of
Mosque 1 ha
residential population
Private hospital 200 beds and 100 staff 0.8 ha
Note: 1 ha = 10,000 m2
Based on the given information:
(i) Calculate average daily flow and peak flow in m3/d
(ii) Determine the surface overflow rate and HRT of circular primary
clarifier (2 units in parallel) at peak flow. The diameter and depth of
each unit are 10 m and 3.5 m, respectively. Comment your answers.
(11 marks)

(d) An aerated lagoon system is designed to treat sewage from a residential area
with a BOD of 200 mg/L. The system consists of an aerated lagoon followed
by a maturation pond, both have the same HRT. Minimum operating
temperature is 25C. The wastewater characteristics are Y = 0.65 kg/kg, b =
0.07 d-1, K = 5 d-1 and K1 = 0.3 d-1 (all values at 20C). If the dissolved BOD
effluent from aerated lagoon is 8 mg/L, calculate:
(i) HRT of aerated lagoon
(ii) Total lagoon effluent BOD
(iii) Effluent BOD from maturation pond, assuming 70% solids removal in
the pond
(7 marks)
(25 marks)
SAB 2922 / SKAA 2922 7

kT = k 20 x1.047(T 20) Lo = BODt =
(1 10 Kt ) P

e KD / Qv
BOD t Le
Lo = =
1 e kt La (1 + R) Re KD / Qv

1 Y (So S ) Li + RLe X
= kd La = tc =
tc tX 1+ R Qw X u
F Qo S o Qo S o 10 Li Q
= L = s =
M X Af

k1( T ) = k1( 20 ) (1.05)T 20 kT = k20 (1.19)T-20 kT = k20 (1.035)T-20

le = s,max = 350 (1.107 0.002T)T-25
K1t + 1
Y ( Li Fe )
Le = Fe + 0.95 X X =
1 + bt
Ni li
Ne = le =
(1 + k t )(1 + k t )
T f T m
(1 + K t )(1 + K t )
1 f 1 m

Fe = PFF = 4.7 p 0.11
1 + Kt

Table 1.0 Population Equivalent Design Value for Premises

Type of Premise Population Equivalent (PE)
Residential 5 per house
Commercial 3 per 100m2 area
Educational Institutions
- Day Schools 0.2 per student
- Residential Schools 1 per student (residential)
Hospitals 4 per bed
Hotels 4 per room
Factories 0.3 per employee
Mosque 0.5 per person