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REPUBLIQUE DU CAMEROUN FACULTE DES SCIENCES

Paix Travail - Patrie


FACULTY OF SCIENCE
REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON Dpartement de Physique
Peace Work - Fatherland
Department of Physics
UNIVERSIT DE DSCHANG BP 96, Dschang (Cameroun)
UNIVERSITY OF DSCHANG
Tl./Fax (237) 233 45 13 81
Scholae Thesaurus Dschangensis Ibi Cordum
BP 96, Dschang (Cameroun) Tl./Fax (237) 233 45 13 81 Website : http://www.univ-dschang.org.
Website : http://www.univ-dschang.org. E-mail : udsrectorat@univ-dschang.org
E-mail : udsrectorat@univ-dschang.org

RESEARCH PROJECT OF THESIS OF DOCTORATE/Ph.D OF


Mister FONKOU Rodrigue Fatou

1. SUBJECT

Complete dynamics of a modified Josephson Junctions based


chaotic systems and its applications in network

2. INTROCDUCTION
A Josephson junction is made by sandwiching a thin layer of a no
superconducting material between two layers of superconducting material. The
devices are named after Bian Josephson, who predicted in 1962 that pairs of
superconducting electrons could Tunnel right through the no superconducting
barrier from one superconductor to another. He also predicted the exact form of the
current and voltage relations for the junction. Experimental work proved that he
was right, and Josephson was awarded the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics for this
work.
To understand the unique and important features of Josephson junctions, its first
necessary understand the basic concepts and features of superconductivity. If you
cool many metals and alloys to very low temperatures (within 20 degrees or less of
absolute zero), a phase transition occurs. At this critical temperature, the metal

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goes from what is known as the normal state, where it has electrical resistance, to
the superconducting state, where there is essentially no resistance to the flow of
direct electrical current. The newer high-temperature superconductors, which are
made from ceramic materials, exhibit the same behavior but at warmer
temperatures.
What occurs is that the electrons in the metal become paired. Above the critical
temperature, the net interaction between two electrons is repulsive. Below the
critical temperature, though, the overall interaction between two electrons becomes
very slightly attractive, a result of the electrons interaction with the ionic lattice of
the metal.
This very slight attraction allows them to drop into a lower energy state,
opening up an energy gap. Because of the energy gap and the lower energy state,
electrons can move (and therefore current can flow) without being scattered by the
ions of the lattice. When the ions scatter electrons, it causes electrical resistance in
metals. There is no electrical resistance in a superconductor, and therefore no
energy loss. There is, however, a maximum super current that can flow, called the
critical current. Above this critical current the material is normal. There is one
other very important property: when a metal goes into the superconducting state, it
expels all magnetic fields; as long as the magnetic fields are not too large what
occurs is that the electrons in the metal become paired. Above the critical
temperature, the net interaction between two electrons is repulsive. Below the
critical temperature, though, the overall interaction with the ionic lattice of metal.
This very slight attraction allows them to drop into a lower energy state,
opening up an energy gap. Because of the energy gap and the lower energy state,
electrons can move (and therefore current can flow) without being scattered by the
ions of the lattice. When the ions scatter electrons, it causes electrical resistance in
metals. There is, however, a maximum super current that can flow, called the
critical current. Above this critical current the material is normal. There is no one
other very important property: when a metal goes into the superconducting state, it
expels all magnetic fields, as long as the magnetic fields are not too large. In a
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Josephson junction, the no superconducting barrier separating the two
superconductors must be very thin. If the barrier is an insulator, it has to be on the
other of 30 angstroms thick or less. If the barrier is another metal (no
superconducting), it can be as much as several microns thick. Until a critical
current is reached, a super current can flow across the barrier; electron pairs can
tunnel across the barrier without any resistance. But when the critical current is
exceeded, another voltage will develop across the junction. That voltage will
depend on time that is, it is an AC voltage. This in turn causes a lowering of the
junctions critical current causing even more normal current to flowand a larger
AC voltage
The frequency of this AC voltage is nearly 500 gigahertz (GHz) per millivolt
across the junction. So, as long current through the junction is less than the critical
current, the voltage is zero. As soon as the current exceeds the critical current, the
voltage is not zero but oscillates in time. Detecting and measuring the change from
one state to the other is at the heart of the many applications for Josephson
junctions.
Electronic circuits can be built from Josephson junctions, especially digital
logic circuitry. Many researchers are working on building ultrafast computers
using Josephson logic. Josephson junction can also be fashioned into circuits called
SQUID an acronym for superconducting quantum interference device. These
devices are extremely sensitive and very useful in constructing extremely sensitive
magnetometers and voltmeters. For example, one can make a voltmeter that can
measure picovolts. Thats about 1,000 times more sensitive than other available
voltmeters.
A SQUID consist of a loop with two Josephson junctions interrupting the loop.
A SQUID is extremely sensitive to the total amount of magnetic field that
penetrates the area of the loop the voltage that you measure across the device is
very strongly correlated to the total magnetic field around the loop.
SQUID are being used for research in a variety of areas. Since the brain
operates electrically, one can, by sensing the magnetic fields created by
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neurological currents, monitor the activity of the brain or the heart. You can also
use a SQUID magnetometer for geological research, detecting remnants of past
geophysical changes of earths field in rocks.
Similarly, changes in the ambient magnetic field are created by submarines
passing below the surface of the ocean, and the U.S.Navy is very interested in
SQUIDs for submarine detection. SQUID are also of considerable use in the
research laboratory in specially designed voltmeters, in magnetometers and
susceptometers and in scanning SQUID microscopes. In this last instrument, a
SQUID is scanned across the surface of a sample, and changes in magnetism at the
surface of the sample produce an image.
3. THE THESIS GOALS:
In the project, we plan to investigate the dynamics of a modified Josephson
junction based equation. The electrical explanation of this new equation can be
explained using the theories of electricity. This idea is not only interesting but also
actual because of the increasing interest of researchers on the Josephson junction
based circuit [2-5]. The former Josephson junction presents a lot of characteristics
such as tunnel [2]. In this paper, the authors reported measurements on current-
voltage (I-V) characteristics of externally shunted Josephson Tunnel junction
where the external shunts have nonzero inductance. At low temperatures (T<6.6K),
they observed standard I-V curves, but as temperature is increased above 6.6K they
observed an anomaly in the I-V curves. They attributed this anomaly to the
nonzero inductance in the shunt loop. Their numerical results were presenting good
agreement with their data. In [3] analysis the origin of the hysteresis in a
Josephson junction. They demonstrated unambiguously that the hysteresis resulted
from an increase of the normal metal electron temperature once the junction
switches to the resistive state. The authors in [4] discussed about the libration
states of a nonlinear oscillator: resonant escape of a pinned magnetic fluxon. They
theoretical studied of dynamics of a nonlinear physical pendulum in the presence
of both time-independent driving and resonant alternating forces. They observed a
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predicted effect in an annular Josephson junction with a trapped magnetic fluxon in
the presence of microwave radiation.
In the case of networks, T, Hongray et al [5] reported an interesting bow-tie
shaped bursting behavior in a certain parameter regime of two resistive-
capacitive shunted Josephson junctions, one in the oscillatory and the other in the
excitable mode and coupled together resistively. The burst emerges in both the
junctions and they show near-complete synchronization for strong enough
couplings. We discuss a possible bifurcation scenario to explain the origin of the
burst. An exhaustive study on the parameter space of the system is performed,
demarcating the regions of bursting from other solutions.
All these, dynamical behaviors: Hysteresis, Libration, nonlinear (I-V)
characteristic, bursting behavior, tipping, multistability, shrimps and so are be
investigated. In addition the dynamics of the phase and synchronization will be
checked. Since the system is a phase-voltage (, V) state variables we can give a
very good explanation of the nonlinear dynamics of the Josephson junction in
some resonance cases.

3 CONCLUSION

These investigations find a lot of applications not only in chaos secure


communication but also in networks analysis, biology and so on. Due to the very high
frequency of the device( 500GHz ), it can be very helpful to realize some very high
frequency oscillators thus one understand why the investigation of the complete
dynamics of a modified Josephson junctions based chaotic systems and its
applications in networks is very is very important.

4. REFERENCES

[1] https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-are-Josephson-juncti/

[2] Effect of inductance in externally shunted Josephson Tunnel junctions, C.B.


Whan, C.J. Lobb, and M.G. Forrester, Journal of Applied Physics 77, 382 (1995)

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[3] Origin of Hysteresis in a proximity Josephson junction, H. Courtois, M.
Meschke, J.T. Peltonen, and J.P. Pekola, Review Letters 101(2008) 067002

[4] Libration states of a nonlinear oscillator: Resonant escape of a pinned magnetic


fluxon, M.V. Fistul and A.V. Ustinov, Phys. Rev. B 63, 024508(2000)

[5] Bursting behaviour in coupled Josephson junctions, T. Hongray, J.


Balakrishnana and S.K; Dana, Chaos 25, 123104(2015)

Do at dschang september 08, 2017

Author Principal Supervisor Co-Supervisor

FONKOU Rodrigue F. Pr. WOAFO Paul Dr LOUODOP Patrick.

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