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"VHVTU
International Organization
for the Study of the Old Testament
20th Congress of IOSOT
Helsinki, 16 August 2010
20th Congress of IOSOT

Published by
IOSOT Organizing Committee

Edited by
Jutta Jokiranta
Christian Seppnen
Kirsi Valkama

Layout and Typesetting


Christian Seppnen

Typesetting Assistant
Taina Pierrier

Logo
Studio Kuokat

Front Page Design


Studio Kuokat

Printed in
Vammalan Kirjapaino

Helsinki 2010

International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament.


Congress (20 ; 2010 ; Helsinki).

International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament,


20th Congress of IOSOT,
Helsinki, 16 August 2010. [ed. Jutta Jokiranta, Chritian Seppnen & Kirsi Valkama].
Helsinki: IOSOT Organizing Committee, 2010.

ISBN 978-952-92-7532-8 (vol.)


ISBN 978-952-92-7533-5 (pdf )
International Organization
for the Study of the Old Testament
20th Congress of IOSOT
Helsinki, 16 August 2010

President
Raija Sollamo

Congress Secretary
Jutta Jokiranta
International Organization
for the Study of the Old Testament
Joint Congresses
IOSOT
International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament
16 August 2010

IOSCS
International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies
2931 July 2010

IOQS
International Organization for Qumran Studies
24 August 2010

IOMS
International Organization for Masoretic Studies
2 August 2010

IOTS
International Organization for Targumic Studies
46 August 2010
Contents

Organizing
Committee

Advisory
Board

Sponsors

Tervetuloa

Vlkommen

Welcome

Bienvenue

Willkommen


Book
Exhibition

 



Programmes



Programme
of
IOSOT
Short
Papers



Programme
of
IOSOT
Special
Sessions
(ISLP,
SAHD,
Samuel,
IECOT/IEKAT)


Programme
of
IOSCS
Congress



Programme
of
IOQS
Congress


Programme
of
IOMS
Congress


Programme
of
IOTS
Congress


Cultural
Program


What
to
See
in
Helsinki?
Friends
Tips


Churches
and
Synagogue
in
Helsinki

Abstracts

Abstracts
of
the
IOSOT
Congress


 

 

 

 


8

 

Organizing Committee
President
Prof. Raija Sollamo

Congress Secretary
Jutta Jokiranta, D.Th.

Committee Members
Tuukka Kauhanen, M.Th.
Marketta Liljestrm, M.Th.
Mika S. Pajunen, M.Th.
Elina Perttil, M.Th.
Christian Seppnen, M.Th.
Elisa Uusimki, M.Th.
Miika Tucker, B.Th.
Tuula Tynj, M.Th.
Kirsi Valkama, M.Th.
Hanna Vanonen, M.Th.
Hanne von Weissenberg, D.Th.

Student Assistants
Katri Antin
Jaana Gran
Tanja Koivumki
Johanna Kokkoniemi
Aapo Kujanp
Hanna Nortomaa
Jessi Orpana
Saana Paananen
Joanna Tyrnvuori
Elisa Uusimki
Anni Vilhunen
Eija Westerlund


9

Advisory Board
Local members
Prof. Raija Sollamo, University of Helsinki
Prof. Anneli Aejmelaeus, University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki
Prof. Martti Nissinen, University of Helsinki
EURYI-project leader, Dr. Juha Pakkala, University of Helsinki

International members:
Prof. David Carr, Union Theological Seminary in the City of New York
Prof. Jan Gertz, Heidelberg University
Prof. Sarianna Metso, University of Toronto
Prof. Thomas Rmer, University of Lausanne
Prof. Terje Stordalen, University of Oslo
Prof. Kristin De Troyer, St. Andrews University
10

 

Sponsors
The 20th Congress of IOSOT, including cultural events and receptions connected
with the Congress, is supported by the following institutions, foundations, and
companies:

University
of
Helsinki
Federation
of
Finnish
Learned
Societies,
Helsinki
Theological
Faculty,
University
of
Helsinki
Evangelical
Lutheran
Church
of
Finland,
Church
Council,
Helsinki
City
of
Helsinki
Marimekko,
Helsinki
Brill
Academic
Publishers,
Leiden
Mohr
Siebeck,
Tbingen

Walter
de
Gruyter
GmbH
&
Co.
KG,
Berlin

The
Finnish
Exegetical
Society,
Helsinki

The Organizing Committee of IOSOT wishes to express a warm thank to all the
Sponsors.


11

Tervetuloa Vlkommen
Welcome Bienvenue Willkommen

The International Organization for the Study of the Old Testa-


ment (IOSOT) celebrates its 60th anniversary in its 20th Cong-
ress in Helsinki. This is the first time for the Congress of the
IOSOT to take place in Finland. On behalf of the Finnish orga-
nizers, I dare say that the Congress means a lot to Old Testament
studies and Old Testament scholars in Helsinki. The programme
of the main papers is planned to reflect some of the special inter-
ests of the Old Testament studies in Helsinki: archaeology, textu-
al studies, including the Septuagint and Qumran, and the Deu-
teronomistic History. In the middle of the 1990s, a great number
of scholars in Old and New Testament studies formed a center
of excellence under the leadership of Heikki Risnen, Profes-
sor of New Testament exegetics. The Center was funded first by
the University of Helsinki and then by the Academy of Finland. The funding lasted ten years
altogether until the end of 2005. As one heritage of this prosperous period, biblical studies in
Helsinki currently show a great spectrum of different fields and spearheads of high level research.
This Congress offers a splendid opportunity for us to present some of the results of our research
and, at the same time, to inform the Finnish media and the larger public of our achievements.
But what is more important, the Congress takes place once again to foster Old Testament stu-
dies in general and to encourage doctoral students and younger scholars in the field.
The mission of the Congress is to declare that Old Testament studies are not outdated in
the third millennium. On the contrary, these studies are of vital importance when the modern
society attempts to solve its biggest problems. I only refer to the worldwide division between
rich and poor people, the issues of immigration and exile, the discussions on world ethos and
rules of the game, intolerance and violence, even religious violence, violations of human rights,
inequality between the sexes, and issues concerning sexual minorities. The roots of these prob-
lems in Western societies I am sorry to say often lie in the Old Testament, but at the same
time the Old Testament can also contribute a great deal to the solution of these problems, if
only we, Old Testament scholars, do our duty and produce high quality research and give high
quality teaching. There is no shortcut to success. The quality must be built from the bottom up
without neglecting basic studies, such as the ancient languages of our sources, textual history
and archaeology. A solid basis and sound methods guarantee a hard-wearing quality.
With these words I wish all the participants cordially welcome to the 20th Congress of the
IOSOT and to the joint congresses of the Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS), Qumran
Studies (IOQS), Masoretic Studies (IOMS), and Targumic Studies (IOTS).
I hope that you enjoy the Congress.

Raija
Sollamo
President
of
the
IOSOT
12

 

Map of the Congress Area

Kirkkokatu
4

Fabianinkatu

Unioninkatu
Vuorikatu

The
National

Library
of
Cathedral
Finland
Porthania
1
Yliopistonkatu

Main
Building
Kluuvikatu

2 3 Senate
Square

6
Aleksanterinkatu

Sofiankatu

5
Pohjoisesplanadi
Market

Square

Book Exhibition
Open
 
 
 
 

Closed


13

Locations
1
Porthania
    

 nd
 th
 th
 



Congress
Lunches
in
University
Cafeteria
UniCafend
2

Main
Building,
University
of
Helsinki 
  rd
3
Main
Building,
University
of
Helsinki
  nd
  rd
 
 nd
4
Helsinki
Cathedral
Crypt


Ecumenical
Reception

5
City
Hall


Helsinki
City
Reception
6
Faculty
of
Theology,
University
of
Helsinki

N.B.
The
Main
Building
of
the
University
of
Helsinki
has
two
Sides:
New
Side
(Fabianinkatu
33)
and
Old

Side
(Unioninkatu
34
).
Halls
with
Arabic
numbers
(1,
2,
etc.)
are
located
on
New
Side
while
Auditoria
with

Z///K^E^K^
Level
Entrance
is
on
Fabianinkatu
33.

Registration and Information Desk


Opening
Hours
during
the
Congress
at
Porthania
(Entrance
Hall)


   
  
  


  
 
 
 
 
 
14

 

General Plan of
Congresses and Events

Thursday 29 July
IOSCS
Congress

 

Friday 30 July
IOSCS
Congress
 
 

Saturday 31 July
IOSCS
Congress
 
 
Cultural
Programme
 

Sunday 1 August
IOSOT
Congress
 

Monday 2 August
IOSOT
Congress
 
 
 
  
  
IOQS
Congress
 
IOMS
Congress
 
Cultural
Programme
 


15

Tuesday 3 August
IOSOT
 
 
 
 
  
   
IOQS
Congress
 
Cultural
Programme
 
 

Wednesday 4 August
IOSOT
Congress
 
 
IOQS
Congress
 
 
IOTS
Congress
 
Cultural
Programme
 
  

Thursday 5 August
IOSOT
Congress
 
 
 
 
IOTS
Congress
 
 
Cultural
Programme
 

Friday 6 August
IOSOT
Congress
 
 
  
IOTS
Congress
 


17

Programmes

IOSOT
Main
Programme
19

IOSOT Main Programme

Sunday 1 August

IOSOT
Opening
Ceremony




Monday 2 August
Archaeology
and
Texts:
From
Archaeology
to
History

 Juha
Pakkala
 Angelika
Berlejung 
 
 
 Coffee
Break
 Raz
Kletter,
Yavneh
and
the
Bible

Panel:
Archaeology
and
Texts:
Focus
on
the
Persian
Period


 Martti
Nissinen
Jan
Duek
Diana
Edelman
David
Vanderhooft 
Oded
Lipschits 
Angelika
Berlejung,

,
Raz
Kletter.

Public
Lecture:
The
Archaeological
Excavations
at
Kinneret
and
Its
Environs

 Stefan
Mnger,
Juha
Pakkala
&
Jrgen
Zangenberg

Sea
of
Galilee

Helsinki
City
Reception
 
20

 

Tuesday 3 August
Qumran,
the
Septuagint,
and
Textual
History

 Sarianna
Metso
 Sidnie
White
Crawford,
Scribal
Traditions
in
the
Pentateuch
and
the
History
of
the
Early

Second
Temple
Period
 Charlotte
Hempel
 
 Coffee
Break
 Anneli
Aejmelaeus 


Ecumenical
Reception
 

Wednesday 4 August
Wisdom/Apocalyptic
 
  
 Pancratius
Beentjes,
What
about
Apocalypticism
in
the
Book
of
Ben
Sira?
 Benjamin
Wright
III
 Coffee
Break
 Michael
Knibb

Thursday 5 August
The
Relationship
of
Deuteronomistic
History
to
Chronicles
and
Prophets

 

 Tetsuo
Yamaga,
Treaty
and
Covenant
in
Chronicles

,
The
Relationship
of
the
Deuteronomistic
History
to
Chronicles

 Coffee
Break
 Rainer
Albertz,
Deuteronomistic
History
and
the
Heritage
of
the
Prophets

Panel:
What
is
Deuteronomistic?


 Thomas
Rmer
Konrad
Schmid  
Uwe
Becker,
Die
sogenannte
deuteronomistische
Redaktion
der
Prophetenbcher

Steven
McKenzie,
The
(Still)
Elusive
Deuteronomist(s)
Christophe
Nihan
actuel
Cynthia
Edenburg
Kristin
De
Troyer,
Which
Text
Do
We
Use
When
Analyzing
the
Deuteronomist
Literature?
Tetsuo
Yamaga,

,
Rainer
Albertz.

IOSOT
Main
Programme
21

Friday 6 August

Methodology
/
Interdisciplinary
Approaches

 Jutta
Jokiranta
 Cheryl
Exum

 David
Carr 
 Susan
Ackerman,
Mirrors,
Drums,
and
Trees

Business
Meeting

IOSOT
Business
Meeting

IOSOT
Programme:
Short
Papers
23

Programme of
IOSOT Short Papers

Monday 2 August

Session
A:
Biblical
Reception
I
 
 
 ,
From
Shofar
to
Clarinet...
The
Peculiarities
of
Identification
of
Musical


 Rachel
Ofer 
 Veronica
Olariu,
Traductological
Options
in
the
Eastern
Biblical
Tradition
 Jussi
Koivisto,
What
Can
the
Research
of
the
History
of
Christian
Interpretation
Give
to
Current

Genesis-commentaries?
 Coffee
Break
Chair Armin
Lange
 Daniel
Stkl
Ben
Ezra  
Liturgies

 Marius
Nel,
Influence
of
the
Book
of
Daniel
on
the
Postrabbinic
Apocalypse,
Sefer
Elijah
 Jonathan
Jacobs  

Session
B:
Biblical
Reception
II
 
 Pekka
Lindqvist
 Nadja
Johansson,
Abraham
Ibn
Ezra
and
the
Medieval
Astrological
Theory
of
Biblical
History
 Maria
Ivanova,
Szymon
Budnys
Translation
of
the
Old
Testament
 Harry
van
Rooy 

Session
C:
Hebrew
Language
 
Chair Ingo
Kottsieper
 Klaas
Spronk   
 
 Johannes
Klein 
 
  
Priestly
Texts
 Wonjun
Joo    
Quantitative-Structural
Observation
 Coffee
Break
Chair Staffan
Olofsson
 John
Francis
Elwolde     ki-Clauses
in

 
 ,
Semantics
of
Gods
Righteousness
in
Targums,
the
Septuagint
and
the
Vulgate
 Noam
Mizrahi  
Linguistics
24

 

Session
D:
Intertextuality

Walter
Dietrich
   
 Wolfgang
Oswald 
 Henk
Potgieter 
 
   
History
of
David
in
the
Books
of
Samuel
and
the
Psalms

Session
E:
Wisdom


Chair Urmas
Nmmik
 Andrea
Beyer  

o
 Philip
Venter 

  

 Joonho
Yoon Shaddai?
Shaddai
for


  
 Coffee
Break
Chair:
Melanie
Khlmoos
 Johann
Cook

 Jutta
Krispenz  

   
Exploration
 Stefan
Fischer,
The
Glance
of
an
Afterlife
in
Qoheleth

Tuesday 3 August

Session
A:
Ancient
Near
Eastern
Evidence
I

 David
Vanderhooft
 Edgar
Kellenberger

 Saana
Svrd
 Monika
Cornelia
Mller 
Biblical
Sources
 Coffee
Break

Session
B:
Ancient
Near
Eastern
Evidence
II

 

 Joanna
Tyrnvuori 

 William
Morrow 
 Jrn
Varhaug

IOSOT
Programme:
Short
Papers
25

 Willem
Boshoff   

Decades?

Session
C:
Archaeology
 
Stefan
Mnger
 Andr
Lemaire
 Wolfgang
Zwickel,
The
Political
Situation
at
Iron
Age
I/IIA
in
the
Area
around
the
Sea
of
Galilee
 Tuula
Tynj,
 
 Coffee
Break
Raz
Kletter



 Erik
Eynikel 
 

 Dominik
Elkowicz,
Die
Stele
von
Betsaida

  
 Shmuel
Ahituv 
Publication
of
the
Kuntillet
Ajrud
Inscriptions

Session
D:
Biblical
Law

 Bernard
Levinson
   
Deuteronomy
and
the
Date
of
the
Covenant
Code
 Markus
Zehndera 
 Yitzhak
Brand   
 Sun-Jong
Kim  
 Coffee
Break

Session
E:
Deuteronomistic
History

Pekka
Srki
 Reinhard
Achenbach,
Post-Deuteronomistic
Layers
in
Deut
 Christoph
Levin 
 Nili
Wazana 
 Coffee
Break
Christoph
Levin
 
  
 Jonathan
Miles
Robker,
Satire
and
the
King
of
Aram
 
 
Approach
 Pekka
Srki
 Benjamin
Ziemer

Session
F:
Hebrew
Language
 
 Takamitsu
Muraoka
 Ellen
van
Wolde 

  
26

 

Session
G:
Interdisciplinary
Approaches
 
 Carol
Newsom
  
  
Creation
Community
in
the
So-called

 


 
  
Philosophy
as
a
Possible
Analogy
 Coffee
Break

Session
H:
Persian/Hellenistic
Period
 
Kai
Peltonen
 Ehud
Ben
Zvi,
Remembering
Abraham
in
the
Late
Persian
/
Early
Hellenistic
Period

 ,
Chronicles
versus
the
Enneateuch
 John
Jarick

 Louis
Jonker

 Coffee
Break

Session
I:
Prophets

Magnar
Kartveit
 David
Elgavish 
 Ruth
Fidler 
   
 Coffee
Break
Roman
Vielhauer
 Eric
Peels
 
 Uta
Schmidt  
 ,
Adapting
the
cosmological
tradition
in
Deutero-Isaiah
 Elie
Assis,
The
Function
of
Elijah
in
the
Vision
of
Malachi

Session
J:
Textual
Transmission
&
Canon
 
 Antti
Laato
 Robert
Kawashima,
What
is
a
Scribe?
 Eugene
Ulrich,
The
Overlap
of
Composition,
Redaction,
Transmission,
and
Reception
of
the

Scriptural
Texts
 Hans
Debel
Implications
of
a
Pluriform
Outlook
on
the
Scriptural
Text(s)
 Coffee
Break
 Anssi
Voitila
 Armin
Lange 

 Hanna
Kilkkinen

 Francis
Borchardt
 Nocquet
Dany

 Andrew
Fincke
 

IOSOT
Programme:
Short
Papers
27

Thursday 5 August

Session
A:
Apocrypha
&
Pseudepigrapha
 
 Seppo
Sipil
 ,
The
Rhetoric
of
the
Text
of
Canticles
or
the
Rhetoric
of
the
Interpreter?
Solomon
in

Canticles
  

 Anssi
Voitila  

  ,
The
Flourishing
of
Sophia
and
the
Elevation
of
the
Sage
in
Greek
Sirach

Traditions
 Coffee
Break

Session
B:
Genesis
 
 Kari
Latvus
 Hanna
Tervanotko
 


 Jan
Joosten,
Abram
and
Sarai
in
Egypt
 Jakob
Whrleo 


 Suzana
Chwarts,
The
Meaning
of
Sterility
in
the
Patriarchal
Cycle
 Coffee
Break
 Ellen
van
Wolde
 Siegfried
Kreuzer


 Kari
Latvus,
Ishmael
Debated
in
Genesis
 Talia
Sutskover,
Kinship
Terms
as
Thematic
Designers
in
the
Story
of
Lot
and
his
Daughters



 Krzysztof
Sonek
   
 Christo
Lombaard

Spirituality

Session
C:
Minor
Prophets
 
 Hanne
von
Weissenberg
 Martin
Leuenberger

 Christopher
Thomson
 Markus
Saur
Alexanders
des
Groen
 Coffee
Break
 Karl
William
Weyde
 
 

  
 Lotta
Valve  
Aftermath
28

 

Session
D:
Persian/Hellenistic
Period
 
 Ehud
Ben
Zvi
 Kristin
Joachimsen 
 Pieter
Venter,
Conflicting
Ethos
in
the
Book
of
Daniel

 
 Coffee
Break

Session
E:
Psalms

 Phyllis
Bird
 Florian
Lippke 
Archaeological
Implications
 Anna
Zernecke,
Vain
Flattery
vs.
Trusting
Confidence?
Akkadian
Prayers
of
the
Lifting
of
the

Hand
and
Biblical
Psalms
of
Individual
Lament
 Rainer
Kessler 
 Mary
Jerome
Obiorah
 Coffee
Break
 Tapani
Harviainen
 Staffan
Olofsson
 Thomas
Wagner

 
the
Poem
 Teresa
Stanek,
Theological
Message
of
the
Psalms
of
Ascent
 Beat
Weber
Psalters

Session
F:
Ritual
&
Cult
 
Susan
Ackerman
 Nathan
MacDonald
 Phyllis
Bird
 Miri
Brumer   
and
in
Secular
in
Ancient
Israel
 Calum
Carmichael 



Session
G:
Varia
 
 David
Clines
  ,
Oral
Performance
in
Ancient
Israel
  
 Jason
Kalman  



IOSOT
Programme:
Special
Sessions
29

Programme of
IOSOT Special Sessions
The
International
Syriac
Language
Project
(ISLP)

Monday 2 August

 

An
appraisal
and
critical
assessment
of
Michael
Sokoloffs
recently
published
A
Syriac
Lexicon:







 Alison
Salvesen
 Takamitsu
Muraoka
 Michael
Sokoloff,
Translators
Response

Discussion

Session
II

 Marie-Louise
Craig   
  
 Reinier
de
Blois 
 
 Coffee
Break
 Timothy
Lewis



 Edgar
Kellenberger 
Frage
nach
dem
Charakter
des
berlieferungsprozesse
 

Tuesday 3 August

Session
III

 Jonathan
Loopstra 
Conclusions
 Daniel
King


 
 Coffee
Break
 Marketta
Liljestrm,
Observations
on
the
Mode
of
Translation
in
the
Syrohexapla

 Steven
Shaw,
Challenges
of
Including
Valence
in
Syriac
Lexical
Entries
 
30

 

Session
IV


 Andreas
Juckel 
 Terry
Falla  
 
 Coffee
Break
 Beryl
Turner,
Poetics
and
Particles
in
the
Syriac
Lexicography
 

Wednesday 4 August

Session
V

 ,
The
Function
of
the

Peshitta
 ,
The
Inclusion
of
Encyclopedic
Information
in
Syriac
Lexical
Entries,

Illustrated
from
the
Peshitta
of
Daniel

 
 Coffee
Break
 Wido
van
Peursen
Prayer
of
Manasseh
 Terry
Falla 
 

Session
VI:
ISLP
Annual
Meeting

Annual
Meeting
for
ISLP
Members

Thursday 5 August

Session
VII
 
  



IOSOT
Programme:
Special
Sessions
31

 
(SAHD)

Tuesday 3 August
 

 

Session
I
 

  
Achievements,
Current
Work
and
Prospects


 
    
Oppositions
and
Lexical
Contents

Session
II
 
 ,
Is
a
Seer
a
Seer?
The
Lexemes
hozeh
and 
   
 ,
Some
Remarks
on
the
Lexematic
Function
of
the
Adjectives
hlh
and
shlm

Friday 6 August

Business
Meeting
 
SAHD
Business
Meeting
32

 

Sessions
Organized
by
Walter
Dietrich

Tuesday, 3 August

Panel:
Seitenblicke





 Walter
Dietrich

 


 Thilo
Alexander
Rudnig,
Batscheba

eine
starke
Frau
 Ilse
Mllner,
Ahitofel
und
die
Ambivalenz
des
Ratschlags

 Jeremy
Hutton 
 Coffee
Break

IECOT/IEKAT:
Introduction
of
a
New
Commentary
Series



 
(IECOT)
/
Internationaler
Exegetischer
Kommentar
zum
Alten
Testament
(IEKAT).
The
doubled
name
in-
international
character.
The
editorial
board
contains

 





(German
and
English)
publication.

multi-religious
character.
The
editorial
board
and
the
authors

             
multi-religious
nature
of
the
series
also
informs
the
decision
to
include
volumes
not
only
on
books
in

 


in
English
and
German,
are
planned.


The
most
important
aim
of
the
series
is
to
bring
different
methodologies-
er,
including
the
history
of
interpretation,
social-scientific
approaches,
archaeological
perspectives
and

-

 

 
and
inform
each
other.




Dietrich
(Bern).

IOSOT
Programme:
Special
Sessions
33

IEKAT/IECOT:
Vorstellung
einer
neuen
Kommentarreihe


Der
Kohlhammer
Verlag
plant
eine
neue
Kommentarreihe
zum
Alten
Testament,
deren
Start
fr
das

  
          
Internationalitt.
Dem
Editorial
Board
gehren
For-
scherinnen
und
Forscher
aus
sechs
Lndern
an.
Der
Kreis
der
Autorinnen
und
Autoren
ist
noch
interna-
  
 
Band
auf
Deutsch
und
auf
Englisch
erscheinen.
Kohlhammer
arbeitet
dabei
mit
einem
amerikanischen

Verlag
zusammen.
          Multireligiositt.
Der

 -

-
matorische,
sondern
der
volle
Kanon
der
griechischen
und
lateinischen
Tradition
zugrunde
gelegt.
Da

-
lisch
und
deutsch,
geplant.
methodische
Multiperspektivitt
nur
Aspekte
der
Wirkungs-
und
der
Sozialgeschichte,
der
archologischen
und
der
Genderforschung


-
           


 
 
Dietrich
(Bern).

IOSCS
Program
35

Programme of
IOSCS Congress

Thursday 29 July

Plenary
Session
 
 




 
 
   
dem
Charakter
des
berlieferungsprozesses
 
 



Session
B:
Job
and
Proverbs
 
Chair

 
  
Christian
interpretation
 
 
 ,
Regarding
the
Origin
of
the
Addition
Found
in
ProvLXX

Session
C:
History
 
 
 
  
   
  
  
36

 

Friday 30 July

Session
A:
Reigns
I
 
 
 
 L 
Variants
in
kaige
and
no-kaige
section
of
IIIIV
Regnorum
 L
Readings
and
Variants

of
the
Aramaic,
Syriac
and
Vulgate
Versions
in
kaige
and
no-kaige
Sections
of
IIIIV
Regnorum
 
  

Session
B:
Isaiah
 
 
   
   

 ,

in
the
Septuagint
of
Isaiah
  

Session
C:
Lexicon
I
 
 
   
   
   
 


*
*
*

Session
A:
Jeremiah
 
 

  
  

Session
B:
Style
 
 
 ,
Did
LXX
Pentateuch
Serve
as
a
Style-Setter
for
LXX
Minor
Prophets?
 


Session
C:
Codices
 
  

   
  
of
Localized
Manuscripts

*
*
*


IOSCS
Program
37

Session
A:
Lexicon
II
 
 
  ,
The
Historical
and
Theological
Dictionary
of
the
Septuagint

A
Sample
Entry
 
the
Fayyum
and
Its
Significance
for
the
Terms
Usage
in
the
LXX

 ,
What
after
the
Lexicon?

Session
B:
Daughter
Versions
 
 
   
 
Latin
Bible
   o
Textkritik
 


Session
C:
The
Twelve
 
 


 
Location
 

 

*
*
*

Session
A:
Hexapla
 
 
 
 Terra
Incognita
and
Terra
Devastata 
to
the
Old
Greek
of
Isaiah,
Symmachus
and
Eusebius
of
Caesarea
 ,
A
Rabbinic
Symmachus?

Session
B:
Hexateuch
 
 

  
 
 

IOSCS
Business
Meeting
 

Business
Meeting
for
all
IOSCS
members
38

 

Saturday 31 July

Session
A:
Reigns
II
 
 
  ,
Translating
the
Historical
Books
 
der
griechischen
Samuel-
und
Knigebcher
 
 o


Session
B:
Linguistics
 
 
 ,


 ,
Auxiliary
Verb
Constructions
in
LXX

 ,
Der
Umgang
des
Samuelbersetzers
mit
den
griechischen
Tempora
  O
as
a
Dativus
Ethicus 
Septuagint
Pentateuch

Session
C:
New
Testament
 
 
 
Forschungsprojekt
 
 
 
and
Written
Tradition



 

*
*
*

Session
A:
Hymnic
Texts
 
 
 
the
Pentateuch
 

Session
B:
Patristics
 
 
 
 
 
the
LXX


IOSCS
Program
39

Session
C:
Textual
Criticism
 
 
  
 
 
 

*
*
*

Plenary
Session
 
 
  

Panel:
Origins
of
LXX
 
 
,
The
Septuagint
and
Oral
Translation
 
 
,
The
Septuagint
and
Scribal
Culture

IOQS
Program
41

Programme of
IOQS Congress
Monday 2 August

Morning
Session
 
Eibert
Tigchelaar

,
Opening
Lecture
 Devorah
Dimant 
 Daniel
Falk
 

 Coffee
Break
 Aharon
Shemesh,
Pesher,
Midrash
and
Other
Exegetical
Terms
in
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls

Revisited
 Sarianna
Metso,
Leviticus
Outside
the
Legal
Genre
in
Writings
from
Qumran

Session
A
 
 John
Kampen
 Peter
Porzig 
Qumran
Scrolls
 Torleif
Elgvin
 Andrea
Ravasco a
and
Biblical
Tradition

 Christian
Seppnena
 Coffee
Break
 Daniel
Machiela
 Hanne
von
Weissenberg
Second
Temple
Period
 Corrado
Martone 

 Esti
Eshel 

Session
B
 
Annette
Steudel
 Bill
Loader,
Sex
and
Conflict
Development
in
Qumran
Literature
 Ren
Enzenauer
 Kamilla
Skarstrm 
   
 Coffee
Break
Alison
Schofield
  ,
Why
Did
the
Community
of
Qumran
Keep
Different
Versions
of
the
Sacrifice

of
Isaac?

 Michael
Lesley

 ,
Temple
and
Purification
Rituals
42

 

Tuesday

Morning
Session
(with
IOSOT)

 Sarianna
Metso
 Sidnie
White
Crawford,
Scribal
Traditions
in
the
Pentateuch
and
the
History
of
the
Early

Second
Temple
Period
 Charlotte
Hempel
 
 Coffee
Break
 Anneli
Aejmelaeus 


Session
A
 
 Daniel
Falk
 Arie
van
der
Kooij
 Harry
Fox
   
of
Smooth
Things
 Francesco
Zanella
the
Substantives
,
,
,
and

 Coffee
Break
 Molly
Zahn
 
 
 ,
The
Rise
of
Biblical
Commentary
in
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls
and
Late
Second

  
 Hans
Debel
 
 

Session
B
 
 Daniel
Stkl
Ben
Ezra
 Jonathan
Ben-Dov
&
Aharon
Shemesh,
Discussion
on
Aharon
Shemesh,
Halakhah
in
the

Making:
The
Development
of
Jewish
Law
from
Qumran
to
the
Rabbis 

 ,
Function
of
 
Sovereign
Rule
of
YHWH
 Mikael
Winninge,
Theology
in
the
Psalms
of
Solomon
in
Comparison
to
Theologies
in
the
Dead


 Ruth
Hendersona 
   
 Coffee
Break
 Esther
Chazon
 Jonathan
Ben-Dov 
 Ingo
Kottsieper,
Exegesis
and
Politics
at
Qumran
 Ingo
Kottsieper,

Annette
Steudel

Qumran
Lexicon

IOQS
Program
43

Panel
Discussion
 


 ,
Beyond
the
Qumran
Community:
The
Sectarian
Movement
of
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls

Alison
Schofield,
From
Qumran
to
the
Yah.ad:
A
New
Paradigm
of
the
Textual
Development
for

the
Community
Rule




Charlotte
Hempel,
Jutta
Jokiranta,
Arie
van
der
Kooij

Wednesday

Session
A
 
 Sidnie
White
Crawford
 Armin
Lange 
Qumran
Library
 Matthias
Weigold,
The
Textual
History
of
Liturgically
Used
Biblical
Passages
in
the
Second

Temple
Period
in
Light
of
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls
 John
Elwolde 

 Peter
Flint,
The
Interpretation
of
Isaiah
at
Qumran
 Coffee
Break
 Bennie
Reynolds,
Whose
History?
The
Sources
for
Ex
Eventu
Prophecies
at
Qumran
and
the


 Samuel
Thomas 
as
a
Mode
of
Perception
in
Qumran
Texts

Session
B
 
 Charlotte
Hempel
 John
Kampen
  
Business
on
the
Sabbath
in
a
Comparative
Context
 Bilhah
Nitzan 


  


 Coffee
Break
 Paul
Heger 
of
Interpretation
 Hannah
Harrington  

*
*
*

Session
A
 
 Armin
Lange
  ,
The
Literary
Constructions
of
the
Speaker
in
the
Hodayot
 Jonathan
Norton


44

 

 

 

 Coffee
Break
 Judith
Newman
 
,
Exploring
Cognitive
Dissonance
at
Qumran
  
Qumran
Community
 Alison
Schofield 

Session
B
 
 Alex
Jassen
 Alexey
(Eliyahu)
Yuditsky



,
Qumran
Language
as
Reflected
in
Biblical
Texts
 Tirzah
Meacham

 Atar
Livneh  
 
 Coffee
Break
 Corrado
Martone
 Hanna
Vanonen
  
Lunisolar
Calendar)
 Hugo
Antonissen 


IOQS
Business
Meeting
 
Business
Meeting
for
all
IOQS
participants

IOMS
Program
45

Programme of IOMS Congress

Monday 2 August

Session
I

 
 Aron
Dotan,
Opening
Remarks
  ,
The
Transmission
of
the
Tradition

E.
Martn
Contreras
and
M.
G.

 
 Tapani
Harviainen 
 Lea
Himmelfarb,
Characteristics
of
the
Masora
Magna
in
the
Aleppo
Codex
 Yosef
Ofer,
The
Terms
Masora
Gedola,
Miqra
Gedola 
. at

Shay

Session
II
 
  
 Aron
Dotan 

 ,
Qere
we-La
Ketiv
 Edson
de
Faria
Francisco,
Representations
and
References
to
the
Tetragrammaton
in
the

Masoretic
Annotations

Session
III
 
 Tapani
Harviainen
 Yochanan
Breuer,
Division
of
Lists
Into
Verses
in
the
Masoretic
Text
 Rachel
Mashiah


,
Vocalization
and
Accentuation
of
the
nifal
Imperfect
Forms
in
the
Masoretic

Text

IOTS
Program
47

Programme of IOTS Congress

Wednesday 4 August

Keynote
Lecture
 
 Steven
Fraade  

Session
I:
Targum
Onqelos
 
 Shamma
Friedman,

 Shai
Heijmans,
About
the
Unreliability
of
the
Vocalization
of
Western
Targum-Manuscripts
 Margaretha
Folmer 
 Dmytro
Tsolin


Session
II:
Genre
 
 Alex
Samely 
 Robert
Hayward
Esther
 Coffee
Break
 Philip
Alexander,
Translation
and
Midrash
Completely
Fused
Together?
The
Form
of
the

Targums
to
Canticles,
Lamentations
and
Eccleasiastes
 Rocco
Bernasconi,
A
Literary
Analysis
of
the
Genesis
Apocryphon
 Break
  

Thursday 5 August

Keynote
Lecture
 
 Avigdor
Shinan
&
Yair
Zakovitch,
Avoiding
Anonymity
in
the
Bible
and
Beyond

Session
III:
Exegesis
 
 Willem
Smelik,
Targum
in
Talmud
 Beatrice
Lawrence   
 Christian
Brady,
The
Figure
of
Boaz
in
TgRuth
 Craig
Morrison,
/G\WY


48

 

Session
IV:
Translation
Strategies
 
 Alinda
Damsma
 

 Bjrn
Olav
Kvam

Exegesis
in
the
Targumim



Session
V:
Questions
of
Method
 
 , 

 Paul
Flesher 

 David
Shepherd,
Can
Anything
Targumic
Come
from
Qumran?
Revisiting
Klaus
Beyers

Targums
of
Tobit
and
Isaiah
 Break
 

IOTS
Business
Meeting
 
Business
Meeting

Friday 6 August

Keynote
Lecture
 
 Dineke
Houtman,
The
Use
of
Paratextual
Elements
in
Targum
Research

Session
VI:
Manuscripts,
Reception
and
Edition
 
 
 Eveline
van
Staalduine-Sulman,
Christian
Targums
in
a
Targum
Edition?

 Hector
Patmore 
 Hans
Van
Nes 

Cultural
Program
49

Cultural Program

Saturday 31 July

Tour
to
Nuuksio
National
Park


 
 

  

 

Sunday 1 August

IOSOT
Opening
Ceremony



Esa
Ruuttunen
(Soloist),
Pekka
Kiiski
(Cello)
&
Ruut
Kiiski
(Piano)
  Evening
(Illalle)
     
from
the
Opera
The
Last
Temptations
Viimeiset
kiusaukset)

Thomas
Wilhelmsson,
Rector
of
the
University
of
Helsinki

The
Opening
of
the
Congress
of
the
IOSOT

Arie
van
der
Kooij,
Secretary
of
the
IOSOT
  

Esa
Ruuttunen
(Soloist),
Pekka
Kiiski
(Cello)
&
Ruut
Kiiski
(Piano)
  
Elijah


 

Raija
Sollamo,
President
of
the
IOSOT
 
  

After
the
Ceremony,
Rector
Thomas
Wilhelmsson
invites
the
participants
to
the
University
of
Helsinki


Reception.
50

 

Monday 2 August

Helsinki
City
Reception
 
Prior
enrolment
required
at
the
registration.

Tuesday 3 August

Concert
by
Chur
de
Barytons

 
and
Gregorian
Chants
connected
to
organ
music
of
the
same
period.
The
singers
of
the
ensemble
are


 
   
master-classes
in
Spain,
Germany
and
Holland.
At
present,
Suikkanen
is
the
organist
of
The
Old
Church
in

Helsinki,
and
teaches
organ
improvisation
at
the
Sibelius
Academy.
Prior
enrolment
required
at
the
registration.

Ecumenical
Reception
 
Reception
is
hosted
by
Bishop
Eero
Huovinen
(The
Evangelical
Lutheran
Church
of
Finland),
Metropolitan

Ambrosius
(Finnish
Orthodox
Church),
Bishop
Teemu
Sippo
(Catholic
Church
in
Finland)
and
Leader
of
the

Congregation
(emeritus)
Valtter
Luoto
(Pentecostal
Congregation
Saalem
in
Helsinki).

Prior
enrolment
required
at
the
registration.

Art
Exhibition
in
the
Crypt
 

student
of
theology.
She
has
studied
theology
for
four
years
at
the
University
of
Helsinki
and
majors
in
the



painted
portraits.
Throughout
the
years
her
variety
of
themes
and
styles
have
expanded,
a
good
example

 -
 
 
 
imitate
them.
Rather,
the
style
of
the
paintings
comes
from
our
present
day.
I
have
sought
to
be
loyal
to

 

Cultural
Program
51

Wednesday 4 August



 
  
 
 
  
 
musical
performance
by
the
couple
hosting
the
museum.

 

 

 
 
 
  



 

Thursday 5 August

Congress
Dinner

Please,
make
your
reservation
at
online
registration.


52

 

What to See in Helsinki?


Friends Tips

 
 
Helsinki
and
has
lived
here
most
of
her
life.

     



as
many
Finns
do.
Start
from
the
University
and

         
         -
nade
park.
(If
you
have
plenty
of
time,
include
tip

 

       
        
        
by
the
sea.
 -
 
               
   
   


         
      
     


restaurants,
small
galleries
and
a
museum
on
the

island.
       -
        -
     
       -
     
-
Suomenlinna
Sea
Fortress   lery
Ateneum
and
the
Museum
of
Contemporary

Image
Oy.
 -

Cultural
Program
53

eneum,
besides
the
collection
of
Finnish
masterpieces,
there
is
a
special
exhibition
in
August
that
illustrates

 
       -
theran
and
Orthodox
Cathedrals.
The
Lutheran

Cathdral
is
just
one
block
from
the
Porthania
build-
         -


           



Paul
Williams

 
 
         
 
 
     
stadion)
is
the
place
for
you.
It
is
also
Kirsis
favour-




love
the
amusement
park
Linnanmki.
 

everything
you
need,
including
Finnish
design
and

     
book
store
in
Finland,
and
the
Market
Hall
near
by


          

Kaisaniemi
street.

Marketta
Liljestrm

The
source
of
the
photographs:


 
54

 

Churches and Synagogue in Helsinki


Catholic
Churches
  
   
  
 
 

   
  
 
 
  
 

Lutheran
Churches
Cathedral,

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Caf
Crypt
Mikael
Agricola
Church
 
Old
Church 
 
 
 
  
 
Temppeliaukio
Church
(Church
in
the
Rock)
  
   

Orthodox
Church
Uspenski
Orthodox
Cathedral 
  
 
 
 

Synagogue
Helsinki
Synagoga
 
 
  

IOSOT
Abstracts
55

Abstracts

IOSOT
Abstracts
57

Abstracts of the IOSOT Congress

GABY
A BOUSAMRA
tic servitors; that they performed more menial tasks
Universit Saint-Esprit de Kaslik, Lebanon
associated with the tent of meetings cult; that they
Phoenician
Inscriptions
on
Jars
and
Arrowheads were responsible for some kind of ritual music-mak-
Archaeological objects, newly discovered in Leba- ing; that they were agents of some sort of inappropri-
non, 3 Jars and 6 arrowheads bearing phoenician ate sexual activity; that they were the wives of the tent
inscriptions, will be presented in the IOSOT 2010 of meetings priests. In this paper, though, I follow
congress. In my lecture I will discuss the names, a line of interpretation intimated already in Jeromes
the functions and the titles of persons painted and Vulgate, by understanding the women as mediating
graved on these objects. These names and titles will agents who safeguard the tent of meetings entrance.
be explained in comparaison with others attested Their mirrors, under the terms of this interpretation,
in the Holy Bible (The Old Testament): Onomastic are apotropaic in function, able to protect from de-
study comparing the Phoenician and Hebrew simi- mons and ghosts both those who possessed them and
ODULW\DQGLQXHQFH those whom their possessors sought to keep safe.
)HPDOH JXUHV KROGLQJ GUXPV DUH DOVR DWWHVWHG RF-
FDVLRQDOO\ DQNLQJ WKH HQWUDQFHV RI PRGHO VKULQHV
    from the Iron Age Levant, and these women, I will
Westflische Wilhelms-Universitt, Germany DUJXHDUHDOVRJXDUGLDQJXUHVZKRXVHWKHLUGUXPV
Post-Deuteronomistic
Layers
in
the
Book
of
to protect their shrines inhabitants. Similarly, I will
Deuteronomy? propose that the tree-shaped columns with which the
The discussion about the literary strata in the Book DQNLQJ IHPDOHV FDQ EH DVVRFLDWHG RQ RWKHU PRGHO
of Deuteronomy in correlation to the dtr Books of VKULQHVFDQEHXQGHUVWRRGDVJXDUGLDQJXUHV7KLV
Joshua, Judges and Samuel-Kings on the one hand interpretation has implications for our understanding
and to the formation of the Pentateuch on the other of the goddess Asherah and her association with tree
has become part of scholarly debate during the last iconography.
years. The question What ist Deuteronomistic?
cannot be answered without an intrinsic analysis of
WKH LQQHU VWUDWLFDWLRQ RI 'HXWHURQRP\ LWVHOI 7KH   
recent suggestion of Karel van der Toorn to dicern University of Helsinki, Finland
four editions of the Book (Covenant edition, Torah 


edition, Historical edition, Wisdom edition) is too 
simple, because the problem where we should asume Textual study of Samuel Kings has experienced
the origin of the parenetic texts correlating historical a revolution since the discoveries in the Judean
and Torah-teaching is not really solved. The paper is Desert. Whereas the Hebrew manuscripts of Samuel
going to make a proposal on that concern. IURP4XPUDQFRQUPZKDWKDGEHHQUHDVRQHGEH-
fore, namely, that the Vorlage of the Septuagint was
largely different from the MT, it is the Greek Minor
 Prophets scroll from Naal ever as unexpected as
Dartmouth College, USA epochmaking that has provided the missing link,
Mirrors,
Drums,
and
Trees a key to many puzzles even within the historical
,Q([RGDQGSRVVLEO\6DPZHQGUHIHU- books, as recognized by Barthlemy. Early Jewish
ences to women who served at the entrance to the revision of the Septuagint according to the MT the
tent of meeting; Exod 38:8 further reports that the Kaige Recension, as named by Barthlemy ex-
women possessed mirrors. Yet the Bible gives us no plains the differences in Greek translation between
additional information about these women. Com- the various parts of Samuel Kings. It has become
mentators, however, have put forward a variety of more than obvious that the Hebrew and Greek textu-
possibilities: that the women were some sort of cul- al histories cannot be studied separately any longer.
58

 

 
What is the problem with 1 Samuel then? According
Cambridge University, United Kingdom
to Barthlemy, 1 Samuel is part of the Old Greek
and untouched by the Kaige Recension. This is  
clearly a notion that is in need of revision. 1 Samuel There are a number of words (including those from
DOVR FRQWDLQV WH[WXDO SUREOHPV WKDW QG WKHLU VROX- the roots br, dn, mn) that are usually glossed as
tion only through attribution of certain readings to simply fat in Hebrew lexicons. However, the cul-
the Kaige Recension, which characteristically dif- tural connotations of fat in our own culture and that
fers from the later Christian recensions by Origen RIDQFLHQW,VUDHOPD\ZHOOEHVLJQLFDQWO\GLIIHUHQW
and Lucian. Some of these early recensional read- 7KLV HOG WKHUHIRUH LV LGHDO IRU DQ LQYHVWLJDWLRQ RI
ings are parallel to secured Kaige-phenomena, and what evidence can be provided by a study of the
some correct the Greek text according to a changed V\QWDJPDWLFV DQG WKH VHPDQWLF HOG DSSURDFKHV
Hebrew text. It is the latter type of correction that adopted by the Semantics of Ancient Hebrew data-
should interest researchers of the Deuteronomistic base project. Through close attention to the contexts
History, all the more so since they mostly occur in XVHGDQGWRUHODWLRQVEHWZHHQWKHZRUGVLQWKHHOG
Vaticanus, the manuscript that serves as the basis for ZHZLOORIIHUQXDQFHGGHQLWLRQVRIHDFKZRUGDQG
most editions of the Septuagint. thus derive some conclusions on their cultural sig-
QLFDWLRQV

SHMUEL
A HITUV
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel  
The
Kuntillet
Ajrud
Inscriptions:
Language
University of Mnster, Germany
 Deuteronomistic
History


Kuntillet
Ajrud
Inscriptions and
the
Heritage
of
the
Prophets
Now that our study of the Kuntillet Ajrud inscrip- The ratio of the Deuteronomistic literature in the He-
tions is completed, and will be soon published, it is brew Bible to the heritage of the prophets appears
a proper time to bring to the public the results of our to be contradictory: On the one hand, the Deuter-
study. It became quite clear that all the inscriptions onomistic History, although it mentions several
were written in Hebrew, although in two different prophets, totally ignores all the classical prophets
scripts: Hebrew and Phoenician. The inscriptions in of doom known from the prophetical books; Klaus
Hebrew script were written in the northern dialect, Koch has strikingly spoken of a Profetenschwei-
as spoken and written by the people inhabiting the gen of the Deuteronomistic History. On the other
kingdom of Israel, but those in Phoenician script hand, Deuteronomistic redactors, who shared sever-
UHSUHVHQW WKH -XGHDQ GLDOHFW 7KH XHQF\ RI WKH al theological topics and many phrases with the au-
ZULWLQJWKHVW\OHDQG[HGHSLVWRODU\IRUPXODVDQG thors of DtrH, edited several books of the classical
blessings, and the high quality of the poetic texts, prophets, such as the book of Jeremiah, the Book of
in such a small peripherial site like Kuntillet Ajrud, the Four (including Hosea, Amos, Micah, and Zeph-
testify to the level of literacy in Israel and Judah in aniah) and the book of Proto-Zechariah (Zech 18);
ca. 800 BCE. As to religion, it seems that the peo- they obviously indented to keep and foster the herit-
ple who composed the texts, whether from Israel or age of the classical prophets. New investigations
from Judah, shared a common religion, and adhered on the prophetical books mentioned above (by Jakob
to the worship of YHWH. Onomastics, as well as the Whrle and others) have detected that they all show
blessing formulas and the poetic texts allude to the WKHLULQGLYLGXDOWKHRORJLFDOVKDSHDQGWKHLUVSHFLF
monotheistic tendency of the composers of the texts. political interest, which do not only differ from the
As expected, special treatment is dedicated to the Deuteronomistic History, but sometimes also ex-
place of the asherah in the Kuntillet Ajrud inscrip- plicitly oppose it. The lecture will elaborate the com-
tions, as well as in the inscriptions from Makkedah mon ground of and the main differences between the
(Khirbet el Qom), in the light of biblical texts. Deuteronomistic History and the Deuteronomis-
ticly edited prophetical books and will plead for dis-
tinguishing several Deuteronomistic groups in Judah
and the Diaspora during the 6th and early 5th century,
which are all shaped by a theology and phraseol-

IOSOT
Abstracts
59

ogy developed from Deuteronomy in some way, but werden heute kontrovers diskutiert: Sowohl die
widely differ in their locations, their societal orienta- neuere Forschung zum DtrG als auch die redakti-
tions, and their political interests. onsgeschichtliche Erforschung der Prophetenbcher
in den letzten Jahrzehnten ergeben ein ganz anderes
Bild. Erstens soll anhand der beiden Prophetenb-
ELIE
A SSIS cher Jesaja und Jeremia gezeigt werden, da der
Bar Ilan University, Israel Begriff der deuteronomistischen Redaktion un-
The
Function
of
Elijah
in
the
Vision
of
Malachi geeignet ist, um die Entstehungsgeschichte dieser
Malachi, as many other biblical prophets, deals with Bcher und ihr theologisches Milieu angemessen zu
the concept of the Day of the Lord. However, Mala- beschreiben. Und zweitens sollen die sogenannten
chi is the only prophet that introduces the idea of deuteronomistischen Stcke theologiegeschichtlich
the coming of Elijah before that Day. This raises two nher beschrieben werden.
TXHVWLRQVZK\GRHVWKLVLGHDDSSHDUIRUWKHUVWWLPH
in the prophecy of Malachi, while it is absent from
all the rest of the prophecies that speak of the Day of   
Lord? And what exactly is the function of Elijah? Faculty of Catholic Theology, Tilburg University,
,WZLOOEHFODLPHGWKDWWKHZRUGVRI0DODFKLUHHFW The Netherlands
the way the people coped with their disappointment What
about
Apocalypticism


that Davidic monarchy was not restored in the sec- in
the
Book
of
Ben
Sira?
ond temple period. When this messianic hope was The remarkable twofold appearance of Enoch in the
shelved, it did not disappear. Rather, the monarchic Praise of the Famous (Sir 44:16; 49:14) immediate-
element was exchanged for an expectation for the ly raises the question of in what way Ben Sira intro-
coming of a messiah-prophet who would complete duced this famous apocalyptic hero into his highly
the process of the redemption of the people. This theological outline of Israels history. Thereafter the
LGHD ZLOO EH H[SORUHG LQ GHWDLO DV UHHFWHG LQ WKH question of a possible relationship between 1 Enoch
Book of Malachi. and the Book of Ben Sira is to be investigated. Among
scholars there is a vivid debate whether Ben Sira had
acquaintance with such apocalyptic traditions and,
UWE
B ECKER if so, to what extent he has used them or criticized
Friedrich-Schiller-Universitt Jena, Germany them in his book of wisdom. First, this paper will
Die
sogenannte
deuteronomistische
Redaktion
present an overview of various opinions relating to
der
Prophetenbcher the Enoch passages in the Book of Ben Sira. Second,
Seit dem Aufkommen der redaktionsgeschichtlichen some vital passages in the Book of Ben Sira will be
Fragestellung vor etwa 50 Jahren rechnet man bei examined that might shed light on Ben Siras pos-
einer Reihe von Prophetenbchern (zum Beispiel sible dealing with apocalyptic issues. In addition to
bei Hosea, Amos, Micha und Jeremia) mit einer dtr that, the so-called autobiographical passages of the
Redaktion: Sie habe die ltere Prophetenberliefe- book (Sir 24:3034; 33:1619; 39:1214) should not
rung im Geiste des Deuteronomiums und der davon EHRYHUORRNHGLQRUGHUWRQGDFDXWLRXVDQVZHU
abhngigen Bcher bearbeitet und herausgegeben.
Dabei werden in der Regel zwei Voraussetzungen
gemacht: (1) Man geht bis in die Gegenwart weit-  
gehend von einem einfachen und einlinigen Bild des University of Alberta, Canada
Deuteronomistischen aus beschrnkt sich in aller Remembering
Abraham
in
the
Late
Persian
/

Regel auf das Kriterium des Sprachbeweises. (2) Early
Hellenistic
Period
Man bezieht sich methodisch immer noch auf das The memory of Abraham served as a central site of
Modell Martin Noths zur Entstehung des deuterono- memory that encapsulated and evoked a large number
mistischen Geschichtswerkes (DtrG) zurck, indem of core issues and images in the discourse of the Jeru-
man die dtr Redaktion als eine literarisch weitge- salem-centered community of the late Persian/Early
hend einheitliche, zeitlich exakt in das 6. Jahrhun- Hellenistic period (e.g., ancestry, YHWHs selection
dert datierbare und zudem buchbergreifende Be- of Israel, promise of land, promise of progeny, pow-
arbeitungsschicht beurteilt. Beide Voraussetzungen erlessness, obedience to YHWH, temple, Jerusalem,
60

 

Torah, the sharp contrast between reality and prom- anschlieenden Vergleich mit zwei exemplarischen
ise and its communicative/ideological meaning, col- prophetischen Texten, Jer 4:2326 und Jes 13:913,
laboration with and ideological resistance to cent- in denen das Motiv der Rcknahme der Schpfung
ers of power). In addition the memory of Abraham HEHQIDOOVEHJHJQHW]HLJWVLFKGDVVSH]LHOOH3UROYRQ
served to bind several other core sites of memory Hi 3:39 noch deutlicher. Mgliche Auswirkungen
for the community together (e.g., Exodus, Return, einer solchen Lektre stehen schlielich zur Debatte.
Egypt, Mesopotamia) into a discursive network in So lsst sich erstens nach Folgerungen fr Hinter-
which each site informed and shaped the other. This grund und Deutung dieser und zahlreicher anderer
paper will explore also tendencies towards prefer- innerbiblischer Bezugnahmen im Hiobbuch fragen.
ence and dis-preference of certain motifs in Abra- Zweitens ergibt sich mit Hi 3:39 als Gegenwort zu
hams memory and explore what these can tell us *HQDHLQHDQGHUH=HLFKQXQJGHU+LREJXU
about the world of the remembering community. in Hi 3, samt Konsequenzen fr die dramaturgische
Entwicklung der Dialogdichtung. Die Frage, was
Hiob mit der Schpfung zu tun habe, beantwortet

  
drittens und letztens ein Blick auf die Gottesreden
University of Leipzig, Germany and University of als Antwort auf das Hiobproblem, die als einen As-
Stellenbosch, South-Africa pekt ihrer Lsung seinen Angriff auf die Schpfung
The
Assyrians
in
the
West:
Indifference,
zurckweisen.
Colonialism
or
Development
Policy?
Referring to the main archaeological and textual
sources the paper will evaluate the means of Assyr- PHYLLIS
B IRD
ian imperial policy in the West in order to clarify the Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary, USA
question if the Assyrian empire had a mission, a 
SUROHGUHOLJLRXVHFRQRPLFDODQGRUPLOLWDU\VWUDWH- Prostitution
at
Byblos
gy or not. It will be shown how the Assyrians coordi- The oldest source for the sacred prostitution that
nated their actions with the local given facts and pre- biblical textbooks have made a characteristic fea-
vailing conditions in order to get the best results. ture of Canaanite fertility religion is a second
A look on the rights of a deportee may indicate the century CE travelogue known as The Syrian God-
discrepancy between idea/ideology and reality. dess (De Syria dea), attributed to the satirist and
rhetorician Lucian of Samosata. Lucian prefaces
his account of the cult of Hierapolis with a report
 on the other Syrian temples that he has visited
Friedrich-Alexander-Universitt or learned of in his travels, imitating Herodotus in
Erlangen-Nrnberg, Germany tone and dialect. His most elaborate account is of
 the Adonis rites performed at the great sanctuary of

o
Aphrodite in Byblos. As part of the mourning ritu-
zu
deren
Konsequenzen als, he reports, the Byblians shaved their heads. But
Mit Hi 3:39 beginnt die Erffnungsklage der Hi- the women who refused to shave were required to
REGLFKWXQJ 'DEHL EHJHJQHW ]X$QIDQJ GHU 9HUX- stand for a day offering themselves to strangers for
chung des Geburtstags Hiobs der Ausruf Jener Tag payment that became an offering to Aphrodite. This
sei Finsternis! Zufall? Wenn nein, was haben sole reference from Byblos, and sole evidence for
denn Hiobs Leben und die Schpfung miteinander Phoenicia prior to Eusebius fourth century report
zu tun? Dieser Beitrag versucht anhand von Querbe- on Heliopolis, established sacred prostitution in
zgen zu Gen 1:12:4a den Nachweis, dass Hi 3:39 its assumed homeland and provided its only link
als Gegentext zum ersten Schpfungsbericht und als to the cult of a dying-and-rising-god, lacking in all
Angriff auf die Schpfung zu lesen ist und fragt nach other references. This paper sets Lucians account
Konsequenzen einer solchen Lesart. Zuerst werden in the context of other accounts of Adonis rites,
dazu wesentliche Querbezge zwischen Hi 3:39 prostitution in honor of Aphrodite, and Lucians
und Gen 1:12:4a dargestellt sowie die jeweilige own report on the Ashtart temple of Sidon, to argue
Gesamttendenz der Textabschnitte verglichen. Im

IOSOT
Abstracts
61

that Lucian, in parody of Herodotus, made Byblos gument, and which may not be in possession of the
Babylon West. addressees. This collection is thus no more a canon
than the sum of all citations in a modern article. It is
a collection based on circumstantial and occasional
    needs and desires.
United Bible Societies, The Netherlands
Where
Semantics
and
Syntax
Intersect:


The
Story
of
WILLEM
B OSHOFF
This paper discusses the role that syntax can play University of South Africa
in the semantic analysis of a Hebrew lexeme. The Epigraphic
Sources
and
Israelite
and
Judean

VSHFLF VXEMHFW RI WKLV VWXG\ LV WKH YDOHQFH RI WKH Religion:
Did
the
Histories
of
Israelite
Religions

Hebrew root , commonly glossed as send. and
the
Theologies
of
the
Old
Testament

Even though the different meanings of this root can Converge
during
the
Last
Two
Decades?
EHGHWHUPLQHGZLWKOLWWOHGLIFXOW\GXHWRLWVIUHTXHQW 6LQFH WKH HDUO\ V VHYHUDO VLJQLFDQW PRQR-
occurrence in the Old Testament texts, a study of the graphs on the history of the religion(s) of Israel were
valence of this verb can be very informative. It in- published (Smith, 1990; De Moor, 1990; Keel &
forms us about subtle nuances of meaning in certain Uehlinger, 1992; Albertz, 1992; Zevit, 2001; Hess,
passages that can be easily overlooked, such as iro- 2007). For a while it seemed as though Histories
ny, disdain, etc. In this paper the entire range of lexi- of Israelite Religion have supplanted Theologies
cal meanings of will be presented, with special of the Old Testament as the systematic overviews
focus on valence. Then a number of apparent excep- RI DFWLYLW\ LQ WKH HOG RI 2OG 7HVWDPHQW VWXGLHV
tions will be discussed and an effort will be made to However, recently Theologies of the Old Testament
explain why they may not be exceptions at all. (Preuss, 1992, Goldingay (2003, 2006, 2009) were
published, reclaiming the ground the theologians
seem to have lost to the historians of religion. It is
   common knowledge that archaeology is the most
University of Helsinki, Finland SUROLFVRXUFHRIQHZPDWHULDOUHOHYDQWWRWKHVWXG\

of the Old Testament. One type of artifact relevant
Tell
Us
about
the
Canon? for religion-historical and theological studies alike
Many scholars have used two verses from an epis- is epigraphic sources that are sporadically excavated
tle appended to the main body of 2 Maccabees to and drawn into the scholarly debates. Ever since the
suggest a canon, proto-canon, or body of scripture Mesha Stele came onto the scene, epigraphic sources
is present already during the Hasmonean era and have dominated deliberations on religion and the ve-
even before. This paper questions such conclusions racity of the Bible when they emerged. Epigraphic
by investigating the background and contents of VRXUFHVDUHSURQHWRIRUJHU\GXHWRWKHLUVLJQLFDQFH
the epistle, using both historical-critical and rhe- and therefore archaeologists often frown upon the
torical methods. This investigation concludes that HPHUJHQFH RI VXFK QGV LQ WKH DQWLTXLW\ PDUNHW
it is rather more likely that the collections of books without clear archaeological provenance. Both His-
gathered by both Nehemiah and Judas Maccabeus tories of Israelite Religions(s) and Theologies of
are nationally edifying proof-texts for the customs the Old Testament endeavor to describe the dynam-
argued for in the epistle. Further, it is clear from the ics of Israelite and Judean cult and religion, taking
statements in 2 Maccabees 2:1314 that the collec- cognizance of historical developments and recently
tion assembled by Nehemiah and Judas would be acquired information. I will study the monographs
vastly different from any later notions of canon in and epigraphic sources and try to establish whether
the Judaeo-Christian tradition. These texts are not there was a convergence on the issues regarding epi-
EHLQJRIIHUHGWRWKHDGGUHVVHHVDVWKHRIFLDOZRUG graphical sources in Histories and Theologies.
(whether of God, or of the temple authorities in Je-
rusalem), but as evidence for the practices, which
the epistle is advocating being ancient. Our hypoth-
esis is that the author of the epistle is simply citing
works that s/he believes support his/her overall ar-
62

 

    MIRI
B RUMER
University of Pretoria, South Africa University of Haifa, Israel
Freedom
to
Roam
in
a
Wide
Open
Space:

Between
Passion
Drugs
and
Plague
Healing:


  The
Use
of
Incense
Plants
in
Holy
and
in
Secular

of
David
in
the
Books
of
Samuel
and
the
Psalms in
Ancient
Israel
3VDOPKDVEHHQGHVFULEHGDVDFRQDWLRQRIKHWHU- Incense that was burned in the Temple, as part of the
ogeneous elements from various other texts. Taking ritual, to create a soothing aroma, as its memorial
the redactional heading, Psalm of David, at face RIIHULQJWRWKH/RUGLVDFWXDOO\XVHGWRIXOOORWKHU
value, this paper investigates the intertextual con- important roles like avoiding the stench, disinfec-
nections between Psalm 31 and the history of David tion, and avoiding diseases, using the varied ability
in the books of Samuel, concentrating especially on of the incense plants, despite the fact that there was
the poetic frame of Samuel in the Song of Hannah no explanation for this in the Bible. In this paper I
in 1 Sam 2 and the song of salvation of David in 2 VKDOO H[SODLQ VRPH RI WKLV XVHV LQ D VFLHQWLF ZD\
Sam 22 (Ps 18). It seems that the psalm as well as through comprehension that the aromatic resins con-
the history of David has been edited to enhance the tains many substances which the plants produce for
interconnectedness between the two corpora. their survival and can be used by us in the same way.
When Aaron burned incense and stood between the
living and the dead, he stoped the plague among the
   people. Allegedly, a religious ceremony of atone-
Bar Ilan University, Israel ment, but actually burning incense provided protec-
Judgment
by
the
People:

tion for the healthy from infection from the sickly.
Popular
Involvement
in
the
Judicial
Process (Num 16:4648). The aromatic resins, that were pro-
According to the prevailing approach in the Bible, duced from various plants, used as a present that de-
the judicial process is entrusted, at least partially, scribed as the best products of the land when they
to the people. In two cases the offender was ex- sent by Jacob with his sons to Joseph in Egypt. The
ecuted by stoning: a blasphemer (Lev 24:1016) Queen of Sheba brought them to King Solomon and
and someone who gathered wood on the Sabbath their price was measured in gold. In Song of Songs;
(Num 15:3236). Biblical criminal procedures also Ps 45:9; Prov 7:17 and Esth 2:12, they are used to
contain various ordinances that involve the people please and as seducing perfume. The extensive space
in the judicial process: the murderer stands trial be- the Bible devotes to the description of using incense,
fore the community; the community tries or shelters WHVWLHVWKDWWKLVXVDJHZDVDGDLO\SUDFWLFHDQGWKH
the involuntary homicide (Num 35:12, 2425; Josh ritual utilization was derived from the secular one.
20:69); and a maiden who fornicated in the course This paper will show how and why.
of her betrothal, before her marriage, was stoned
by her fellow citizens (Deut 22:2021). There are
other similar examples. According to the Biblical CALUM
C ARMICHAEL
approach, the judicial process is a popular one, and Cornell University, USA
central aspects of it are entrusted to the people. This  
is the accepted approach in the pre-Biblical litera-  

ture as well, for example, in the laws of the Kumran A disturbing event in the life of the nations found-
sect. Scholars oppose this approach. In the halachic ing father occurred when Jacob, in order to steal his
midrashim (homiletic interpretations of the Bible), brother Esaus blessing and birthright, dealt falsely
they criticize the popular approach and strive to in- by deceiving their blind father Isaac while bringing
stitutionalize the legal process. The Tannaim remove him a meat dish. Jacob lied about his identity when,
the judicial authority from the hands of the masses claiming to be Esau, he swore a false oath stating
and transfer it to the judicial authority. Nevertheless, that Yahweh his God granted him success in obtain-
because the sages do not wish to cancel the Biblical ing the meat. Jacob was successful in obtaining the
law, they recommend an intermediary approach for EHQHW KH VRXJKW *HQ   7KH VHTXHQFH RI UXOHV
the judicial process, which contains a mixture of in- in Lev 19:1112 theft, false dealing, lying, swear-
stitutional and popular ingredients. ing falsely by Yahwehs name, and profaning Gods

IOSOT
Abstracts
63

name critiques in a quite precise way the patri- occurs. God reveals himself through sterility and
archs behavior. in sterilitity. The originality and the notion of spe-
FLFLW\LQWKHELEOLFDOLGHDRIVWHULOLW\LQP\SRLQWRI
view, lie in this cyclical property, which breaks the
DAVID
M.
C ARR
sterility circumscription and negative orientation.
Union Theological Seminary, USA The Bible presents sterility as a transitory state, an
 
area for individual and corporate transformation of
Biblical
Studies:
Actual
and
Potential status. In an ideological system, such as ancient Isra-
Intertextuality as concept and term has played an els, where contractual relations replace natural rela-
increasingly important role in recent biblical studies. tions, sterility functions as a powerful symbol of the
In particular, a number of studies of the formation of relationship among men and between men and God.
+HEUHZ ELEOLFDOWH[WVKDYHEHHQLQXHQFHGE\DQ And this may be the reason why sterile matriarchs
accumulation of theories regarding intertextual de- traditions were continually re-interpreted, from the
pendence of certain texts on others. This presentation 10th century B.C.E. until the 1st century C.E., and
will engage these developments on two fronts. First, could be adapted to new contexts and make sense to
it will explore methodological issues surrounding distinct communities, particularly in times of crisis
the use of theories regarding the dependence of one and transition.
WH[WRQDQRWKHU DOOXVLRQRULQXHQFHLQOLWHUDU\
studies) in study of the formation of the Bible. Sec-
ond, the presentation will outline ways the concept    
of intertextuality as developed in literary studies 8QLYHUVLW\RI6KHIHOG8QLWHG.LQJGRP
goes far beyond such ideas of textual dependence The
State
of
the
Text
of
Job
and illustrate how this distinctive concept might be In the hope of making some well-founded gener-
used to great effect in contemporary scholarship on alizations about the state of the text of the Hebrew
the Hebrew Bible. Bible as a whole, I have analysed my own textual
decisions in my commentary on the Book of Job
(Word Biblical Commentary, 1989, 2006, 2010). I
  believe that I have taken a fairly conservative ap-
The University of So Paulo, Brasil proach to the text, adopting emendations only when
The
Meaning
of
Sterility
in
the
Patriarchal
Cycle the Masoretic text seemed impossible. Nevertheless
This paper focuses on the concept of sterility as ide- I have accepted some 238 emendations (56 of them
DOL]HGLQWKHELEOLFDOWH[WDQGH[HPSOLHGLQWKHVWR- requiring only an alteration of the vowels). Further-
ries of Sarah and Abraham, Rebecca, Leah, Rachel more, while not being easily persuaded of proposals
and Jacob. My analysis of these stories leads to the for what I call new words that is, words that do
hypothesis that sterility is one of the foundational not appear in the lexicon of Brown-Driver-Briggs,
themes of Israels ancient past, by condensing some but put forward by more recent scholars usually on
of the main obstacles inherent to the emergency of a the basis of cognates in other Semitic languages-I
people who believe to be guided by God. This new QG WKDW , KDYH DFFHSWHG  VXFK SURSRVDOV  RI
perspective on sterility was achieved by focusing on them requiring no emendation of the Masoretic
the spectrum of meanings of the Hebrew root qr, text). In most cases, proposals of new words obvi-
which includes infertility and uprooting; these, added ated emendation of the text, and if I had not accepted
to famine in the land, are experiences that will shape any new words, I would doubtless have adopted
the religious conscience of Israel. This approach am- some 60 extra emendations. Since the Book of Job
SOLHVWKHSHUFHSWLRQRIVWHULOLW\LQWKH+HEUHZ%LEOH contains some 8344 words and is therefore c. 2.7%
as it emerges from the text as a state of deprivation, of the Hebrew Bible (c. 305,000 words), if I were to
in opposition to the contents of the divine oath to the QG DQ HTXLYDOHQW QXPEHU RI SUREOHPV LQ WKH WH[W
patriarchs (progeny and land). But even enclosing of the Hebrew Bible generally, I would be accepting
the properties of lack of productivity, weakness and some 8800 emendations and some 2185 occurrences
death, which have a negative value, biblical sterility, of new words. It is perhaps not generally recog-
as I discuss in this paper, is not a closed circle, but an nized that the text of the Hebrew Bible is open to
open space to potentiality, where divine revelation question at so many points.
64

 

 
content of lexical entries in the context of the lexi-
University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
cons historical milieu.
The
Profile
and
Theology




The OG of Job is one sixth shorter than the Mas-     
soretic text and is one of the more freely translated University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
units in the corpus of Septuagint translations. Since Scribal
Traditions
in
the
Pentateuch
and


the translator interpreted his parent text, it opens the the
History
of
the
Early
Second
Temple
Period
possibility to determine theological aspects con- The discovery and publication of the Dead Sea Scrolls
cerning this unit. As is the case with LXX Proverbs, Pentateuch manuscripts in the twentieth century has
another less faithful translation, this Greek version forced textual scholars to reconsider the old division
DOVRKDVDXQLTXHDQGGLIIHUHQWSUROHFRPSDUHGWR of Pentateuch texts into three main recensions: the
the MT version. In Job 1, for example, the transla- Masoretic Text, the Septuagint, and the Samaritan
tor renders the parent text creatively. On the one Pentateuch. This tripartite division has broken down
hand, he clears God from direct involvement in the under the weight of the new manuscript evidence.
maltreatment of Job. In conjunction with this the I will argue that, rather than attempting to classify
fundamental goodness and omnipotence of God is the Pentateuch manuscripts according to recension,
stressed. On the other hand, Job is depicted as an we consider them as products of different scribal
astute saint, he is blameless, genuine, religious, stay- schools with different approaches to the scriptural
ing away from every evil thing (verse 8). This article text. I will then examine whether it is possible to tie
ZLOOGHPRQVWUDWHWKHXQLTXHSUROHRI2*-RELGHQWL- these different scribal schools into other political-so-
HGLQ&KDSWHUVDQG7KHWKHRORJL- cial-religious groupings in the late Persian and early
FDOLPSOLFDWLRQVRIWKLVSUROHZLOOEHGHWHUPLQHG$ Hellenistic periods.
contextual approach will be followed. One example
to be discussed is the question whether references to
the life after death and ressurrection are in fact found C.
L.
C ROUCH
in this book. University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Adapting
the
Cosmological
Tradition


in
Deutero-Isaiah
  
It has long been noted that Deutero-Isaiah employs
Charles Sturt University, Australia creation language to reiterate the authority and pow-
Take
one
Hebrew
Lexicon,
add
Fresh
Theology
er of Yhwh. Similarly, the characterization of Yhwh
   as king is a recognized component of the Deutero-
  Isaianic message. The extent to which these empha-
Lexicons are cultural artefacts and as such are im- ses derive from the importance of a cosmological
pacted by the society and the ideology from which interpretive matrix for pre-exilic Judahite military
they are birthed. Lexicographers often wrestle with encounters, however, has not yet been recognized.
what should and shouldnt be included in lexical en- This paper is an examination of how Deutero-Isaiah
tries and each age answers this question differently. re-works the national theological traditions to cope
In the mid 1700s a theological movement founded with a situation precipitated by war. I discuss the
by John Hutchinson inspired the production of a traditional Judahite approach to military encounters,
number of HebrewEnglish lexicons and these in especially its connection to Yhwhs roles as war-
turn caused other lexicographers to respond in oppo- rior, king and creator, and then examine the ways
sition. The lexical entries in all these lexicons tell a in which Deutero-Isaiah adapts it to a changed na-
fascinating story of a theological discussion carried tional experience. This leads to the conclusion that
out through lexicons for nearly 100 years, but they Deutero-Isaiah has abandoned the traditional render-
also cause us to ask the question again: What is ac- ing of the Chaoskampf, in order to retain the char-
ceptable material for a dictionary entry? This paper acteristics of Yhwh necessary to persuade the exiles
gives a brief history of the Hutchinsonian debate and of Yhwhs power to save while acknowledging the
its impact on HebrewEnglish lexicons for the next changed historical situation. Though Yhwh remains
century, in order to again raise the question of the warrior, king and creator, these are no longer caus-

IOSOT
Abstracts
65

GRAHAM
D AVIES
ally connected. As a result, though their king had
Cambridge University, United Kingdom
fallen, the exiles could retain their trust in the power
of Yhwh as the creator of the universe and as divine An
Overview
of
the
Words
for


king. Having persuaded his audience of this, Deute- 
ro-Isaiah was free to proceed in the latter half of the Salvation is here understood as removal from a
ERRNWRWKHFRQGHQWGHFODUDWLRQRI<KZKVFRPLQJ place or situation of danger to one of safety, general-
acts on their behalf. ly in a material rather than a spiritual sense. Ancient
Hebrew has a rich vocabulary for expressing such
ideas, and the Cambridge centre of SAHD has exam-

 
  ined it in detail, according to the semantic principles
Aristotle University of Thessalonik, Greece of the project, over a number of years. The paper
Platos
Timaios:

will present a summary of the overview of the lexi-

 FDOHOG LQFOXGLQJYHUEDODVZHOODVQRPLQDOIRUPV 
Platos Timaios stellt einen hermeneutischen Kom- which will be published with the entries for the in-
mentar zu Gen 12 dar. Betrachtet man die Gesamt- dividual lexemes. A contrast will be drawn between
struktur des Timaios und die Entfaltung der Einzel- WKRVHOH[HPHVLQWKHHOGZKLFKHPSKDVLVH E\V\Q-
argumente in Gen 12, so stellt man fest, dass sie bis tagms with Heb. min) separation or removal from
ins Einzelne dem biblischen Schpfungsbericht ent- danger and those with which the positive outcome
sprechen. Diese Tatsache wurde bisher in der For- is more prominent. Attention will also be given to
schung bersehen, vor allem deshalb, weil man be- WKHSUHFLVHVLJQLFDQFHLQQRQOHJDOFRQWH[WVRIWKH
mht war die Unterschiede zwischen Bibel und Plato lexemes which are commonly translated by redeem
aus der Perspektive der philonischen Rezeption zum (SGK, Jal) and the extent to which their meta-
Vorschein zu bringen und die scheinbar bestehenden phorical uses share the connotations of their techni-
scharfen Gegenstze hervorzuheben mit der abzuse- cal senses.
henden Konsequenz, die Frage nach der Begegnung
des griechischen mit dem hebrischen Denken vor
der hellenistischen Zeit in eine tiefe Kluft zu strzen. GERDA
D E
V ILLIERS
Dies wollen wir anhand von ausgewhlten Beispie- University of Pretoria, South Africa
len plausibel machen. The
Book
of
Ruth:
A
Matriarchal
Homily


for
a
Community
under
Pressure
Although the book of Ruth sets its scene in the time
 of the Judges, scholars date it well into the post
Institut Protestant de Thologie, France exilic period of Judah and even, given the added

genealogy (4:1822) as late as the Hellenistic era.
des
rdactions
non
judennes
dans
le
This paper argues that the book of Ruth was well
Pentateuque:
Quelques
rflexions acquainted with both the Pentateuch and the rework-
En tudiant les mentions topographiques du Penta- ing of the history of the Israelite nation by the hands
teuque et lHexateuque qui laissent une large place of the Chronicler. Ruth taps into the exilic and early
des lieux autres que Jrusalem, la communication post-exilic sentiments which attempted to forge the
WHQWHUDGHPRQWUHUTXXQHSDUWLHGHODUpGDFWLRQQDOH identity of the people by means of the patriarchal nar-
du Pentateuque devrait tre attribue des groupes ratives in order to provide the necessary social and
non judens en dehors de la communaut du Temple theological cohesion for a disparate group. However,
de Jrusalem. Prenant en compte les nouvelles don- in the form of a matriarchal homily, it goes further.
nes archologiques de la Jude-Samarie et prenant By introducing Ruth the worthy Moabite it 1) chang-
appui sur les nouvelles lectures dEsdras-Nhmie, es the negative views on the Moabites as exposed in
le paper sinterrogera sur la prsence ou non dans Gen 19:3137 and Num 2224, and 2) challenges
le Pentateuque et lHexateuque de contributions di- the isolationist tendencies of an exclusive commu-
toriales provenant de groupes de Samarie et de la nity as proposed by Ezra and Nehemiah. The book
Diaspora. Une telle approche nest pas sans poser de of Ruth portrays the Moabites in a favourable light
TXHVWLRQVVXUODQDOLVDWLRQGX3HQWDWHXTXH and indicates that Judahites (Boaz) and Moabites
66

 

   


5XWK ZRUNLQJWRJHWKHUDUHDEOHQRWRQO\WRIXOO
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
the prescriptions of the Deuteronomistic legislation
(Deut 2325), but also to expand it beyond its limits. Hosea,
Creation
and
Wisdom:


Its narrative of compassion and caring pleads for the An
Alternative
Tradition
cohesion of the different religious traditions of Israel This paper draws out creation and wisdom themes in
and for the preservation of that which is essential for the book of Hosea, arguing for an important forma-
the well-being of a community under pressure. tive alternative tradition found in Old Testament
theology involving creation ideas, interaction with
the natural world and wisdom thought. These themes
 are sometimes expressed in Hosea in terms of a cov-
Research Foundation-Flanders & Katholieke Uni- enant with nature, sometimes revealed in the use of
versiteit Leuven, Belgium metaphors from the natural world (an aspect recently

brought into the foreground by scholars emphasizing
 
ecological hermeneutics) and sometimes expressed
a
Pluriform
Outlook
on
the
Scriptural
Text(s) through use of forms, ideas and motifs associated
To say that the scrolls from the Judean Desert have with the wisdom literature. Although evaluating the
revolutionised textual criticism of the Hebrew Bible H[WHQW RI ZLVGRP LQXHQFH LQ +RVHD DQG ZKHWKHU
has become like stating the obvious. However, al- LWLVDNH\IRUPDWLYHLQXHQFHRQWKHERRNRUVLP-
though scholars almost immediately realised that the ply a later redaction is on the agenda here and key
discovery of these ancient manuscripts would change SDVVDJHV IURP +RVHD RIWHQ LGHQWLHG E\ VFKRODUV
the face of biblical studies completely, it took nearly as wisdom are considered, a broader selection of
half a century before the contours of a new interpre- passages that also concern creation/nature themes
tational framework began to appear. Building on S. are seen to elucidate the wider thematic context of
Talmons insight that socio-religious factors caused an alternative creation/wisdom axis. Passages from
a much larger textual variety than is presently extant Hosea 1:2; 2:113; 2:1418; 2:1923; 4:13; parts
to fall into oblivion, as well as on E. Tovs continu- of chapters 57 and brief examples found in chap-
ing emphasis on the presence of independent texts ters 814 are examined and evaluated in the light of
at Qumran, E. Ulrich issued a hermeneutical model these concerns.
of variant literary editions, which has received the
support of many scholars. The present investigation
seeks to explore the implications of this model in  
two directions. On the one hand, a pluriform outlook University of Waterloo, Canada
on the development of Scripture necessitates a reas-  

sessment of the texts formerly lumped into the now Normative
Bliss
of
Biblical
Love
hotly debated category of Rewritten Bible texts as Love abounds in the Hebrew Bible both in narrative
belonging to the same organic and dynamic proc- DQGQRUPDWLYHFRQWH[WV+RZHYHUDXQLHGELEOLFDO
ess. On the other hand, it also urges textual scholars theory of love emerges from their narrative/norma-
to reconsider their goal of reconstructing a text as tive intersection. The Song of Songs concluding
close as possible to the alleged original text of the meditation on love, with its analogies of death, sheol,
Hebrew Bible. As such, this study will not only dis- reshefUHDQGMHDORXV\FRQYH\WKHGDQJHUSRVHGE\
cuss some writings that are commonly placed on the love so passionate as to surrender ones individual
fringes of the canonical process, but it will also touch personhood in uniting with the beloved. Correspond-
upon the very heart of the text-critical endeavour by ingly, by grounding spousal relationships in a cleav-
challenging the task of reconstructing a critical text ing stripped of loving, the primeval message of the
and advocating the study of each textual witness in Garden is that sexual relationship should be devoid
its own context. RIORYHZKLOHFRQQHGWRDFRPSHQVDWRU\UHLQWHJUD-
WLRQRIWKHGHFLHQWHVKof verse Gen 2:23 into the
RQHHVKof verse 2:24. All the subsequent biblical
narratives centering on love as ahavah, cohere to
graphically present this pessimistic view of human
love which threatens the integrity of human auton-

IOSOT
Abstracts
67

omy. The danger of the dissolution of the self into VHULHV KDV QDOO\ UHDFKHG D FRQFOXVLRQ PRUH WKDQ
the other impelled by passionate love is misplaced sixty years after discovery.
within the inter-personal sphere. Consuming love is
reserved exclusively for God. It will be shown that
those loves mandated on the horizontal plane for the e
neighbor and the alien resident are crafted to avert Charles University in Prague,
the common dangers love poses of self dissolution. Protestant Theological Faculty, Czech Republic
Ultimately the narrative informs the normative in Texts
and
Archaeology:


exclusively sanctioning the vertical love demanded The
Case
of
the
Wadi
Daliyeh
Manuscripts
between the person and God. Only there can the love The Samaria papyri, written a century earlier than
of self-surrender be offered precisely as a means to the oldest manuscripts from Qumran, were dis-
cultivate ones humanity. covered by the Bedouins in Wadi Daliyeh in 1962.
These manuscripts represent a unique source of data
concerning the history and life in the province of
   Samaria in the Persian period, especially in the 4th
University of the Free State, South Africa century BCE. The data furnished by the manuscripts
 from Wadi Daliyeh, analyzed and compared with
The Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of some data of the Old Testament texts and of some
Religion, USA historical texts of Antiquity, permit to conceive the
How
IOSOT
Played
Its
Part
in
Saving
the
Dead
chronology of central Palestine in a new light.


 
In August 1953, Professor R.B.Y. Scott, professor  
of Old Testament literature and language at Mc- 8QLYHUVLW\RI6KHIHOG8QLWHG.LQJGRP
*LOO 8QLYHUVLW\ &DQDGD DWWHQGHGWKHUVW ,2627 Apples
and
Oranges:


meeting in Copenhagen. Roland de Vaux used the Archaeology
and
Texts
in
the
Persian
Period
opening of an existing programme slot to give feed- Artefactual remains of daily life provide a different
back on the recent discoveries (cave 4 had been dis- type of testimony than texts; they give the historian
covered in the fall of 1952). He elaborated on the access to changes that take place over centuries, al-
dire state of the fragments yet to be purchased from lowing a limited understanding of cultural trends
the Bedouin and made an appeal to universities to and developments. Texts, on the other hand, give
come forward as investors to prevent the fragments access to events on a daily, yearly, and decade-long
from falling prey to the black market and inevitable basis, supplying testimony of names, places, actions,
dispersal. IOSOT set in motion a course of events and dates. They allow the writing of political and
that resulted in the May 1954 announcement of the economic history, for which archaeological remains
purchase of fragments from cave 4 for McGill. The provide a broad situational background, showing the
purchase in 1954 followed by a smaller one in 1956 general trends in place over century or so. It is the
made McGill the owner of the largest collection of sphere of social history perhaps, where the two types
Dead Sea Scrolls (more than 450 fragments) outside of testimony, once critically analyzed, can be most
Jordan. This paper recounts this obscure piece of SURWDEO\ LQWHJUDWHG E\ WKH KLVWRULDQ LQ D UHFRQ-
history and its impact on the history of the Scrolls struction of the past, since such an endeavour tracks
by means of archival material from the McGill Ar- changes over centuries anyway. In writing any type
chives and Rockefeller Museum. The focus is on of history of Yehud or Samerina in the Persian pe-
contextualizing the purchase agreement and the riod, historians are greatly hampered by the paucity
FRQVHTXHQFHVIRUVFUROOVUHVHDUFKLQWKHUVWGHFDGH of both artefacts and texts. Settlement trends can be
after the discovery and later on. It contends that Mc- broadly established from surveys and excavations,
Gills purchase guaranteed the integrity of the cave but the extent of occupation of former larger, walled
QGDQGSURPSWHGRWKHULQVWLWXWLRQVWRIROORZVXLW settlements remains uncertain, as does the extent and
thus safeguarding the integrity of the collection a nature of settlement in Jerusalem and Samaria. We
point worth celebrating at the time when the DJD lack extra-biblical administrative texts that might
68

 

DAVID
E LGAVISH
allow us to situate the artefactual remains more
Bar Ilan University, Israel
VSHFLFDOO\DQGRSWIRURQHLQWHUSUHWLYHRSWLRQRYHU
another of the economic political or social structures  

that operated at the time. The biblical texts set in the Structure
and
Significance
Persian period exhibit strong ideological tendencies Jeremiahs prophecy about the drought (Jer 14:1
that bring into question the amount of reliable infor-  LVTXLWHDGLIFXOWXQLW7KHUHLVQRDJUHHPHQW
mation they contain concerning that era. on the prophecys delimitation and its internal order.
It mentions two calamities, drought and war; its style
moves back and forth from a prose to a poetry; and
 
 contains various genres: A description of the drought,
The Open University of Israel a prayer to stop it, Gods response to the prayer, and

Overwriting
and
Overriding,
or
What
is
Not
the prophets lament and his conversation with God
Deuteronomistic that accompanied these events. Some of these genres
'HXWHURQRPLVWLFGHVFULEHVWKHLQXHQFHRIWKHODQ- are repeated several times in the unit, making its lit-
guage, style and ideas of the book of Deuteronomy HUDU\VWUXFWXUHGLIFXOWWRGHWHUPLQH,QWKLVSDSHU,
upon subsequent biblical literature. Although it is will attempt to address these complex issues. For this
frequently proposed that only texts displaying either purpose, I shall begin with a close reading the proph-
VSHFLFYHUEDORUWKHPDWLFFKDUDFWHULVWLFVVKRXOGEH ecy, followed by a discussion the literary structure
considered deuteronomistic, these two conditions of each subunit. Finally, I will discuss the linguistic,
idiom and themeremain problematic. Deuterono- thematic, and structural relationships between the
mistic idiom continued to circulate long after the different units. In this way, I will determine the units
LQLWLDO FRPSRVLWLRQ RI WKH PDWHULDOV LGHQWLHG ZLWK boundaries and its literary structure.
the DtrH, and sometimes appears alongside priestly
LGLRPDQG/%+$GGLWLRQDOO\LGHQWLFDWLRQRIGHX-
teronomistic theme is highly subjective, and lacks    
controls. This paper examines the problem how to University of Mainz, Germany
identify post-deuteronomistic materials within the Die
Stele
von
Betsaida
DtrH, and is based upon Noths view of the Deuter- Viele Studien beschftigten sich bereits mit der
onomist as a good historian, who utilized source ma- 1997 gefundenen Stele aus Betsaida, die ein Relief
terial which, for the most part, he did not reformulate ZLHGHUJLEW'LHVHVZXUGHKlXJDOV0RQGJRWWRGHU
or evaluate. However, he did choose sources which als lunarisierter Wettergott interpretiert. Auf Grund
best suited his purposes, and provided them with the einer nochmaligen Prfung ikonographischer und
proper setting within the historys comprehensive archologischer Quellen aus der Eisenzeit kann man
chronological framework. The texts that challenge feststellen, dass es sich um einen Wettergott, hchst-
the concepts, ideals and chronological framework wahrscheinlich um den Gott Hadad, handelt.
of the deuteronomistic narrative within Deuterono-
my Kings are best explained as the contribution
of post-deuteronomistic scribes who wished to re-    
vise the DtrH without resorting to whole-scale re- United Bible Societies, Spain
writing. Such editorial intervention overwrites or Because
It
Is
not
and
not
because
It
Is:
Formally

overrides the previous text, rather than elucidates Ambiguous
ki-clauses
in
Biblical
Hebrew,
and

or expands upon the earlier theme. Even when these their
Exegetical
and
Translational
Consequences
texts use elements of deuteronomistic idiom, they In a recent study of Mal 2:16, I outlined the follow-
are employed in an uncharacteristic fashion. Thus, ing ambiguity that arises in connection with He-
overwriting and overriding are editorial strat- brew ki-clauses: when a causal clause introduced
egies employed by post-deuteronomistic scribes by ki is subordinated to a clause in which the prin-
ZKR WKRXJKW WR UHYLVH WKH 'WU+ LQ RUGHU WR UHHFW cipal verb has been negated (by lo, al, etc.), it is
the changed realities and outlooks of the Persian pe- never clear on purely linguistic grounds whether the
riod. causal conjunction relates to the negative form of
the main clause (Do not do this, for [ki] it is bad;

IOSOT
Abstracts
69

  
do something else [good] instead) or to its positive
Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, The Netherlands &
form (Do not do this because [ki] it is bad; do it
University of Dallas, USA
EHFDXVH LW LV JRRG  ,Q WKH UVW VWUXFWXUH NL LQWUR-
duces the grounds for not doing something, whereas Not
a
blacksmith
could
be
found
in
the
whole

in the second one, ki introduces a reason for doing land
of
Israel,
because
the
Philistines
had
said,

it (just as it does in the non-negated version). One Otherwise
the
Hebrews
will
make
swords
or

way to see the difference between the two structures 
is via the following kind of restructuring: Dont do from
Recent
Archaeology
this because (or for) it is bad = If it were not bad, it 1 Samuel 13,1922 informs the reader of Samuel
might be possible for you to do it; whereas Dont do about the monopoly of metal industry by the Phil-
this (just) because its bad = If it were not bad, you istines. Recently Alexander Velhuijzen, a specialist
should not do it. In the presentation I will identify (a) in Iron Age archaeology, questioned the historicity
texts where this ambiguity is relatively obvious, (b) of the information in 1 Samuel 13,1922 because
the exegetical consequences of adopting the second, the earliest sites of iron production in Palestine
much rarer, interpretation (whereby ki relates to the were found in Tel Beth-Shemesh and Tell Hammeh,
positive form of the verb in the governing clause), which is Israelite and not Philistine territory. This
and (c) signs in the ancient versions of some aware- paper will study the passage in question in its liter-
ness of such ambiguity. ary context and reassess it in light of the most recent
DUFKDHRORJLFDOQGLQJV

 
8QLYHUVLW\RI6KHIHOG8QLWHG.LQJGRP TERRY
FALLA


University of Melbourne, Australia
between
the
Bible
and
Art A
Pair
of
Papers
I:
The
Way
Our
Hearts
Burn:

The Bible has played an inspirational role in art for Poetics
in
the
Syriac
New
Testament
FHQWXULHVDQGDUWKDVLQWXUQLQXHQFHGWKHZD\WKH We in the West do not readily identify theology
Bible is read. By genuine I refer to a dialogue be- with poetics. They have, however, been partners
tween the biblical text and biblical art in which each for a very long time. The Hebrew Bible is soaked
plays a critical role in the process of interpreting the LQ SRHWU\ ZKLFK RZV LQWR WKH $SRFU\SKD DQG
other. This involves not only looking at the biblical Pseudepigrapha, and into the Greek, Latin, Coptic,
text and asking how the artist has interpreted it (e.g. and Slavonic translations in which they have reached
what the artist has left out or added or emphasized or us. Poetics also has a distinctive place in the Greek
downplayed) but also studying the work of art and New Testament.
asking what it can show us about the biblical text A poetic form of theologizing also found a central
(e.g. what the biblical writer has left out, emphasized, place in the Syriac Orient. The intricate artistry of
or downplayed). For example, in the story of the ex- poetry and poetics was inseparable from the theo-
pulsion of Hagar and Ishmael, artists offer viewers logical task. Furthermore, the story of poetics in the
what the text withholds, Hagars and Ishmaels point classical Syriac tradition is embedded in the earliest
of view, with the result that the viewer, unlike the Syriac translations of the Greek New Testament. The
reader, is openly invited to feel sympathy for them. poetic is introduced where it is absent in the source
The greater our sympathy for Hagar and Ishmael, the text and heightened where it is present. This is par-
more critical we are likely to be of Abraham. This ticularly true of the Peshitta version.
can lead us to recognize how hard the biblical writer At the core of this paper is the contention that
has to work in order to manage and minimize the this aspect of the early Syriac versions has not been
readers sympathy with Hagar and Ishmael and thus WDNHQZLWKVXIFLHQWFULWLFDOVHULRXVQHVVDQGWKDWWR
to justify the dismissal. Three or four examples from do so encounters us with many pertinent questions
other biblical texts will form the substance of the pa- from what is the nature and extent of poetry and
per and will be used to illustrate the interpretative the poetic in these versions to can the study of this
gains to be had from such a dialogue. poetic dimension help take us closer to the historical,
cultural and socio-literary forces that were at work
in producing these early translations? Furthermore,
70

 

does the study of this dimension of the poetic in the cal tradition (B. S. Childs JBL 78,3 1959). In the
earliest Syriac versions, Old Testament and New proposed paper I intend to explore another frame of
Testament, have implications, directly and indirectly, reference that surfaces in some of the warnings con-
for Syriac lexicography and the composing of future cerning the foe from the north, and its bearing upon
Syriac lexica? the interplay between historical and mythological in-
terpretation: temple ideology. Apart from the already
established link of the northfarthest parts of the
TERRY
FALLA earth from which the enemy is to appear (Jer 6:22)
University of Melbourne, Australia with the sacred residence of God (gods) (Is 14:13)
A
Pair
of
Papers
II:
Poetic
Presences
Seeking
a
and Mount Zion, in the far north, city of the great
Place
in
Syriac
Lexicography King (Ps 48:2), there is the possible notion of the
Do classical Syriac poetics and poetry have a place temple as the epicenter of national and universal ca-
in the entries of a comprehensive Syriac lexicon, and tastrophe: Jer 25:29; cp. Amos 9:14; Ezek 9:68.
if so in what form? This paper argues that some po-
etic presences in Syriac literature have a legitimate
SODFHLQDOH[LFRQIRUDVSHFLFFRUSXVWKDWSURYLGHV  
illustrative referenced examplessuch as that envis- New York, USA
aged by the International Syriac Language Project 

(ISLP). This applies to literature originally written Versions
of
Fourth
Maccabees
in Syriac, such as Ephrems works, and to transla- On page xi of the most recent edition of Fourth Mac-
tions of a source-text, such as the Syriac versions cabees David deSilvas 4 Maccabees: Introduc-
of the Old and New Testaments. The recognition of tion and Commentary on the Greek text in Codex
a poetic presence in a lexical entry should be dis- Sinaiticus %ULOO   ZH QG 7KH FULWLFDO WH[W
crete, judicious, and informed by a series of proper in the Goettingen edition, in preparation by Robert
methodological procedures. This paper argues that, Hanhart, will be based on over seventy individual
within these constraints, an ancient-language lexi- manuscripts is one of the many inaccuracies in his
con would not only provide the user with insights book. The editor of the Goettingen volume is, in
into the use and meanings of a poetically employed fact, Robert Hiebert of Trinity Western University,
word, but would also delight. who has delivered so far three articles in various
journals apologizing for the lack of progress on the
project. While deSilvas work is a helpful adjunct to
RUTH
F IDLER the Rahlfs edition of the work in the latters Septu-
University of Haifa, Israel aginta in that it gives a peek into Codex Sinaiticus
Peril
and
Temple:

namely what is text and what is correction as
The
Foe
from
the
North
and
Temple
Ideology well as a glimpse of Rahlfs modus operandi in pro-
The foe from the north, as depicted in the book of ducing his eclectic version, it is far from determina-
Jeremiah and other prophetic writings, has retained tive, in that it completely ignores 1) the critical edi-
much of its mysterious character, as if defying all tion of Swete in his Cambridge Septuagint of 1905
attempts to provide it with a name and address. The with its readings from Codex Alexandrinus and Co-
UVWVXFKDWWHPSWRFFXUVLQWKHERRNRI-HUHPLDKLW- dex Venetus; 2) the commented translation of R.B.
self, when the northern peril is equated with King Townshend in R.H. Charles, The Apocrypha and
Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon, my servant (Jer 25:9). Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, Oxford 1913,
The partial and textually unstable appearance of this and 3) Benslys critical edition of the Syriac in W.E.
equation has led most interpreters to attribute it to Barnes, R.L. Bensly, The Fourth Book of Maccabees
prophetic afterthought or to later scribal involve- and Kindred Documents in Syriac, Cambridge 1895.
ment. This would seem to support the possibility that The paper will engage the issue of priority of the
as a theme couched in mythology (O. Eissfeldt, Baal Greek and Syriac texts with an eye toward establish-
Zaphon, 1932; W. Staerk, ZAW 51 1933), it was de- ing a Hebrew original. The essence of the work
mythologized through historical contextualization. &KULVWLDQ%LEOHFRPPHQWDU\FDPRXDJHGDVWDOHRI
However, it has also been argued that in this case, Jewish martyrdom will be explained through refer-
post-exilic Israel has my-thologized an histori- ence to key passages.

IOSOT
Abstracts
71

   
Old Testament scholars remain reluctant to utilise
University of Vienna, Austria
philosophy of religion as an auxiliary subject. Many

 VWLOO QG LW LPSRVVLEOH WR HQYLVDJH D KHUPHQHXWL-
This paper deals with the question: What kind of be- cally valid way of philosophically interacting with
lieves in the afterlife were known to Qoheleth? The a corpus of pre- and non-philosophical religious
belief in an afterlife is a late development within the literature like the Old Testament happens to be. In
biblical literature. Even there it is not homogenous. this follow-up contribution, a new possible way in
Some expect a world to come and others belief in a ZKLFKSKLORVRSKLFDOUHHFWLRQRQDQFLHQW,VUDHOLWH
netherworld. Qoheleth is a sceptic who rejects any religion might be conceived of without thereby re-
positive knowledge about an afterlife but he dis- peating past fallacies of question framing will be
cusses these different opinions. Therefore, it is not proposed. In doing so the discussion will enlist the
so much of interest what Qoheleth was convinced of aid of a methodological debate that has dominated
but what opinions were known to him. Since he did twentieth-century African philosophy. The concern
not only have a Hellenistic background but stands there was the question of whether it is at all mean-
LQDZLVGRPWUDGLWLRQZKLFKKDGEHHQLQXHQFHGE\ ingful to even speak of African philosophy given
Egypt, especially by the tradition of the Harpers` the fact that African thought (like the Old Testa-
Songs, a certain knowledge of beliefs or disbeliefs ment) consists mainly of myths, legends, songs,
in an afterlife can be expected. It will be shown that laws and proverbs, not systematic philosophical
Qoheleth deals with different types of believes in an arguments. Moreover, African religious belief sys-
afterlife, genuine to Egypt and Mesopotamia alike as tems (again like the Old Testament) are not static
well as newer developments within the Hellenistic and monolithic entities but are characterised by
world. diachronic change and synchronic pluralism. As a
result, typical western philosophical questions tend
to be anachronistic and distortive of African reli-

 
  gions own conceptual backgrounds. How then is
University of Haifa, Israel something like African philosophy possible? More
The
Qeiyafa
Iinscription:

important, could some of the ways in which African
Script,
Language,
Epic
and
History philosophers operate offer a possible analogy to the
This paper offers a new and updated reading of the way in which Old Testament scholars might con-
Qeiyafa inscription, unearthed a year and a half ago ceive of a valid philosophical approach to the study
DWH[FDYDWLRQVFDUULHGRXWE\3URI<RVHI*DUQNHO of ancient Israelite religion?
and Saar Ganor at Khirbet Qeiyafa near the Elah
valley. I reexamine the diverse aspects of my new
reading, including its implications for the dating of 
 
Biblical texts. In my opinion this is a prophetic text, IRWTH-Aachen-University, Germany
dictated by a teacher to his student, and it is clearly Who
is
Israel
in
the
Book
of
Judges?
the most ancient and the most important Hebrew in- The portrait of Israel is one of the most diverse imag-
scription ever found in the Land of Israel. It indi- es in the book of Judges. It starts with a list of tribes
cates that there were scribes in Israel who were able trying to conquer the land. However, this storyline is
to write literary texts and complex compositions as interrupted and only at the end the topographic con-
early as the 10th century BCE. cept is completed: Israel from Dan to Beersheba
and the land of Gilead (Judg 20:1). The next im-
age of Israel is introduced in Judg 2:1119 focussing

  on the evaluation of Israel as a whole, as a people
North-West University, South Africa with a history of repeated failure. Within the stories
Imagining
a
Philosophical
Approach
to

of the judges the image of the people changes once
Ancient
Israelite
Religion:
African
Philosophy

again, emphasising single tribes and their struggles
as
a
Possible
Analogy but also introducing solidarity as an essential aspect
At the previous IOSOT Conference in 2007, the of the union of the tribes. Although this mostly is an
idea of a philosophical approach to ancient Israel- illusion and its implementation fails, it, nevertheless,
LWHUHOLJLRQZDVUVWLQWURGXFHG1HYHUWKHOHVVPRVW establishes an ideal of Israel acting in solidarity. The
72

 

ambiguous image of Israel in the book of Judges is much of the discussion has concerned the last chap-
frequently described with reference to the various ters of Zechariah (1214) as well as their relation-
textual layers of the book, the discourse of the differ- ship to the Twelve. However, the reading adopted
ent concepts, however, hardly is considered. This pa- for chaps 910 has also considerable implications
per will focus on the narrative interconnections and for the understanding of Zech 914 as a whole,
show how the different images of Israel challenge especially as regards the relationship between the
the very concept of Israel, deconstructing seemingly various units contained in these two chapters. A
established images and thus opening the search for parade example is Zech 10:12, whose connec-
Israel and its identity. In the end the book of Judges tion with the rest of chaps 910 is least obvious.
does not offer answers it rather insists on the ques- J. Tromp (2003) typically built on that passage in
tion: Who is Israel? order to argue that Zech 910 should be viewed as a
compilation of prophetic oracles with little editorial
coherence. I agree with him (as with other scholars)
 
  that this passage was originally independent. None-
Hebrew University, Israel theless, I think it is possible to demonstrate that it
The
History
of
the
Deuteronomistic
Sermon

was carefully introduced in its present literary con-
 text by means of various redactional devices, in-
Though 2 Kings 17 has long been recognized as one cluding thematic transitions and catchwords. This
of the key passages of the Deuteronomistic history, observation leads to further questions: How does
scholarly analysis of the chapter has been limited. this insertion relate to the composition of Zech 910
The extensive sermon on the fall of the kingdom of as a whole? Is the same scribal technique manifest
Israel (2 Kgs 17: 723), which draws upon the homi- elsewhere in chaps 914? Discussion of these is-
letic phraseology characterizing the Deuteronomistic sues suggests that despite the composite character
strata of the Book of Kings, is generally dismissed of the prophecies contained in Zech 914 an inter-
DV WKH 'HXWHURQRPLVWLF MXVWLFDWLRQ IRU WKH IDOO RI pretation of this collection as a mere compilation
the Northern Kingdom. The present study will offer (or anthology) eventually falls short.
a new analysis of the unit, based on the combina-
tion of the comparative method (mainly with some
new Akkadian parallels) with the literary-historical LESTER
L.
G RABBE
method, and the possibility that the relatively late University of Hull, United Kingdom
unit is based on an older source will be explored. Omri
and
Son,
Incorporated:


This can contribute to a better understanding of the The
Business
of
History
biblical views about the cause of the fall of Samaria, The question of the Bible and the history of Israel is
and their historical and theological implications. At often discussed in too abstract a manner, with em-
the same time, this study will provide new data for phasis on methodology and what might or might
the better understanding of the compositional history not have been the case. What is badly needed in the
of the passage and of the Deuteronomistic strata in discussion, however, are concrete examples in which
the books of Kings. we have considerable biblical and extra-biblical
data. A wonderful case study is the reigns of Omri
and Ahab because we have data from a number of
2
 different sources. The aim of this paper is to look
University of Lausanne, Switzerland at what we know of the reigns of these kings from
 
extra-biblical sources and to then compare this infor-
A
Contribution
to
the
Study
of
Scriptural
mation with the biblical account. The ultimate aim is
Prophecy
in
Second
Zechariah to draw out principles for (re)constructing the his-
The study of Zech 914 raises considerable exeget- tory of ancient Israel: how should we go about the
ical issues. Especially disputed are questions about business of writing history when the biblical text is
the structure of the text, its relationship with other a major source?
prophetic texts, the delineation of major redaction-
al stages and, most of all, the possibility to identify
a coherent composition in this collection. So far,

IOSOT
Abstracts
73

CHARLOTTE
H EMPEL
beigesetzt (1 Sam 31:1113). Dass David Enkel
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Sauls ausgeliefert habe und diese auf grausame Wei-


se hingerichtet worden sein sollen, weicht ebenso
to
the
Hebrew
Bible
and
the
Scrolls vom blichen Bild Davids ab (vgl. 1 Sam 24:22f).
A fruitful area of investigation in recent scholarship Vor allem widerspricht die Erzhlung dem Dtn, da
is the light the Scrolls can shed on the processes die Shne nicht fr ihre Vter mit dem Tod bestraft
of ancient Jewish literary activity (cf. the work of werden (Dtn 24:16) und Gepfhlte nicht ber Nacht
Brooke, Tov, van der Toorn et al.). A fascinating next hngen bleiben sollen (Dtn 21:22f). Es handelt sich
VWHSLQWUDFLQJWKHVLJQLFDQFHRIWKH4XPUDQ6FUROOV also um eine eigenstndige, vor-dtr Erzhlung, die in
more broadly is the much discussed issue of the so- bestimmten Kreisen tradiert, aber hnlich wie andere
cial background of the material. The Scrolls testify Texte nicht in das entstehende Samuelbuch aufge-
to a learned group of Jews engaged in composing, nommen wurde. Sie durfte erst dann den Anfang des
shaping and collecting a very large amount of lit- Anhangs (2 Sam 2124) bilden, als die feierliche
erature. We know that there were similarly learned Beisetzung der Sauliden durch David (21:1114a)
Jews engaged in shaping and collecting and editing nachgetragen wurde.
another very large amount of literature: the emerg-
ing Hebrew Bible. Since both social spheres share
a considerable amount of overlapping material the    
connections between both become even more tan- University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
gible. Bearing in mind that literacy, and especially An
Elusive
Precision:
The
Nature
and
Limits
of

learning at the level required to deal with the mate- Divine
Language
in
the
Priestly
Texts
rial at issue here, was the preserve of a small elite in Despite the Priestly writers well-established reputa-
the Second Temple Period (cf. van der Toorn), it is tion for precision, their language in certain circum-
likely that the same limited stratum of highly edu- stances remains frustratingly elusive. In fact, unlike
cated scribes is the pool responsible for the Hebrew other accounts, the Priests do not describe YHWHs
Bible and the corpus of the Scrolls. This paper will form or character at all. How then should we charac-
probe the relationship between the circles behind the terize Priestly language? My presentation will exam-
emerging Hebrew Scriptures further by means of a ine this issue with a view toward the problematic na-
comparative discussion of Joshua 1:8, Psalm 1:2 and ture of religious language and the other biblical and
1QS 6:67. ANE modes of religious expression. Religious lan-
guage is by necessity imprecise, as it must describe
FRQFHSWVLQKXPDQWHUPVWKDWE\GHQLWLRQWUDQVFHQG


   them. In response to this conundrum, the Priestly
University of Erfurt, Germany writers are careful to differentiate the divine subject

from its anthropomorphic referents lest the reader

assume that an approximation is an encapsulation.
Die Erzhlung ber die Hinrichtung von sieben In addition to avoiding misinformation, this Priestly
Nachkommen Sauls und ber die abschlieende circumspection serves to rhetorically enhance divine
feierliche Beisetzung (2 Sam 21:114) verrt, dass P\VWHU\ DQG PDMHVW\ WKH HIFDF\ RI WKH V\VWHP
zahlreiche andere Texte aus dem dtr Geschichtswerk and the necessity of obedience. Where possible, the
bekannt sind: z.B. der Eid der Israeliten gegenber Priestly texts add precision to the non-Priestly ac-
den Gibeonitern (Jos 9:15, 18f, 20), die Verschonung counts (for example, when describing YHWHs at-
der Nachkommen Jonatans (1 Sam 20:14f; 2 Sam WHQGDQWIHDWXUHVLQWKHRSKDQ\WKHJORU\UHDQG
9:113) und die Rolle der Rizpa (2 Sam 3:711). Sind cloud). However, as precision becomes increasingly
das Hinweise, dass Zweifel an einem einheitlichen elusive the closer one gets to YHWH himself, so too
GWU *HVFKLFKWVZHUN EHUVVLJ VLQG" %HL JHQDXH- does Priestly language. Just as priests form a bridge
rer Betrachtung lassen sich jedoch eine Reihe von between heaven and earth, so too must their lan-
Differenzen erkennen: Adril war nicht mit Michal, guage, to the end that YHWH is known enough to
sondern mit Merab verheiratet (1 Sam 18:1719). be properly served but not so much that he loses his
Michal soll gar keine Kinder gehabt haben (2 Sam transcendent mystery.
6:23). Saul und seine Shne (Plural!) waren lngst
74

 

 
purpose, mutual custodianship and resistance and
Princeton Theological Seminary, USA
the proposal of its critics to consider them as heu-
 
ristic keys. Employing these ecojustice principles/
in
Cross-Cultural
Perspective heuristics keys by way of the encompassing term
In 1969, the sociologist Ernest Gellner published an integrity of creation facilitates posing new ques-
ethnographic description of a Berber holy lineage, tions and gathering fresh insights in discerning the
the Ahansali tribe (The Saints of the Atlas). As part presence of and rereading the role/s of the creation
of a longer project studying the Levites in tandem community in the so-called E\U-pattern in Micah
with the model provided by the Ahansal, and supple- 6:18. The paper delves on these issues as it (1)
mented by recent sociological work on the formation focuses on their role as witnesses (Mic 6:12); (2)
of complex chiefdoms (e.g., R. D. Miller, Chief- discerns the presence of other members of creation
tains of the Highland Clans), this paper will argue and recaps their role/s in the making, breaking and
for functional correspondence between the Levitical keeping of the covenant with YHWH (Mic 6:35);
families of 2 Samuel and the Ahansal. Several sa- (3) tackles the ecological crisis as evidence of cov-
lient features of the Ahansal will be addressed be- enant violation (Mic 6:67); and (4) proposes ways
fore turning to a study of the lineages of Zadok and to re-establish the integrity of creation as a sign of
Abiathar. These families respective roles in the esta- covenant renewal (Mic 6:8). The discovery that the
blishment and ideological backing of Davids chief- pericope calls people to shift their way of thinking
dom throughout the broader corpus of 12 Samuel from what to who or who, not what mobilizes
(e.g., 1 Sam 21:16; 22:1123; 1 Kgs 1:3240) leads the rich resources and creative potential of scripture
WRDPRUHQHO\JUDLQHGVWXG\RIWKHVSHFLFPRGHV and its interpretation. This way of reading the text
of support they are represented as offering to David with Earth will certainly help in the remaking of
in response to Absaloms coup (2 Sam 15:2429, the moral imagination that the environmental crisis
3536; 17:1521; 18:1930; 19:1115). This loyalty requires of those who dynamically engage with the
is parallel to but in some ways distinct from the biblical text.
Ahansali orientation to individual Berber chieftains.
Moreover, the Levitical families respective connec-
WLRQV WR VSHFLF ORFDOHV HJ 6KLORK 1RE -HUXVD-   
lem, etc.) is mirrored in the Berber milieu, wherein Saint Petersburg State University, Russia
various Ahansali lineages claim association with 

VSHFLF FHQWHUV RI RSHUDWLRQ RIWHQ H[FOXVLYHO\ )L- of
the
Old
Testament
nally, while the prosopography of the early Leviti- In my paper I seek to demonstrate that the bibli-
cal lineages remains unclear, the concurrence of the cal philology (D.A.Frick) of the Belarusian-Polish
name Ahitub in Zadoks and Abiathars respective knizhnik Szymon Budny (ca. 15301593) was
genealogies (2 Sam 8:17; 22:20) suggests that the- the result of the expansion of the European herme-
se moieties may be analyzed through reference to neutical methodology in the scholarship of Western
Gellners view of sacred lineages segmentarity. Rus in the 16th century. I recourse to the transla-
tion and annotations made by Budny in the Biblia
QLHZLHVND IURPWKHIXQGVRIWKH&]DUWRU\VNL
MARICEL
S.
I BITA Library in Krakw), the Old Testament in particular.
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium 7KHUVWSDUWRIWKHSDSHUZLOOIRFXVRQ%XGQ\VFUL-
Who,
not
What:
Discerning
the
Presence
of
and
tique of the Brest and Cracow Bible and his call for
Rereading
the
Role/s
of
Creation
Community
in
the translation from the original languages. Next, I
the
So-called
E\U
 will tackle the issues related to Budnys own transla-
Since 2000, the publications of the Earth Bible tion from Hebrew to Polish (declination of Hebrew
Project (EBP) have importantly helped address the proper names, correct rendering of geographical
ecological crisis by reading the biblical text with realia and terms, introduction of new sacred lexics
Earth as a subject rather than an object in the text, together with the etymological explanation). I will
and with a declared consciousness of ecojustice. show that his critical project went far beyond the
This paper presents the EBPs six ecojustice prin- translation and philological analysis of the text of
ciples intrinsic worth, interconnectedness, voice, the Old Testament. Finally, I will prove that Budny

IOSOT
Abstracts
75

represented the epistemologizing tendency, embod- its recorded reception history, been bound in with
ied in rationalist interpretations of the Scripture, in other biblical books, interpreters have always read it
linguophilosophical conceptions and grammatisa- alongside the general biblical presentation of Israels
tion of language and knowledge. We will see that story and assumed it to be in keeping with that pic-
his project brought about the completion of the pre- ture except in certain particulars which it explicitly
ceding theological-philosophical exegetical tradition countermanded (such as in its depiction of a penitent
(based on the principles of apophaticism, un-ration- King Manasseh over against the deuteronomistic
alized cognition of God) and at the same time laid depiction of that monarch as an unremittingly evil
the foundations for the new philosophical paradigm, protagonist). However, when read in its own right
caused the transition to the ideology of europeanism Chronicles presents a more thoroughly startling pic-
of the Enlightenment, grounded in the primacy of ture, such as the Israelites being an autochthonous
secular knowledge. people in their land, Jerusalem being the city of Saul
and resenting the emergence of David, the temple
EHLQJDWRZHULQJHGLFHWKDWUHDFKHVWRWKHKHDYHQV
   and every king with the element ahaz (Hebrew for
Bar-Ilan University, Israel he seized) in his name namely not only Ahaz
Intertextuality
in
Northern
France

himself but also his ancestor Ahaziah and his de-
in
the
Middle
Ages scendant Jehoahaz being destined to be seized by
The literalist medieval commentators of northern the agents of the national god. Here is a story-world
France dealt extensively with intertextuality. Experts in which things happen just so, a world that can
of particular note in this type of exegesis included only be fully recognised in its own terms when com-
Rabbi Joseph Kara and Rabbi Samuel ben Meir peting accounts of Israels history form no part of
(Rashbam), both disciples of Rashi. These two fa- the reading.
mous literalist commentators established an exe-
getical rule known as the Principle of Anticipation,
according to which the biblical text deliberately cites     
certain verses earlier than their chronological place, University of Troms, Norway
with a view to solving problems arising in the text  
later on. The Principle of Anticipation is invoked Several crises about boundaries occur in the books
in dozens of instances in the commentaries of both of Ezra and Nehemiah. At an overall level it has been
Rabbi Joseph Kara and Rashbam. However, despite common to contrast between the community of the
the similarity between the two commentators, there returned exiles as the true Israel, and the peo-
is an important different between them in this regard. ple of the land as their antagonists in these books.
5DEEL -RVHSK .DUD IRFXVHV RQ D YHU\ VSHFLF W\SH This is, among others, based on an interpretation of
of anticipation, while Rashbam addresses a wide Ezra 34. As will be shown in this paper, the image
range. In my lecture I propose to present the exegeti- is much more complex than such a polarization. In
cal approaches of both commentators and the differ- Ezra 4:15 a confrontation appears between the op-
ences between them. I shall also attempt to answer ponents of Judah and Benjamin on the one side and
the question of which of them preceded the other in Zerubbabel, Joshua and the heads of the families of
establishing the principle and developing it. Israel on the other. When the opponents of Judah and
%HQMDPLQZKRFODLPWRZRUVKLSDQGVDFULFHWRWKH
same God, are rejected to assist the returned exiles
    in the temple building by Zerubbabel, Jeshua and the
University of Oxford, United Kingdom heads of the families in Israel (vv. 13), the people
Cross-Examining
Chronicles:
Adventures
in
the
of the land delayed the restoration for the people
Story-world
of
a
Notionally
Historical
Narrative of Judah by bribing councellors (vv. 45). In Ezra
This paper explores what can be gained by reading 4:15 boundaries and identities are related to reli-
intratextually a text that is normally read intertex- gious practice and the experience of exile. Also the
tually, by offering some fresh perspectives on the relation between the historical circumstances in the
picture of ancient Israel that is presented in the book 3HUVLDQ3HULRGDQGWKHWHUPLQRORJ\RIVHOIGHQLWLRQ
of Chronicles. Because that book has, throughout used in the text is challenging.
76

 

   
cus on the selective use of the psalm material by the
University of Helsinki, Finland
Chronicler. The literary analysis of the Chroniclers
Abraham
Ibn
Ezra
and
the
Medieval

usage of the psalms will then be interpreted against
Astrological
Theory
of
Biblical
History the background of the identity negotiation processes
Abraham Ibn Ezra was one of the Jewish biblical of the late post-exilic era in Yehud.
commentators of the Middle Ages. His exegetical
VW\OH ZDV ODEHOOHG E\ D UP DWWDFKPHQW WR pshat,
the literal, grammatical meaning of the text. But he   
also inserted in his commentaries much material of Sogang University, Republic of Korea
both astronomical and astrological nature, which he The
Marriage
Formula
and
the
Naming


deemed essential for understanding many themes in   
the biblical text. This paper explores Ibn Ezras at- Quantitative-Structural
Observation
tachment to the astrological interpretation of history, Until now, the most word order studies of BH are
through parallels between his biblical commentaries based on the observation of the qualitative order of
and his technical astrological texts. These texts have constituent. This study, however, based on the gen-
only recently been made available in proper schol- HUDOOLQJXLVWLFV5LFKWHUVZHOOGHQHGWHUPLQRORJLHV
DUO\ HGLWLRQV 6SHFLFDOO\ KLV Sefer ha-Olam deals and the holistic approach, tries to build the new meth-
with the medieval astrological techniques used for odological framework of the Quantitative Structure
analyzing collective or historical events, as opposed of the clause. The psycholignuistic interpretation that
to individual horoscopes. It is Ibn Ezras way of the human languages tend to be structured according
connecting these techniques with Jewish sacred his- to the PIC (Principle of Increasing Parts) for the ef-
tory that makes his astrological theorizing especially FLHQWFRPSUHKHQVLRQRIWKHKHDUHULQVSLUHVRQHWR
relevant. Astrological charts could be drawn out for re-examine the BH texts if it is also structured for the
an any of religiously relevant moments in history, advantage of the hearer or not; and if not, why and
ranging from the supposed moment of creation to ZKDWLVJRLQJRQ7KHSUHVHQWVWXG\LVWKHUVWUHSRUW
the birth of Israel at Sinai, and the emergence of the of the such examination. The PIC-keeping clause is
other major monotheistic religions. This paper aims called Crescendo, which is unmarked and statistical-
to outline Ibn Ezras use of astrological theory in the ly absolute majority in HB. In the course of the anal-
analysis of Jewish and world history, and to address ysis and evaluation of the quantitative structure of
the question of what, if any, was the relationship be- all verbal clause of prose in Gen 2 Kings, however,
tween his attachment to astrology and his attachment an astonishing phenomenon on the textual surface is
to the exegetical method pshat. IRXQGLQWZRUHIHUHQFLHV)LUVWO\ZLWKWKHYHU\UVW
appearance of the new proper name, it is interesting
WKDWWKHSURSHUQDPHQLVKHVWKHFODXVHJHQHUDWLQJ
   the unusual Decrescendo-ending. It serves to hold
University of Stellenbosch, South Africa the attention of the hearer to the last and decisive
The
Chronicler
Singing
Psalms:
Revisiting
the
word producing the cognitive deviating wave in the
 Crescendo prevailing text. Secondly, when the mar-
1 Chronicles 1516 contain a mixture of an extensive riage is reported, it also generates the Decrescendo-
amount of the Chroniclers own material (1 Chron QLVKLQJ7KLVLVWKHPRUH[HGIURPWKDQDQ\RWKHU
15:124; 16:47, 3743), adapted sections from clause of the change of the social status.
Samuel (2 Sam 6:1219), and a medley of Psalm
materials (Ps 96:113; 105:115; 106:1, 4748).
Particularly the quotation from the Psalms attracted  
many scholarly investigations in the past, most re- Universit de Strasbourg, France
cently by Gosse (1999), Diller (2002), Throntveit Abram
and
Sarai
in
Egypt
(2003), and Doan (2008). These quotations also Although Gen 12:1020 provides little purchase for
receive extensive attention in recent commentar- redaction-historical analysis, the fact that the story
ies (e.g., Klein; Knoppers). This paper will revisit QGVFORVHSDUDOOHOVLQ*HQDQGVKRZVWKDWWKH
these quotations within the literary context of the author must have reused older narrative material. The
Chroniclers Ark Narrative, and will particularly fo- comparison between the parallel versions makes it

IOSOT
Abstracts
77

possible to retrace earlier versions of the story and Peshitta by providing insights into the evolution of
to observe how they were reworked. Gen 12:1020 Peshitta vocabulary. It would also facilitate research
combines three distinct literary projects nested within into the Aramaic background of Peshitta vocabulary,
one another somewhat in the way of Russian babush- the linguistic formation of the Syriac translators/
ka dolls: a legal-ethical case-study, reinterpreted as a revisers (e.g., what is the Aramaic meaning of ar-
SUHJXUDWLRQ RI WKH H[RGXV VWRU\ ZDV WXUQHG LQWR D dikhla?, which is used in the Peshitta to represent ar-
cautionary lesson on divine election: the elect are not citektwn why?), and semantic antecedents of Pes-
morally superior to the non-elect. The analysis of the hitta vocabulary in Biblical Aramaic, the Aramaic of
story on Abram and Sarai in Egypt throws an interest- the Dead Sea Scrolls, the OT Peshitta, and the 4th-
ing light on pentateuchal literature and on the histori- cent. Syriac writings of Afrem, Afrahat, the Liber
cal critical approach it requires. Graduum (both with excellent indices), and others.

  ROBERT


K AWASHIMA
Mnster University, Germany University of Florida, USA
The
Old
Syriac
Versions
in
a
Future
Lexicon

What
is
a
Scribe?
of
the
Peshitta
New
Testament A recent trend within biblical studies is the attempt
The New Testament Peshitta is a revision of an Old WR UHFRQVWUXFW WKH JXUH RI WKH VFULEH 7KH DXWKRU
Syriac (OS) text type represented in the Sinaitic and we are told, is of recent origin, internally related to
Curetonian versions. The Peshitta, the culmination certain technological achievements the codex, the
RIWKH)RXU*RVSHO6\ULDF&DQRQLVWKHQDOVWDJH printing press and to certain modern ideals artis-
RIDUHYLVLRQDU\GHYHORSPHQWVWURQJO\LQXHQFHGE\ tic individuality and the originality of genius. One
the Greek NT text. VKRXOG WKHUHIRUH UHSODFH WKLV DQDFKURQLVWLF JXUH
The genetic relationship between the Peshitta and with the scribe, who embodies the craft of writing in
WKH26LVUHHFWHGE\WKH3HVKLWWDVDGRSWLRQRI26 those predominantly oral cultures where the world
vocabulary, as well as by corrections that bring the of letters is still the exclusive domain of a small pro-
revision into closer accord with the Greek. This pa- fessional elite. If the intrinsic value of such historical
per argues that a future comprehensive Syriac-Eng- reconstructions is beyond dispute, it is far from clear
lish lexicon of the Syriac NT should acknowledge how and to what extent it should change our con-
the lexical formation of the Peshitta by lexicalizing ceptualization of the (biblical) text as text. Does the
all OS vocabulary items (and Harklean, if included fact that a story or a poem or a law was composed in
in the lexicon) unattested in the Peshitta. a largely oral setting logically entail that it bear the
This approach does not give translational infor- traces of orality? Does the fact that an anonymous
mation on the Peshittas multitudinous revisions of ZULWHUZDVWUDLQHGDVDSURIHVVLRQDOVFULEHWRIXOOO
the OS (for this the Comparative Edition of the Syr- certain established functions within the stream of
iac Gospels may be consulted). Rather, it represents tradition preclude him or her from engaging in that
lexical agreements and disagreements between the mode of artistic production we would now attribute
OS and the Peshitta. This paper focuses on OS vo- to the author? What, in other words, can one legiti-
cabulary unattested in the Peshitta: (a) words in the mately infer from historical context? In fact, there
Sinaitic and/or Curetonian version of roots attested is compelling evidence for identifying biblical nar-
in the Peshitta; and (b) words in the Sinaitic and/or rative as written verbal art, viz., literature. The
Curetonian version of roots unattested in the Pes- remarkable fact that genuinely literary texts could
hitta. Accordingly, OS lexemes of roots attested in EHSURGXFHGZLWKLQDPRVWO\RUDOFRQWH[WZLOOQDOO\
the Peshitta would be cited under the root of existing lead me to reconsider the concept of anachronism it-
entries of the lexicon, and OS lexemes of roots unat- self. What exactly does this scholarly sin consist in?
tested in the Peshitta would constitute new entries
(in the same way as lexemes cited from the Harklean
NT, if included in the lexicon).
The advantage of including the OS versions is
that it would represent the lexical pre-history of the
78

 




sind breit gestreut. Nimmt man das Stichwort der
Swiss Reformed Church
Reiche, das sich der Grabherr der Inschrift beilegt,
Die
Pluriformitt
der
syrischen
Fassungen
dazu, gelangt man dagegen speziell zu Ps 112, wo
von
Susanna
im
Bade
als
Frage
nach
dem
neben dem sonstigen Vokabular der Inschrift der
o Reichtum mit derselben Wurzel U) wie in Kom
Die Textberlieferung der Peschitta ist in den meis- (8):3 benannt und positiv konnotiert wird. Der Vor-
ten biblischen Bchern erstaunlich einheitlich. Umso trag geht zunchst der Frage nach, welche Verschie-
berraschender sind die grossen Abweichungen in bung in der Sicht auf Segen und Reichtum von Kom
mehreren Handschriften der Susanna-Erzhlung,   ]X 3V  VWDWWQGHW 6LH OLHJW ]XP HLQHQ LP
welche ganze Stze betreffen und auch deutliche Verschwinden der Aschera als Segensmittlerin und
Vernderungen des Inhalts ergeben. Diese Vernde- zum andern in der Bindung des Reichtums an das
rungen sollen in ihrer theologischen Tendenz unter- Tun der Gerechtigkeit in Ps 112. Sodann soll gefragt
sucht werden. Zudem stellt sich die Frage, in welcher werden, welche sozial- und mentalittsgeschicht-
Weise der berlieferungsprozess verlief. Lsst sich lichen Entwicklungen Kontinuitt und Differenz
eine ursprngliche Fassung von spteren Bearbei- zwischen einer Grabinschrift des 8. Jh. und einem
tungen unterscheiden? Verlief der Vernderungspro- gewiss sehr viel spteren Psalm erklren knnen.
zess in einer bestimmten Richtung oder chaotisch? Dabei ist auf die krisenhafte soziale Entwicklung seit
Ist das Modell von schriftlichen Bearbeitungen oder dem 8. Jh. zu verweisen. Sie hat neben einer grund-
das Modell eines mndlich-kontinuierlichen Weiter- stzlichen Reichtumskritik (etwa in Jer 5:2628) die
erzhlens in einer gewissen Variationsbreite sachge- Vorstellung hervorgebracht, dass Reichtum nur in
msser, um das Entstehen unterschiedlicher Fassun- Verbindung mit sozialer Gerechtigkeit gerechtfertigt
gen zu erklren? ist (so etwa die Sicht des Hiobbuches). Ein Seiten-
blick auf Ps 49, in dem Reichtum im Gegensatz zu
Ps 112 stark relativiert wird, kann dieser Sicht wei-


 WHUHV3UROJHEHQ
Swiss Reformed Church
Disability-Studies
zu
den
Tempel-Oblaten/
Netinm
in
Mesopotamien
und
Juda   
Whrend mehr als drei Jahrtausenden lsst sich kul- University of Helsinki, Finland
turbergreifend verfolgen, dass Menschen zur Arbeit 

einem Heiligtum geschenkt bzw. geweiht worden This study investigates the textual development in 2
sind. Nach einer Skizzierung der Geschichte von den Kgs 25:412, a story about conquest and destruction
sumerischen bis zu den mittelalterlich-katholischen RI-HUXVDOHPDVZHOODVWKHQDOGD\VRILWVODVW'D-
Zeugnissen wende ich mich der speziellen Proble- vidic king. The purpose is to systematically investi-
matik zu, dass ein gewisser Anteil dieser Menschen gate the textual evidence in order to see, what kind
wegen ihrer (krperlichen oder geistigen) Behinde- of changes the story has gone through. The changes
rung dem Heiligtum geschenkt worden ist. Was ge- are then analyzed and categorized. This will be done
schah mit ihnen? Das paper steht im Zusammenhang by comparing the different texts of MT and LXX.
mit meinem Arbeitsprojekt Geistige (intellektuelle) In addition, parallel text in Jer 52:716 gives some
Behinderung in der Bibel und den Nachbarkultu- evidence on the subject. This paper is a part of my
ren. work in Birth and Transmission of a Holy Tradi-
tion -project. The main interest is on scribal activity
shown in Biblical texts. Some differences between
  the parallel accounts of the story can be explained as
Universitt Marburg, Germany accidental changes in text, but several changes in the
 storyline are also results of deliberate rewriting. In
'LH*UDELQVFKULIWYRQ+LUEHWHO.P>.RP  @ the textual development of the story in 2 Kgs there
hat eine hohe semantische Schnittmenge mit der are changes in grammar and vocabulary towards a
Sprache der Psalmen (JHWH; Segen, Wz. brk; Fein- more local and contemporary style. One title is add-
de, Nomen ar; Rettung, Wz. M hif.). Die Belege HG$JHQHUDOWHUPLVFKDQJHGLQWRDPRUHVSHFLHG

IOSOT
Abstracts
79

RQH &KURQRORJLFDO QRWHV DUH VSHFLHG DQG KDUPR- of the languages lexical corpus and the implications
nized according to other historical notions. Some of this for the lexicographical task.
changes into plural verb forms may have been done
in order to show the character of a king of Babylon
in a more positive light. A systematical categorizing   
of the changes gives evidence of constant editing Universitt Bern, Switzerland
of texts, happening in many phases throughout the 
 

transmission process this story has gone through. Alttestamentliche
Schwureinleitungsformeln
In der alttestamentlichen Forschung wird herkmm-
licher Weise im Schwur vor allem die dunkle Seite
 
  betrachtet, das Magische bzw. der Fluch. Der Beitrag
University of Strasbourg, France macht es sich zum Ziel, die positive Seite zu sehen,
The
Identity
of
the
Human
Beneficiaries

und zwar dass der Schwur auch ein Bekenntnis zu
 Gott ist, ja ein Gebet, durch das Gott angerufen wird,
According to the sabbatical year law in Leviticus, bei der Verwirklichung des Schwurinhaltes mitzu-
the land of Israel must lie fallow during one year af- wirken. Das wird anhand der einleitenden Formeln,
ter six years of cultivation (Lev 25:25). During this durch die Gott beschworen wird, deutlich gemacht.
sabbatical year, people may eat without cultivating Zu den Formeln, die diesen Gedanken umsetzen, ge-
the land (Lev 25:6). When we consider the human hrt nicht nur die klassische Formel der Herr lebt,
EHQHFLDULHVRIWKLVODZLWLVQRWHGWKDWQRWRQO\WKH sondern auch die Formeln Ich erhebe meine Hand
Israelites but also non-Israelites are included. In this zum Herrn, Amen, so spreche der Herr, der
UHVSHFWDQLPSRUWDQWTXHVWLRQDULVHVGRWKHEHQHFL- Herr ist Zeuge, und nicht zuletzt die meistens als
aries constitute a particular social institution, or are 6HOEVWYHUXFKXQJVIRUPHO JHGHXWHWH 6FKZXUHLQOHL-
they social categories chosen ad hoc by the author? tung Gott tue mir dies und fge jenes hinzu. Jede
In this contribution, we will make a proposal as to dieser Formeln hat ihre eigene Geschichte und ihre
WKHJURXSLGHQWLW\RIWKHKXPDQEHQHFLDULHVLQWKH eigene Nuance. Aber durch alle wird Gott gleichsam
sabbatical year law in Lev 25:6. beschworen, mitzuwirken.

  

Cardiff University, United Kingdom University of Helsinki, Finland



Yavneh
and
the
Bible
a
Philosophical
Lexicon
in
Syriac This lecture is not about the famous Jewish Sanhe-
This paper will explore a selection of aspects of the drin of Rabbinical Yavneh, but on an older period
Hellenising trend within the Syrians conception of city. An Iron II Philistine repository pit (favissa/geni-
their own language in Late Antiquity and the early zah) full of votive objects was discovered at Yavneh
Islamic period. A case study will be offered that fo- (Kletter, Ziffer and Zwickel 2010, Yavneh I, OBO
cuses upon the development of the lexical corpus of Archaeological Series 30, Fribourg). In this lecture
Syriac philosophy and of Syriac grammar. This ill I discuss two objects from Yavneh: cult stands and
examine in particular some of the motive forces that UHSDQV)ROORZLQJ)UHYHO,XQGHUVWDQGFXOWVWDQGV
drove the growth of these two bodies of technical as votive objects, but not as media, neither as ar-
ODQJXDJHDQGDOVRKRZWKH\PXWXDOO\LQXHQFHGRQH FKLWHFWXUDOPRGHOV7KRXJKWKHJXUDWLYHDUWUHODWHV
another. It will then draw these phenomena (which mainly to a goddess, these objects were dedicated
are both socio-intellectual and linguistic) into an in- by both men and women to the gods. The Yavneh
tegrated view of the invention and development of UH SDQV DUH URXQG FOD\ VKRYHOV XVHG IRU EXUQLQJ
the so-called Syriac Masorah, itself a type of self- spices, originating from the Aegean. Similar vessels
conscious Hellenising activity. By considering the were used in many periods and appear as shovel
different social/political/religious etc. forces acting ( LQWKH277KDQNVWRWKH<DYQHKQGVZH
upon the Syriac schools and their masters, we hope understand better the Biblical stories of Korah and
to contribute to a deeper understanding of the growth of Nadab and Abihu. We do not prove the histo-
80

 



ricity of such stories; but that is not the goal. The
Penn State University, USA
discussion demonstrates that when dealing with the
archaeology of Iron Age Israel/Palestine, the OT re- The
Relationship
of


mains irreplaceable. Proving and disproving the the
Deuteronomistic
History
to
Chronicles:


OT are two sides of the same coin, not two funda- Was
the
Chronicler
a
Deuteronomist?
mentally different disciplines. The notion of writing In tackling the important issues of an ongoing Deu-
a history of Iron Age Israel/Palestine without the OT, teronomistic school or of a continuing Deuterono-
of emancipating Iron Age archaeology from Bibli- mistic tradition in Persian and Hellenistic times, one
cal Archaeology, is as futile as Pierre Menard, the may enlist the postexilic work of Chronicles to serve
author of Don Quixote. For scholars who study Iron as an appropriate case study. There should be no
Age Israel/Palestine, the impossible thing is not to doubt that cardinal tenets of Deuteronomy, such as
write a history of ancient Israel, even if it is a history centralization, the polemic against worshiping other
of its denial. gods, the prominence of the Levites, the possession
of the land, adherence to the Torah of Yhwh, were
TXLWH LQXHQWLDO LQ VKDSLQJ WKH &KURQLFOHUV WKHRO-
    ogy. Similarly, almost all scholars would agree that
Kings College London, United Kingdom the work of Samuel-Kings edited by one or more
Enoch
and
Wisdom:
Reflections
on

Deuteronomists served as the main source in the
the
Character
of
the
Book
of
Parables composition of the Chronistic version of the history
The writings incorporated in the Ethiopic Book of of the Davidic monarchy. My paper will address
(QRFK DOWKRXJK WUDGLWLRQDOO\ FODVVLHG DV DSRFD- the issue of Deuteronomism in Chronicles and the
lypses, possess a number of features that raise the question of Chronicles as a work in the Deuterono-
question of their relationship to the wisdom lit- mistic tradition by focusing on the following con-
erature and the wisdom tradition. In recent years a siderations: 1) those Deuteronomic/Deuteronomistic
number of scholars have attempted to answer this traits that seem to have had the largest impact on the
question by comparing the early Enochic writings worldview of the writer of Chronicles; 2) the ways
with Sirach, and it has been argued that the authors LQZKLFKWKH&KURQLFOHUKDVEHHQLQXHQFHGE\RWKHU
of the early Enochic wrtings and ben Sira formulated major traditions (e.g., P); 3) the ways in which the
their views in part over against one another or wrote Chronicler reacts against Deuteronomic and Deu-
in conscious opposition to one another. Too much teronomistic tenets to pursue his own historical, so-
has perhaps been made of the idea of opposition, but cial, and theological agenda. This case study should
stronger evidence of links with the sapiential writings prove useful not only in enhancing appreciation of
has been provided by 4QInstruction and 4QMyster- WKH HQGXULQJ LQXHQFH RI 'HXWHURQRPLF DQG 'HX-
ies within which the central concept of the mystery teronomistic writings in postexilic times, but also in
to come embraces knowledge of creation and of the shedding new light on the diversity within the major
past, present and future of mankind, and wisdom is works normally associated with the Deuteronomistic
divinely revealed. The outcome of these studies of tradition, principally Deuteronomy, the Deuterono-
the Enochic writings in relation both to Sirach and mistic History, and the Deuteronomistic edition of
to 4QInstruction and 4QMysteries has been to sug- Jeremiah.
gest that rigid distinctions should not be drawn be-
tween the literary categories that they represent. The
aim of the paper is to examine the Book of Parables    
(1 Enoch 3771), which is somewhat later than the University of Helsinki, Finland
other writings incorporated in 1 Enoch, from the per- What
can
the
Research
of


spective of the fact that it is headed the vision of   


wisdom. 

In recent years, I have studied Genesis chapter three
and especially Martin Luthers interpretations of it.
)RU QGLQJ RXW WKH VRXUFHV ZKLFK /XWKHU XVHG IRU
constructing his interpretation of this passage, I

IOSOT
Abstracts
81

studied mainly early Christian and Medieval com- the source language and in creating corresponding
mentaries. For getting a better picture of the Genesis expressions and literary forms in the receptor lan-
chapter three, I also compared these older commen- guage. Targums, the Septuagint and the Vulgate
taries with modern ones. Through this comparison, are especially important for understanding the his-
I was surprised, how little attention modern com- tory of Christian and Jewish interpretations respec-
mentaries gave to the Christian history of interpreta- tively. A survey of the vocabulary used to translate
tion. For example, any of the 2030 commentaries Gods righteousness requires some appreciation
of Genesis, which I used for my research, did not of individual types of translation. A comparison
mention anything about the Christian interpretation of translations in various versions shows that the
according to which the serpent was possessed by the question whether the subject of the concept of
Devil in the Genesis chapter three. If the idea that righteousness/justice is God or humans might have
serpent was possessed by the Devil would have been played a crucial role in some places in the selection
only short and peculiar bypath to which one or few of the particular word in the translation language.
ancient or Medieval scholars would have referred to, Some translators apparently assumed the subject of
I would have not been surprised. However, it was righteousness/justice to be human when the divine
not only a short and peculiar bypath in the history subject should have been taken for granted. None-
of Christian interpretation. Instead, between the 2nd theless a general appreciation of the tasks of trans-
and 15th centuries the idea that the serpent was pos- lation and an understanding of the Hebrew notion
sessed by the Devil was a Christian paradigm and of righteousness/justice was decisive. The classical
standard interpretation which was repeated and cop- ancient, and some recent, translations testify to the
ied over and over again. Through this example, I will fact that the translators were professional biblical
ponder in my presentation, how the knowledge of scholars or specialists in literature in general. They
WKH&KULVWLDQKLVWRU\RILQWHUSUHWDWLRQZRXOGEHQHW were therefore capable of grasping the original
current Genesis-commentaries and make them more PHDQLQJDQGRIQGLQJDQDSSURSULDWHOLWHUDU\IRUP
informative. in the receptor language. The translators of some
recent contemporary language versions are obvi-
RXVO\OHVVZHOOTXDOLHGDVWKHUHQGHULQJVGLVWRUW-
~e ing both the original meaning of Gods righteous-
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia ness and the universal literary forms, beginning

 with the parallelismus membrorum, show.
the
Septuagint
and
the
Vulgate
My interest in the question of Gods righteousness
has led me to undertake extensive and comparative  
 
VWXGLHV RI LWV VHPDQWLF HOG LQ WKH %LEOH ,Q RUGHU Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal/Bethel, Germany
to establish the meaning of Gods righteousness as Siehe,
es
war
sehr
gut:


expressed in the Hebrew words derived from the 

root dq , H[DPLQHG UVW RI DOO WKHLU FRQWH[W DQG

ODUJHUVHPDQWLFHOGLQFOXGLQJWKHLUV\QRQ\PVDQG Der sogenannte erste Schpfungsbericht, Genesis
antonyms. I undertook also a survey of the history 1:1 bis 2:4a, steht nicht nur an der Spitze der alttes-
of interpretation of these words in ancient transla- tamentlichen Schpfungstexte, sondern er ist auch
tions the Septuagint, Targums and the Vulgate durch eine Reihe von Besonderheiten ausgezeich-
as well as ancient Jewish, Patristic and Renaissance net. Zu diesen gehrt, dass er zwar in praktisch je-
commentaries. My study on righteousness (1988) dem Satz und jedem Motiv auf Traditionen Bezug
deals with the history of interpretation in general, nimmt, dass er aber in seiner konkreten Gestalt so-
here I would like to focus on the interpretation of wohl in seiner Gesamtheit wie auch in vielen Ein-
those passages containing the dq vocabulary in zelheiten ein singulrer Text ist. Zu den singulren
Isaiah and the Psalms as attested by ancient trans- Aussagen gehrt auch die die Schpfungswerke ab-
lations: Targums, the Septuagint and the Vulgate. schlieende Aussage siehe, es war gut bzw. sie-
Such a survey reveals the dilemmas faced by trans- he, es war sehr gut. Diese sog. Billigungsformel
lators in interpreting the meaning of the concept in passt zwar ausgezeichnet in den Kontext und lsst
82

 

 

sich auch mit anderen Aspekten der alttestamentli-
University of Vienna, Austria
chen Schpfungstheologie verknpfen, sie hat aber
kein wirkliches Gegenstck im Alten Testament The
Other
Texts
of
Jeremiah:
Quotations
of
and

und auch nicht in der Umwelt. Die Verbindung Allusions
to
the
texts
of
Jeremiah
in
the
Second

mit dem Gotteslob durch die Schpfung (z.B. Ps Temple
Period
19) oder mit der selbstzufriedenen Ruhe Marduks 7KH UVW SXEOLFDWLRQV RI WKH -HUHPLDKPDQXVFULSWV
am Ende seines Schpferhandelns ist jedenfalls from Qumran by J. G. Janzen (Studies in the Text
ein Wechsel auf eine andere Ebene, denn in Gen 1 of Jeremiah, 1973, 17384) reignited the discussion
ist es nicht der Schpfer, der gepriesen wird, son- about a possible Hebrew Vorlage of the Jeremiah-
dern Gott lobt seine Schpfung. Nun ist es zwar Septuagint. Most textual critics regard the matter as
mglich, dass die Aussage einfach der Kreativitt decided by 4QJerb (4Q71). They think that the Old
des Verfassers entstammt, aber die Tatsache, dass Greek text of Jeremiah renders its Hebrew Vorlage
praktisch alle Aussagen von Gen 1 positiv oder more or less closely. Jeremiah-Commentators like
negativ auf Traditionen Bezug nehmen, lsst doch Georg Fischer though think that this particular man-
die Frage nach einem entsprechenden Hintergrund uscript is too badly damaged to be of any textcritical
oder Impuls als berechtigt erscheinen. Ein solcher value and argue therefore still for a free Greek trans-
Impuls lsst sich nun in der Tat in der akkadischen lation of the protomasoretic text of Jeremiah which
Schpfungsterminologie aufzeigen. Dies soll im would be responsible for the idiosyncrasies of Jer-
Vortrag dargestellt werden. LXX. This lecture will ask in how far the quotations
of and allusions to the Book of Jeremiah in Second
Temple Jewish literature shed new light on the Jere-
  miah-Septuagint and its Hebrew Vorlage. A new re-
Philipps-Universitt Marburg, Germany search project at the University of Vienna (Ancient
Theological
Profiles
in
Proverbs:
Comparing
Jewish Quotations and Allusions) which locates quo-
   tations of and allusions to the books of the Hebrew
Thematically oriented studies on the Book of Prov- %LEOHV\VWHPDWLFDOO\IRUWKHUVWWLPHHQDEOHVVXFK
erbs have usually taken the whole book as their an analysis at a much wider scale than previously
textual basis, without looking at different parts of thought possible. Do the quotations of and allusion
the book separately. Especially the theology of this to the Book of Jeremiah in Jewish literature from the
book, which is thought of as a rather secular piece 6HFRQG7HPSOHSHULRGUHHFWWKH+HEUHZ9RUODJHRI
of literature, has usually been treated in that way: the Jeremiah-LXX and provide thus additional evi-
By sorting out the theologically relevant sentences dence to 4QJerb or do they rely exclusively on the
of the whole book and by grouping them accord- consonantal text of the Jeremiah-MT?
ing to semantic categories. It can yet be shown that
the different collections in Proverbs represent dif-
ferent and quite distinct theological views. For do- KARI
L ATVUS
ing so, the paper will deal mainly with collections University of Helsinki, Finland
I and II., the largest collections in the book. It will 

look at those sayings, which use the name of God The story of Ishmael in Gen 1617, 21:821; 25:1
and will analyze not only semantic tendencies of 11 is a compilation of several fragments: a threat of
these sayings in the respective collections, but also prenatal death, a divine promise of future success
the distribution and meaning of formulaic phrases (Gen 16), the birth, Ishmael included to the covenant
and syntactic patterns. The two largest collections and circumcised (Gen 17), but expelled from his
differ clearly from one another in their attitude to- fathers house, nearness of death in wilderness and
wards the concept God. a survival followed by an adjustment and an endo-
JDPLFPDUULDJHRXWVLGH,VUDHO *HQ DQGQDOO\D
re-appearance at Abrahams burial (Gen 25:9). The
plot raises questions to be answered: 1) Why was
WKHRIIVSULQJRI$EUDKDPDQG+DJDUUVWZHOFRPHG
and even accepted into the covenant and circum-

IOSOT
Abstracts
83

cised (Gen 17) but later expelled (Gen 21)? 2) Why historisch vermutlich aus der frhnachexilischen Zeit
the expelled Ishmael reappears into the story to bury (wohl des frhen 5. Jh.) stammt die Geburtsstunde
Abraham (Gen 25:9) if he was expelled earlier? The der nachexilischen Prophetie, die in der Forschung
paper begins with a summary of classical documen- seit rund zwei Jahrzehnten intensivere Beachtung er-
tary hypothesis (M. Noth, C. Westermann: JEP) and IlKUW8QPLWWHOEDUDXVGLHVHPVSH]LVFKHQ.RQWH[W
illuminates the existing problems which were not erwchst die prophetische Konzeption des Haggai-
answered by the theory. Secondly, the paper gives a buchs, deren dynamisches Zeit- und Geschichtsver-
alternative solution to understand the growing proc- stndnis der aktuelle Beitrag anhand ausgewhlter
ess of the Ishmael stories. The gradual growth of the Passagen (2:6f; 2:2023) in den Mittelpunkt stellt.
texts offers a more probable answer to the questions Daraus ergeben sich exemplarische Einblicke in die
K\SRWKHVLVLQXHQFHGE\($.QDXI-YDQ6HWHUV $QIlQJHGHUWKHRORJLVFKHQ5HH[LRQVYRUJlQJHGLH
and C. Levin). The offered hypothesis explains why in der nachexilischen Prophetie sukzessive zu um-
,VKPDHO UVW ZDV ZHOFRPHG EXW QDOO\ H[SHOOHG fassenden Zukunftserwartungen gefhrt haben.
The radically changed socio-cultural context gives a
best explanation to understand changed perspective
from pre-exilic (Gen 16*) to late post-exilic situa-     
WLRQ *HQ   7KH H[SXOVLRQ RI ,VKPDHO UHHFWV D Universitt Mnchen, Germany
late post-exilic attitudes against non-Israelite people Das
synchronistische
Exzerpt
aus


(cf. Ezra 910). den
Annalen
der
Knige
von
Israel
und
Juda
Das Exzerpt aus den Annalen der Knige von Israel
und Juda, auf dem das rahmende Schema der B-
2  cher der Knige beruht, gilt gemeinhin als deute-
cole Pratique des Hautes tudes, Sorbonne, ronomistisch. Indessen lsst sich zeigen, dass es
France nicht auf jenen Redaktor zurckgehen kann, der die
Le
brlement
des
os:

Urteile ber die Frmmigkeit der Knige hinzuge-
 fgt hat, sondern eine frhere, also vordeuterono-
Le brlement des os humain est exceptionnel et mistische Quelle darstellt. Das kombinierte Exzerpt
gnralement jug ngativement dans la Bible. Il est aus den israelitischen und judischen Annalen wurde
explicitement mentionn deux fois: en Amos 2:1 et 2 wahrscheinlich durch die Knige Josia oder Jojakim
Rois 23:16,20, et implicitement dans quelques autres veranlasst, die die Geschichte Israels und Judas als
textes. Larchologie semble rvler que le rite de la Zwei-Einheit darstellen lieen, um den Anspruch des
crmation tait pratiqu chez les voisins immdiats Knigs von Juda zu unterstreichen, nach dem Mus-
dIsral: en Phnicie, en Philistie et en Transjor- ter der davidisch-salomonischen Personalunion auch
danie. Cette pratique funraire des peuples voisins das ehemalige Israel zu reprsentieren. Historische
permet de mieux comprendre Amos 2:1 la lumire Voraussetzung ist der Niedergang der Assyrer. Heute
dune inscription moabite et, en tenant compte de la bildet das Annalen-Exzerpt die wichtigste Unterlage,
critique littraire, 2 Rois 23:16, 20, o le brlement die sich fr die Geschichte Israels und Judas in der
des os apparat spcialement scandaleux parce que Knigszeit erhalten hat. Unter der Voraussetzung,
pratiqu par le bon roi Josias. dass es eine aus dem 7. Jahrhundert stammende vor-
redaktionelle Quelle gewesen ist, zeichnet sich ein
Weg ab, die Argumente zugunsten des sogenannten
 
 %ORFNPRGHOOV &URVV/RKQN PLWGHQ$UJXPHQ-
Universitt Mnster, Germany ten zugunsten des sogenannten Schichtenmodells

 (Smend, Veijola, Dietrich, Aurelius) zu vershnen.


Das Haggaibuch, das im Kern zusammen mit Sach Erstere treffen fr die vordeuteronomistische Ebene
18* den redaktionsgeschichtlichen Ankerpunkt zu, letztere fr die deuteronomistische (Erst-)Redak-
des Zwlfprophetenbuch-Schlusses bildet, spielt tion nach dem Ende des Knigtums im 6. Jahrhun-
unmittelbar im Horizont der Tempelneugrndung. dert.
Diese theologiegeschichtliche Umbruchssituation
markiert gem der literarischen Darstellung, die
84

 

TIMOTHY
L EWIS   
University of Melbourne, Australia Eberhard-Karls University, Germany

 
 
 History
of
the
Text
and
Archaeological
Implications
Syriac
Lexemes
in
the
New
Testament The hymnic centre of Psalm 74 (vv. 1217) employs
This paper examines a persistently problematic issue LQYEHWZHHQWKHPRWLYHRIJKWLQJWKHFKDRV
in Greek and Syriac lexicography. New Testament (v. 13f.) and distinct statements of creation (v. 16)
lexicons must include entries for lexemes that only meaningful water imagery. The Hebrew version
occur once or twice in the NT corpus. Yet it is not (L: ) is translatable. LXX (Rahlfs) how-
always clear whether the given meaning for a low- HYHUVKRZVDVLJQLFDQWYDULDQWRIWHQFKDUDFWHUL]HG
frequency lexeme in the NT is to be understood as as transliteration of the verses last word (
generic or contextual, that is, whether the meaning  %XW FRQVLGHULQJ EHVLGH WKH PHQWLRQHG H[-
given in English applies also to other Greek and Syr- planation) also the phenomenon of homophony,
iac examples outside the NT, or whether the given another solution can be implied. Regarding the ar-
PHDQLQJLVVSHFLFDOO\EDVHGRQWKH17FRQWH[W,V chaeological data of Palestine, the result in search
a corpus-based lexicon meant to provide contextual RIDWWLQJWRSRQ\PLVSRVLWLYH7KHVLWHRI(WDPLQ
meanings for its low frequency lexemes? Sometimes -XGD FDQ EH LGHQWLHG DV D SLYRWDO HOHPHQW IRU WKH
a given meaning appears to have lost sight of the lex- water (!) supply of Jerusalem in the Second-Temple-
emes meaning within the NT. The paper examines Period; furthermore the literary connection between
four sets of GreekSyriac correspondences in the Etam and the Temple of Jerusalem occurs in several
Peshitta NT with a view to designing a methodology post-biblical sources (incl. babJom, ThrR). The re-
adequate to providing an accurate semantic analysis cent paper suggests to understand the stichos 
DQGGHQLWLRQIRUDOOVXFKOH[LFDOLWHPV7KHOH[HPHV  (You dried up rivers of
discussed are: meraa (Mt 13:5), the Peal Shin-Waw- Etam) as You dried up the water supply of Jeru-
eth (Mt 13:5), the Pael E-Mim-adhe (Mt 13:15; salem. This solution is more plausible than the as-
Act 28:27), and the Peal E-adhe-Beth (Lk 10:34) sumption of an error during text-reproduction or due
along with their corresponding Greek lexemes. to the tradents lexematic ignorance. On the contra-
U\7KHGLVFXVVHGWH[WXDOYDULDQWLVDVLJQLFDQWVKLIW
of emphasis achieved by concretion. The shift oc-
  Y curred due to the cultural background of the tradents.
University of Helsinki, Finland It is only to speculate from here, whether the cultural
Observations
on
the
Mode
of
Translation

EDFNJURXQGKDGLWVURRWVLQUVWKDQGNQRZOHGJHRI
in
the
Syrohexapla the topographical realities or whether the roots are
The Syrohexapla is often described as a servile trans- derived from literary knowledge (as later presented
lation. In this paper I will comment further on this by Josephus). The recent paper advocates a reason-
view of the Syrohexapla via an examination of the able integration of topographical knowledge for the
lectionary passages of the Syrohexaplaric 1 Samuel. here discussed textual variant.
Comparison will be made with material drawn from
biblical manuscripts of the Syrohexapla. The focus
will be on the consistency of translation correspond- ODED
L IPSCHITS
ences. The discussion will be supported by examples Tel Aviv University, Israel
of the use of Greek loanwords, transcriptions, and What
Can
We
Learn
From
Archaeology

SURSHU QRXQV ZLOO EH JLYHQ DQG WKH VLJQLFDQFH RI Regarding
the
Persian
Administration
in
Judah?
these correspondences for a future SyriacEnglish Over the past few years, two archaeological studies
lexicon. have shed new light on the Persian administration
in Judah. Firstly, the excavations at Ramat Rael
ZKLFKH[SRVHGDPDJQLFHQWHGLFHXVHGDVDQDG-
ministrative center with two main building phases
dated to the Persian period. Secondly, a new study
of Judean stamped jar handles has shed new light

IOSOT
Abstracts
85

on the Achaemenide administration in Judah and on masoretic traditions. This manuscript, dated to 899
its slow development from the late 6th and 5th to CE, predates other Syriac Masora manuscripts by
the 4th century BCE. The primary conclusion from nearly a century and it is the sole surviving exem-
these studies is the clear continuity in the Judean ad- plar of the East Syriac masoretic tradition. Despite
ministration from the period when Judah was a vas- some limited attempts in the past to publish portions
sal kingdom under Assyrian and Babylonian rule, of this unique East Syriac masoretic manuscript,
then, during the period when it was a Babylonian the complete manuscript has never been published
and Persian province, up until the period when it was or studied in its entirety. One reason is that the text
a province under the rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty. FRQVLVWV RI RQO\ VDPSOH WH[WV RI GLIFXOW ZRUGV
Besides this, there are also clear indications for the and readings from the Syriac Bible. These sample
developments in the Judean administration under the texts are not provided with verse numeration, mak-
Achaemenides, especially in two principal historical LQJ LW D GLIFXOW DQG WLPHFRQVXPLQJ SURFHVV IRU D
periods: under the rule of Darius I (522486 BCE), PRGHUQUHVHDUFKHUWRORRNXSVSHFLFYHUVHVLQ%/
as part of the reorganization of the empire, and, un- Add. 12138. To complicate matters, in many West-
der the rule of Artaxerxes II (404359/8 BCE), when ern manuscripts of the Syriac Masora sample texts
the Achaemenid Empire lost control over Egypt and are not always in the proper reading order. It has not
reorganized its administrative and military control in been determined to what extent, if any, the sample
Palestine. texts in BL Add. 12138 are out of order. A compre-
hensive index to the biblical texts and philological
notes in BL Add. 12138 has now been completed.
CHRISTO
LOMBAARD By locating each sample text from BL Add. 12138 in
University of South Africa the Syriac Bible, the index will make the vocalized,

 diacritically marked, and accentuated readings in


Discipline
of
Biblical
Spirituality this manuscript more accessible to researchers. This
Genesis 22 has through its narrative content and the paper will present an overview of this new index and
history of its exegesis proven to be a contentious offer insights into the order, arrangement, and use of
text. Most satisfactory have been interpretations of WKHGLIFXOWZRUGVDQGUHDGLQJVLQWKLV(DVW6\ULDF
the Akedah in historical mode. These kinds of in- manuscript.
terpretations however do best at probing what the
text meant, and are generally less forthcoming on
what the text means. Balancing these concerns is  
brought into focus again in the new discipline of Bib- Georg-August-Universitt Gttingen, Germany &
lical Spirituality: the meaning(s) that underlie a text University of St Andrews, United Kingdom
and what latter-day interpretations (are to) make of Once
Again:


that text are important in recently proposed models Priestly
Ritual,
Magic
and
Monotheism
of Biblical Spirituality. Precisely how robust these The Sotah and the Red Cow present two rituals that
models are at attaining such balance has however have embarrassed interpreters from the Rabbis to
not been tested in exegetical-hermeneutical mode. the twentieth century, for both assume a ritual ef-
This contribution seeks to do so, by summarising the FDF\ WKDW DSSHDUHG WDQWDPRXQW WR PDJLF :KLOVW
historical interpretations of the Akedah and placing some interpreters proposed means to explain such
them in dialogue with proposed models of Biblical problems away, others accepted the apparent magi-
Spirituality. cal elements but understood them as vestigial ele-
ments. This paper rehearses the counter argument
that the novel elements in these rituals are not ves-
  tigial, but the result of an interpretative blending of
The American University of Iraq-Sulaimani texts from the priestly corpus and Deuteronomy. It
An
Index
to
the
Biblical
Sample
Texts
in
the
will be argued that both texts reinterpret the same
 texts, viz. Lev 45, 1215 and Deut 2122, and that
BL Add. 12138, the so-called Nestorian Masora, these rituals were composed primarily to effect the
is one of the earliest and best witnesses to the Syriac canonical unity of the Pentateuch and to shed inter-
86

 

pretative light on the wilderness narrative. For the Semantic analysis leads to the determination of two
composer of these texts in Numbers there was noth- polar oppositions: I) dyq/r: realizing/violating
ing intrinsically implausible about such rituals and the appropriate behavioural parameters which regu-
their effectiveness. As such they call into question late the ongoing communal relationship; II) dyq/
the effectiveness of the supposed disenchantment of r: (being) in the right / (being) in the wrong.
the world that has been attributed to P on the basis of 7KH OH[HPHV DFWXDOL]LQJ WKH RSSRVLWLRQ ,, GHQH D
Genesis 1. They also contribute to our understanding VWDWXV7KH\QGDV\VWHPDWLFDSSOLFDWLRQLQMXULGLFDO
of why the biblical monotheism far from extirpat- YHUGLFWV6HOHFWLRQLQYHUGLFWVIRUPXODVUHHFWVWKH
ing magical practice continued to generate it. Or, to fact that the trial in the Biblical society is a proce-
put it differently, magic is part of the reception his- dure bringing to a solution a juridical controversy
tory of the text, as much as its prehistory. between two sides. The term dimension designates
a semantic component shared by certain lexemes of
DOH[LFDOHOGZKLFKFDQEHGHVFULEHGDVDGHWHUPL-
    QDWLRQRIWKHYDOXHWKDWGLVWLQJXLVKHVWKHHOGDQG
University of Florence, Italy which constitutes a semantic common ground in
Some
Remarks
on
the
Lexematic
Function
of
correspondence to which the involved lexemes form
the
Adjectives
h lh
and
lm a system of oppositions. The opposition contents I
This study analyses the classes, the dimensions and / contents II is the opposition between two dimen-
the changes of usage of two important lexemes per- VLRQV PXWXDOO\ H[FOXVLYH7KH\ FDQ EH GHQHG UH-
WLQHQWWRWKHOH[LFDOHOGRIKHDOWKDQGLOOQHVVLQDQ- spectively, behavioural dimension and juridical
cient Hebrew: the adjectives lh and lm. lh is used dimension. The former is a component shared, in
as denotative and connotative of illness, while lm particular, by the adjectives tmym perfect, yr up-
refers to health or wellness. In the functional lan- right, wrongdoer, the latter is a component
guages lh is not just a polar antonymy of lm (con- shared by the adjective nqy not liable.
notative usage is more frequent for the latter), but
its dimensions and markedness are different because
the function and the classes of this lexeme are more HEATHER
A.
McKAY
VSHFLF7KHUHVHDUFKKHQFHDUJXHVWKDWlh is the Edge Hill University, United Kingdom
typical referent for the animate beings to indicate a Showing
Respect
through
Deception:


status RILOOQHVVRUGLVHDVH H[FHSWIRUDIHZVSHFLF Nathan,
Joab
and
Joseph
cases), while lm has a wider usage (as it is demon- There are many stories in the Hebrew Bible that
strated by the very frequent occurrences in enallage). incorporate deception. Notable deceivers are Abra-
However we can show also the peculiar lexematic ham (of Pharaoh), Rebekah (of Isaac), Delilah (of
process of some functional languages that leads to Samson), even David (of Uriah), who manipulate
the disappearance of the lexeme lh sick only in kin, friends and colleagues to achieve their ends or
the meaning indicating the disease phenomenol- save their skins. There are, however, a few stories
ogy. where the goal of the deception is to bring the ones
deceived to a clearer sense of what they should be or
how they should behave, to a better understanding
COSIMO
M ASI of what does proper honour to their character and
University of Florence, Italy position. In these stories, rather than despising and
The
Lexical
Field
of
the
Adjectives

using their interlocutors, the deceivers truly respect
 
them and try by their manoeuvres to re-align them
Some
Oppositions
and
Lexical
Contents with their ideal selves. Following on from my pre-
7KH OH[LFDO HOG DQDO\VLV PXVW DQG GRHV DFFRXQW vious papers analysing Hebrew Bible narratives of
for the presence of meanings pertinent to contexts disguise, deceit and manipulation, this paper will ex-
relating to behaviour and of meanings pertinent to plore the underlying motives of those practising the
juridical and strictly forensic contexts. The investi- deceptions. Respecting people can be characterised
gation focuses on and stems from the analysis of the as: 1) Feeling or showing esteem for them; 2) Con-
adjectives corresponding to the forms dyq and r. sidering or treating them with deference or dutiful

IOSOT
Abstracts
87

regard; 3) Showing consideration for their situation; what Israelite oral literature would have been, then,
4) Avoiding intrusion upon, or interfering with, their dovetails with new interest among biblical scholars
privacy. Using these facets of respect, this paper will in Performance Criticism. Performance Criticism in-
explore the deceptions practised on David by Nathan vestigates address, implicit audience, projected iden-
and Joab and on his brothers by Joseph to analyse tity, and the way they weave together to constitute
the motivations of the perpetrators. The results will a performative scheme, itself determined by social
VKRZZKLFKUHHFWWUXHUHVSHFWDQGZKLFKFRPELQH and cultural conventions familiar to the original per-
respect with less appealing motives, whether self- former and audience. This paper uses ancient Near
preservation or revenge. Eastern evidence including archaeological and
textual material from Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Ca-
naan and ethnographic analogy to propose perfor-
c  mative schemes for ancient Israels oral and orally-
Rhodes College, USA performed written literature. It presents a scenario of
The
Still
Elusive
Deuteronomists how Israelite performance deploys its text. Since the
This paper will address the question What is Deu- Hebrew Bible itself consists largely of remnants of
teronomistic primarily through insights offered in performances, this exploration will help unlock the
the 1999 volume Those Elusive Deuteronomists mode of thought distinct from the literary mode that
(JSOTSup 268), which I co-edited. The question, was once operative in employing these remnants.
What is Deuteronomistic, might elicit responses Without unlocking these modes we cannot fully un-
outlining the characteristics of Deuteronomistic derstand the text.
literature or responses listing the texts within the
Hebrew Bible that are Deuteronomistic. Curiously,
WKHUHLVJHQHUDODJUHHPHQWRQWKHUVWSRLQWEXWQRW  
on the second. That is, scholars tend to agree about Hebrew University, Israel
the language, style, compositional techniques, and Contradictory
Traditions
in
Contact:
Biblical

ideology that mark a text as Deuteronomistic. How- Hebrew
in
the
Light
of
Historical
Linguistics
ever, there is wide disparity about which texts or The recent debate over diachronic distinctions within
sections of the Hebrew Bible fall into this category. Biblical Hebrew focuses mostly on the possibility to
This obviously means that the criteria for determin- identify early vs. late biblical texts. However, much
ing Detueronomistic material are not applied evenly. less attention was given to the fact that there are nu-
Both minimalist and maximalist perspectives merous cases in which one can discern a diachronic
may have validity, but there is a need to differen- gap between the consonantal text and the vocaliza-
tiate clearly between Deuteronomistic authorship, tion tradition(s). Thus the diachronic distinction is
Deuteronomistic editing, and Deuteronomistic in- QRWOLPLWHGWRVSHFLFSDVVDJHVEXWUDWKHUSHUYDGHV
XHQFH:HDOVRQHHGWREHFOHDUHUDERXWWKHVRFLDO throughout the entire MT in its present form. This
entities (school, tradition, movement, etc.) that are methodological principle will be illustrated by trac-
envisioned as carrying out these different activities. ing the linguistic history of the various derivatives
the z-m-r root(s), paying special attention to the sin-
gular form zimr and the plural zePU{W. The discus-
ROBERT
D.
M ILLER
I I sion will illustrate how careful etymological analy-
The Catholic University of America, USA sis necessarily leads to a grammatical observation,
Oral
Performance
in
Ancient
Israel namely, that the discrepancies in the vocalization of
Recent epigraphic discoveries have renewed atten- the singular vs. plural forms of the lexeme denoting
tion on literacy and orality in ancient Israel. Yet evi- song, singing point to a diachronic gap between
dence from the ancient Near East and ethnographic two different phases of the language, which can be
analogy suggests literacy and orality co-existed in LGHQWLHG ZLWK &ODVVLFDO YV /DWH %LEOLFDO +HEUHZ
ancient Israel: Israel was always oral and al- This conclusion is corroborated by textual evidence
ways literate. And even with extensive literacy, culled from various non-Tiberian sources, which
people in antiquity still preferred and even expected allows one to penetrate into older linguistic forma-
to experience their literature orally. Reconstructing tions of the pertinent words. Thus, the combined
88

 

testimony of both linguistic and textual information they would have been exposed to claims of Assyrian
demonstrates the potential contribution of historical hegemony. Such an occasion can be reconstructed
OLQJXLVWLFV WR WKH FODULFDWLRQ RI SHUSOH[LQJ LUUHJX- in some detail by using the evidence in J. Br, Der
larities in the grammar of Biblical Hebrew and of assyrische Tribut und seine Darstellung (AOAT
their implications for the historical study of the He- 243, 1996). To date, however, Brs material has not
brew Bible. been synthesized by biblical scholars. This synthesis
shows that presentations of tribute would have been
a prime opportunity for the transmission of the kind

  of Assyrian claims texts such as those in Isa 10:514
3RQWLFDO%LEOLFDO,QVWLWXWH,WDO\ and 2 Kings 1819 seem to be aware of.
The
Function
of
the

in
the
Old
Testament
Peshitta
The Syriac construction KZ followed by a participle,   o
active (TWHO) or passive (TWO), appears occasionally Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal, Germany
in the OT Peshitta. Syriac grammarians often discuss The
Household
of
the
Queen
and
Queen
Mother

this construction under the heading of KZ TWHO in
Neo-Assyrian
and
Biblical
Sources
along with other instances when KZ combines with In this paper I will reassess the neo-Assyrian evi-
verbs or participles to create a so-called compound dence for the organization of the households of both
tense. T. Nldeke noted that it can express a wish, the queen (M..GAL/M.KUR) and queen mother (AMA.
an advice or a command and that in a subordinate MAN and AMA.LUGAL) in order to establish a frame of
clause it expresses an action that one should aspire to reference for the interpretation of pertinent informa-
(Nldeke 260261). It can also express a past dura- tion in the Hebrew Bible. Modern theories on the
tive aspect. This paper will consider the function of position of the Judean queen mother or mistress
KZ TWHO/TWO in the OT Peshitta with a focus on the (JEvUk) have heavily drawn on these Assyrian
Hebrew constructions that it translates. sources, the bulk of which stems from the times of
Esarhaddon and his mother Naqia. While it is undis-
puted that Naqias position at court was exceptional,
WILLIAM
M ORROW for a comparison with the biblical material individ-
Queens School of Religion, Canada ual and structural aspects of power have to be kept
Tribute
from
Judah
and

strictly apart, and the different nature of the bibli-
the
Transmission
of
Assyrian
Propaganda cal stories and extrabiblical material must be taken
The means by which biblical writers encountered into account. While there is virtually no information
the rhetoric and claims of Assyrian ideology remain DERXW RIFLDOV SHUWDLQLQJ WR WKH KRXVHKROG RI WKH
obscure and subject to debate. One possibility, sug- Judean queen (mother), her roots within the Judean
gested by several scholars, is that there were oppor- nobility (the am haare) are an important factor in
tunities for the transmission of Assyrian ideology the biblical text. To counterbalance the silence of the
ZKHQ-XGDKVRIFLDOVZHUHREOLJHGWREULQJWULEXWH text, I will pay special attention to the partners of
Previous discussions have found indications of this interaction of the queen (mother) and implicit com-
process in 2 Kgs 16:10 and in the annals of Tiglath- mand structures within the stories. Finally, I will dis-
Pileser III, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal. Little at- cuss whether or not the Judean queen mother had any
tention has been paid, however, to the notice about oversight over the royal harem and what the role of
the arrival of Judahs emissaries to Calah during the the female overseer(s) (DNLQWXVNHQHW) might have
reign of Sargon II, along with representatives bearing been therein. Despite the lexicographic resemblance,
tribute from Egypt, Gaza, Moab, and Ammon (SAA Abiags presentation in the story of 1 Kgs 12 does
1:110, r. 57). This paper will attempt to determine QRWGLVSOD\PDQ\SDUDOOHOVWRWKHQHR$VV\ULDQRIFH
the probable course of events implicated in the re- of a akintu.
port of SAA 1:110, including the coming of Judahs
emissaries to Calah in a group of geographically
UHODWHG SHRSOHV WKH NLQG RI$VV\ULDQ RIFLDOV WKH\
would have encountered, and the manner in which

IOSOT
Abstracts
89

o
posed and subsequently prepared for conservation.
University of Kassel, Germany
7KHSDSHUDOVRSUHVHQWVWKHPRVWUHFHQWQGV$IWHU
Ahitofel
und
die
Ambivalenz
des
Ratschlags a successful pioneer campaign in 2009, the Kinneret
Der Ratschlag gehrt zu den Funktionen der Wei- Regional Project is launching large scale excavations
sen. Die Weisen und Ratgebenden der Samuelbcher on Horvat Kur, a rural site inhabited from the Hel-
machen deutlich, dass ihre Fhigkeiten nicht kon- lenistic to the Early Byzantine period and situated on
WH[WORV VRQGHUQ LQ HLQHP JDQ] NRQNUHWHQ *HHFKW a hill 2 km west of the Lake of Galilee. Excavations
von Beziehungen und Loyalitten zu verstehen sind. in 2010 aim at establishing a local chronology, will
Besonders eindrcklich kann diese Kontextualisie- collect data on the structure and infrastructure of a
rung des Ratschlags an der Gestalt des Ahitofel ge- Galilean village site and are accompanied by setting
zeigt werden. Sein Wettstreit mit Huschai ist ganz up an inventory of agricultural and water manage-
bestimmt von offenen und verdeckten Bindungen an ment installations in the vicinity. The paper summa-
David und Abschalom. Dazu kommt, dass die Gte rizes results from the 2010 campaign.
der Ratschlge je nach Perspektive unterschiedlich
zu beurteilen ist. Die explizite Wertung der Ratschl-
ge Ahitofels und Huschais in 2 Sam 17:14 hat hier  
eine Schlsselfunktion. Der Vortrag will anhand der North-West University, South Africa
Figur des Ahitofel zum einen beispielhaft die nar- Influence
of
the
Book
of
Daniel
on
the

UDWLYH =HLFKQXQJ XQG )XQNWLRQ HLQHU 1HEHQJXU Postrabbinic
Apocalypse,
Sefer
Elijah
untersuchen. Zum anderen soll ein Beitrag geleistet Sefer Elijah is the perhaps the oldest of Jewish apoc-
werden zum Verstndnis der Ambivalenz von Weis- alypses produced during late antiquity. The book is
heit und Ratschlag im zweiten Samuelbuch. a compilation of biblical texts serving the plot of the
humiliation of the people of God, accompanying
KRSH FRQLFW DQG WKH UHVXOWDQW YLFWRU\ DQG UHVWR-
 o
 ration. The apocalypse originated during the Sassa-
University of Bern, Switzerland nid conquest, a period which brought a new fervor
  among Palestinian Jews. The apocalypse purports
University of Helsinki, Finland to be a vision mediated by the archangel Michael to
o


WKH ELEOLFDO SURSKHW (OLMDK GXULQJ (OLMDKV LJKW WR
University of Leiden, The Netherlands Horeb to escape from the Israelite-Canaanite queen.
 The revelation is received at Mount Carmel. Michael
Discoveries
of
the
European

converses in third person about the mystery of the
Kinneret
Regional
Project
on
the
end marked by an array of military disasters mark-

LQJ WKDW WLPH (OLMDK UHVSRQGV LQ UVW SHUVRQ DERXW
This paper presents the recent results of archaeologi- the wonderful sights he sees during a tour of the cos-
cal investigations at Tel Kinrot / Tell el-Oreimeh (an- mos leading to the time of the end of the eschaton.
cient Kinneret) and Horvat Kur undertaken by the The prophet and angel do not interact directly but
Dutch-German-Finnish-Swiss Kinneret Regional rather deliver speeches. The apocalypse was directly
Project under the auspices of the Universities of LQXHQFHGE\WKH%RRNRI'DQLHODVFDQEHVHHQE\
Bern, Helsinki, Leiden and Mainz. Kinneret locat- the many quotations. In the article the apocalyptic
ed on the northwestern shores of the Sea of Galilee ERRNLVGLVFXVVHGIURPWKHSHUVSHFWLYHRIWKHLQX-
in Israel is emerging as one of the major sites for ence exercised by the Book of Daniel. Does it see
the study of urban life in the Southern Levant in the the end in the same terms as Daniel and is the ex-
Iron Age IB (11501000 BCE). Its material culture pectation for believers in the end time the same?
witnesses a lively and multilayered urban culture and The conclusion is that there are marked similarities
VKRZVDYDULHW\RIFXOWXUDOLQXHQFHVRQWKHDQFLHQW between Daniel and Sefer Elijah but also important
SRSXODWLRQRIWKHFLW\6LQFHPLGVHOGZRUN differences which might be ascribed to the changed
at Tel Kinrot has concentrated on the lower city with circumstances.
well-preserved Iron IB structures and installations.
The architecture of a domestic quarter was fully ex-
90

 

   
dom. Qohelets analysis of the hedonic dimension of
University of Toronto, Canada
pleasure is more complex. Qohelet rejects the pur-
The
Flourishing
of
Sophia
and
the
Elevation

suit of happiness (chap. 2) but advocates hedonic

 enjoyment that comes as a gift. The sharp difference
Most scholarship on Ben Sira has tried to draw in the perspectives of the two books is rooted in their
meaning from the book synchronically in relation different metaphysical assumptions about the order-
to its presumed composition by a named author in OLQHVVRIWKHZRUOGDQGLWVWZLWKKXPDQUDWLRQDOLW\
early second century BCE Jerusalem and its politics. A sense that one has some control over events cor-
Rather than privileging an original Hebrew text and relates with a eudaimonic model of happiness, lack
its singular socio-historical setting, my essay takes of control with a hedonic model.
seriously the idea of Sirach as a traveling and shift-
ing accumulation of textual traditions that were like-
ly transmitted in oral contexts. My paper argues that     
the Greek translation of the book with a presumed Universit de Lausanne, Switzerland
diaspora Egyptian setting reveals a transformed per- Deutronomiste
et
Deutronomisme:

spective on the priesthood and Temple in favor of origines,
enjeux
et
perspectives
du
dbat
actuel
the elevated status of the sage and his mediating con- Le dbat actuel sur lemploi du terme deutrono-
sort Sophia. Using a theoretical framework rooted in miste et, plus largement, sur la notion de deutro-
embodied cognition, the paper evaluates the blended nomisme au sein de la Bible hbraque met plus que
space produced by three conceptual metaphors of MDPDLV HQ pYLGHQFH OD QpFHVVLWp GXQH FODULFDWLRQ
sanctuary, garden, and water in Sir 24 and compares mthodologique. Selon les auteurs, le terme deu-
them with the monumental depiction of Sir 50. The tronomiste peut dsigner une cole ou un groupe
UHVXOWLQJ*UHHN6LUDFKWUDGLWLRQVQGDJORULRXVSODFH GHVFULEHVVSpFLTXHPHQWDFWLIVGDQVOHFRQWH[WHGH
to dwell in the proseuche, the diaspora synagogue. lexil lpoque no-babylonienne (bien que ses
UDFLQHVSXLVVHQWUHPRQWHUjODQGHOpSRTXHQpR
assyrienne dj), une tradition thologique majeure
 prsente dans le judasme du second temple (qui ne
Emory University, USA serait dailleurs pas ncessairement limite aux seuls
Eudaimonic
and
Hedonic
Dimensions
of
Israelite
crits bibliques mais se retrouverait galement dans
Wisdom
Traditions:
An
Exploration une srie dcrits juifs extra-canoniques), voire, de
The recent interdisciplinary investigation of human manire encore plus gnrale, un langage ou un style
happiness, often referred to as the positive psychol- dcriture, facilement imitable, qui ne serait pas sp-
RJ\PRYHPHQW WKHVFLHQWLFVWXG\RIWKHVWUHQJWKV FLTXH j XQ JURXSH RX XQH pFROH HQ SDUWLFXOLHU 
and virtues that enable individuals and communities PRQVHQVXQHWHQWDWLYHYLVDQWjFODULHUOHPSORLGX
to thrive), has sought its conversation partners in the terme deutronomiste doit notamment aborder les
humanities largely among the moral philosophers, questions suivantes : 1) lexistence ou non dun u-
especially those in the Aristotelian tradition. Bibli- vre historique (Geschichtswerk) cohrent en Deu-
cal traditions tend not to put happiness, in either the tronome 2 Rois; 2) ltendue et la nature de r-
eudaimonic or hedonic sense, at the center of their dactions deutronomistes dans le Ttrateuque (Gn
UHHFWLRQVRQWKHKXPDQFRQGLWLRQ2QHQRWDEOHH[- Nb) et dans les Prophtes postrieurs (s Ml),
ception to this picture exists, however. Concern for ainsi que le rapport que ces rdactions entretiennent
KXPDQRXULVKLQJLVFHQWUDOWRPXFKRIWKH:LVGRP DYHFOHVUpGDFWLRQVGHXWpURQRPLVWHVLGHQWLDEOHVHQ
Literature, most notably Poverbs and Qohelet. A Jos 2 R; 3) la localisation sociologique et institu-
comparison of these texts shows that a lively debate tionnelle des scribes responsables des principaux
existed within Israelite literature about the nature crits deutronomistes, en particulier les livres du
of human happiness. An examination of the moti- Deutronome, de Samuel-Rois et de Jrmie; et 4) la
vational tropes used in Proverbs demonstrates that possibilit de distinguer, sur la base de critres la
LW HPEUDFHV D HXGDLPRQLF LGHDO RI KXPDQ RXULVK- fois de forme et de contenu, entre rdactions deut-
ing in which life satisfactions of various sorts rather ronomistes proprement dites et rdactions post- (ou
than pleasures are the goal and result of a life of wis- mme para-) deutronomistes au sein des crits bi-

IOSOT
Abstracts
91

bliques. En lien avec ces questions, on dfendra ici erature? A review of the broad range of works about
notamment la thse selon laquelle il y a bien un sens him shows that there are three prototypes of Saul.
parler dune cole deutronomiste cohrente, en Most of these works focus on Sauls rebellion against
tout cas jusqu lpoque perse (achmnide), mais religion; Sauls valor as national leader; or Sauls de-
que cette cole se caractrise par une plus grande di- pression, soothed by listening to music. The works
versit dorientations politiques et religieuses quon that highlight Sauls rebellion are based mainly on
ne la soutenu habituellement. the biblical images of Saul who fails to obey a re-
ligious command (particularly concerning Amaleq)
and who is rebuked by the prophet Samuel (1 Sam
   15). They raise theological and sociological issues
University of Nigeria related to the meaning of the loss of religious faith in
 the life of the individual and of the nation. The works
As a literary device, and indeed a poetic technique, concerning Sauls valor are based mainly on those
for almost all the alphabetic acrostics in the He- biblical images that depict the battle upon Mount
brew Bible are found in its poetic sections, adequate Gilboa and the tragic death of Saul (1 Sam 31), and
knowledge of this literary method is of great impor- address mainly national and Zionist (or post-Zionist)
tance for the understanding of the poems in which it issues related to Israels wars. The works that ad-
has been employed. While some of the acrostics are dress Sauls despair and depression, and the musical
perfect, that is, the Hebrew letters are all represented therapy that he experiences, are based on the biblical
and sequentially too, in some other poems, apparent images of the evil spirit that troubled him and the
lacunae often pose some setback to their meaning- image of David playing music to soothe him (1 Sam
ful analysis and subsequent interpretation. Such im- 1619). They grapple with universalistic, human is-
perfection in the poem is, perhaps, evidence of the sues relating to psychological stress, and ars-poetic
limit the adeptness of the poet could reach, in spite questions about art and its psychological function.
of the richness of the repertoire of his vocabulary. In All works are usually characterized by considerable
Psalm 25 chosen for this paper, the Hebrew letters LGHQWLFDWLRQ ZLWK DQG SURIRXQG HPSDWK\ IRU .LQJ
in its acrostic are almost represented. This writer, Saul, whose actions are regarded with disapproval
therefore, apart from giving an overview of the char- by the biblical text.
acteristic features of alphabetic acrostics as a poetic
device in the Hebrew Bible, attempts to proffer some
suggestions on the missing and misplaced letters in   
Psalm 25. The main focus of the paper, however, is Romanian Academy, Romania
an investigation on how the poet has skillfully given Traductological
Options


completeness to his theme by the use of alphabetic in
the
Eastern
Biblical
Tradition
acrostic. In order to achieve this, the many variants 7KHDOPRVWH[FOXVLYHO\UHOLJLRXVFRQWHQWRIWKHUVW
of the poems key word are delineated and highlight- texts translated into the modern languages imposed,
HG UVW LQ LWV GLIIHUHQW FRPSRQHQWSDUWV DQG LQ WKH according to tradition, the use of the literal method
poem as a whole. which was the only one allowed, as it maintains the
sacredness of the translated text. The direct contact,
during the biblical text translation, between the sa-
RACHEL
O FER cred languages (Greek, Latin and Hebrew) and the
Bar Ilan University, Israel vernacular languages favoured a series of conceptual
Biblical
Characters
in
Modern
Hebrew
Literature:
and semantic transfers from the source languages to
King
Saul
as
a
Test
Case the new cultural ones, in their growing process. A
King Saul has captured the imagination of a great GHFLVLYHIDFWRUWKDWFRQJXUHGWKLVSHULRGVSHFLFLW\
many playwrights, poets and novelists over the gen- in the history of the modern literary languages is the
erations. A great many writers, of different periods, translators personality. This played a key role in
have chosen his character as a vehicle for expressing the translation act, as the translator was a mediator
their views and feelings. What are the transforma- between two cultures and introduced the principle
tions of King Sauls Character in modern Hebrew lit- RILQWHUFXOWXUDOLW\LQGHQLQJDQHWKLFVRIWUDGXFWRO-
92

 




ogy. A certain antagonism between the cognitive and
University of Tbingen, Germany
design necessities of the biblical semantic universe,
on one hand, and the expressive resources (i.e. ty- Jeremiah
and
Moses
pological and historical limitations) of each receiv- The comparison between Moses and Jeremiah tra-
ing language, on the other hand, was solved at the ditionally aims at motifs like the fourty-year service
level of creative liberty of the interpretative trans- or at the relation between a supposed dtr layer in the
lators, while different formulas of semantic transfer book of Jeremiah and the dtr depiction of Moses.
had been applied. The process of conceptual and This paper takes a different approach by investigat-
linguistic transfer that took place within the text dur- LQJWZRVFHQHVLQZKLFKWKHVHWZRNH\JXUHVRIWKH
ing the translation had a larger, frequently ignored, Hebrew Bible assume a similar role. In Exod 18:20
psychological and socio-cultural base whose origin Jethro advises Moses: and make them know the
was the encyclopaedic personality of the early trans- way in which they must walk and the deeds they are
lators. The personal note of the translation act can be to do. In Jer 42:3 the people of Judah ask Jeremiah:
HDVLO\VHHQLQWKHUVWWUDQVODWLRQVRIWKH2OG7HVWD- and Jhwh your God may show us the way in
ment from the entire Eastern cultural area. This fact which we must walk and the thing we are to do.
is documented and argued in this article. Both, Jeremiah and Moses, act as prophets because
they mediate between God and the people, but the
instructions concerning the way to walk on and the
   thing/deeds to do reach well beyond the usual scope
University of Gothenburgh, Sweden of authority of a prophet. Moses and Jeremiahs role
The
Non-Literal
Rendering
of
a
Military
is the overall guidance of the people. While Jeremiah
 is the royal prophet (Jer 1) who takes over a leader-
That VZE tread down, trample under foot is al- ship role in Jer 3942, Moses is the kinglike leader
ways rendered by () set at of Israel who brings the divine laws to the people.
naught, disdain, scorn, treat with contempt in the %RWKJXUHVFRPELQHDVSHFWVRISURSKHF\DQGOHDG-
LXX Psalter is unexpected, since VZE is only found ership. It can be assumed that both characterizations
in contexts with military connotations. VZE occurs in were not developed independently from each other,
a word pair with the term [JQ push, thrust, gore, but came from the same background: the Babyloni-
literally translated by kerativzein gore, butt with an province Judah after the downfall of the Judaean
horns, in Ps 44:6, both referring to the victory over monarchy.
an enemy and VZE is employed with O\[K:YQ we
will gain victory in Ps 60:14 and 108:14. The trans-
lator of Isaiah knew the literal meaning of the term, ERIC
P EELS
since he translates swb by katapavtein, and the same Theological University Apeldoorn, The Netherlands
is true for the translator of Zechariah, who uses the Against
you,
Daughter
of
Babylon!


simple term pavtein. The most probable reason for A
Remarkable
Example
of
Text-Reception


the translation is that the translator regarded VZE as  
a variant spelling of ]ZE, which is always translated One of the peculiarities of the book Jeremiah is the
by in the LXX Psalms and sometimes frequent repetition or reuse of material in quotations
in other books of the LXX. The deviant usage in and in doublets. Until yet, this phenomenon has not
LXX Psalms is emphasized by the fact that the con- fully received the attention it deserves. In my paper I
text in the Psalter favours a literal rendering, that the intend to focus on one such doublet: the reuse of Jer
translators of Isaiah and Zechariah recognized such 6:2224 in Jer 50:4143. This is a very special ex-
a meaning, that none of the other LXX translators ample of reuse because the object against which the
employed the same Greek equivalent of VZE as the message of judgment is directed is entirely reversed.
Psalms translator and that the translators otherwise In Jer 6 judgment is pronounced over Zion with
distinguished between the equivalents of VZE and the coming of the foe from the North (Babylon).
]ZE. In Jer 50:4143, however, the same prophecy is di-
rected against Babylon itself. The pursuer becomes
WKH SUH\ *LYHQ WKH VLJQLFDQW SODFH %DE\ORQ RF-

IOSOT
Abstracts
93

cupies within the book of Jeremiah the present pas- have been composed as a kind of literary anthology.
sage is quite remarkable. What might be the nature It would seem that the group of people who were
and function of this particular case of text-reception? responsible for composing Ps 31, also contributed
In light of the original text in Jer 6:2224 and read towards the insertion of the confessions of Jeremiah
within its own immediate context, the doublet of Jer and the prayers of Jonah.
50:4143 shows itself to have a functional place em-
phasizing the theological message of the great oracle
against Babylon. YHWH is the sovereign Lord of
 
history who leads the nations, and who causes jus- University of Pretoria, South Africa
tice to triumph. 

Towards
a
Spatial
Interpretation
of
the
Poem
In spite of its modest length, Psalm 11 presents ex-
  egetes with complicated textual (cf. especially vss 1
Leiden University, The Netherlands and 3) and interpretational (for instance the extent
Vocabulary
Analysis
and
Text
Comparison
of
the
of the direct quotation introduced in verse 1a) prob-
Two
Syriac
Versions
of
the
Prayer
of
Manasseh lems. Decisions made regarding these problems pro-
Parallel texts provide a rich resource for vocabulary IRXQGO\LQXHQFHRXUXQGHUVWDQGLQJRIWKHSRHP,W
analysis. They show how two texts can say the same will be argued that a spatial reading of the poem will
with different words. Linguistically this means that elucidate many of the problematic issues. The spatial
they are helpful for the study of language variation, theory of Henri Lefebvre will be adapted and applied
both along a syntagmatic axis and along a paradig- in the analysis of Psalm 11. Firstly, the conspicuous
matic axis. The syntagmatic axis concerns the texts appearance of spatial terminology (notably [vs
as they appear, as a sequence of linguistics signs. 1], [vs 3],  and [vs 4]) and
Its analysis involves a linear synoptic comparison LWV VLJQLFDQFH IRU RXU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH SRHWV
of parallels, to see in what places the two texts dif- lived space will be emphasized. The central role of
fer and how these differences can be explained. The verse 4 as interpretational key for the poem will be
paradigmatic axis concerns the lexical knowledge elucidated. Hence, space in Psalm 11 will be used as
needed to produce the texts. Its analysis is achieved key towards its interpretation. Secondly, Psalm 11
by non-linear vocabulary counts, which reveal the will be read in space. It will be argued that spatial
lexical inventory used in the production of texts. It terminology plays an important role in the contex-
may also revealed agreements between the texts that tualization of the poem in its immediate and broader
have been obscured in the synoptic analysis. Our pa- FRQWH[W 7RJHWKHU ZLWK LWV QHLJKERXUV LQ WKH UVW
per will present the results of the vocabulary analy- group of poems in Book I of the Psalter (Pss. 314),
sis that we made of the two Syriac Versions in the Psalm 11 tells a spatial story that paves the way for
Prayer of Manasseh and their consequences for the the central position of the temple in the second group
relationship between the two versions. (Pss 1524). It will be argued that a spatial reading
of Psalm 11 illuminates the intent of the poets/redac-
WRUVRIWKLVUVWDQWKRORJ\RISRHPVLQ%RRN,RIWKH

 Psalter.
University of Pretoria, South Africa
David
in
Consultation
with
the
Prophets:


 
   
with
the
Books
of
Jonah
and
Jeremiah University of the Free State, South Africa
Psalm 31 seems to be a late post-exilic text. It dis- The
Rhetoric
of
the
Text
of
Canticles
or


plays numerous similarities with other psalms, and the
Rhetoric
of
the
Interpreter?


also with the prophetic books of Jonah and Jeremiah. Solomon
in
Canticles
This paper proposes to investigate the nature of the Any attempt to interpret Canticles usually has an un-
literary relationship with the prophetic books in an derstanding of the role of Solomon in the text, explic-
DWWHPSW WR HVWDEOLVK WKH GLUHFWLRQ RI LQXHQFH DQG itly or implicitly. In the drama theory and allegorical
to determine the reasons why the psalm seems to interpretations of many kinds Solomon is one of the
94

 

main characters (Protagonist or antagonist). When DV 'HQKD*UHJRU\ DQG 6DFKDX  UHHFWLQJ WKH
one look at the text itself Solomon seems not to be so East Syriac tradition. Bar Salibis headings do were
LPSRUWDQWPHUHO\DOLWHUDU\JXUH RQO\PHQWLRQHG not taken over from East Syriac psalm manuscripts
LQ YH SDVVDJHV 7KH DVFULEHG UROH RI 6RORPRQ LQ or the commentary of Ishodad of Merw, on which
PDQ\LQWHUSUHWDWLRQVZRXOGUDWKHUUHHFWWKHUKHWRULF his factual commentary frequently depends.
of the interpreter than the rhetoric of the text.

 

   University of Gttingen, Germany


Friedrich-Alexander University, Germany 
Satire
and
the
King
of
Aram Batscheba macht, wie sie uns in den biblischen
The text of 1 Kings 20 has presented many exegetes Texten vorgestellt wird, eine beachtliche Karriere.
with a fertile plain from which to reap a multitude In 2 Sam 1113 zunchst ist ihre Rolle passiv: sie
of historical data about the history of Israel. Various erduldet oder erleidet Davids Handlungen und han-
concepts have been developed in order to approach delt kaum selber. David setzt die Verbindung zu ihr
the text, almost always gleaning some historical cir- bewusst ein, um sich ein Entre in die Jerusalemer
cumstances behind the text or recounted with the Oberschicht zu schaffen, das die gesellschaftli-
text. It may be from the time of one of the Jehuide che Basis fr die beginnende Dynastie darstellt. In
kings. It may original have described circumstances 1 Kn 1 dagegen begegnet eine aktive und initiative
early in Ahabs reign before he joined the coalition Batscheba. Zusammen mit Natan fhrt sie eine Intri-
of anti-Assyrian states at the battle of Qarqar in 853. ge durch, in der David zur Designation Salomos als
Every facet that could lead to a historical reconstruc- seines Thronfolgers gebracht wird. Damit vertritt sie
tion based on this text has been explored in the last ihre eigenen Interessen, denn mit Salomos Inthroni-
century. But what if such study misses the point of sation darf sie sich einen erheblichen Zuwachs an
this text? Maybe the composer of this text sought to 0DFKWXQG(LQXVVHUKRIIHQ'LHOHW]WH6WXIHLKUHU
present different information to the audience beyond Karriere zeigt die Episode von Adonijas Bitte um
purely historical data. With this in mind, well take Abischag 1 Kn 2:1325. Durch Adonijas Tod wird
a renewed look at the narrative of 1 Kings 20. The Batschebas Macht als Kniginmutter (vgl. 1 Kn
text of 1 Kings 20 may or may not be interested in 2:19) weiter gesichert. Batscheba mag im Zweiten
SURYLGLQJWKHUHDGHUZLWKKLVWRULFDOGHWDLOVLWLVGH- 6DPXHOEXFKQXUHLQH1HEHQJXUVHLQGHQQRFKJH-
nitely interested in satirizing the king of Aram. hrt sie zu den starken Frauen im Alten Testament
und in der Weltliteratur.


North-West University, South Africa KAMIL
R UPEIKAIT
  Vilna Gaon State Jewish Museum & Lithuanian
Commentary
of
Dionysons
Bar
Salibi Academy of Music and Theatre, Lithuania
In 2004 Ryan published a critical edition of Psalms From
Shofar
to
Clarinet

7382 in the commentary of Dionysius Bar Salibi The
Peculiarities
of
Identification
of
Musical

these psalms. He indicates where Bar Salibi depend- Instruments
in
Lithuanian
Translations
of


ed on other commentaries, such as the shorter and 
longer commentaries of Athanasius in Syriac, the Different translations of the Tanach testify to their
commentary of Daniel of Salah and the commentary importance as written sources of the Lithuanian mu-
of Ishodad of Merw. Ryan did, however, not pay sical terminology. Following the survey of transla-
special attention to the headings in the commentary tions done from the end of the 16th c. until the end
of Bar Salibi, especially those in the factual commen- of the 20th c., the paper includes investigation of
tary. A comparison of these headings with the East the relationship of Lithuanian equivalents of bibli-
Syriac headings published by Bloemendaal makes it cal musical instruments with the original sources of
DEXQGDQWO\FOHDUWKDWWKHVHKHDGLQJVUHHFWWKH(DVW translations. The Lithuanian translations of the Ta-
Syriac tradition as it appears in commentaries such nach reveal a three-layered problem of instrument

IOSOT
Abstracts
95

LGHQWLFDWLRQDOUHDG\LQWKHHDUO\WUDQVODWLRQV LQWKH Eine Etymologie des Namens Jerusalem ist Grn-


Septuagint, the Vulgate) the complexity of typologi- dung des Gottes slm. Salamu war die kanaani-
sation of biblical instruments is obvious; in the Euro- sche Gottheit der Morgenrte und sein Hypostasis
pean space the meanings of the transliterated names der Morgenstern, nmlich Venus. Dadurch knnte
of ancient instruments have undergone changes; the der Theophore Name Salomo auf die alte kanaa-
knowledge of biblical musical terminology is aggra- nische Gottheit Jerusalems hinweisen. Aus diesem
vated by the historical evolution of the very instru- Gesichtspunkt werden die Bileamweissagung: Ein
ments. Autochtonic instruments comprise the most Stern geht in Jakob auf (Num 24:17) und die K-
numerous group of Lithuanian equivalents used in nigspsalmen 2, 89 und 110 in Betrachtung genom-
translations in order to render the biblical text ac- men, wie auch Salomos Fall in Fremdgtterdienst,
cessible to community, translators look for musical was als Grund fr die Aufspaltung des Reichs gese-
notions common to their surroundings. The most el- hen wurde (1 Kn 11).
oquent are remained manuscripts of unprinted trans-
ODWLRQV GRQH E\ -RQDV %UHWNQDV   $QWDQDV
Baranauskas (1901), where several different names MARKUS
S AUR
for the same instrument are indicated in the margins Christian-Albrechts-Universitt zu Kiel, Germany
or even in the main text. As one can judge from these 
manuscripts (and also from printed Lithuanian trans- 

ODWLRQV WKHPRVWSUREOHPDWLFLVVXHZDVWRQGULJKW Der Feldzug Alexanders des Groen fhrte im Jahr


equivalents for string instruments. Practically all the 332 v. Chr. von Nord nach Sd durch Syrien-Pals-
translations, irrespective of the tradition they were tina und wurde durch die Belagerung von Tyros auf
based upon, were best at preserving the identity of der einen und von Gaza auf der anderen Seite er-
the percussion instruments. heblich verzgert. Die Ereignisse haben ihre Spuren
nicht nur in der griechischen Geschichtsschreibung,
sondern auch in zwei Texten der alttestamentlichen
" Y Prophetenbcher hinterlassen: In dem Untergangso-
University of Helsinki, Finland rakel gegen Tyros in Ez 26:714 wird zwar prima fa-
Was
fr
einen
Namen
hat
Batseba

cie die Vernichtung von Tyros durch den Babylonier
ihrem
Sohn
Salomo
gegeben? Nebukadnezzar vorhergesagt, eine genaue Analyse
Das Thema des Vortrages ist es, die Bedeutung zeigt aber, dass die letzte Fassung des Textes auf die
des Namens Salomo und dessen Hintergrnde zu Belagerung und Einnahme von Tyros durch Alexan-
beleuchten. Salomos Knigswerden wird kritisch der zurckblickt, eine ltere prophetische Erwartung
in der Thronfolgegeschichte Davids in 2 Sam 11 also in spterer Zeit unter dem Eindruck einschnei-
1 Kn 2 berichtet und sein Ursprung im Ehebruch dender Ereignisse aktualisiert wurde und daher wohl
Davids und Batsebas gesehen. Dieser Tatbestand erst nach 332 v. Chr. entstanden ist; das gilt in hnli-
wird jedoch in dem jetzigen Text durch den Zusatz cher Weise fr Sach 9:18, denn die hier genannten
(2 Sam 12:15b24a) ber den Tod des ersten Kindes Stationen zeigen der Tendenz nach Parallelen zu der
berdeckt. Nach der femininen Qere-Lesung (2 Sam Route des Alexanderheeres, die nicht rein zufllig
12:24) hat Batseba ihrem erstgeborenen Kind den sein knnen. Ez 26 und Sach 9 spiegeln damit zwei
Namen Salomo gegeben. Aus der Thronbesteigungs- unterschiedliche Formen der literarischen Reaktion
erzhlung in 1 Kn 12 bekommt man den Ein- auf die politischen Ereignisse in Syrien-Palstina im
druck, dass hinter dem Knigswerden Salomos die ausgehenden 4. Jh. v. Chr. Diese Formen der Reak-
alten Kreisen des jebusitischen Jerusalems, nmlich tion auf eine bestimmte politische Situation sollen
Propheten Natan, Priester Zadok und Batseba waren. genauer beschrieben und im Blick auf ihre Bedeu-
Sie beseitigten den lteren Bruder Adonijah (Jahve tung fr die Rekonstruktion der Entstehung und
ist mein Herr), der als erster in dem Thronfolgeord- Theologie der alttestamentlichen Prophetenbcher
nung stand. In dem Vortrag werden unterschiedliche ausgewertet werden.
Lsungsversuche fr die Bedeutung des Namens Sa-
ORPR HUXLHUW XQG YHUVXFKW HLQH /|VXQJ ]X QGHQ
die mglicherweise fr die Situation Batsebas passt.
96

 

  
Korpel and Steck), but evaluated in different ways,
University of Zurich, Switzerland
(e.g. as diachronical stages of text development or
The
Deuteronomistic
History

as interchangeable features). This paper explores the
as
Interpretive
Device
in
the
Hebrew
Bible VLPLODULWLHVDQGGLIIHUHQFHVRIWKHWZRJXUHVLQ,VD
'HXWHURQRPLVWLF KDV RIWHQ EHHQ GHQHG EDVHG 49 as two ways to present and to communicate the
on the hypothesis of a Deuteronomistic History future. The way the Servant and Zion are presented
reaching from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings, yet this in this chapter, their literary role and function, and
theory itself remains problematic. In light of this the textual communication are the key to this under-
RQJRLQJGLIFXOW\WKLVFRQWULEXWLRQZLOODWWHPSWWR standing. From these observations the author draws
understand the idea of Deuteronomistic by focus- the conclusion that the combination of Servant and
ing on various biblical notions of Deuteronomistic Zion plays an essential part in the way in which in
histories such as those found in Deuteronomy 4, Second Isaiah the future is announced and sketched
30; 1 Kings 8, and Daniel 9 in order to shed some RXW7KHWH[WXDOSUHVHQWDWLRQRIWKHWZRJXUHVRI-
light on when, how, and why the Hebrew Bible it- fers in connection with and in spite of suffering
self uses Deuteronomistic theology. These texts and disaster in the past two ways to realize the future
of very different historical origins show that Deu- with Yhwh.
teromistic thinking is a long-term phenomenon and
that Deuteronomistic theology evolved consider-
ably during the biblical period. Especially intriguing  
is the gradual expansion of the Deuteronomistic University of Melbourne, Australia
image of Israels history to include both judgment Challenges
of
Including
Valence


of Israels enemies and perspectives of restoration in
Syriac
Lexical
Entries
and how these changes relate to the general develop- Verbal valence, the description of how words inter-
ment of the canonical view of Israels history found act syntactically and semantically with verbs, is an
in the Bible. This discussion will demonstrate the important linguistic feature which requires greater
QHHG WR GHYHORS D KLVWRULFDOO\ GLIIHUHQWLDWHG GHQL- prominence in classical Syriac lexica. Lexical en-
tion of what is Deuteronomistic? that accounts for WULHV QHHG WR DFFRXQW IRU WKH LQXHQFH RI V\QWDFWLF
the adaptability of its basic ideas. At the same time, context on Syriac words, particularly verbs. Yet we
LW UHPDLQV LPSRUWDQW WR GHQH 'HXWHURQRPLVWLF FDQQRWIXOO\XQGHUVWDQGWKHVHPDQWLFVLJQLFDQFHRI
WKLQNLQJ LQ WHUPV RI LWV VSHFLF ODQJXDJH DQG FRQ- a verbs syntactic patterns until we compare these
tent because these distinctive features have provided patterns with the syntactic patterns of words of simi-
for the remarkable success of this term in biblical ODUPHDQLQJ7KHUHIRUHWKHOH[LFRJUDSKHUPXVWQG
scholarship. these words and analyze their syntactic patterns. This
paper provides observations gained through the de-
velopment of a methodology for including valence
UTA
S CHMIDT for texts in an ancient language, particularly classi-
Justus-Liebig-University, Germany cal Syriac. Many Syriac texts are translations, and
   their Greek Vorlagen can lead us to related terms.
The Servant of Jhwh and Zion offer two images This paper looks at issues that arise when determin-
of the future as it is announced in Isaiah 49. Zion ing the limits to what words are related in meaning to
and the Servant dominate most of Isa 4955. In Isa a Syriac verb and presents proposals towards resolv-
49 they even follow one after another in the same ing them. This will aid in the accurate lexicalization
chapter, like an overture to 4955. None of the texts of a Syriac verb and demonstrating the semantic sig-
in question present Zion and the Servant together QLFDQFHRILWVV\QWDFWLFSDWWHUQV
or interacting with each other. But their juxtaposi-
tion suggests that they are combined purposefully to
enhance the message or rather the messages of Isa
49-55 (and in a wider range of 4066). The simi-
larities and the proximity of the Servant and Zion
have been seen before (e.g. by Beuken, Sawyer,

IOSOT
Abstracts
97

  
Arguments for this delimitation are given and the
University of Auckland, New Zealand
impact this new possibility has on the exegesis and
How
Exile
land
of
your
enemies

growing
old
eventual meaning of both Mal 2:173:7a and the fol-
  lowing unit (Mal 3:7b12) will be explored.
This paper asks how the notion of exile land of your
enemies growing old in a foreign country func-
tions in Bar 3:94:4? Exile as it is generally used in  
contemporary English embraces ideas of particular cole biblique et archologique franaise
relationships with tradition, culture, land, history, de Jrusalem, Israel
and stories out of which people live. By focussing on
   

how the author of Bar 3:94:3 constructs exile the A
Critical
Assessment
land of your enemies growing old in a foreign This paper will evaluate various ways in which Hans
country and exploring how the concept functions, )UHLVLQWHUSUHWLYHDSSURDFKFDQEHSURWDEO\XVHGLQ
this paper proposes that the poet uses the notion of the exegesis of patriarchal narratives, especially the
exile in this text primarily as a metaphor. The au- Abraham Story in Gen 1225. It will begin with a
thor of Bar 3:94:4 addresses the plight of a Jew- short analysis of the critical voices which have been
ish Diaspora community at risk of losing its unique raised against Freis theory over the last 30 years.
identity and tradition. When the poet comes to the Next, it will demonstrate that Freis hermeneutics
point of characterising the audience he/she chooses should not necessarily be perceived as anti-histori-
a method guaranteed to bring the issues of aliena- cal. On the contrary, as long as we bear in mind its
tion vividly and memorably before their eyes. In this own limitations and obvious strengths, it may offer
paper I attempt to identify possible implications for refreshing ways of reading the patriarchal narratives
the community addressed and suggest that the au- in both the original and modern contexts.
thors reworking, reinterpretation and adaptation of
earlier understandings and uses of exile as an event,
an idea and a narrative endowed exile in this context 
with multiple meanings and functions. The paper The Protestant Theological University,
concludes that exile land of your enemies . . . grow- The Netherlands
ing old in a foreign country in Baruch is a literary Judging
Jephthah:
The
Contribution
of

device used to give emphasis to the central and vital Syntactical
Analysis
to
the
Interpretation
of

role that Wisdom/Torah had come to occupy in Jew- 
ish identity, teaching and tradition. In this paper I want to explore the issue of the open
or hidden bias in the scholarly interpretation of the
morally problematic story of Jephthah. Is possible
   WR DYRLG WKH LQXHQFH RI SUHMXGLFH" ,Q WKH VXUYH\
University of the Free State, South Africa of previous research special attention will be given
 to the feminist and the historical critical approach.
Demarcating a unit remains important for the inter- In a strictly linguistic approach of the story within
pretation and understanding of particular unit in a the context of Judges 1012, the hierarchy of the
(Biblical) book. In the case of the Book of Malachi, clauses will be established with the help of a syn-
the majority of scholars adhere to the traditional de- tactic analysis. As possible structuring elements are
marcation of the fourth unit in the Book of Malachi regarded the change in verbal tense, morphological
(2:173:5). Closer investigation reveals that the mat- relations, the reference to the participants, lexical re-
ter is not as settled as one might think. Other possi- lations, and clearly signaled pivots. The combination
bilities are also advocated by scholars. Some regard of these elements produces arguments for describing
Mal 2:173:12 as a unit. Another possibility is to re- the main line of the text and the relations between
gard Mal 2:17 as a unit on its own followed by Mal the different participants in the story told by the text.
3:15 as a separate unit. A third possibility is to view In this way it can be demonstrated that Jephthah is
Mal 2:173:6 as a unit. This paper argues for yet only gradually introduced. As soon as he has taken
another possibility stretching from Mal 2:173:7a. WKHUVWSODFHKHEHFRPHVYHU\GRPLQDQWDVWKHRQH
98

 

speaking and acting. This changes with the introduc- difference in meaning, origin or register can be
WLRQRIKLVGDXJKWHUWRWKHVWRU\,QWKHQDOSDUWRI found in the sources. To that aim I will give a short
the story Jephthah regains something of his previ- overview of previous suggestions, with particular
ous speaking and acting power, but at the end this is reference to the possibility that dialectal differences
abruptly taken over by the Gileadites. We may con- may be the reason for the potential synonym. While
clude that, apart from the question whether Jephthah there is some overlap in usage of the two lexemes
was acting morally correct, the text indicates that most biblical characters are either a hozeh or a roeh.
Jephthah in the confrontation with his daughter and The majority of attestations of hozeh occur in 12
with the Ephraimites is losing control. Chronicles and many of the people who bear this
title are associated with court and/or temple. The
lexeme roeh is spread more thinly through the his-
 torical books of the Hebrew Bible which makes a
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland FOHDUGHQLWLRQPRUHGLIFXOW+RZHYHUPXFKRIWKH
Theological
Message
of
the
Psalms
of
Ascent XVDJHRIWKHWHUPFOXVWHUVDURXQGWKHJXUHRI6DP-
Psalms of Ascent form a distinct collection within uel before Sauls ascension to the throne which may
the Psalter that is widely recognised in the scholar- mean that at some time it was understood to refer to
ship. In this paper this collection will be questioned a non-established seer.
about the theological message. The analysis are done
from three angles concentric, narrative and numer-
ical. Analyses of the concentric structure illustrate  Y
the presence of three leading theological motifs: 1) CNRS, France
VXIIHULQJKRSHDQGVDOYDWLRQ WKHJXUHRI'DYLG THALES:
A
Database
of
Biblical
Readings
in

and Jerusalem temple as heirs of the pre-monarchic Jewish
and
Christian
Liturgies
tradition; 3) the dilemma of Gods justice. The nar- The history of the reception of the biblical text is
rative structure is concentrated rather on the human D JURZLQJ HOG ZLWK LPSRUWDQW QHZ SURMHFWV VXFK
fate, and presents: 1) the transformation of feelings as the Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception.
that leads from the loneliness to the sense of commu- In late antiquity and the middle ages, a large part of
nity; 2) the transformation of prayer that leads from Jews and Christians had no direct access themselves
grievance to thanksgiving and praise. The hero of to the biblical text as they were unable to read. Their
WKLVVWRU\LVWKHKXPDQEHLQJZKRVHDUFKHVDQGQGV main sources of information were images and the li-
its own place within the cosmic order and within the turgical reading in the churches and synagogues, i.e.
community, in spite of experience of suffering and lectionaries that contextualize the biblical texts in
evil, he has faith and hope in God. God is presented time and place forming a collective memory in each
as the One who is constantly turned towards man, community. However, for several reasons, lectionar-
as a saviour and a guard, but also as a teacher and a ies are almost entirely omitted from current history
demanding master. The numerical structure accentu- of reception (complexity of uses, arcane publishing
ates the relationship between the leading theologi- places, great variety of modern and ancient lan-
cal motifs. The collection that contains 1/10 of the guages needed). The international project THALES
whole Psalter could be regarded as a mini-Psalter. Thesaurus Antiquorum Lectionariorum Ecclesiae
2WKHU QXPHULFDO IHDWXUHV DOVR FRQUP WR WKH WKHR- Synagogaeque funded by the Fritz Thyssen Stif-
logical issues. tung seeks to overcome this obstacle and to provide
the scholarly community with an easily accessible
LQWHUQHW EDVHG GDWDEDVH WKDW LQ LWV UVW VWDJH ZLOO
 Y SHUPLW WR ORRN IRU [HG OHVVRQV RI D JLYHQ ELEOLFDO
Cambridge University, United Kingdom passage in one of the many reading systems, from
Is
a
Seer
a
Seer?
The
Lexemes

Yemenite and Byzantine Jewish to Syriac, Gallican
hozeh
and
roeh
in
the
Hebrew
Bible and Mozarabic. The presentation shall explain the
In this paper I will study the usage of the two He- general features of the database, its possibilities and
brew lexemes for seer (hozeh and roeh) in order its limits.
to establish if they are synonyms or whether (slight)

IOSOT
Abstracts
99

TALIA
S UTSKOVER
Assyrian society. Additionally, although marriage or
Tel Aviv University, Israel
divorce is dealt with only in 22 Neo-Assyrian texts,
Kinship
Terms
as
Thematic
Designers
in
the
LQIRXURIWKHVHWH[WVOWXVDSSHDU7KHSUHVHQWDWLRQ

 ZLOOGLVFXVVWKHUROHDQGFXOWLFGXWLHVRIWKHOWXV
Directly after the destruction of Sodom and Gomor- in the Neo-Assyrian temples based on the careful
rah, Gen 19:3038 places Lot and his daughters, the analysis of this textual evidence.
only survivors, together in a cave. The short episode
depicts Lots daughters making their father drink
wine and lying with him in order to preserve his seed. RICHARD
A.
TAYLOR
According to some scholars (Speiser, 1964; Wester- Dallas Theological Seminary, USA
mann, 1986), the narrative does not condemn the ac- The
Inclusion
of
Encyclopedic
Information


tions of the daughters, who, they explain, were under in
Syriac
Lexical
Entries,
Illustrated
from


the impression that the world had come to an end and the
Peshitta
of
Daniel

thus had no choice but to carry out this incestuous Modern Syriac dictionaries, in addition to provid-
act. Others maintain that the daughters are presented ing semantic and essential syntactic information for
in a negative light, because they were expressing a lexical items found in a particular corpus of litera-
false distress, which stemmed from an alleged feel- ture, can assist users by also providing well-chosen
ing of the absence of males (Zakovitch 1979; Exum encyclopedic information related to the meaning of
2000; Tsoffar 2007). Moreover, the children born as certain collocations found in the targeted corpus. In
consequence of their actions were Moab and Am- this paper the Peshitta of Daniel provides a test-sam-
mon, who in other biblical contexts are considered ple of certain lexical items whose interpretation is
Israels rivals (e.g. Deut 23:4). In this paper I wish VLJQLFDQWIRUWKHUHFHSWLRQKLVWRU\RIWKLV2OG7HVWD-
to address the moral question of the daughters acts ment book.
IURPWKHSHUVSHFWLYHRIWKHGRPLQDQWVHPDQWLFHOGV
in this story the repetition of kinship terms and
the recurrence of verbs denoting sexual contact. 
I intend to show how the negative appreciation of University of Helsinki, Finland &
the daughters acts is implicitly expressed through University of Vienna, Austria
the consistent occurrences of lexemes from these 


VHPDQWLF HOGV , ZLOO DOVR DGGUHVV WKH TXHVWLRQ RI  

WKHFRQQHFWLRQEHWZHHQWKHVHHOGVDQGWKRVHLQWKH Genesis contains a detailed description of Sarahs
preceding narrative about the destruction of Sodom death but deaths of other women do not receive so
and Gomorrah. much attention. However according to Gen 49:31,
most of them were buried in the cave of Machpe-
lah. The patriarchs are told to go to their fathers
" after their death. Going to their fathers has been
University of Helsinki, Finland interpreted as belonging among the dead forefathers.
Dedicated
Women
of
Neo-Assyrian
Temples Such a portrayal is not linked to the dying women.
Studies of Neo-Assyrian religion have rarely cen- Did they unite with their ancestors after death or
tred on women. In this presentation all documents not? Jubilees adds further information to the death of
UHODWLQJWRWKHSRVLWLRQRIOWXYRWDUHVVDGHGL- the women. Before her death, Rebecca recites a long
cated woman in Neo-Assyrian society are carefully farewell address (Jub 35:1) similar to those of the
examined. Comprehensive use of sources has been patriarchs in Gen. Esau and Jacob bury her near Sa-
made possible by the lemmatized electronical corpus rah, their fathers mother (Jub 35:27). When Leah
RQO\ DYDLODEOH WR VFKRODUV DIOLDWHG ZLWK7KH 1HR dies Jacob buries her near Rebecca, his mother,
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. There are 12 texts and north of the tomb of Sarah, his fathers mother
GHDOLQJZLWKWKHOWXVPRVWO\IURPWKHWKFHQWXU\ (Jub 36:21). These mentions of ancestor mothers are
BC. They are an interesting group of women, mainly peculiar. Are Rebecca and Leah buried next to the
because of their apparent attachment both to the tem- mothers because it is a burial practice or could this
ple of Itar and to the highest echelons of the Neo- description indicate some idea of afterlife? Can this
100

 

thought be connected to the Genesis account of go- over these cardinal issues in the scribal setting of the
ing to fathers after death? L.A.B 40:4 bears witness Second Temple Judaism may have been an actual
to going to the mothers while narrating the death motivation for the composition of Chronicles. The
of the daughter of Jephthah. This paper compares the presentation will draw on my recently-published
death stories linked to fathers and mothers in Gen- PRQRJUDSK7LR-King and Temple in Chronicles:
esis and Jubilees. I will discuss whether the concepts A Contextual Approach to Their Relations (FRLANT
of going to his father and being buried next to a 234; Gttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2010), in
mother share common ideas of afterlife. which I researched the theological environment of
the Chronicler and the manners in which that setting
may have affected the book.
     
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
Uncovering
the
Woman

Y""
 University of Helsinki, Finland
Zechariahs vision of the woman in the ephah (Zech An
Iconographic
Allusion


5:511) has generated a wide range of interpretations. to
the
Northwest
Semitic
Sea
Deity
Yamm


However, there is a remarkable consensus as to what th
Century
BC
Jerusalem?
the prophet actually sees. In particular, it is widely A pictorial inscription dated to 8th century BC found
agreed that the ephah is depicted with a leaden lid or in the Palestine Exploration Fund excavations in
cover, which is lifted off to reveal a woman who then -HUXVDOHP VHHPV WR GHSLFW WZR KXPDQRLG JXUHV
emerges from the ephah only to be thrust back inside Interpreted as a god and a goddess, G. Gilmour re-
before the lid is thrust on top of her, preventing her FHQWO\ LGHQWLHG WKH SDLU DV <DKZHK DQG $VKHUDK
escape. This paper argues, however, that the wide- 7KH JXUHV DUH SRVLWLRQHG RYHU D VHULHV RI VHPL
spread interpretation of the  in Zech 5:7 circular lines, which have been interpreted as rep-
as a leaden cover LVGLIFXOWWRVXVWDLQLQWKHOLJKWRI resenting mountains or water. The author suggests
both biblical and comparative evidence which sug- WKDWWKHFRPELQDWLRQRIWKHJXUHVWKHZHDSRQWKDW
gests that it is rather to be understood as a talent weight WKHIHPDOHRIWKHJXUHVVHHPVWREUDQGLVKDQGWKH
of lead. Moreover the expression    VHUSHQWLQHKDOIFLUFOHVEHQHDWKWKHJXUHVPD\FRQ-
in the same verse is best understood to mean that it WDLQ DQ DOOXVLRQ WR WKH 1RUWKZHVW 6HPLWLF FRQLFW
is the lead object itself which is a woman. It is, in myth. As such, the pictorial inscription may offer
other words, a statuette or idol. Commentators tend new insights into ancient Israelite religion, and its
to interpret the vision as referring to either idolatry relationship with its antecedents within the broader
or to social injustice, but it seems preferable to un- Levantine polytheism.
derstand it as combining objects representative of
both religious and social sins, and thus expressing
the totality of sin which is to be removed. Since the   
leaden object is no mere cover but forms part of the St. Andrews University, United Kingdom
depiction of sin itself, the mention of this particular Which
Text
Do
We
Use
When
Analyzing


metal evokes familiar biblical ideas of sin as a bur- the
Deuteronomist
Literature?
den and as dross which must be purged away. In my contribution to the panel discussion, I will of-
fer two small exercises in how to differently use the
different texts available for the study of 2 Sam and
  R 1 Kgs, that is OG, kaige, MT, Qumran and Josephus.
University of Trnava, Slovakia 7KH UVW FDVH VWXG\ LV WDNHQ IURP 6DP  , ZLOO
Chronicles
versus
the
Enneateuch demonstrate that the MT is most likely the text one
The proposed paper will examine the Book of should use for further study of Dtr. The second case
Chronicles as a theologico-political scenario which study is taken from 1 Kgs 1. Here I will demonstrate
offers an alternative viewpoint on both the monarchy that scholars studying Dtr do need to take into ac-
and Israel as a nation, if compared to Enneateuch count the variants from the other texts.
(Gen 2 Kgs). I will argue that the disagreement

IOSOT
Abstracts
101


are discussed. The parallels include household size,
Syriac Language Research Centre, Whitley College,
space use and artifact assemblages. The small in-
University of Melbourne, Australia
dustrial space occupying the western quarter at Tel
A
Trilogy
of
Papers
III:
Poetics
and
Particles
in
Kinrot should not be interpreted as a part of a per-
Syriac
Lexicography
manent dwelling. The scale of activities is anyhow
7KLVSDSHUDUJXHVWKDWLWLVDEHQHWWRWKHOH[LFRQ best understood as household scale. A communal use
user when lexical entries on particles offer informa- of the context between several families could be a
tion on when and where a preposition is used, rather plausible interpretation.
than simply what it means. Attention then must
be paid to instances where particles occur in poetic
passages, because sometimes these constructions 
 
DUH DW\SLFDO FRQJXUHG IRU SRHWLF SXUSRVHV WKH University of Notre Dame, USA
syntactic and semantic purposes of the particle may The
Overlap
of
Composition,


be subservient to a rhetorical function. This can be Redaction,
Transmission,
and
Reception


observed in a Syriac translation such as the Peshitta of
the
Scriptural
Texts
New Testament where the introduction of a particle Before the Dead Sea Scrolls provided evidence for
into a poetic passage may arrestingly depart from the organic development of the texts, the prevail-
the underlying Greek. In such instances, few though ing view was that the composition of the biblical
they may be, the question arises as to whether the books was complete in the earlier part of the Sec-
lexicon user should be alerted to this distinctive ond Temple period, that those completed forms con-
poetic characteristic lest an inappropriate syntactic stituted the original text, and that the purpose of
IXQFWLRQDQGRUVHPDQWLFGHQLWLRQEHDWWULEXWHGWR textual criticism was to unravel the errors and ac-
the construction in question. cretions that subsequently crept into the text. The
line between composition and textual transmission,
however, has slowly been erased as scholars gradu-
 " DOO\ UHDOL]HG WKH VLJQLFDQFH RI WKH SURFHVV RI GH-
University of Helsinki, Finland velopmental composition. The books grew through
Commonly
Unique!

a series of successive new and expanded literary
An
Analysis
of
Space
Use
in
Early
Iron
Tel
Kinrot editions. For some time, the older and the newer
Kinneret is an urban center in Galilee during the Ear- editions circulated simultaneously, each separately
ly Iron Age. Settlement quarters have been exposed gathering unintentional and intentional changes and
on the slope. The western quarter lies in a corner of growth. This paper will examine the issues, and il-
two crossing streets and it consists of a small room lustrate them with examples, of the overlap between
in the middle of courtyards with installations on its composition, redaction, transmission, and reception
Northern and Southern sides. In addition there are of the scriptural texts.
three small rooms on one side of the Northern court-
yard. The central room stands in the middle of an
open working space. The courtyards constitute larg- LOTTA
VALVE
est areas of the compound. The domestic artifact as- bo Akademi University, Finland
semblage of Room 4330 includes 20 vessels, mainly The
Rise
of
the
Idea
of
Elijah-to-Come:

small closed ones. In addition there were grinding  
and cutting tools and jewelry. Adjacent courtyards An interesting topic that very probably has been ad-
LQFOXGHGYHVVHOVVWRQHWRROVDQGVRPHPHWDOQGV vanced by a certain reading of the book of Malachi
6HYHUDO VLWHV DUH VWXGLHG LQ RUGHU WR QG SDUDOOHO is that Elijah is Phinehas redivivus, who, in addition,
phenomena for Tel Kinrot. Typical household and is also to return in the end of days. One explana-
industrial assemblages are compared. The installa- tion for the emergence of this concept in Judaism
tions and contexts from Galilee are close parallels could be that the ideal priest named Levi, who is
to the press at Kinneret. The use ethnography is vi- described in chapter 2 of Malachi, was considered to
tal for interpretation of archaeological remains. The be Levis descendant Phinehas whose zeal for God
theoretical assumptions of analogies and their traps against mixed marriages (which are a prominent top-
102

 

ic in Mal 2) is described in Numeri 25. According necessity or choice, was a hallmark of Judean groups
to my investigations, also Jacob plays a somewhat beginning in the early Persian era.
veiled but nevertheless a prominent role in the book
of Malachi, as Mal 1:2 already suggests. The tradi-
tions associated with Jacob are being used as an ex- ] 

ample of the right Israelite way of life, whereas Esau MF Norwegian School of Theology
and possibly Judah are used as a negative example. 

The possibility should be considered that the con- 
nection between Elijah and Phinehas also has some According to 2 Kings 16:8 it is written about king
connection with these patriarchal typologies, so that Ahaz: the outer entrance ( 
a coherent ideological reading of Malachi 13 may ) for the king he removed from the house
have existed. This larger ideological frame could of Yahweh. He did this because of the king of As-
have been the question how Gods people should syria. The only reason that the Assyrian king would
GHQHLWVHOILQWKHIRUPDWLYHSHULRGRI-XGDLVP,WLV demand such a removal is that this site in some way
interesting to note that from the inter-testament pe- represented a national symbolism in potential opposi-
riod onwards, Elijah is occasionally understood to tion to the Assyrian lordship. This paper will explore
keep records of matrimonial connections, to expel the possibility that a version of Psalm 24:710 was
illegitimate Israelites and, later on, also to be a wit- a liturgy used at this site in early monarchic times
ness in the circumcision ceremony. in a ceremony similar to the opening of the gate
-ceremony at the Akitu-festival in Babylon. The
main sources will be the many historical and mythi-
    cal texts regarding gods or kings entering gates in the
Boston College, USA Old Testament. A brief review of other more recent
Archaeological
Evidence
of
Acculturation

authors that attempt to understand Psalm 24:710
among
Judeans
in
the
Persian
Period historically will also be discussed.
During the early Persian period, processes of ac-
culturation affected Judean communities residing
within and adjacent to the traditional territory of   
Judah. Such processes also affected Judean com- University of Pretoria, South Africa
PXQLWLHV IDUWKHU DHOG LQ GLDVSRUD VHWWLQJV:LWKLQ 

 
the Persian province of Yehud, numerous elements  
characteristic of the cultural repertoire of monarchic Mutual incorporation of male as well as female val-
era Judah underwent change. Epigraphic evidence ues should constitute the god symbols of society. A
proves, for example, that the form and function of society that shares the conviction of ecojustice will
administrative seals, which were used for regulating deconstruct traditional polarizing gender categories
distribution of commodities, changed. In addition, by and gender hierarchies, and replace them with con-
WKHODWHVL[WKFHQWXU\RIFLDOVZLWKLQ<HKXGDGRSWHG cepts such as the continuum of gender, empathic
and promulgated the Aramaic script and language absorption, mutual incorporation and reciprocal
for routine administrative purposes, possibly to the constitution. How is this ideal served by the God of
exclusion of Hebrew. The local onomasticon also Job? The God character in Job 38:142:6 represents
became more variegated. These and other concrete a contrast with other Old Testament God constructs,
data show that residents of Yehud responded to en- especially those in cosmological texts, since hier-
gagement with new cultural forms very rapidly and archized gender constructs seem to be absent. This
in ways similar to Judean residents of diaspora com- is shown by a body-critical analysis. Multi-faceted
munities. Thus, Judeans residing in Cyprus, Egypt, gender continuum metaphorizations safeguard the
and Babylonia also quickly adjusted to the naming God construct against one-sided and exclusive mas-
practices of their environments. Judeans in Babylo- culinity. A God construct and cosmology that serves
nia adopted standard contractual forms for marriage ecojustice is constituted by the mutual incorporation
and transfer of property. These and other examples of masculine and feminine values. The metaphor of
demonstrate that acculturation, whether the result of a balanced body thus construed can be utilized as

IOSOT
Abstracts
103

starting point for the regeneration of ecojust princi- vironment of the Hellenistic Egypt is already present
ples. This God construct enhances the core values of in the nearest context of this verse, i.e. Sir 4:1119
eco-justice such as intrinsic value, interconnected- in its Greek form. Finally, I will show that there were
ness, voice, purpose, mutual custodianship and re- similar conceptions in Jewish Hellenistic literature
sistance to exploitation. in Greek and that this kind of thinking was not only
a literal fancy but that there were actually real life
situations which may have lead the person behind
  this translation to consider a Jew in a high position
University of Pretoria, South Africa in the contemporary society.
Conflicting
Ethos
in
the
Book
of
Daniel
In his essay on Theological Ethics In Daniel of 2001
John Barton indicated that the book of Daniel has  

the same set of ethical standards as found elsewhere University of Wuppertal, Germany
in the Bible. He sees the lament in Dan 9:419 as 
proof of his viewpoint. Closer study of this peni- Psalm 78 represents the centre of the Asaphitic psal-
tential prayer, however, indicates an ethos marked WHU,WFRQWDLQVDUHHFWLRQRIWKH([RGXVDQG'HVHUW
by tension between apocalyptic determinism and Stories and illustrates the peoples failures as reason
conditional covenant theology. This paper proposes ZK\,VUDHOQDOO\ORVWLWVGLYLQHHOHFWLRQDQG-XGDK
that the book of Daniel is characterized by what can became Gods chosen. This anachronistic descrip-
EHFDOOHGFRQLFWLQJHWKRV:KDWLVPRUHVLPLODU tion of Israels history was discussed in OT research
penitential prayers in Ezra and Nehemiah are pre- during the last decades with different solutions.
sented to an exclusivistic community, while the one The latest investigations present models of extrapo-
in Daniel is intended for a more inclusivistic inclined lated pre-exilic psalm with post-exilic additions. In
community. The moral standards propagated in my paper I will point out a tradition-historical and
Ezra-Nehemiah stand in contrast to those proposed composition-critical solution. I will show that the
in Daniel. author used three songs praising divine deeds and
confronted them with the peoples reactions. The
songs contain a coherent metric structre, the other
    parts diverge from this. The deviations serve as sig-
University of Eastern Finland nals for the reader that the author presents his text
Sage
as
a
Judge
of
Nations:

reception now. Only the last song remains without

 a reaction. It has to be given by an audiance in its
In Sir 4:15 the Hebrew sentence he who listens to historical situation an audiance which solves the
her (Lady Wisdom) shall judge () right/reliably riddles from fomer times, the author announces in
() (execute judgment of truth) has been ren- the introduction.
dered into Greek with he who listens to her judges/
rules () nations (). The Greek version
seems to imply that a Jewish sage (he who listens to   
her) might have a high rank in the contemporary (late Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
second century BC) Egyptian society (judges/rules  
nations). In my paper, I will show that the Greek ver- This paper wishes to pay attention to a parallel,
sion of Sir 4:15 was intentional, based on the transla- unnoticed Conquest of the Land account hidden
tors interpretation of the Hebrew text as it stands in within the chapters of the division of the land in the
the Hebrew MS A and not a mere reproduction of the book of Joshua (Josh 1319). Research has long
Hebrew words into Greek. Although the translator since dubbed the set of short stories and notices in
knew both possibilities of vocalisation of the word Judges 1 an alternative conquest story, and dealt
 KH QHYHUWKHOHVV UHDG WKH ZRUG DV ummot and with its relationship to the story of the book of Josh-
not mt. Next, it will be demonstrated that the idea ua. Yet the book of Joshua itself includes a parallel
RID -HZLVK VDJHDVDSROLWLFDOO\DQGVRFLDOO\LQX- conquest account in its latter half, which still depicts
ential person in the Greek speaking multiethnic en- Joshua as the leader of the people similar to his role
104

 

LQ UVW KDOI RI WKH ERRN EXW QRW RI WKH FRQTXHVW Psalter prinzipiell sekundr ist: Er weiss sich als
According to this account the division of the land auf Tora (Pentateuch) und Nebiim rckbezogen und
preceded its conquest, and the task of materializing will entsprechend verstanden werden.
the division depended upon the initiatives of indi-
viduals and tribes, similar to Judges 1. The process
of conquest was over once the tent of gathering had    
been set up in Shiloh, and the land was now under University of South Africa
their control (Josh 18:1). The paper will present this So
They
Do
not
Profit
This
People
at
All


somewhat hidden conquest account its contents, 
structure and possible sources, and its relationship to Jer 23:940 is a section dedicated to the issue of true
the two other recognized conquest accounts, Joshua and false prophets. This section follows the cycle on
112 and Judges 1. the kings in Jer 21:123:8. Both these cycles form
part of an editorial unit 21:124:10. The kings and
the prophets, along with the priests, constituted the
BEAT
W EBER leadership in the Israelite society. The view pre-
Theologisches Seminar Bienenberg, Switzerland & sented in 21:123:40 is that of a failed leadership
University of Pretoria, South Africa and the result was the exile. In this paper the focus
 is on the prophets who are regarded as false proph-
Bedeutung
fr
das
Verstndnis
des
Psalters ets. Jer 23:940 is a collection of oracles ascribed to
Mit Hilfe rezeptionssthetischer Erwgungen und Jeremiah by tradition. In most instances the oracles
in Verbindung mit buchhermeneutischen und ka- are general in nature and lack concreteness in terms
nontheologischen berlegungen soll der Buchan- of context. The literary context created by the com-
fang in seiner Funktion als Lesesteuerung fr das pilers of the 21:123:40 is essential to the argument
Verstndnis des Psalters bedacht werden. Zunchst put forward in this paper. According to Jer 23:32 the
ist zu begrnden, weshalb nicht wie weithin b- IDOVH SURSKHWV  GR QRW SURW WKH SHRSOH DW DOO
lich (lediglich) von Ps 1 als Tor oder Ps 12 als (NRSV). It will be argued in this paper that prophets
Doppeltor zum Psalter, sondern von einer Tripe- DVUHOLJLRXVOHDGHUVVKRXOGEHQHWWKHSHRSOH,QWKH
louvertre unter Einschluss von Ps 3 auszugehen ist. context of 21:123:40 they have failed in this regard.
Es ist zu zeigen, dass mittels dieser Anfangspsalmen If the prophets heard from Yahweh properly, they
drei theologische wie spirituelle Themen des Buchs would not have misled the people. From the point
induziert werden: (Tora-)Weisheit (Ps 1), Knigs- of view of the collectors in an exilic of post-exilic
herrschaft Gottes und seines Gesalbten (Ps 2) und context, the message is clear: The prophets have
Gebet (Ps 3). Mit allen drei Psalmen wie Themen ist failed the people, the exile is a reality, and there is
(mehr oder weniger explizit) der Zion verbunden. no room any longer for false prophets. The section
Anschliessend soll im Blick auf die Gesamtkom- in 23:2532 makes it clear that if prophetic words do
position des Buchs ansatzweise dargestellt werden, QRWSURW<DKZHKVSHRSOHLWVKRXOGEHUHJDUGHGDV
wie diese in der Psalterouvertre angeschlagenen false, misleading.
Themen zur Entfaltung gebracht werden. Dabei sind
zwei Haupttechniken zu unterscheiden: einerseits
die Staffelung, die durch die serielle Anordnung 
  
der Psalmengebete gegeben ist; anderseits die Ein- Oxford University, United Kingdom
fcherung, die mit der Einordnung von Weisheits- Introducing
the
Semantics
of


und Knigspsalmen an (meist) strategischen Stellen Ancient
Hebrew
Database
Project:

zum Tragen kommt. Die Sachlage ist dabei insofern Achievements,
Current
Work
and
Prospects
komplex, als die drei Themen nicht einfach neben- The Semantics of Ancient Hebrew Database project
einander gestellt, sondern zugleich vielschichtig is an international co-operative undertaking which
untereinander verzahnt sind und damit (zustzlich) aims eventually to provide a complete electronic da-
eine theologische Botschaft eingeschrieben wird. tabase of primary and secondary resources for the
Diese ist letztlich nicht ohne das Bedenken des ka- study of the semantics of every attested lexeme in
nontheologischen Horizonts zu erfassen, zumal der Ancient Hebrew. Such an ambitious project could

IOSOT
Abstracts
105


not be undertaken without a number of agreed guide-
Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
lines, which were developed some years ago by a se-
ries of symposia and conferences. These are now be- Separation
is
Followed
by
Creation


LQJLPSOHPHQWHGLQUHODWLRQWRPDQ\VHPDQWLFHOGV 

in various centres around the world under the guid- In this paper I will present some implications of my
ance of an executive committee. Inevitably work is hypothesis (see JSOT 34.1 [2009]) that the meaning
slow, but there are plenty of valuable spin-offs that of the verb
UE in Genesis 1:1 is to separate. That
are becoming available. Progress is also being made is, this verse records the beginning of Gods action
with regard to the best form of electronic presenta- that is described as the process of separating the
tion. Past and present work and future prospects will heaven and the earth. This type of action entails the
be outlined, including attention to current needs and idea that God separated the heaven and the earth in
concerns. order to provide space between them for the light, the
land, the plants, the animals, and the human beings
to come forth. Here, I will concentrate on the con-
Y  sequences of this hypothesis for the understanding
University of Mnster, Germany of verse 2 and 3. Subsequently, a study of Egyptian
 data will be presented. This linguistic and compara-
o  tive study will allow us to reach a new understanding

 of Genesis 1:13.
Die Frage nach der Intention der Ahnfrau-Erzhlung
in Gen 12:1020 wird in der alttestamentlichen
Forschung intensiv diskutiert. So ist insbesondere   


umstritten, ob das in der Erzhlung beschriebene Lehigh University, USA
Verhalten des Abram gegenber seiner Frau Sarai po- Conflicted
Boundaries:
Ben
Sira,
Sage
and
Seer
sitiv oder negativ dargestellt wird. Zudem und damit In this paper, I pull together a nexus of issues to il-
zusammenhngend ist umstritten, wie das Verhalten lustrate the problematic nature of seeing wisdom
des Pharao zu verstehen ist und ob die Erzhlung so- and apocalyptic as mutually exclusive categories. In
mit diasporakritisch oder gerade diasporafreundlich the Second Temple period, the sage occupied an im-
einzuschtzen ist. Unter den bisherigen Anstzen portant position in the Judean Temple state. As one
wurde aber noch zu wenig nach der Funktion der Er- who prepares young students to assume the role of
zhlung in ihrem vorliegenden Kontext gefragt. Auf the scribal retainer in the centers of power, Ben Sira
Grundlage einer erneuten Betrachtung der Ahnfrau- works to construct their identities so that they can
Erzhlung soll daher gezeigt werden, dass hier am play their proper role. In order to accomplish these
Beginn der Abrahamerzhlungen vorgefhrt wird, ends, he legitimates the authority of his teaching and
wie Abram aufgrund der unbekannten Verhltnisse his position as a sage through a number of authority
im Ausland zu einer Fehleinschtzung der dortigen conferring strategies. In doing this, he argues that the
Lage kommt, was fatale Folgen fr seine Frau Sarai sage has access to a heavenly wisdom via a prophet-
hat. Auf diese Weise wird hier, unmittelbar nachdem like inspiration. He exploits the discourse of parent-
Abram und Sarai in das verheiene Land eingezo- hood to construct his students as his children. The
gen sind und als Kontrast zu dem nun beginnenden ZD\VWKDWKHHPSOR\VUVWSHUVRQVWDWHPHQWVFUHDWHV
Leben im eigenen Land, ein differenziert-kritischer an ideal sage, an exemplar, whom they must emulate
Blick auf das Leben im Ausland geworfen. Dabei DQGZLWKZKRP%HQ6LUDLGHQWLHVKLPVHOI,QOLJKW
wird das Leben im Ausland gegenber dem Leben of these strategies, the well-known fact that Ben
im eigenen Land abgewertet, das Ausland als sol- Sira does not employ explicit citations of Hebrew
ches wird aber nicht diskreditiert. scripture in his book but thoroughly incorporates his
sources into his instruction becomes more readily
understandable. These issues are usually discussed
in relative isolation from each other, but I examine
them together in order to see what kind of a picture
of the sage Ben Sira offers us. The mechanisms that
106

 

he employs to pursue these goals further highlight 16:79), of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 19:23; 20:37) and
WKH FRQLFWHG ERXQGDULHV EHWZHHQ ZLVGRP DQG of Amaziah (2 Chr. 25:79). In 2 Kgs 3 Jehoshaphat
apocalyptic. takes part in a tripartite campaign against Edom
ZLWKRXW QDO VXFFHVV %XW & WXUQV WKH VWRU\ RQ LWV
head so that in 2 Chr 20 Jehoshaphat relying on
DAVID
P.
W RIGHT <+:+QGVUHOLHIIURPLQYDVLRQE\WKHtriple alli-
Brandeis University, USA ance from the east. In the so-called Syro-Ephraimite
Intertextuality
in
the
Laws
of
Hammurabi,

War the allied forces of Israel and Aram attack Jeru-
the
Covenant
Code,
and
Deuteronomy
and

salem but Ahaz the King of Judah gets over the crisis
the
Date
of
the
Covenant
Code by becoming a vassal of Assyria (2 Kgs 16). Here
This paper assumes the conclusion that the Cov- two treaty policies crash together! But in Cs version
enant Code (CC) is dependent on the Laws of Ham- (2 Chr 28) there are no treaty strategies at all because
murabi (LH) as a major literary source and model. the attacks of Israel and Aram are two independent
The evidence for this conclusion is detailed in my matters, and the attempt of Ahaz to ask for military
recent book: Inventing Gods Law: How the Cov- aid from Assyria doesnt work at all. But this means
enant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws that Judah didnt (or couldnt) become a vassal of
of Hammurabi (Oxford UP, 2009). While this book Assyria, which differs from Cs source (DtrH). C
argues that this use of LH took place in the Neo- seems to deny the very Assyrian suzerainty over Ju-
Assyrian period close to 700 BCE, some who have dah in the reigns of Hezekiah and Manasseh, as well.
recently recognized a literary connection between These observations invite us to rethink the date, the
the two texts have suggested that the exile is a more purposes and the historical backgrounds of Chroni-
likely time for CCs dependence on LH, based on a cles and Cs relationship with his source (DtrH) from
perceived lack of Israelite/ Judean scribal abilities in new perspectives.
the pre-exilic period, the perceived lack of abilities
LQWKLVSHULRGVSHFLFDOO\LQ$NNDGLDQDQGRU&&V
presumed use of Deuteronomy also as a source. This  
paper reviews the intertextual relationship between Drew University, USA
CC, LH, and Deuteronomy to show that the use of Why
Does
Joban
Author
Prefer
the
Divine

LH must have occurred in the Neo-Assyrian period. Epithet
Shaddai?
Shaddai
for
Paganization,

The common laws and motifs in these three texts Archaicization,
and
Animalization


(e.g., divine name and the cult, debt-slavery, homi- in
the
Book
of
Job
cide, talion, impoverished classes) and the nature of In the Book of Job, the divine epithet Shaddai ap-
CCs composition can only be explained by a linear pears 31 times out of 48 occurrences in the Hebrew
development of LH to CC to Deuteronomy, not Deu- Bible. The authors preference to Shaddai serves
teronomy and LH together in the exile as sources for three purposes: the paganization, archaicization, and
CC. The paper thus provides a logical argument that animalization of Job. First, Jobs appeal to know
affects our assessment of scribal capacities, prima- the reason of his suffering is left unanswered by the
rily in Judah, at the end of the eighth and into the divine deviation from innocence to ignorance. For
seventh centuries BCE. the purpose of pressing Job to the fundamental igno-
rance, Job the Uzite is characterized as being familiar
with more widespread divine name Shaddai instead
TETSUO
YAMAGA of the Israelite YHWH. Second, the author sets Jobs
Hokusei Gakuen University, Japan story in the patriarchal period narrated in the Book
Treaty
and
Covenant
in
Chronicles of Genesis. Job is represented as a contemporary
One of the most interesting but often neglected fea- of the Israelite patriarchs whose deity is frequently
tures in Chronicles is the authors consistent negative known by the name Shaddai. Such a stance is in-
attitude toward the treaty policies of Judahite Kings herited in the Testament of Job, where Job marries
with other nations, including Israel. The Chronicler Dinah, the daughter of Jacob (Michael C. Legaspi).
(henceforth: C) creates a series of prophetic mouth- Third, the zoology in the divine speech is aimed at
pieces to criticize the alliance policies of Asa (2 Chr. Jobs impotence as well as his ignorance. There is no

IOSOT
Abstracts
107

mention of domesticated animals that Job possesses of texts, the paper maintains that the reason for these
in abundance and knows the ways of them (David J. variants is no fundamental difference in the relations
A. Clines). The detailed portrayal of YHWHs myth- between God/gods and men in Israel and Mesopo-
ic adversaries, Behemoth and Leviathan, functions tamia. It is rather to be found in the social modes of
simultaneously as an empathetic disclosure of Jobs religion underlying both types of prayers, and in the
impotence against creator (Norman C. Habel). Like way the communication with the deity is interpreted
wild animals, Job is described as being threatened, in models of everyday human interaction.
chased, and attacked by the hunter-warrior Shaddai
(Brian C. Jones). For presenting the Lord of the An-
imals (Bernhard Lang), the author frequently em-    
ploys the name Shaddai which may be interpreted Universitt Halle, Germany
as God of the beasts/god of the wilderness (E. A. 
Knauf). des
Samuelbuches
Die Ankndigung eines getreuen Priesters, dem ein
bestndiges Haus gebaut werden soll (1 Sam 2:35),
  ist seit der Zeit des zweiten Tempels meist auf die
Ansgar Theological Seminar, Norway & Zadokiden bezogen worden. Die Damaskusschrift
Basel University, Switzerland verbindet die genannte Weissagung aus dem Samu-
Differences
in
the
Laws
on
Foreigners

elbuch mit Ez 44:15 zu einem Legitimationsbeweis
between
the
Biblical
Law
Collections (CD 3:194:4). Dagegen wei das Knigebuch zwar
There are laws on the dealing with foreigners of dif- von dem Wort gegen das Haus Eli (1 Kgs 2:27), aber
ferent types (especially ger and nokri) in all biblical nichts von einer Weissagung zugunsten Zadoks, des-
law collections. In many cases, the respective laws sen Bevorzugung durch Salomo rein parteipolitisch
take up the same issues, but treat them in different begrndet wird (1 Kgs 1f.). Das Samuelbuch selbst
ways. These differences are in need of further inves- setzt mit der Schilderung einer monarchischen Pries-
tigation. The paper builds on an extended study on terdynastie ein, deren selbstverschuldeter Abstieg
foreigners in the Bible and the ancient Near East (see mit dem schrittweisen Aufstieg Davids einhergeht.
Zehnder, Umgang mit Fremden in Israel und Assy- Diesem Haus Elis werden mittels genealogischer
rien); it aims at clarifying the following questions: Verknpfungen (1 Sam 14:2; 22:20; 2 Sam 8:17)
1) What are the main differences between the laws auch die Priester Davids, Abjatar und Zadok (!) zu-
pertaining to the foreigners in the various law collec- gerechnet, ungeachtet ihrer historisch wahrschein-
tions? 2) How can these differences be assessed in lich ganz unterschiedlichen Herkunft. Da in 1 Sam
terms of historical and literary developments within 2:35 das Haus eines getreuen Priesters dem Haus
ancient Israel? 3) What do the differences between Elis entgegengesetzt wird, sollte eine Deutung auf
overlapping laws suggest about the dating of the Zadok fr das als selbstndiges Werk betrachtete
various law collections in the Hebrew Bible? Samuelbuch ausgeschlossen sein. Whrend die Eli-
den, und damit auch Zadok, im besten Falle darauf
hoffen drfen, vom getreuen Priester angestellt
 zu werden (1 Sam 2:36), offenbart sich als wahrer
Johannes Gutenberg-Universitt Mainz, Germany Trger des Priesteramtes kein anderer als David, der
 
vor Jhwh gesalbt wird, den leinenen Efod trgt
Akkadian
Prayers
of
the
Lifting
of
the
Hand

und wirksame Opfer darbringt (2 Sam 5:3; 6:14, 17;
and
Biblical
Psalms
of
Individual
Lament 24:25, vgl. die 1 Sam 2:28 geschilderten priesterli-
Akkadian prayers of the lifting of the hand (shu-ila) chen Privilegien). So drfte 1 Sam 2:35 
and biblical psalms of individual lament share many ursprnglich und wird vor mir wandeln,
aspects of form and content. Nevertheless, there are mein Gesalbter gelesen worden sein (vgl. Peschit-
also striking differences, especially the long hymnic ta). Der Gottesmann kndigt also eine dauerhafte
introduction of the shu-ila-prayers which has no par- Unterordnung der Priester unter die somit zugleich
allel in the psalms of individual lament. Based on a prophetisch legitimierte Dynastie Davids an.
detailed study of selected samples from both types
108

 



 
University of Mainz, Germany
The
Political
Situation
at
Iron
Age
I/IIA
in
the



Since several years excavations in Tell Kinrot/Tell


Oreime were conducted by the universities of Bern,
Helsinki, Leiden and Mainz. The site of Tell Kin-
rot, the biblical Kinneret, was abandoned during the
10th century BC. At the same time new settlements
at the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee (Betsaida/
Et-Tell and En Gev) were established. The lecture
will consider this development and reconstruct the
history of the area of the Sea during the Iron Age I
and IIA periods.

IOSCS
Abstracts
109

Abstracts of the IOSCS Congress

       


University of Helsinki, Finland Centre Jean Duplacy and Arnaud Srandour, Ecole
The
Septuagint
and
Oral
Translation Pratique des Hautes Etudes, France
Speaking of oral translation has not been popular in  
Septuagint research lately. The history of research Les rapports littraires entre Jrmie et dautres li-
knows one such theory, developed about a century vres bibliques sont nombreux. Mais lun des plus
ago by Paul Kahle, maintaining that there was no tonnants lie 2 R 17:720 et Jrmie. La proximit
one written translation in the beginning but several dans le vocabulaire et les expressions est aussi re-
different oral translations that were written down marquable en grec quen hbreu. Or, lexgse a
DQGHYHQWXDOO\XQLHGLQDSURFHVVFRPSDUDEOHWRWKH repr ce passage de 2 R comme le plus caractristi-
development of the Targums. This theory has been que du style deutronomiste, qui serait celui dune
refuted, once and for all, a long time ago. Everything cole ayant contribu la rdaction de la partie la
in the textual history of the Septuagint speaks for an plus ancienne de la Bible. Il semble que la proxi-
Urtext, one translation text behind all the various mit littraire ainsi observe permette de conclure
developments in the textual history. But what was lidentit des milieux de production littraire; et la
there before this Urtext? Several puzzles around the priode grecque semble mieux convenir que la p-
6HSWXDJLQWQGDQDWXUDOVROXWLRQLIDQRULJLQLQRUDO riode perse.
translation is presupposed for the Torah or at least
parts of it. The only source of arguments for a theory
of this kind is the translation itself.  
 
Leiden Universiteit, The Netherlands
  
  From a translation point of view, LXX Isaiah 25:68
University of Cambridge, United Kingdom differs greatly from Hebrew Isaiah (MT/1QIsaa).
The
Social
Status
of

This papers focus is to see if LXX Isaiah 25:68,
the
Jewish
Translators
in
Egypt with its divergences from the Hebrew, has a coherent
Although the origins of the LXX translation are per- message. In doing so, this paper will try to provide
haps lost in myth, evidence of Jews in Egypt is rela- DQ DQVZHU IRU WKH IROORZLQJ SUREOHPV UVW KRZ
tively extensive, giving us a glimpse into who the must the phrase     
translators might have been. They are more likely to (v. 6) be understood? Will the Lord do
LGHQWLHGZLWKOLWHUDWH-HZVZKRZHUHPRYLQJXSWKH something to the nations or will he deal with the
social ranks of Ptolemaic Egypt, gaining positions of nations? Second, who are the subjects of the phras-
some authority through education. At the same time es they will drink joy, they will drink wine, they
translation was not seen as a literary activity at this will anoint themselves with oil in v. 6b? And does
time and rather the function of stewards, and they are v. 6b entail a positive or a negative image? Third,
WKXVPRUHOLNHO\WRKDYHEHHQRIFLDOVLQWKHDGPLQ- what is the content of  in v. 7? Fourth,
istrative ranks rather than attached to a circle of liter- is the counsel of v. 7b against or concerning the
ary elite (such as the Museum). The social evidence QDWLRQV"$QGIWKZKDWLVWKHIXQFWLRQRIY",Q
will be corroborated by examination of features in LXX Isaiah studies, much has been argued for tak-
both the LXX and papyri from Egypt. ing LXX Isaiah as a text in its own right and to look
for a coherent message. LXX Isaiah 25:68, with its
110

 

several problems, will be a good test case to see if with the questions arising from the quoted textual
this text presents a coherent message. This paper will GLYHUJHQFHV'RWKH*UHHNYDULDQWVUHHFWIUHHLQ-
argue and hopefully demonstrate that a text as LXX terpretation of the Hebrew Vorlage or are they the
,VDLDKZKLFKORRNVPHDQLQJOHVVDWUVWDF- result of a misreading? 2. How can we understand
tually makes good sense in its literary context. the Greek variants against the background of their
immediate context? 3. Can other biblical or extra-
biblical texts contribute to a better understanding of
 the Greek variants?
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Hapax
Legomena,
the
Septuagint


and
Hebrew
Lexicography  o 
7KHGHQLWLRQRIZRUGVLQWKH+HEUHZELEOHDVhapax Trinity Western University, Canada
legomena is a thorny issue. Even more problematic Some
Remarks
on
the
Language


is the task to translate hapaxes accurately. Especial- 
ly the interpretation of so-called absolute hapaxes This paper highlights some issues encountered in
sometimes seems to be a quiz in which guessing for commenting on Leuitikon 57. In these chapters in
the precise meaning is the only option. Although NETS some tricky moves were made to accomodate
it cannot be known with certainty to which degree the translators response to Hebrew idiom. I intend
words that are currently considered to be absolute to present a procedure for how one deals with syn-
hapax legomena were also experienced as hapax WDFWLFDODQGOH[LFDOGLIFXOWLHVLQWKHERG\RIDFRP-
legomena by the translators of the Septuagint as the mentary such as the SBLCS. Tribute will be paid
most ancient bible translation, most probably they to Karl Hubers Untersuchungen ber den Sprach-
KDYHEHHQWKHUVWRQHVWREHFRPHFRQIURQWHGZLWK karakter des griechischen Leviticus, published in
this enigma. Their initial interpretation of Hebrew 1916. In addition, these chapters begin giving atten-
hapax legomena, moreover, has had far-reaching tion to the matter of impurity, and some remarks will
consequences. Paraphrasing the title of T. Muraokas be made about this topic, with reference to Theodor
publication Hebrew Hapax Legomena and Septu- Wchters Reinheitsvorschriften im griechischen
agint Lexicography (1991), the present paper will Kult, published in 1910.
critically discuss the way in which lexicographers
often seem to be guided by the Septuagints interpre-
tation of Hebrew hapax legomena. In this respect the   
extent to which Hebrew lexica often and in a quasi Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
dogmatic way present the meaning of a Hebrew Theodoret
of
Cyrrhus
and
Other
Sources
on

hapax exclusively on the basis of the Septuagints 
interpretation will be illustrated on the basis of some Occasionally, Church Fathers and the margins of
concrete items. LXX manuscripts identify certain Hexaplaric read-
ings as belonging to , to 
 or to      
  $OWKRXJKWKLVLGHQWLFDWLRQLVUDWKHUSX]-
Universit de Strasbourg, France zling, it has received little scholarly attention. On the
Stallions,
Oxen
and
Mares:
Some
Remarks
on
basis of oblique remarks in secondary literature, one
  can deduce that the wording has been interpreted as
Unlike the Masoretic Text of the book of Amos, the a reference (a) to all three minor versions (Guinot),
Septuagint employs animal imagery in Am 6:7 when (b) to Aquila/Symmachus and his school or follow-
speaking of neighing of horses. In Am 6:12, the ers (Hill), or (c) to the columns surrounding that of
Septuagint also diverges considerably from the He- Symmachus in the Hexapla (Baggarly). The latter
brew text. Whereas the latter mentions the idea of interpretation, if found to be correct, would be rather
plowing with oxen, the Greek text introduces a com- interesting, as it could shed light on the reception of
pletely different image, namely the idea of mares Origens synopsis, especially in Antioch: Theodoret
attracting attention of stallions. This paper deals of Cyrrhus is the one source that mentions 

IOSCS
Abstracts
111

 
 and/or most frequently.
University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
Out of 25 times this expression is used, 15 occur-
rences are to be found in the writings of Theodoret. 

After having examined all occurrences of the ex- There can be no doubt that in Septuagint research in-
pression  and/or  troductory questions, such as the provenance of indi-
(in Theodoret as well as in other texts), the present vidual books, have become a desideratum. Until re-
paper examines the validity of previous scholarly cently there has been a broad concensus (Gerleman,
interpretations. It concludes that not all sources use Cox, et al.) that the Old Greek of Job was translated
this expression in the same way. Moreover, no real and composed in Alexandria, Egypt. This consensus
support can be found for the hypothesis that it re- has been challenged by A.Y. Reed in a publication
HFWVDV\QRSWLFDODUUDQJHPHQWRIWKHPLQRUYHUVLRQV in JBL 2001. She focusses on one of the striking ad-
in Antioch. Rather, these readings are ad hoc refer- ditions in LXX Job, the colophon in Job 42:17be,
ences to a reading that can be found in more than one and concludes that this plus in fact originated in
minor version. Palestine. In an endeavour to locate Job geographi-
cally she discusses three pieces of information; 1.
The connection with the Aramaic book mentioned
MARIO
C IMOSA
&

  in 42:17bc; 2. The location of Uz on the border of
8QLYHUVLWj3RQWLFLD6DOHVLDQD,WDO\ Idumea and Arabia, and, 3. The fact that Jobs wife
 is Arabian. This paper will discuss and evaluate this
of
Job
and
in
Early
Christian
Interpretation provocative and creative contribution in the light of
Although the Septuagint version of the Book of WKHXQLTXHSUROHRI2*-RELGHQWLHGLQ&KDSWHUV
Job omits some verses which are to be found in the 1, 2 and 42. In the process applicable criteria will
Masoretic text, on the other hand it contains some ex- be formulated. Also text-critical issues, such as the
tensions which particularly refer to his wife: namely origin of LXX Job 42:17a will be addressed.
in the Prologue chapter 2:9ad and in the Epilogue
chapter 42:17ae. Moreover, these additions together
ZLWKRWKHUVDUHQRWRQO\DPSOLHGEXWDOVRUHZULWWHQ 
in the Testament of Job. We are of the opinion that University of Durham, United Kingdom
here we are faced with three possible explanations of Regarding
the
Origin
of
the
Addition


this fact. That is to say, the extensions are a midrash Found
in
Prov
which originate from an oral Judaic tradition or they ProvLXX 1:7 shows two additional stichs in compari-
are a midrash of Aramaic or Greek origin. The lat- VRQZLWKWKH07'UXVLXVUHJDUGHGWKHUVWWZROLQHV
ter could even have been effected by the translator as a derivation from PsLXX 110:10ab. This view was
himself. However, according to some scholars, since later adopted by Lagarde, Delitzsch, and Mezzacasa.
these parts are absent in the Old Greek text and the More recently Weingreen, and Cook proposed in-
vocabulary is quite different, the extensions of the stead to consider them a redactional insertion by the
Prologue and the Epilogue might have been added UVWWUDQVODWRUIURPWKH*UHHN3VDOPV%DXPJDUWQHU
E\ WKH QDO HGLWRU DQG QRW WKH WUDQVODWRU )LQDOO\ took a different view by proposing that only line b
the subsequent interpretation of these texts is then was deriving from the Greek Psalms and that line
examined in the exegesis of some Christian authors c was actually an addition. More in detail, Mller
LQRUGHUWRSHUFHLYHWKHNLQGRIIHPDOHJXUHZKLFK and Kautzsch viewed line c as a second translation
emerges from these extensions in the Jewish-Hellen- RIWKHUVWKDOIRIWKH+HEUHZWH[W)LQDOO\)ULWVFK
LVWLFWUDGLWLRQDQGWKHLULQXHQFHRQVRPHDXWKRUVRI DIWHUQRWLQJWKDWWKHUVWWZROLQHVDFFRUGLQJWRWKH
the early Christian Church. Syro-Hexaplar, were obelised, suggested that the
two other lines were Hexaplaric insertions, although
the asterisks were missing. However, a text critical
study of the verse shows that all the extant witnesses
DUHSUHVHUYLQJDOOWKHOLQHVDQGWKDWWKHUVWSDUWRI
stich c is also obelised. Moreover some Hexaplaric
manuscripts show a further insertion within line c.
112

 

A reconstruction of the Hexaplaric text is possible. A 7KHLQYHVWLJDWLRQRIHDFKXVDJHLGHQWLHVWKHVHPDQ-


linguistic analysis of the last two lines further proves tic, syntactic, and lexical requirements for the gram-
that the translation technique is incompatible with matical use of FODULHVSRWHQWLDOLQWHUSUHWLYH
any of the Three. Furthermore a comparison among GLIFXOWLHV SURSRVHV SURFHGXUHV IRU GHYHORSLQJ
PsMT 111:10ab, ProvLXX 1:7ab, and PsLXX 110:10ab, working translations that clarify the interpretive
shows that the translation technique is more consist- constraints of the verb, and relates the results to the
ent with the Greek Proverbs than with the Greek entry for the verb in T. Muraokas A Greek English
Psalms. It has to be remembered also that the trans- Lexicon of the Septuagint (2009). The conclud-
lation technique in Psalms may well be posterior to ing discussion distinguishes the function of dative
the one detected in Proverbs. All these observations case noun phrase and prepositional phrase verbal
lead me to the following conclusions: 1) Prov. 1:7ab complements with each usage.
is not a doublet; 2) it is not a later insertion from the
Greek Psalms; 3) rather it is an authentic rendering
from the Hebrew Psalms; 4) it originated because of ELKE
V ERBEKE
the literal proximity of Ps 111:10ab and Prov 1:7 in Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Hebrew. 6) although less plausible, it is possible that The
Rendering
of
Hebrew


the Vorlage displayed already the addition; 7) even if Hapax
Legomena
the rendering in PsLXX 110:10ab is so similar, it could A few years ago, H. Ausloos and B. Lemmelijn sug-
be literary independent from ProvLXX 1:7ab. gested a new so-called content-related approach to
the study of the translation technique of the Septu-
agint, which elaborated on the qualitative methodo-

 
  logical trail followed by the Finnish school. In a
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece pilot-study devoted to the Septuagint text of Song
Hermeneutik
und
Theologie
in
der
Septuaginta
of Songs, they demonstrated how one such content-
   related criterion of translation technique, viz. the
Der Beitrag verfolgt die Absicht, dem hermeneuti- rendering of hapax legomena, could shed new light
schen Problem in der Septuaginta der sogenannten on the characterisation of this translator in particular.
Jesaja-Apokalypse (Jes 2427), einer vielschichtigen Against the background of the research project that
Texteinheit, die die endzeitliche Entmachtung der has been launched in the wake of this pilot-study,
himmlischen und irdischen, widergttlichen Mchte the present investigation will explore what results
kndigt, nherzukommen. Anhand von ausgewhl- this criterion yields for the book of Ecclesiastes. To
ten Beispielen will das Verhltnis der hebrischen this end, a new list of hapaxes in this book will be
Vorlage zu ihrer alexandrinischen bersetzung er- SUHVHQWHG DIWHU ZKLFK VRPH VLJQLFDQW H[DPSOHV
klren und die Frage nach dem rechten theologi- will be singled out for discussion. The results of this
schen Verstndnis zum Ideal theologischer Einfalt study will be compared with previous characterisa-
hellenistisch-jdischer Auslegung erlutern. tions of LXX Ecclesiastes, which is usually counted
among the most literal translations of the Septuagint.
Finally, due attention will also be paid to some meth-
 odological pitfalls in the application of this criterion
Villanova University, USA to the characterisation of the translation technique of

the Septuagint.
Its
Interpretation
and
Translation
This paper resolves the 1991 LXX occurrences of
into seven usages and considers the interpre-   
tation and translation of the verb with each usage. University of Cambridge, United Kigdom
The introductory discussion develops the semantic 

and syntactic criteria for identifying verbal usages 
and the distinguishing grammatical characteristics Although it is clear that LXX Pentateuch was known
of . The Case Frame discussion then inves- to subsequent translators, since distinctive elements
tigates all occurrences of the verb with each usage. of syntax and vocabulary are reproduced in other

IOSCS
Abstracts
113

books, a question that has not, I think, been given bate. The brief mentioning in the prologue of Ben
PXFK DWWHQWLRQ LV ZKHWKHU LW DOVR LQXHQFHG RWKHU Sira offers a valuable terminus ante quem, but fur-
translators in the matter of style. It is this question ther evidence is hard to produce. In search for an-
which I wish to broach with regard to the Minor swers scholars have looked for traces of the histori-
Prophets. Styleis a slippery term; I will use it, cal, cultural, and geographical circumstances of the
restrictively, for literary features such as variation, WUDQVODWLRQV$OOWKHVHVWXGLHVKDYHOHGWRVLJQLFDQW
repetition, alliteration, chiasm and other verbal pat- insights, but not to agreement.
terns, not present in the translators source-texts but In this paper I will investigate the rendering of
apparently created for special effect. This aspect of geographical names and try to detect clues about the
translation technique is occasionally mentioned with geographical setting of the translation of the Minor
regard to the Pentateuch, and has been given more Prophets (MP). The Hebrew text of MP mentions
prominence with regard to the Minor Prophets (see names of places remote from the translator by both
the Introductions to the relevant volumes of the Bi- time and space. This means that any deviation in
ble dAlexandrie). But the possibility that the trans- the rendering of the geographical names may be ex-
lator of Minor Prophets may have taken his cue from plained in various ways. Such uncertainties will be
LXX Pentateuch remains to be investigated. The considered throughout the paper.
challenge is daunting: there are as yet no systematic The conclusions in the paper will relate to the
treatments of style in either corpus, let alone crite- following areas: 1) The translators attitude towards
ria for comparison. In this short paper, only sample WKHUHQGHULQJRIWKHQDPHV 7KHLQXHQFHRQWKH
explorations can be made but, by comparing one or translator; 3) The translators knowledge of geogra-
two of the more striking stylistic characteristics of phy; 4) The translators outlook/location. The gen-
the Minor Prophets with selected passages from the eral impression of the translator is that he shows
Pentateuch, I will endeavour to show that the trans- careful concern for the rendering of the geographi-
lator of the Minor Prophets has made distinctive use cal names. When we look at what kind of names the
of stylistic elements already employed in the Penta- translator transliterates or renders by a Greek form
teuch and in some cases has broken new ground. or name, and what kind of names he translates we
QGDQLQWHUHVWLQJSDWWHUQ,WDSSHDUVWKDWWKHWUDQVOD-
tor is more familiar with names of places along the
2 
  Palestinian/Syrian coastline than he is with Hebrew
CNRS, France names of locations in Judea and Samaria. This may
Les
odes
ajoutes
au
Psautier

indicate an Alexandrian setting.
dans
la
Septante
comme
actes
de
langage
La collection des odes jointes au Psautier dans
lAlexandrinus regroupe des pices tires de lAn-   
cien Testament et du Nouveau Testament. Nous nous &RQVHMR6XSHULRUGH,QYHVWLJDFLRQHV&LHQWtFDV
proposons danalyser ces cantiques odes, hymnes Spain
RXSULqUHVSURQRQFpVSDUGHVJUDQGHVJXUHVGHOD Translating
the
Historical
Books
Bible. Nous les envisagerons comme des actes de $IWHUWKHSXEOLFDWLRQRIWKHUVWYROXPH 7KH3HQ-
langage possdant, ce titre, une forme, un contenu tateuch) of the Spanish translation of the Septuagint
HWXQHPRWLYDWLRQELHQVSpFLTXHV (Salamanca: Sgueme 2008), the second volume
with the Historical books is going to appear at the
end of 2010. The author will explain the different


 %
problems presented by this new corpus of the Greek
Norwegian School of Mission and Theology, Bible (lack of critical editions, double texts, kaige
Norway revision and Antiochene text, etc.), and the solutions


given by the Spanish translation on the background
  of the policy followed by other modern translations,
The question of the date and place of origin for especially the English, German and French. The
the Septuagint translations of the Prophets and the main innovation of the Spanish project will consist
Scriptures has been an issue in recent scholarly de- of translating the Antiochene text edited in Madrid
114

 

for the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles. Marie et alii. All of the collations of the Latin manu-
6RPH UHHFWLRQV RQ WKH DGYDQWDJHV RI WKLV WUDQVOD- scripts were put at Zieglers disposal and much of
tion option will follow. the material was eventually incorporated into his ap-
paratus. In the introduction to his edition, Ziegler
acknowledges his indebtedness to scholars such as P.
    Thielmann and especially De Bruyne, whose theory
Istituto Italiano di Scienze Umane, Italy about the discrepancy in length between the Greek
Some
Paleographical
Remarks
on

and Latin versions was decisive in Zieglers under-
  standing and use of the Latin material. Just as the
The manuscript (F) has a great importance for the editors of the Roman Vulgate provided Ziegler with
study of the Greek Bible, because it contains in its their manuscript collations, the Vetus Latina Insti-
margins Greek glosses (called Fb), as well as a lot tute in Beuron was crucial in giving him access to its
of corrections towards the Masoretic text, apparent- vast collection of patristic and liturgical witnesses.
ly linked to the Jewish tradition of translations. Dr. The Sirach material at Beuron was of utmost interest
Cameron Boyd-Taylor focused on this manuscript in and importance to him. It is unfortunate that Walter
the last IOSCS Congress in Ljubljana, particularly Thieles critical edition of Sirach had not even begun
emphasizing some links between Fb and Judeo-Greek when Ziegler was preparing his Gttingen edition.
glosses written in Hebrew manuscripts. The purpose My paper will show that De Bruynes position on the
of my paper is to examine some paleographical data Latin text of Sirach played too great a role on Zie-
concerning the codex and its history: what about gler. Thieles Einleiting to his edition of Sirach 124
its condition when it underwent a general restora- as well as this writers work on the second half of the
tion in medieval times (XIXII Cent.)? What were book (Sirach 2552) would have perhaps persuaded
the principles which this restoration was based on? Ziegler to abandon or at least distance himself from
What can be said about the secondary text of the De Bruynes theories. Our position is that the Greek,
2nd Tabernacle Account copied in fols. 5255? The and not the Latin version, had a double text.
medieval work attests to the existence of a Greek
Christian milieu where a great and not so obvious
VLJQLFDQFHZDVDVFULEHGWRWKHHebraica Veritas. 


Heritage Christian University, USA
The
Hebrew
Bible
in
Patristic
Biblical
Theory
    The status of the Septuagint as the Bible of the early
3RQWLFDO%LEOLFDO,QVWLWXWH,WDO\ Church has obscured the level to which the Fathers

  esteemed the original Hebrew text. Indeed, modern
Septuagint
Edition
of
Sirach
and
the
Latin
Bible studies of the role of the Greek Bible in the Church
In allen ihren sprachlichen Formen ist die Gestalt of the Patristic age frequently assert that Christians
der lateinischen Bibel fr den gebildeten Menschen rejected the Hebrew Bible as scripture, even to the
der Antike ein Stein des Anstoes. These words of extent of declaring the Septuagint inspired in its de-
Bonifatius Fischer, the founder of the Vetus Latina viations from the Hebrew. This paper disputes such
Institute in Beuron, ring true for anyone involved in judgments. Careful study of the relevent Patristic
the study of the complexities of textual history of passages on the Septuagint (from Justin, Irenaeus,
the Latin Bible. The critical editions of the Latin Bi- Origen, Epiphanius, Gregory of Nyssa, Theodoret
ble that appeared in the twentieth century (Roman of Cyrus, etc.) shows that Christians generally took
Vulgate, Stuttgart Vulgate, and Vetus Latina) are great pains to establish the Septuagint as the surest
among the most valuable contributions to the study access to the original Hebrew text. Variants between
of the history of biblical scholarship. In 1965 J. Zie- the Septuagint and the Minor Versions could be ex-
gler completed his edition of the Septuagint text of plained by textual corruption in the Septuagint man-
Ben Sirach. Ziegler had been encouraged by Fischer uscript tradition, similar corruption in the Hebrew
to take advantage of the materials of Latin edition tradition, or anti-Christian bias on the part of Aquila,
of Sirach that was being prepared concomitantly in Symmachus, and Theodotion. Only very rarely did
Rome by D. De Bruyne, I. Gribomont, H. de Sainte- a Father propose that the Seventy translators delib-

IOSCS
Abstracts
115

erately altered the biblical text. In fact, such a sug- However, after the Heliodorus affair, this loyal serv-
gestion did not become part of any Fathers general ant of the crown is forced to look in vain for shelter,
textual theory before Augustine, and his views may UVWDWWKHNLQJVFRXUWDQGWKHQDWQHDUE\'DSKQH
be explained as a direct reaction to the work of Jer- His assassination gives him a tragic aura, while the
ome. It turns out that the Hebrew Bible loomed large involvement of the future high priests, Jason and
in Patristic imagination, and even Augustine came to 0HQHODXVLQKLVUHPRYDOIURPRIFHDQGGHDWKDF-
attribute great authority to it. centuates the void that Onias III left behind him. Into
the vacuum steps Judas Maccabaeus, whose role is
further enhanced by the dead high priest, who is said
DEBORAH
G ERA to appear before him in a dream, alongside Jeremiah
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel the prophet. In this dream, the prophet grants Judas
Speech
in
the
Book
of
Judith authority over his people. Onias nocturnal appear-
In recent years, several scholars have attempted to ance symbolizes his support for the new leader, at
overthrow the general consensus that the Book of Ju- the expense of the corrupt high priests who took of-
dith was originally composed in Hebrew, and have FHDIWHU2QLDV,,,VUHPRYDO
argued that the extant Septuagint version is not a
translation, but was written in Greek. In this paper,
I would like to investigate the passages of speech 

found in Judith, from both a linguistic and literary Northwestern College, USA
perspective, in order to further illuminate the issue. Ephraim
Dwelt
in
Egypt
There is little doubt that the work is composed in In his study of Egypt in the Septuagint Text of
the style of the Septuagint and clearly many biblical Hosea (1991) Pisano found evidence that the text
themes, plot elements, and characters underlie the KDG EHHQ PRGLHG LQ DQ DSSDUHQW V\VWHPDWLF ZD\
Book of Judith. At the same time, the passages of in order to change the time frame of the references
direct speech in Judith the pronouncements, dia- to Egypt, so that Israels return to Egypt was placed
logues, and prayers point to a writer well-versed in the past. He suggested this could have been done
in Greek, and include a whole series of connec- for historical accuracy or to be a symbolic statement
tives, particulae, and syntactic constructions which concerning Israels situation at the time of Hosea.
are not found in the narrative sections. In addition, Some of Pisanos evidence for his view is debatable,
the speech sections of Judith are particularly rich in and the recent commentary on Hosea in La Bible
literary techniques, themes, and motifs which seem DAlexandrie (23.1; 2002) has continued the discus-
drawn from classical Greek writings. Judiths iron- sion of this issue. This paper is an attempt to look
ic exchanges with Holophernes are reminiscent of further into the issue of Israels [Ephraims] relation-
Greek tragedy, Achiors role as tragic warner seems ship to Egypt in LXX-Hosea. In order to do that,
taken from the pages of Herodotus, while Bagoas this study will read LXX-Hosea as a document in its
reminds us of the eunuchs of Ctesias. The speech own right and investigate the structure, themes, and
sections of Judith are, it seems, less constrained by theology of LXX-Hosea, in order to show how they
biblical precedent, and allow us a closer glimpse at contribute to this issue. It will also read the book as
the Greek elements of the work. a translation from its Hebrew Vorlage and examine
the translation technique employed in LXX-Hosea,
to show how such analysis gives evidence of the
DOV
G ERA translators concerns for this and related topics. The
University of the Negev, Israel paper will be a summary of the study, and the author
Onias
III
and
the
Legitimacy
of
Judas
Maccabeus will contend that the data corroborates and gives fur-
7KLVSDSHUORRNVDWWKHZD\WKHJXUHRI2QLDV,,, ther support to one of Pisanos suggested interpreta-
is presented in the Second Book of Maccabees. The WLRQV%HFDXVHRI,VUDHOVLGRODWU\DQGLQGHOLW\WKH
high priest is depicted as a man who combines devo- translator understood Israel be dwelling in Egypt at
tion to the Temple, concern for Jerusalem and loy- the time of Hosea.
alty to the Seleucid throne. These traits remain un-
shaken even in the face of unmatched provocation.
116

 


   

Creighton University, USA   

Trinity Western University, Canada
 Designing
a
New
Septuagint
Commentary:

In this presentation, I will survey, and comment on, SBLCS
and
WATER
characteristic developments in Septuagint studies In conjunction with the preparation of the critical
GXULQJWKHUVWGHFDGHRIWKHVWFHQWXU\:KLOHLW edition of the Old Greek version of 4 Maccabees for
is not possible to be all-inclusive, I will endeavor the Gttingen Septuaginta series and the writing of
to pay appropriate attention to the most important a commentary on Genesis for the Society of Biblical
scholarship, and scholars, during this period. Among Literature Commentary on the Septuagint (SBLCS),
the issues or topics I will look at are modern-lan- we have been creating a database and user interface
guage translations of the Septuagint, the study of the to facilitate work on these projects. This has been a
Septuagint as an increasingly worldwide enterprise, several-staged undertaking that has now culminated
the theology of the Septuagint translators, the ap- in the construction of a web-based, interactive tool
plication of Translation Studies to the Septuagint, WKDWSHUPLWVWKHHIFLHQWKDQGOLQJRIODUJHDPRXQWV
the further integration of the study of the Septuagint of data from numerous manuscripts and various
with research on other ancient versions, the Septu- kinds of research resources. Called the Web Applica-
agint and the New Testament, and the inkrassend op- tion for Textual and Exegetical Research (WATER),
portunities for the use of advanced technology in the it consists of a text module and a commentary mod-
study of the Septuagint. All in all, I will demonstrate, ule designed to aid in the preparation of critical edi-
the study of the Septuagint continues to be vital and tions of primary textual sources and to carry out the
vibrant. necessary linguistic and literary analysis of such
texts for the writing of commentaries. We have pre-
viously reported on developments with respect to the
    text module. This presentation will focus on issues
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel associated with the planning and design of SBLCS
Between
Meshuva
and
Moshava:

with the aid of WATER, and on the kinds of results
On
the
Status
of
Diaspora
Jews
in
the
that this kind of commentary project will yield for
Restoration
Period
According
to
the
Septuagint
the book of Genesis.
and
other
Jewish
Hellenistic
Authors
The word meshuva is translated in several places in
the Septuagint as the word , as if it were  
written in the Hebrew source as moshava. This Universit de Strasbourg, France
PRGLFDWLRQZDVGHQHGE\VFKRODUVDVDQHW\PR- The
Historical
and
Theological
Dictionary
of


logical exegesis or a midrashic exegesis. How- the
Septuagint:
A
Sample
Entry
HYHU WKLV GHQLWLRQ GRHV QRW H[SODLQ WKH PHDQLQJ A new international project, to be directed by Eber-
the purpose and the motivation of this exegesis. My hard Bons and Jan Joosten, will aim to produce a
hypothesis is that by using the well known concept multi-volume dictionary proposing for each impor-
of , the translator deliberately changed the tant word or word-group of the Septuagint an article
meaning of the original Hebrew verse in order to le- covering a) the background in Classical and Hellen-
gitimize the existence of the Diaspora not only in the istic Greek, b) the distribution and meaning in the
contemporary Hellenistic world of his own lifetime, Biblical books, and c) further developments in Jew-
but also during the Restoration period, yet to come. ish Hellenistic authors, inter-testamental writings,
Thus some of the very optimistic prophecies con- the New Testament and early Christian literature. The
cerning the return to Zion, become in the Septuagint nature of the project will be illustrated with extracts
a prophecy regarding the continuity and well being from a sample article on the word-groupe HXORJp{,
of Diasporan communities in that future period. A to speak well of, to bless. While in classical and
comparison to Jewish Hellenistic authors will help Hellenistic Greek, the semantics of this word group
XVWRGHQHDQGGHVFULEHWKLVWHQGHQWLRXVH[HJHWLFDO are limited to the notions of eloquent or laudatory
phenomenon. speech, in the Septuagint an important new meaning

IOSCS
Abstracts
117

is added through association with the Hebrew root able weight to a reading or make the scholar very
brk, to bless. In later Jewish and Christian writ- dubious about the critical value of the Father.
ings the Greek and Hebraizing meanings exist
side-by-side, and some later meanings, e.g. to say
grace, are attested as well. 


Swiss Reformed Church, Switzerland
Die
Pluriformitt
der
griechischen
Fassungen

  von
Susanna
als
Frage
nach
dem
Charakter

Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal Bethel, Germany o
Die
Rezeption
der
Septuaginta
im
entstehenden

In Weiterfhrung der Arbeit am Danielbuch (vgl.
Christentum:
Das
Wuppertaler
Forschungsprojekt meinen Vortrag in Ljubljana 2007) soll der Ver-
Seit 2007 untersucht ein Forschungsprojekt in Wup- gleich der ursprnglichen Septuaginta mit der
pertal die Rezeption der Septuaginta im frhen Chris- Theodotion-Fassung der Susanna-Erzhlung fol-
tentum. Es erstellt eine Datenbank, prft besondere gende Fragen ins Auge fassen: Ist die Theodotion-
Phnomene der Handschriften und betrachtet die Fassung, die meistens als jnger beurteilt wird, eine
Zusammenhnge in der Textberlieferung zwischen schriftliche Bearbeitung einer schriftlichen Vorlage?
dem rezipierten Text in den frhchristlichen Schrif- Oder ist mit einem mndlichen Prozess zu rechnen,
ten (Schwerpunkt Neues Testament) und dem zitier- der zu sprachlichen und inhaltlichen Varianten fhr-
ten Text in der Septuaginta. Der Vortrag fasst einige te? Was hat es zu bedeuten, dass ganze Stze inhalts-
der Ertrge zusammen: Viele frhchristliche Zitate gleich, aber in Vokabular und Syntax anders formu-
bezeugen Nebenformen der Septuaginta-berliefe- liert sind? Und warum sind andere Stze in beiden
rung. Besondere Beachtung in den Handschriften Fassungen praktisch identisch?
verdienen die Entwicklung von Kennzeichnungen
der Zitate (Dipl) und die Ttigkeit von Korrekto-
ren. Bemerkenswert sind die unerwartet geringen  
(LQVVH ]ZLVFKHQ 6HSWXDJLQWD7H[W 9RUODJH YRQ Tbilisi I. Djavakhishvili State University, Georgia
Zitaten) und neutestamentlicher berlieferung (zi- Das
Fragment
der
georgischen
Jesaja-
tierte Texte) in den Skriptorien bis zur Sptantike o
und dem frhen Mittelalter. Die lteste Textberlieferung der georgischen Jesa-
ja-bersetzung bietet die Palimpsesthandschrift A
844. Die untere Schicht dieser Hs, die den Jesaja-
  Text bewahrt, ist sptestens auf das 7. Jh. datiert.
University of Helsinki, Finland Von den 54 Folien des extrem beschdigten Textes
Using
Patristic
Evidence:
A
Question
of
sind bis jetzt nur 9 Folien transkribiert. Sie erhalten
 folgende Textteile: 7:2023, 8:18, 40:412, 46:6
Much attention has been paid in biblical textual criti- 7, 47:26, 49:36. Die bersetzung gehrt zur lu-
cism to indentifying and classifying patristic quota- kianischen Texttradition, die in zahlreichen, aber
tions. As a result there are good criteria to decide jngeren griechischen Hss. berliefert ist (die ltes-
when to use or not to use an alleged quotation as a ten davon werden in das 10. Jh. datiert). Der Wert
witness for the Bible text. However, little has been des georgischen Fragments fr die Jesaja-Textkritik
written by textual scholars about how to deal with besteht darin, dass es zum einen die lteste Quel-
the actual readings: can they be used like the MSS le der Lukianrezension darstellt und zum anderen
or do they require special treatment? In this paper I als treue bersetzung zuverlssig seine Vorlage
wish to demonstrate that linguistic preferences of the widerspiegelt. Das Fragment bezeugt die Lukian-
Fathers or the translators of their works have to be Lesarten unterschiedlichen Typs und verschiedener
taken into account in order to make a sound assess- Herkunft: 1) Die hexaplarische nderungen; 2) Die
ment of the critical value of their readings. Several lukianische nderungen; 3) Die Varianten einzelner
readings in quotations from 1 Samuel by Irenaeus, griechischer lukianischer Hss. In all diesen Fllen
Tertullian, and Cyprian will be analyzed in order to bietet das Fragment die Mglichkeit, die Textge-
demonstrate that this approach may give consider- schichte der lukianischen Rezension klarer darzu-
118

 

stellen. Besonders wichtige Hinweise gibt es auf sen sich auch die unterschiedlichen Abschnitte der
die Entstehung und Entwicklung der lukianischen Samuel- und Knigebcher sowie ein Problem der
Untergruppen. Das georgische Jesaja-Fragment ist Goliatgeschichte erklren.
ausserdem im Hinblick auf seine Unterschiede zu
den Lukian-Hss interessant: 1) wenn es gegen die
lukianischen Sonderlesarten steht: in einigen Fl-  
len kann man vermuten, dass in der griechischen Leiden University, The Netherlands
Vorlage der bersetzung diese Lesart nicht stand; The
Septuagint
and
Scribal
Culture
2) wenn es selbst Varianten enthlt, die in den lu- Although the origins of the LXX translation may
kianischen Hss nicht bezeugt sind. Der Charakter differ from book to book, or alternatively, from one
einiger solcher Flle gibt Anlass zu vermuten, dass cluster of books to another one, it is to be asked who
diese Varianten zur frheren lukianischen Textge- might have been the appropriate authorities who
stalt gehrten und in den jngeren lukianischen Hss produced a Greek version of a given part of Scrip-
verloren gegangen sind. ture. The scribal culture of Early Judaism both in
Egypt and in Judea was marked by a hierarchy of
scholarship who at the same time corresponded with

  positions of leadership. If the Old Greek version of
Busan Presbyterian University, South Korea a given book was to carry any authority, it stands to
Vom
hellenistischen
Kleinrollensystem
zum
reason to assume that it was made under the respon-
Kodex:
Beobachtungen
zur
Textgestalt
der
sibility of leading scholars within a particular com-
griechischen
Samuel-
und
Knigebcher munity, or party. Evidence from several sources of
Seitdem Thackeray zwei unterschiedliche Textfor- the time will be adduced, and traditions about Aquila
men in Sam-Kn erkannt hatte, wurde es blich, will serve as an illustration.
die Septuaginta von 14 Kgt in folgende vier Ab-
schnitte einzuteilen: a (1 Sam), bb (2 Sam 1:111:1),
gg (1 Kn 2:1221:43), bg (2 Sam 11:2 1 Kn 2:11) 

und gd (1 Kn 22:1 2 Kn 25:30), wobei die Ab- Meiganga, Cameroun
schnitte bb und gd zur spter von Barthlemy so Les
mots
wattehi
lo
sokenet

genannten kaige-Rezension gehren. Diese Ein- Les mots wattehi lo sokenet dans 1 Rois 1:2 posent
teilung ist heute weithin anerkannt (eventuell mit au moins deux problmes: textuel et smantique.
nderung des Anfangs von bb zu 2 Sam 10:1; vgl. Au niveau textuel, on remarque quun des anciens
dazu J.D. Shenkel). Es ist auch weithin akzeptiert, tmoins, le texte antiochien de la Septante (GL), ne
dass der Wechsel des Charakters des Textes durch les mentionne pas, que la Septante ancienne repr-
die Verwendung unterschiedlicher Rollen zustande sente par B (GB) met comme quivalent
kam. Es wurde aber bisher nicht weiter gefragt, wie de sokenet et que ces mots reprennent lexpression
die unterschiedlichen Umfnge der einzelnen Ab-   du v. 4. Au niveau smantique,
schnitte (deren Lnge von 218 Versen des Abschnit- la traduction de sokenet par dans GB aux
tes bb bis zu 790 Versen des Abschnittes a reicht) vv. 2 et 4 et par dans GL au v. 4, montre
zustande kamen und ob die zugrunde liegenden que la comprhension du mot est aussi problma-
Rollen auch noch andere Auswirkungen gehabt ha- tique. Peut-tre les deux problmes sont-ils lis?
ben knnten. Wichtig fr diese Fragen ist ein Blick Lobjet de cette prsentation est dessayer de com-
auf die Entwicklung der Schreiberpraxis: Whrend prendre, partir dun examen comparatif des diff-
in der attischen Zeit die Lnge einer Schriftrolle bis rents tmoins textuels et de lhistoire de lexgse,
ber 40 Meter erreichen konnte (sog. Grossrollen- le scnario qui a pu se nouer dans lhistoire du texte
system), galt in der hellenistischen Zeit ein groes ce niveau.
Buch als ein groes bel und bevorzugte man we-
sentlich krzere Rollen (sog. Kleinrollensystem).
Die Vernderungen im Rollensystem spiegeln sich
nicht nur z.B. in den beiden unterschiedlichen Teilen
des griechischen Jeremiabuches, sondern daraus las-

IOSCS
Abstracts
119




will take up the problem of this dichotomy and espe-
Universitt des Saarlandes, Germany
cially discuss the examples given by Brock. Do we
 need to maintain Lucian redivivus or should we go
Bundes
im
Hebrerbrief with and beyond Barthlemy?
1. Die Verheiung des Neuen Bundes in Jer 31 MT;
2. Die Neue Diatheke in Jer 38 LXX; 3. Die Neue
Diatheke nach Hebr 8. Ziel ist es zu zeigen, dass der  
  
Hebr nahezu ganz auf dem LXX-Text basiert, aber University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
nicht Diatheke im Sinn von Bund oder Verfgung How
Constantinopolitan
Is


versteht, sondern den Jeremia-Text (gegen seinen the
Constantinople
Pentateuch?
Ursprungssinn) als Beleg fr eine neue Heilsordnung Since the history of the creation of Constantinople
interpretiert, die durch den Tod Jesu inauguriert, aber Pentateuch is virtually unknown, the analysis of its
bereits vorher angekndigt wurde. Das Zitat von Jer linguistic makeup acquires particular importance.
38 in Hebr 8:313 wird im Zentrum des Interesses Our paper attempts to assess the main text and the
stehen, aber im Kontext von Ex 25:40 und in Paral- variae lectiones of the Constantinople Pentateuch
lele zur Aufnahme von Ps 94 (95) in Hebr Hebr 3:7ff on the basis of new linguistic and philological data.
interpretiert. Dabei wird deutlich, dass nicht nur Recent years have been marked with considerable
von Schrift-Zitat, sondern von Schrift-Anwendung progress in the research of Asia Minor Greek dia-
(u.U. gegen den Ursprungssinn) gesprochen werden lects, including the dialects of the Pontic area. Ad-
muss. vances have been made in ancient, medieval and
modern dialectology (A. Ralli & students, K. Minas
et al.), and many statements deemed unshakeable
 
  in the last century are being questioned. No less re-
Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal/Bethel, Germany markable is the growth of our knowledge about the
Lukian
Redivivus
or
Barthlemy
and
beyond? ways early modern editors treated their texts (e.g. the
In 1964 John W. Wevers stated: All in all, the so- works of N. Panayotakis, A. van Gemert, S. Kakla-
called proto-Lucianic text is to my mind the most manis, etc.). As it is impossible to cover all the areas
GLIFXOW SUREOHP LQ PRGHUQ 6HSWXDJLQW ZRUN  of grammar in a short presentation, our paper will
This was said under the impression of Dominique concentrate on the topics of verbal morphology and
Barthlemys Les Devanciers dAquila from 1960 syntax. Clearer demarcation of the dialectological
and, on the other hand, the old and widely accepted phenomena allows for more nuanced understand-
view that the so called Lucianic text basically is the ing of the traditional character of the Constantinople
result of a Lucianic revision which produced a bet- Pentateuch, its relationship to the medieval Jewish
ter and also more readable text. Besides his analy- versions and the Septuagint.
sis of the kaige-recension Barthlemy had come to
new conclusions about the Lucianic or Antiochene
text. His result was that this text is the closest wit- ROBERT
K UGLER
ness to the Old Greek, only with some corrup- Lewis & Clark College, USA
tions and minor changes as they came about in the 

transmission. Contrary to Barthlemy, Sebastian P. in
Hellenistic
Egyptian
Documentary
Papyri
Brock in his paper Lucian redivivus revived and Published in 2001 as P.Polit.Iud. 120, a group of pe-
defended the old view. Today, Barthlemys view is titions to the leaders of a Judean community in sec-
widely accepted for the kaige sections in Samuel and ond-century BCE Herakleopolis prove the existence
Kings, esp. where there is support by the quotations of Judean politeumata in Hellenistic Egypt. Still over-
in Josephus or in the Qumran biblical texts. Yet for looked, though, is the texts testimony to the juridical
those texts, where there is no quotation by Josephus pluralism practiced by these Judeans: in making com-
or in Qumran or in the Old Latin manuscripts, and plaints against one another and against non-Judeans
especially for the non-kaige-sections, the other posi- before the archons of the politeuma they relied on a
tion is maintained by many scholars, not the least mix of Judean, Egyptian, and Greek normative sys-
because of Brocks Lucian redivivus. The paper tems to form their legal arguments. Indeed, scholars
120

 

have recognized the single clear reference to a statute mes, sont laoriste, tandis que les autres (ceux qui
from the Greek Torah in P.Polit.Iud. 4 (Deut 24:1), yet sadressent au peuple ou qui voquent les impies,
the petitioners complex legal claims also contain a notamment), sont tantt laoriste tantt au prsent.
wealth of more subtle echoes of the laws of the LXX. 2Q HVVDLH GH GpQLU GHV UqJOHV GDQV FHWWH UpSDUWL-
The petitioners thoroughly integrated ancestral, Ju- tion; dans limmense majorit des cas, et de manire
dean norms with those of Egypt and of the colonizing surprenante, tout se passe comme si chaque verbe
Greeks. This paper catalogues the echoes of LXX law avait son thme verbal dimpratif, deux verbes
in the politeuma petitions and in other texts from the de sens voisin pouvant ici sopposer (par exemple
nome involving Judeans (e.g., Lev 25:3538; Exod 13:7     ,
22:22 in P.Polit.Iud. 7; Deut 24:6, 1013 in P.Heid. distribution constante). Mais on tente galement de
Inv. G5100). It argues further that the rhetoric and prciser quel rle joue loptatif dans lexpression
ideas of the ancestral legal norms embodied in the de la modalit volitive; il semble, par exemple, tre
LXX informed day-to-day Judean legal reasoning un substitut de limpratif la troisime personne
in Hellenistic Egypt more deeply than we heretofore quand le sujet est, au sens large, Dieu (alors quil
imagined. Thus the paper also lays out a plan for a existe bien dautres impratifs la troisime per-
comprehensive re-assessment of the role of LXX law sonne dans le corpus), suivant le modle de 68:25
in the full corpus of documentary papyri from Judeans          
in Hellenistic Egypt. . Il sagit dune tude
multifactorielle tentant de prendre simultanment en
compte le mode, le thme verbal (prsent ou aoriste),
 
 la personne et la prsence / absence dune ngation.
Catholic University of America, USA On se propose bien plus dtablir une bauche de
Septuagint
Ruth
as
a
Narrative description du fonctionnement du corpus grec que
I propose to present an examination of the Septuagint de renvoyer systmatiquement au substrat hbreu.
translation of the book of Ruth. The presentation will Lobjectif est de rendre compte de tendances et de
focus on the language of the story, the characters, and prciser les exceptions, en cherchant comment le
the way that the narrative unfolds. First, I will show sens a conditionn la forme.
how the translator treats Naomis speech before her
daughter-in-law, 1:1213, and how the translator re-
envisions this dialogue. Then, in the scene in chapter   5
2:813, I will explain how the translator recasts the Leiden University, The Netherlands
characters of Boaz and Ruth, and how his translation Terra
Incognita
and
Terra
Devastata:

alters the way they treat each other and react to their  

situation. Lastly I will look at the scene on the thresh- Isaiah,
Symmachus
and
Eusebius
of
Caesarea
LQJRRULQFKDSWHUWKUHHDQGKRZWKHWUDQVODWRUGHDOW Among the ancient Greek translations of the He-
with the euphemistic Hebrew word, feet. Through brew Bible, the version by Symmachus has prob-
these three examples, I will demonstrate how the ably suffered most from neglect, both in Antiquity
LXX translator, though he is scrupulously faithful to and Modernity. Yet, Symmachuss version offers a
his Hebrew text, nevertheless imparted to the charac- wealth of interesting interpretations dating from the
ters of this story a unique and different interpretation formative periods of Rabbinic Judaism and Early
than the one demonstrated in the Hebrew. Christianity. Thanks to the rediscovery and publi-
cation of the Commentary on Isaiah by Eusebius of
Caesarea we are now in a position to explore this
  
 virtually unexplored terra incognita and to have a
Universit Paul-Valry Montpellier III, France better understanding of Symmachuss text and theol-


ogy. The present paper will examine Symmachuss
 rendering of Hebrew expressions related to the land
modalit
volitive
dans
la
Septante
des
Psaumes of Israel, which in his own time (late second century
Ltude part de la constatation que tous les imp- CE) had suffered much from revolts and devastations,
ratifs adresss Dieu, dans la Septante des Psau- in relation to the lexical choices adopted by his pred-

IOSCS
Abstracts
121

ecessors (particularly the Old Greek of Isaiah) and WKH/;;DQGFRPPXQLWLHVLQXHQFHGE\WKDWWUDQV-


in the light of the interpretation offered ny Eusebius lation tradition has helped bolster claims concerning
of Caesarea. the words exclusively Jewish provenance. In this
paper I offer new evidence in this debate. The recto
of an unpublished papyrus in the holdings at Duke
   University (P.Duk.inv. 727) contains a 3rd Century
Universitaet des Saarlandes, Germany B.C.E. draft of a legal document addressing a dis-

pute between some of the and other
o members of a village in the Fayyum. The texts prov-
schwierigen
hebrischen
Vorlage enance is plainly not biblical. Moreover, nothing in
Der Tempelbaubericht in 1 Kn 6:122 hat den the draft indicates a Jewish or even overtly religious
Septuaginta-bersetzern manche Schwierigkeiten milieu. The fact that the papyrus is roughly contem-
bereitet (hnliches gilt fr Ez 40f). Begrndet liegen porary with the translation of the Torah into Greek
diese Schwierigkeiten in der architektonischen Ter- in Alexandria calls for a reassessment of many con-
minologie, die teilweise (fast) ausschlielich in den temporary conclusions regarding the translation of
Tempelbau- und Visionsberichten (1 Kn 6,122; Ez the Hebrew word ger as proselyte in the LXX. This
40f; 2 Chr 3) verwendet wird, sowie in den Span- papyrus, I suggest, indicates that the Septuagintal
nungen dieser Texte untereinander und innerhalb der translators have pulled the word proselyte from com-
jeweiligen Textberlieferung. So werden die Begrif- mon parlance in Ptolemaic Egypt and employed it
fe ulam und debir nicht bersetzt, sondern transkri- to render ger simply because they understood it to
biert, vermutlich deshalb, weil sich die bersetzer mean roughly what ger meant for thema stranger
ber die genaue Bauausfhrung im Unklaren waren. or newcomer.
Hinsichtlich anderer nderungen der Septuaginta im
Verhltnis zu ihrer Vorlage (zu 1 Kn 6:2, 8) gibt es
unterschiedliche Theorien, die zu diskutieren sind. TAKAMITSU
M URAOKA
Hingegen gibt es fr einige der hier architektonisch Leiden University, The Netherlands
verwendeten Begriffe (z.B. zu 1 Kn 6:4) epigraphi- What
after
the
Lexicon?
sche und literarische Parallelen. Es wird zu prfen With the completion of my 25-year LXX lexicogra-
VHLQ RE VLFK GHU LQ (]  VLFKWEDUH (LQXVV phy project and the publication last year of A Greek
gyptischer Terminologie auch fr 1 Kn 6:7 nach- English Lexicon of the Septuagint (Leuven: Peeters)
weisen lsst und wie die fr die bersetzung der K- I would like to ponder in this short paper what could
nigsbcher allgemein vorauszusetzende Treue der or should be done in terms of future linguistic re-
bersetzer zu ihrer Vorlage sich auch in der ber- search into the language of the LXX. By the time of
setzung des Tempelbauberichtes bemerkbar macht. the present congress a GreekHebrew/Aramaic two-
way Index of the Septuagint will probably have been
published. It combines in a single volume a revised
DAVID
M.
M OFFITT Hebrew/Aramaic Index to the Septuagint (1998) and
Duke University, USA a revised index showing for every LXX Greek word
rd which Hebrew/Aramaic words are used to translate it.
  This should be helpful for various philological stud-
 
ies of the LXX, not the least questions of translation
 techniques. My LXX lexicon provides information
6LQFH WKH LQXHQWLDO HVVD\ RI :&$OOHQ LQ  at the end of most entries some paradigmatic data,
D VLJQLFDQW FRQVHQVXV KDV DULVHQ FRQFHUQLQJ WKH namely a list of semantically related lexemes. These
meaning of the word proselyte. Today it is widely lists are still provisional and can be expanded by ap-
held that, from its inception, was a tech- plying the notion of semantic domains and mapping
nical term within the Jewish Diaspora used to denote the entire LXX vocabulary. Such would advance
a convert to Jewish practice and belief. Dissenting semantic studies of the LXX. Another desideratum
voices have arisen from time to time, but the lack was mentioned in my article in Fschr J. Lust (2005):
of any attestation of the term prior to and outside of Why not a Morgenthaler for the Septuagint? At
122

 

the very beginning of the history of the IOSCS, two of one of the oldest complete manuscripts of the en-
LPSRUWDQWGHVLGHUDWDZHUHLGHQWLHG'LFWLRQDU\DQG tire Bible. In the trove of other Greek manuscripts
Grammar. The latter still remains desideratum, par- from the monastery, two stand out in relation to Co-
ticularly syntax. Helsinki has been a fruitful, produc- dex Sinaiticus. Known as Sinai Greek 1 and Sinai
tive centre of syntactic studies from the perspective Greek 2 (SG 1&2), they are two medieval copies of
of translation techniques. A full-scale syntax, incor- the Greek Old Testament made at the same monas-
porating results of research by the Finnish school, is tery that match up remarkably well with the received
highly desirable. I am contemplating writing a syntax IUDJPHQWVRI6LQDLWLFXVNQRZQEHIRUHWKHQG
of the LXX Greek based on a systematic investiga- This focus of this paper will be to compare SG 1&2
tion of the Pentateuch supplemented with selective WR WKH ORQJH[WDQW IUDJPHQWV DQG WKH  QGV
reference to the data in the rest of the corpus. Given and show that their almost perfect preservation of
my advancing age I couldnt possibly undertake all these texts should be logically extended and seen
of the outstanding desiderata singled out here. I chal- as preserving the whole of Sinaiticus OT. In other
lenge younger Septuagintalists. words, if SG 1&2 faithfully preserved parts of the
WH[WEDVHGRQROGIUDJPHQWVDQGQHZQGVWKH\LQ
turn preserve the whole of the OT, including the lost
 

 Pentateuch. This will be accomplished by analysis
University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom of a new, complete collation of the SG 1&2 with the

in
the
Septuagint
of
Isaiah QGVKLWKHUWRDODFXQDLQ27WH[WXDOFULWLFLVP
HDUO\VL[GHFDGHVDJRLWZDVFODLPHGWKDWWKHWKHRO- The question will be asked whether or not monas-
ogy of in the Septuagint of Isaiah is an im- tery manuscripts can be faithful transmitters of their
portant subject that should deserve une tude sp- SDUHQW WH[W 7KH DQVZHU LV TXLWH VLJQLFDQW IRU 6L-
ciale et approfondie (Coste, 1954). In the absence of naiticus, and can have important implications for the
such a study since then, the present paper seeks to re- HOGLQJHQHUDO
construct the conception that the person responsible
for this important Jewish document had of .
While a survey of the use of this term throughout this   
literature will be carried out, the paper will primarily University of Gothenburgh, Sweden
focus on its occurrence in three passages (i.e. 25:4; 
44:3; and 57:16). It shall be demonstrated that the in
Relation
to
the
Translators
of
the
Pentateuch
introduction of this term in these texts served for the There seems to be an unanimous opinion among
EHQHWRIWKHLQMXUHG-HZLVKFRPPXQLW\LQ$OH[DQ- LXX scholars that the counterparts used by the
dria longing for redemption. Besides this, the out- WUDQVODWRUVRIWKHODWHU/;;ERRNVZHUHLQXHQFHG
FRPHRIWKLVVWXG\VKDOODOVROHQGVLJQLFDQWVXSSRUW E\WKHUVWWUDQVODWHGSDUWRIWKH6HSWXDJLQWLHWKH
against a growing sceptical opinion among scholars Pentateuch. I concur with this evaluation, but I will
about the commonly held view that considers the try to present a more nuanced picture by emphasiz-
translation as the work of one translator. ing instances where the equivalents in the Psalms
differ from the vocabulary of the Pentateuch, some-
times in isolation, and sometimes in company with
  other LXX translators. This is true for a few cases
Duke University, USA where the kaige group uses the Old Greek text of
Restoring
the
Pentateuch
to
Codex
Sinaiticus:
WKH3VDOPVHJU+\ translated by with cog-
Or,
Evaluating
the
Textual
Integrity
of

nates, \O by , EU[, by , UZEJ by
Localized
Manuscripts and V
niphal rendered by . The
In 1975 fragments of the lost Pentateuch to Codex Psalter has in these cases taken over the function of
Sinaiticus were found during renovations at St. the Pentateuch, since the vocabulary of the Psalter
Catherines monastery in Egypt. Since the rediscov- rather than that of the Pentateuch are employed. Oc-
ery of this great uncial by Tischendorf in the nine- casionally equivalents of terms related to sin and sin-
teenth century the fact that the books of Moses were ners in the Psalms diverge from their counterparts in
lost has been lamented, given the textual importance the Pentateuch, e.g. Y+S, Z
and Y+U translated by

IOSCS
Abstracts
123

ajnomiva and OY niphal and \O hiphil rendered of the ancient translators themselves. To this one has
by . The same is true for a few words to add the concrete choices of typography and or-
related to hope, e.g. WUDQVODWLQJ[;E and thography taken in the eclectic text itself. All these
rendering [;E; and O[\. Although most of issues and objections are in a good measure familiar
the words employed in contrast to the Pentateuch to any textual criticism enterprise, biblical or not.
are devoid of theological connotations, certain terms Relevant as it is to engage in a discussion on the phi-
connected with the law and with hope and expecta- losophy of a critical edition and the nature of the text
tion are favourite words in the Psalms. we are producing or re-creating, this paper will focus
on larger textual units (whole clauses or paragraphs)
which constitute meaningful differences of redaction
  " between the MT and Septuagint texts of 2 Kings. If
University of Helsinki, Finland these cases can be shown to hint at two different edi-


tions of the Hebrew book (as the 2-column presen-
 tation in the OHB proposes), then we have a very
The Septuagint of the last chapter of 1Samuel, chap- particular set of materials to contribute to the discus-
ter 31, is witnessed by dozens of Greek manuscripts: sion on Vorlage issues. After presenting particular
uncials and cursives. For the Sahidic Coptic version cases, I hope to contribute to an assessment of the
there are three manuscripts: one of them is the only advantages of making the text of ancient redactions
complete manuscript (M), another one is the most available in a Bible edition versus the elusiveness of
extensive fragmentary manuscript (A). The third Hebrew retroversion.
RQH % SUHVHUYHVWH[WIURPFKDSWHUVEXWLVGLIFXOW
to characterize. The third manuscript has been de-
scribed as a paraphrase or some sort of a chronicle.  
How does this manuscript compare with the two oth- Friedrich-Alexander Universitt, Germany
er Sahidic witnesses? And how does it compare with 
 

the Greek evidence? Are there features that would Indicators
of
Translation
and
Redaction
indicate a Greek Vorlage behind the readings differ- Can the Septuagint Greek version of the frames of
ing from the other Sahidic witnesses? In this paper the Book of Kings provide the modern exegete with
I will give an analysis of the readings of these MSS evidence for the redaction history of this composite
in 1 Samuel 31. The emphasis will be on the use of work? This problem arose from a syntactical exami-
these Coptic witnesses in the textual criticism of the nation of the frames of Kings when one considers
Greek text. this text in contrast to the MT. One notices uniqe
syntactical problems when one considers the frames
of the Israelite kings compared to the frames of the
2  Judean kings and even translational distinctions
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain within the Judean frames. One problem becomes es-

  pecially apparent: the reign of Jeroboam II ends in a
 completely different manner in LXX (both Vaticanus
Hebrew
Bible and Alexandrinus) than in MT. Does such a differ-
One of the usual objections raised at the confection ence imply a later redaction of the MT Vorlage in
of an eclectic edition of the Hebrew Bible is the prob- contradistinction to the LXX Vorlage? Bearing the
lem derived of the main non-Masoretic source (bar- available evidence in mind, it seems likely that the
ring Qumran testimonies, usually in a fragmentary frames provide the exegete with various translators
state), that is, the Septuagint, being a translation of a and various redactional levels of MT that appear to
Hebrew original. This gives room for different types have followed the redactional levels of the Hebrew
of objections, mostly centered around the scholars Vorlage of LXX.
capacity of rendering an accurate retroversion of the
Greek into its Hebrew Vorlage and the determination
of what Greek variants constitute witnesses of a dif-
ferent underlying Hebrew or are rather the creation
124

 

 
30:6 the word means a hump of a camel). Some Mss.
Oxford University, United Kingdom
however read  a word that looks suspicious-
A
Rabbinic
Symmachus? ly like a geographical direction instead of a name.
The paper represents research carried out for the
project entitled, The Greek Bible and the Rabbis,
based at the Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jew- RODRIGO
D E
S OUSA
ish Studies JanuaryJune 2010, and funded by the Mackenzie University, Brazil
European Seminar in Advanced Jewish Studies. It  
examines the nature of the surviving fragments of The portrayal of the righteous king in LXX Isa 32:1
Symmachus version to the Minor Prophets. It will 8 displays some noteworthy differences from the
assess the extent to which Symmachus version was Masoretic version of the same passage. In this paper
PHUHO\ UHHFWLQJ WKH HPHUJLQJ VWDQGDUG +HEUHZ I attempt to highlight and explain these differences.
text, as opposed to representing contemporary rab- My starting point is a comparative analysis between
binic exegesis or countering Christian exegesis. the Greek and Hebrew versions of the oracle, assum-
ing that the Hebrew is similar to a proto-Masoretic
text form. The analysis will deal with lexical and
ULRICH
S CHMID syntactical choices, reading strategies of the trans-
Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal/Bethel, Germany lator, and intertextual relationships between LXX


Isaiah 32 and the LXX of the Pentateuch, Psalms,
of
the
Mosaic
Law:
The
Intersection
of

DQG$PRV$IWHUWKHDQDO\VLVWKHSDSHUGHDOVEULH\
Oral
and
Written
Tradition with shifting perceptions of kingship from biblical
The decalogue (esp. Ex 20:1315; Dtn 5:1719, cf. times to the Second Temple period, to identify pos-
Mt 19:18; Mk 10:19; Lk 18:20; Rom 13:9; James VLEOHQRWLRQVWKDWPLJKWKDYHLQXHQFHGWKHUHQGHU-
2:11) and the Schema Israel (Dtn 6:5; cf. Jos 22:5; 2 ing. It is our contention that the deviating rendering
Reg 23:25; Mt 22:36; Mk 12:30; Lk 10:27) are ex- of LXX Isa 32:18 can be described as having been
tant in several slightly different versions (MT, LXX, shaped in line with theological and political tenden-
NT), solely judged on the basis of the critically re- cies which can be perceived in different strands of
constructed texts (BHS, LXX Gottingensis, NA 27). early Judaism.
The situation is even more complicated, if we take
the Greek manuscript tradition (LXX and NT) into
consideration. The present contribution seeks to PETER
S PITALER
collect and sort the Greek evidence and discusses Villanova University, USA
various explanations to account for the observable 

diversity. The authors of the LXX consistently (26 times)
translate the Hebrew word chinnam with the Greek
GUHDQ, a noun in the accusative case used adverbi-
SEPPO
S IPIL ally. The words spectrum of meaning ranges from
United Bible Societies, Finland without giving or taking compensation, gratui-
 tously, for nothing, without cause to unde-
The book of Joshua is especially rich in place names, servedly. In contrast, the range of meaning of the
because the middle part of the book includes the Greek (that is, Classical and Hellenistic Greek)
town lists with more than 300 names. Margolis and GUHDQ is narrower, generally describing actions
Sperber among others have used these names while completed without giving or receiving payment,
studying the textual history of the Greek version of QDPHO\ DV D IUHH JLIW RU IUHHO\ 7KXV GUHDQ
the book. In this paper, I shall discuss several pe- poses an interesting problem: In choosing to trans-
culiar name forms found in the Greek manuscripts late chinnam with GUHDQ, did the translators expand
and seek to explain their existence and place in the WKHUDQJHRIPHDQLQJRIGUHDQWRLQFOXGHQRQQD-
textual history. One of these name forms is found in tive-to-Greek shades of meaning (in particular, in
19:11, where the OG has (cf. 15:6 and vain and without cause); or did they narrow the
18:18) and MT vocalised as Dabbeet (in Isa various meanings of chinnam to one basic meaning,

IOSCS
Abstracts
125

namely without giving or taking compensation? that the most striking difference (though not the only
Todays standard dictionaries virtually unanimously one) is the presence or absence of the personal pro-
FRQFXUWKDWGUHDQVPHDQLQJVKLIWHGIURPGHQRWLQJ noun (OR). Marks readings seem to be in
free events to depicting events without cause or pur- general slightly closer at least in these cases to the
pose and, with this shift, contributed to the produc- LXX, whereas Matthews readings tend to be closer
tion of a new linguistic category. Because the new to the readings of the same passages in the works
meaning is never found outside the LXX and NT, of Philo of Alexandria. The study, furthermore, (b)
F. Bchsel concludes (ThDNT), we have here a GLVFXVVHV HDFK RI WKHVH LGHQWLHG GLIIHUHQFHV LQ
true example of biblical Greek. This paper suggests the light of the evidence contained in the available
an alternative to this long-standing interpretation of textual witnesses of the New Testament, LXX and
the data. Beginning with a brief discussion of the 3KLOREHIRUHLWQDOO\ F DWWHPSWVWRJHWFORVHUWRDQ
methodological problems incurred if one attributes answer on the nature of the LXX Vorlage that might
a classical/Hellenistic Greek meaning to GUHDQ in have been used by Mark and by Matthew.
some LXX passages but a biblical Greek meaning in
others, this paper attempts to (1) shed light on the in-
terpretation processes that caused the words mean-   
LQJWRVKLIWDQG  UHHYDOXDWHWKHPHDQLQJRIGUHDQ Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel
within its literary contexts. 

the
Composition
of
the
Book
of
Kings
The miscellanies in 3 Kgdms 2:35ao and 46al form
   a unique case among other substantial differences
CSIC, Spain between the LXX and MT versions of the Book of


Kings. There is hardly any comparable phenomenon

 in the transmission of the Hebrew Bible as we know
Textual problems in the Book of Esther may be it. While in their present form and context the mis-
PRUHVLJQLFDQWWRWUDFHWKHKLVWRU\RIWKDWKDSKD]- cellanies obviously constitute a result of later redac-
ard Greek text than could be the analysis of its genre tional intervention, the question remains whether
or style, which are othewise consistently established, they may be a genuine vestige of the composition
having a prominent place in Jewish traditions. A tex- process of the Book of Kings.
tual approach in the parallel passages may give some
indication about why and to whom the texts are writ-
ten, and to what extent they can be considered as   
re-written texts. University of Helsinki, Finland
The
Hebrew
O
as
a
dativus
ethicus
or
reflexive

and
its
renderings
in
the
Septuagint
Pentateuch

  The Hebrew preposition O in cases such as Gen


University of Pretoria, South Africa 12:1  is said to be dativus ethicus or
Text
variations
between
the
Torah
Quotations
in
KDYHVRPHNLQGRIUHH[LYHQXDQFH WHUPVVXFKDV

 FHQWULSHWDORUUHH[LYH O are sometimes used).
with
the
Intertexts
of
the
Septuagint
and
Philo
In contrast to dativus ethicus in Indo-European lan-
of
Alexandria guages, in the Hebrew ethical dative the grammatical
It is the intention of this investigation to (a) present person of the OVXI[HGSURQRXQLVWKHVDPHDVWKDW
a survey of the text variations of the Torah quota- of the subject of the clause. Most often the ethical
tions in the Gospels of Mark and Matthew, on the RU UHH[LYH O occurs in connection to imperatives,
one hand, and to compare these variations with the and especially with verbs of motion. This usage of
Septuagint and Philo of Alexandria, on the other O is often not expressible in other languages. The
KDQG)RXUVXFKFDVHVFRXOGEHLGHQWLHGZKHUHWKH examples of ethical O given in various grammars and
Torah quotations overlap between Mark, Matthew lexica, however, also include e.g. O UP+Q (Nifal)
and Philo. These are compared in this investigation and sometimes also transitive verbs that can take an
by means of synoptic tables. The comparisons reveal indirect object, such as take for yourself. In the
126

 

last-mentioned example a dative of advantage is said readings and variants of the Aramaic, Syria and Vul-
to come close. The O dativus ethicus in connection to gate versions in kaige and non-kaige sections of III
verbs of motion has been rendered in the LXX Pen- IV Regnorum.
tateuch usually correctly by omitting the preposition
(Genesis, Exodus). There are also some renderings
by a personal pronoun in nominative to indicate l in  
Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Cases of l rmvn, that of- Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
ten are interpreted as O dativus ethicus, are rendered Different
Distribution
of
Agreements
between

XVLQJGDWLYHRUDFFXVDWLYH7KHUHH[LYHO in con- L
Readings
and
Variants
of
the
Aramaic,

nection to verbs that can take an indirect object (such Syriac
and
Vulgate
Versions
in
kaige
and
no-
as OK:Y, NOZ[T) has in the majority of cases kaige 
been rendered using dative, but there are also some This paper analyzes a sample of 150 readings of
occurrences of personal pronoun in nominative as an LXX-B, L, A, that agree in quite different com-
equivalent of O, as well as omissions of O occur. binations with variants of the Aramaic (T), Syriac
(S) and Vulgata (V) versions, as well as with Hebrew
medieval readings (K-R). It studies in particular the
  distribution of these readings between kaige (1 Kgs
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain 1:12:11 and 1 Kgs 22:1 2 Kgs 25:30) and no-
Different
Distribution
of
Agreements
between
kaige (1 Kgs 2:1221:43) sections. The quantity of
L
and
Medieval
Hebrew
Variants
in
kaige
and
VXFKUHDGLQJVLVVLJQLFDQWO\JUHDWHULQkaige than in
no-kaige
  no-kaige section, especially when referring to agree-
4QSama has shown that the text of IIV Regnorum ments of LXXL readings with variants of T, S, or V
translates a Hebrew that differs from that of the MT. and K-R. The analysis leads us to conclude that the
In a 1948 article, John Wevers concluded that [in important differences between the text of III Regno-
Kings] the Hebrew [medieval] variants have perpetu- UXP DQG ,9 5HJQRUXP UHHFW D GLIIHUHQW WUDQVPLV-
ated pre-Masoretic traditions which were the basis for sion of the Hebrew text of each scroll of those that
certain readings in LXX and the later Greek recen- compose 12 Kings according to the division wit-
VLRQV 3RVVLEO\ PRVW VLJQLFDQW RI DOO DUH WKH PDQ\ nessed by OG. The study of the quantity and distri-
instances of striking agreements of Luc with the He- bution of such coincidences contribute to shed light
brew variants, since Lucian revised LXX on the ba- on the critical value of those LXXL readings that in
sis of a Hebrew text older than MT. The aim of this kaige VHFWLRQFRXOGJREDFNWRDQ2*WH[WDQGUHHFW
SDSHU LV WR UHYLVH :HYHUCV FODVVLFDWLRQ RI YDULDQWV a Hebrew original different from the receptus.
(agreements with LXXB, agreements with Hex and This paper is related with Pablo Torijanos paper,
agreements with Luc) by adding a factor that he did Different distribution of agreements between LXXL
not take into account, the distribution of such agree- and Medieval Hebrew Variants in kaige and no-kaige
ments bewteen kaige (1 Kgs 1:12:11 and 1 Kgs 22:1 section of IIIIV Regnorum.
2 Kgs 25:30) and non-kaige (1 Kgs 2:1221:43) sec-
tions. The number and type of those agreements is dis-
tributed in a meaningfully different way between both   
sections. The paper focusses mainly on the analysis of University of St Andrews, United Kingdom
the agreements of Luc (whose pre-Luianic tect may The
Hebrew
Text(s)
Underlying
the
Septuagint
be attested by Chronicles, the Old Latin, Armenian or In her attempts to establish the Old Greek text, the
Georgian versions, or Josephus) with Hebrew variants text-critic always reconstructs the (Hebrew) Vorla-
in Medieval manuscripts:121 cases in kaige section gen out of which the attested readings could have
and 32 in non-kaige section. This type of analysis emerged and then proceeds to decide which text is
helps us to judge the critical value of the L readings most likely the oldest. The text-critic needs to rely
WKDWFRXOGDSSHUWDLQWR2*DQGUHHFWD+HEUHZYDUL- on the study of the translation technique in order to
ant different from the one preserved by the Receptus. reconstruct the correct Hebrew Vorlage. In my con-
This paper is related with Trebolles paper, Dif- tribution to the panel, I will offer examples which
ferent distribution of agreements between LXXL might point to the existence of Hebrew texts that dif-

IOSCS
Abstracts
127

fer from the MT, even when dealing with the Five but rather of another and more original Hebrew ver-
Books of Moses, which were most likely to be trans- sion, which is no longer extant. One of the most sig-
ODWHGUVW,ZLOOWKHQGLVFXVVWKHFRQVHTXHQFHVWKLV QLFDQWGLIIHUHQFHVEHWZHHQWKHYHUVLRQVLVWKHYHU\
has for our thinking concerning the origins of the rare use of the plural of in the Greek version
Old Greek translation. (leges in the NT Latin), where the Hebrew version
has Torah in the singular (lex in the OT Latin). The
singular Torah apparently refers to the Torah in the
    Hebrew version, but to what does the plural of 
University of Eastern Finland in the Greek version refer, and how does this affect
 the interpretation of the text? This and a number of
Auxiliary Verb Constructions (AVC) such as , other questions raised by the different versions will
, ,   LQQLWLYH DSSHDU YHU\ VHOGRP LQ be discussed in this paper.
LXX. In this paper, I discuss AVCs such as ,
, , LQQLWLYHLQ/;;LQSDUWLFXODULQ
Pentateuch. Each AVC is studied in its larger textual   
context in the Greek text and compared to the corre- Universitt Gttingen, Germany
sponding Hebrew form(s). I also try to locate the phe- Der
Umgang
des
Samuelbersetzers


nomenon in its linguistic context (i.e., the Hellenistic mit
den
griechischen
Tempora
Koine). Given that Auxiliaries may only appear in Der bersetzer der Samuelbcher zeichnet sich
a construction, i.e., involved always two words, by durch einen souvernen Umgang mit den griechi-
using the AVC the translators rendered one Hebrew schen Tempora aus. Das lsst auf ein gutes Sprach-
form with two Greek verbs which is not their normal gefhl, aber auch auf Freude an rhetorischer Ge-
mode of translation. Therefore we may conclude that staltung schlieen. In erzhlenden Texten wird dies
the AVCs occur in translators language and their use besonders deutlich am Prsens historicum, durch
reveals, although clearly minority equivalents, that GHVVHQKlXJHUHQ*HEUDXFKVLFKGHUhEHUVHW]HUYRQ
the translator(s) sometimes considered the usual anderen bersetzern der LXX abhebt. In Kontrastie-
Greek equivalents for translating future-referring rung zum gewhnlichen Erzhltempus, dem Aorist,
and/or modal Hebrew forms and expressions, i.e. the erzielt er besondere rhetorische Effekte. Von einem
future or the subjunctive, to be inadequate. Thus it guten Gespr fr die gestalterischen Mglichkeiten
is not correct to claim, for example, that + des griechischen Tempussystems zeugt darber hi-
LQQLWLYHFRQYH\VVROHO\IXWXUHUHIHUHQFHHPSOR\HG naus der Umgang des bersetzers mit dem Imper-
to render the Hebrew yiqtol. fekt. Um die Verwendung von Prsens historicum
und Imperfekt durch den Samuelbersetzer soll es in
dem Vortrag gehen. Es wird die Art des Gebrauchs
GEORG
WALSER ebenso untersucht wie die erzielten rhetorischen
University of Gothenburg, Sweden Wirkungen. In einem zweiten Schritt wird gefragt
  nach mglichen Anlssen in der Vorlage, in Altera-
the
Two
Versions
and
their
Reception tion des gewhnlichen Erzhltempus Aorist das Pr-
Jeremiah 38:3134 (MT 31:3134) exists in two sub- sens historicum respektive das Imperfekt zu verwen-
stantially different versions, one mainly preserved den. Abschlieend erfolgt ein kurzer Ausblick auf
in Hebrew and one mainly preserved in Greek. Jer- Vernderungen durch die Kaige- und die lukianische
emiah 38:3134 is also the longest quotation from Rezension. Die Kenntnis beider Rezensionen ist fr
the Old Testament in the New. These two facts war- eine Rekonstruktion der ursprnglichen bersetzung
rant a very interesting reception history for this text, (Old Greek) im Kaige-Bereich der Samuelbcher
which, of course, in a Hebrew speaking context, (2 Sam 11ff.) von Bedeutung.
was used in its Hebrew version, while in a Greek
speaking context the Greek version was used, and
in a Latin speaking context both versions were used
side by side. Moreover, the Greek version does not
seem to be a rendering of an extant Hebrew version,

IOQS
Abstracts
129

Abstracts of the IOQS Congress


 
in the Hymn to the Creator from 11QPsa. I suggest
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
exploring this connection further. The argument
Explicit
and
Implicit
Use
of
the
Concepts
ZLOOUVWUHHFWRQIXUWKHUDWWHVWDWLRQVRIWKHVDPH
Architectural
Design
and
Blueprint
in
the
passage from Jubilees and the Psalms scroll in lat-
Old
Testament
and
in
the
Qumran
Texts er Second Temple Jewish literature (1QH and the
Early Jewish texts refer both explicitly and implic- Slavonic Enoch). I will then proceed to show two
itly to the concepts of architectural design and more lines of continuity between Jubilees and the
blueprint. In Exodus God determines the architec- 3VDOPVVFUROOWKHGHQLWLRQRIWKHGD\\HDUDV
tural design (W\QE*W) of the tabernacle (25:9). David a weekly device (in the passage on Davids Com-
transmits the design (W\QE*W) of the temple building positions), and the use of apotropaic prayers (in the
to Salomo (1 Chr 28:1112). The term W\QE*W also reference to peguim in the above-noted passage, as
refers to the design of the cherubs (1 Chr 28:18 well as in the Plea for Deliverance). Finally, some
19). Finally the term W\QE*W refers to the design of possible implications of this continuity will be dis-
an altar, asked for by king Ahaz (2 Kgs 16:10). In FXVVHG WKH DXWKRULW\ RI WKH JXUHV RI 0RVHV DQG
Qumran texts the term aforementioned designates David respectively, as well as the date and mode of
the physical appearance of living beings and objects fashioning of the scroll 11QPsa as a biblical and/or
(e.g. War Scroll and Sabbath Songs). Two terms liturgical compilation.
with a general meaning, UF and WQNW, designate
the blueprint and pattern of the sanctuary in Ezekiel
(43:1012). The early Jewish authors also proceed GEORGE
B ROOKE
implicitly. On the one hand they mention a writ- University of Manchester, United Kingdom
ing when David transmits the divine design (1 Chr The
Scrolls
and
Biblical
Traditions
28:1112) and when God consoles Zion in Isaiah This introductory overview of the 2010 IOQS
(49:16). On the other hand they refer to stages of theme will offer a survey of key issues concern-
the building process: the order (Ark of Noah, Tab- ing the Jewish scriptures that have been brought
ernacle, Ezekiel, Temple Scroll), the gathering of into focus by the discoveries from Qumran and
the components (Tabernacle, Temple of Solomon), elsewhere in the Judean Desert. After brief con-
the act of construction (Tabernacle, Temple of Solo- sideration of terminological issues, there will be
mon), the installation (Tabernacle) or the report on some discussion of the models that scholars have
the visit (Ezekiel, Aramaic New Jerusalem). The au- proposed in the light of the Qumran data for how
WKRUVRIWKH4XPUDQWH[WVUHQHGWKHSURFHGXUHVRI the scriptures and scriptural traditions were trans-
the Tanakh. A third implicit way of referring to the mitted and appropriated in the late Second Temple
concepts mentioned above consists of focusing on period. Overall the purpose of the presentation is to
striking characteristics of the construction concerned underline afresh the symbiotic relationship of text
(Jeremiah, Enoch, Tobith). and interpretation that the scrolls have revealed.
Particular attention will be paid to the pluralism
of the scriptural data and the variety of genres in
  which traditions were transmitted. A concluding
University of Haifa, Israel VHFWLRQZLOOFRQVLGHUEULH\WKHSRVVLEOHGLUHFWLRQV
Jubilees
and
the
Qumran
Psalter for further research.
In a short article bearing the above title, Patrick
Skehan (1975) discussed the quotation of Jub 2:2
130

 

 

detail. This paper takes one well-known sectarian
University of Bristol, United Kingdom
label, The Seekers of Smooth Things, which has

often been associated with the text of Isaiah 30, and
and
the
Qumran
Scrolls attempts to provide a plausible history of the so-
This paper addresses the question of late Second briquet, examining evidence from within the scrolls
Temple scripture in light of two crucial but appar- attesting to its development from contextualised
ently contradictory pieces of evidence: CA 1.3743 scriptural typology to discrete element of sectarian
and the Qumran Scrolls. Drawing on various sourc- WHUPLQRORJ\7KHVSHFLFGHYHORSPHQWDQGHPSOR\-
es, especially the Scrolls, many argue that there was ment of this term is ultimately shown to represent
QR [HG FDQRQ LQ ODWH 6HFRQG 7HPSOH WLPHV HJ the culmination of a structural, theological and ex-
S. Talmon and E. Ulrich). This is suggested by the egetical process which is itself fundamentally rooted
preservation of books from the so-called Apocrypha in scripture.
and Pseudepigrapha at Qumran, as well as previ-
ously unknown Rewritten Bible and Parabiblical
compositions, particularly given the employment of 
several such works in exegesis (e.g. 4QApocJoshuab Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
in 4QTestimonia). However, while AJ 112 might 
 
RQ WKH IDFH RI LW FRQUP WKLV UHFRQVWUXFWLRQ 6WHYH 
Mason maintains that Josephus in CA 1.3743 fa- Accounts:
Some
Inner-Textual
Considerations
tally undermines it by insisting Jews had long pos- In a recently published contribution devoted to
sessed a twenty-two book canon (Josephus and his Greek variant literary editions of the Hebrew Bible,
Twenty-Two Book Canon in McDonald & Sanders I tentatively suggested that the Genesis Apocryphon
(eds), The Canon Debate [2002], 11027). Cau- (1QapGen ar), too, might be taken into consideration
tion is also required, therefore, with other late Sec- as a variant literary edition to the book of Genesis.
RQG7HPSOHOLWHUDWXUHRIWHQXQGHUVWRRGWRUHHFWDQ The present paper intends to further explore whether
open scripture, including the Scrolls. In other words, WKHUHDUHVXIFLHQWLQQHUWH[WXDOJURXQGVWRDWWULEXWH
given the opportunity, the authors would probably this text to the continuum of dynamically rewrit-
have asserted the opposite, like Josephus. Thus, ing Scripture during Second Temple times. More
Mason presents a powerful case for a late Second particularly, attention will be paid to text-internal
Temple canon. There are, nonetheless, weaknesses similarities with the Books of Chronicles vis--vis
in his reconstruction (e.g. the fallacy of the irrefut- Samuel-Kings, with the harmonising approach of the
ability argument regarding Josephus assertions). In- Samaritan Pentateuch, and with the retellings of the
deed, by critically combining evidence in Josephus, patriarchal accounts in the Book of Jubilees and in
the Scrolls, and elsewhere, this paper concludes that the text(s) formerly known as the Reworked Penta-
late Second Temple Jews envisaged both a long-past teuch. Taking the Aramaic portions of the Hebrew
scriptural era and that new scriptures from that era Bible as a point of reference, this paper will also re-
might occasionally be (re)discovered. HFWXSRQWKHXVHIXOQHVVRIWKHFULWHULRQRIODQJXDJH
in the discussion of the authoritativeness and scrip-
tural status of a text, in order to demonstrate that the
   Genesis Apocryphon should not be discarded as a
University of Bristol, United Kingdom variant literary edition merely because it is com-
From
Scriptural
Text
to
Sectarian
Terminology:
posed in Aramaic. Quite to the contrary, it will be ul-
 timately suggested that, from a text-internal point of
7KHDSSDUHQWLQXHQFHRIELEOLFDOWUDGLWLRQVDQGW\- view, there are good reasons to consider the Genesis
pologies upon the forms of the various sobriquets to Apocryphon a variant crystallisation of the abstract
be found in the sectarian Qumran Dead Sea Scrolls entity commonly referred to as the scriptural text.
has long been noted. However, the manner in which
these sobriquets might be said to have grown out of
the biblical traditions upon which they are thought to
EHGHSHQGHQWKDV\HWWREHGHPRQVWUDWHGLQVXIFLHQW

IOQS
Abstracts
131

    


University of Haifa, Israel United Bible Societies, Spain
Pseudo-Ezekiel
and
the
Apocryphon
of
Jeremiah
 
in
Perspective 
Nearly a decade elapsed since the publication of the
two Qumranic works Pseudo-Ezekiel and the Apocry- In previous studies, covering Books 1 and 2 of the
phon of Jeremiah. Previously unknown, they opened Psalms, some 70 short sequences that appear in a
new perspectives on many aspects of the Qumranic more or less identical form in MT and in Hodayot
as well as non-Qumranic Pseudepigraphic literature. mss. were analysed for any light they might cast on
%XWWKHLUUVWIXOOSXEOLFDWLRQLQ'-'OHIWVXUSULV- the textual development of passages from the Psalter
ingly little impact on the research. The paper will (OTS 55 [2007], 55, 79108). The present work ex-
survey some of the major ideas expressed by the two tends that study to another around 40 passages from
compositions, such as Ezek 37 as a prophecy about Books 3 and 4, and is based, as before, primarily on
the resurrection of the righteous, and time-curtailing the listing by Jean Carmignac and a text-critical study
as a central facet of the apocalyptic expectation. As by Preben Wernberg-Mller, although also takes into
for the Apocryphon of Jeremiah, it will be shown account a large number of more recent editions and
that recent attempts to see in 4Q390 a fragment of a studies of the Hodayot.
work unrelated to the Apocryphon disregard impor-
tant evidence to the contrary. The lecture will also
take up the links of the Apocryphon with the Damas- 2
cus Document and the Enochic Animal Apocalypse University of Gttingen, Germany
and spell out the implications of this connection. Reading
the
Songs
of
the
Sabbath
Sacrifice:


A
New
Approach
Hymns and blessings of angelic choires, chariot
 
  thrones and debirim, cherubim and ophanim: These
Evangelical Lutheran University College, Oslo are only a few of the topics used by the Songs of the
A
Variant
Literary
Edition
of

6DEEDWK6DFULFHWRFRORXUIXOO\GHVFULEHWKHFHOHV-
 tial sphere. It is here, that God, the king, is enthroned
1QSamuel, found in Cave 1 by de Vaux in 1949, surrounded by his entourage and enjoying his serv-
was published in DJD 1. Barthlemy noted that ants praise. Apart from these rather general expres-
this scroll did not contain 2 Sam 24, and suggested sions it has always been hard to pinpoint the concrete
that the scribe could have attached this chapter to content and purpose of the texts which undoubtedly
a scroll of Kings. A hitherto unknown fragment of belong to the most unconventional scriptures found
1QSamuel has now surfaced in The Schyen Col- at the Dead Sea. Presenting some results from my
lection (2 Sam 20:2224). The presence of this frag- PhD project, I would like to shine a light on selected
ment enables a new reconstruction of this Samuel texts in order to show my proposal on understanding
scroll, which preserved remnants of chs. 20, 21, and the Sabbath songs. I will demonstrate that one of the
23. This scroll neither contained the psalm of ch. 22 key purposes of the Songs is to describe the erection
(=Ps 18) nor ch. 24, and it preserved a longer text of a sanctuary for God, the king. The sanctuary is
of chs. 2021. The list of Davids warriors in 2 Sam built by an alliance consisting of the blessings and
23:2439 may in this scroll have been added to the psalms of the angelic priest on the one hand and the
OLVWRIKLVRIFLDOVLQ46DPXHOLVZULWWHQ earthly praying men on the other. Furthermore I will
in a late Herodian script from the mid-1st century discuss how the biblical background for this concept
AD. Nevertheless, it seems to preserve an early liter- DQG IRU WKH FODVVLFDWLRQ RI WKH 6RQJV DV 6DEEDWK
ary recension of 2 Samuel, from the stage before the Songs can be found in the revelation at the Sinai,
Davidic Psalm 18 was editorially added to the books more precisely the revelation of the building plan of
of Samuel. As for the story of the census (ch. 24), it the sanctuary and its cult starting on the seventh day
could have been located earlier in the book, but was (Exod 2440).
more likely not included in this recension.
132

 

ESTI
E SHEL
thoritative status of Isaiah at Qumran, and use key
Bar Ilan University, Israel
passages from Isaiah to underscore faithfulness to
New
Biblical
Fragments
from

the Covenant, the yahad as a separate and righteous
the
Schyen
Collection people, and eschatological themes.

HARRY
F OX
   University of Toronto, Canada
University of Oregon, USA Sectarian
Names
The
Use
of
Scripture
in
Prayers
at
Qumran
and

One of the unsolved mysteries of Second Temple
in
the
New
Testament Judaism is the name of the third sect mentioned by
One of the most prominent literary features of Josephus. Whereas both Pharisees and the Saddu-
Jewish prayers in the Second Temple period and cees are mentioned in the sources such as Mishnah
those at Qumran in particular is the abundant use and the New Testament, the Essenes are not. This
of language, images, and motifs from authoritative latter group is nonetheless attested to by Pliny and
texts. Although scholars have long recognized the Philo. Related to this problem is the name of the sect
phenomenon sometimes described as a mosaic or at Qumran. What did they call themselves and what
anthological style in recent years there has been did others call them? In this paper these two prob-
growing appreciation of the diversity and creativity lems are revisited from a fresh perspective. Mishnah
of this scripturalization of prayer, and attempts to Taanit 1:4, 7 and Tosefta Taanit 1:3 mention a
FODVVLI\ YDULRXV DVSHFWV RI WKLV VFULSWXUDO LQXHQFH group of ultra-pious individuals, yehidim, who fast
on prayer have become more sophisticated, for ex- in advance of the entire population if rainfall has not
ample distinguishing use of scriptural wording, for- occurred by the 17th of the month of Marheshvan.
mal patterns, or more general imagery, style, and Albeck in his commentary called them sages and
interpretive tradition; whether such use is deliberate dignitaries. It seems to me to make good sense and
or unconscious; and whether the goal is emulation applying Occams razor to identify these yehidim
or interpretive (e.g., Schuller 1986; Newman 1999; with the sectarians at Qumran, whose assembly was
Chazon 2006; Hughes 2006; Langer 2007). Build- called the Yahad and whose members it is proposed
ing on such earlier studies, this paper will catalog were called individually yehidim. This proposal is
the use of scripture in prayers among the Dead Sea supported by the isoform yahid found for Yahad in
Scrolls in terms of the selection and types of scrip- the so-called Damascus Covenant from the Cairo
tural passages drawn upon, the techniques of adapta- geniza. It would make good sense that dwellers in
tion, and the interpretative traditions represented. In the desert needing at least one good rainfall to col-
comparison with early Christian and rabbinic prayer, OHFWZDWHUWREHVWRUHGLQFLVWHUQVZRXOGEHWKHUVW
the paper will evaluate whether these features show to fast and pray for rain as they would be the most
HYLGHQFHRIJURXSVSHFLFSDWWHUQVDQGFRQFHUQV dependent on it. From this hypothesis we move on to
a discussion of the Essenes.

  
Trinity Western University, Canada  Y  
The
Interpretation
of
Isaiah
at
Qumran Pzmny Pter Catholic University, Hungary
This paper deals with the interpretation of Isaiah at 
Qumran. As expected, the six pesharim on Isaiah The text of Psalm 91 was preserved in the fragmen-
(3Q4, 4Q161, 4Q162, 4Q163, 4Q164, 4Q165) will tary text 11Q11 together with three nonbiblical com-
feature prominently. But passages from several other positions. Premodern interpreters read Psalm 91 as
works that interpret Isaiah will also be featured, in- an apotropaic hymn believed to possess antidemonic
cluding the Damascus Document, the Community powers (established by M. Henze). The psalms
Rule (1QS), 4QFlorilegium (4Q174), 4QMiscellane- antidemonic force is implied in Luke 4:1011 (par
ous Rules (4Q265), and 11QMelchizedek (11Q13). Matt 4:6). The four compositions in 11Q11 were
It will be shown how these works indicate the au- LGHQWLHG E\ ( 3XHFK DV WKH IRXU VRQJV RI 'DYLG

IOQS
Abstracts
133

for the demon-possessed, recorded in a catalogue ary in Jerusalem as a public space of worship. In the
of Davids compositions in a Qumran Psalms scroll present paper I will attempt to reappraise the ques-
(11QPsAp/a =11Q5 col. 27.410). The list in 11Q5 tion of the probability of separation from the Temple
has clear references to a 364 day liturgical calendar cult approaching it from a socio-psychological per-
when giving the numbers of the various types of the spective. The last two decades attest to the growing
Davidic poems. The paper aims to look at Psalm 91 importance of sociological approaches to Qumran
in 11Q11 in its compositional framework with the studies. Among these, a particular focus is on the
noncanonical pieces, and the calendrical and liturgi- issue of sectarianism (e.g. Chalcraft 2007, Regev
cal setting of 11Q11 in the background of Qumran 2007) and group identity (e.g. Jokiranta 2005, 2009,
liturgical works. Newsom 2004). In the proposed paper, I intend to
probe yet another theory the theory of Cognitive
'LVVRQDQFH UVW GHYHORSHG E\ /HRQ )HVWLQJHU LQ
GREGOR
G EIGER his two books When Prophecy Fails (1956) and A
Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Israel Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (1957). This theory
Qumran
Language
as
Reflected
in
Biblical
Texts has already been employed in the study of religions,
The Hebrew Bible is written in a language slightly albeit in a limited area concerned with millenarian
different from that used by the scribes of the Dead movements. In my paper I will focus on the impli-
Sea Scrolls, but their language has left traces in the cations of the theory for our understanding of the
manuscripts. However, only a smaller part of the G\QDPLFV RI VRFLDO FRQLFWV DQG JURXS IRUPDWLRQV
differences between the Massoretic Text and the with reference to Qumran.
versions of the scrolls is caused by language differ-
ences. The paper aims to give criteria as to when a
given difference may be considered as to have been  

caused by the language of the scribe. In the second University of Haifa, Israel
part some texts are examined regarding such differ- 

ences. I have chosen some texts which are not strictly the
Visions
of
Amram
biblical (massoretic), the biblical passages or quota- The composition the Visions of Amram (4Q543
tions found in: 11QPsa, 4QTestimonia, 1QpHab, and 548) is unique in that it straddles two categories:
11QT. while it is written in Aramaic and deals with patriar-
FKDOJXUHVLWDOVRFRQWDLQVWKHPHVFRQFHUQLQJ0R-
ses and the Exodus, which are mostly treated by the
 
 Reworked Bible texts written in Hebrew. In its con-
University of Birmingham, United Kingdom tent and style, the composition belongs to the genre
Exploring
Cognitive
Dissonance
at
Qumran of the Testaments. The Aramaic Testaments found
For nearly half a century following the discovery at Qumran are characterized by their preoccupation
of the Dead Sea Scrolls, scholars maintained the with the priestly line of Levi. Since Amrams son
view that the group that produced and deposited the Moses is also a scion of this priestly lineage, his life
Scrolls had broken away from the Temple in Jerusa- and the story of the Exodus are properly placed with
OHP5HFHQWO\KRZHYHUWKLVYLHZFDPHXQGHUUH an Aramaic Testament dealing with Levis offspring.
The most sustained argument against this view has In this paper, I will suggest new readings and inter-
been advanced by Martin Goodman in his article pretations for 4 passages (4Q546 frags. 810, 4Q547
Religious Variety and the Temple in the Late Sec- frg. 9), in purpose to examine Moses roles and name
ond Temple Period (2009). Goodman believes that it as described in the visions revealed to his father Am-
was unthinkable for any Jew of that time to abandon ram. I also will clarify the biblical passages, which
WKHVDFULFLDOFXOWDVLWZDVWKHPDLQIRUPRIZRU- are reworked in these fragments. No previous at-
ship, authorized by the Scriptures, and also a marker tempt has been made to examine these issues in light
of Jewish identity. He concludes that although there of the fragmentary texts under discussion. From the
were many religious groups in the Second Temple SUHVHQWQGLQJVLWDSSHDUVWKDWWKHJXUHRI0RVHV
period with considerable differences in their reli- was shaped according to two principles: (a) his role
gious agendas, they all continued to share the sanctu- as the redeemer of the people in bringing them out of
134

 

Egypt; and (b) his role as the anointer of Aaron and holy space. However, this rationale is nowhere ex-
his sons to the eternal priesthood. It is possible that plicitly stated in the texts listed above. It seems more
the author of this text perceived Moses primary sig- likely that these authors are concerned not only about
QLFDQFHDVO\LQJLQKLVLQYROYHPHQWLQWKHHVWDEOLVK- SRVVLEOHGHOHPHQWRIWKHWHPSOHEXWIRUWKHGHVHFUD-
ment and consolidation of Aarons priestly lineage. tion of the human sanctuary of Israel. This paper ex-
amines priestly terminology used in the Scrolls and
concludes that for these authors the bodies of Israel
    * were a cultic sanctum, i.e., sanctuary, which could
Universit Catholique de lOuest, France EHGHOHGE\LOOLFLWVH[XDODFWLYLW\HYHQZKHQQRRQH
Why
Did
the
Community
of
Qumran
Keep
was entering the temple. This thesis is supported not
Different
Versions
of
the
Sacrifice
of
Isaac?
only from Pentateuchal traditions where the impu-
Many fragments of Qumran scrolls report the origi- rity of sex, both licit (Lev 15) and illicit (Lev 18 and
QDOVFHQHRIWKHVDFULFHRI,VDDFWROGLQ*HQ%XW  FDQGHOHWKHVDQFWXDU\ZLWKRXWFRQWDFWEXWDOVR
two scrolls (4Q225, 4Q226) present another version. by early Second Temple biblical texts, e.g. Ezra 9
7KHVWRU\RIWKHVDFULFHRI,VDDFGRHVQRWVHHPWR (desecration of holy seed) and Mal 2 where inter-
EHUDGLFDOO\FKDQJHG$EUDKDPWULHVWRVDFULFHKLV marriage desecrates the holiness of YHWH.
unique son, Isaac, as God wants but he stops the im-
molation. Then God celebrates the faithfulness of
Abraham. The change is in the preponderant role   
of evil during the scene. Why did the community University of Copenhagen, Denmark
RI 4XPUDQ NHHS WKLV QHZ YHUVLRQ RI WKH VDFULFH The
Literary
Constructions
of


of Isaac with the original version? The manuscripts the
Speaker
in
the
Hodayot
4Q225 and 4Q226 belong to a document named This presentation reconsiders the relationship be-
Pseudo-Jubilees by J. T. Milik. The text is close tween the leader-hymns and hymns of the communi-
to the book of Jubilees without being a copy. The ty in 1QHodayota. It tests an alternative strategy for
VDFULFHRI,VDDFLQ3VHXGR-XELOHHVPD\LOOXVWUDWH explaining the heterogeneous character of this col-
the role of evil in biblical history. The place of Ju- lection of hymns, namely, to see the speaking voice
bilees in Damascus Document (CD XV 22XVI 4) as a constant and unifying literary element rather
may contribute to explain this interpretation. The ex- than a representative of shifting social groups in the
ample shows more widely the transmission of a tra- community. Current explanations of the logic behind
dition from a biblical tradition towards the so-called the redaction of 1QHodayotaGRQRWWKURZVXIFLHQW-
non-biblical scrolls. O\OLJKWRQK\EULGFRPSRVLWLRQV UHFRJQLVHGUVWE\
Tanzer), merging features typical for each group of
hymns. The reason is perhaps that they emanate from
   
 the idea that the different groups of compositions not
Patten University, USA only originate in different milieus, but also continue
How
Does
Intermarriage
Defile
the
Sanctuary? to represent differing social entities leadership and
7KHQRWLRQWKDWLQWHUPDUULDJHGHOHVWKH6DQFWXDU\LV ordinary members within the community. Must
promoted in the book of Jubilees and in certain Dead this be the case? Within both leader- and community
Sea Scrolls, although nowhere in Scripture is this hymns, the agency of God towards the people of the
statement explicitly made. What are the Scriptural covenant is a dominant theme. The speaker can play
DQWHFHGHQWVRIWKLVSKUDVHDQGZKDWLVLWVVLJQLFDQFH two distinct roles in the agency hierarchy; he can be
LQWKH6FUROOV"'RRWKHUVLQVGHOHWKHVDQFWXDU\LQ the goal for Gods agency, but also someone who
the same way? This paper examines the intertwining FRQWULEXWHVWRLWVIXOOOPHQW7KHWZRUROHVDUHQRW
RIVH[XDOGHOHPHQWDQGWKHGHOHPHQWRIWKHVDQF- as one might think, restricted to either community or
tuary in several Second Temple texts, most notably, leader hymns, but are found together in both catego-
Jubilees, Aramaic Levi, the Temple Scroll, MMT, ries. This presenter suggests that, to the editors, the
and D. Scholars have largely assumed that the pol- voice of the so-called community hymns represented
lution caused by intermarriage to the sanctuary was an elitist group identity involving a responsibility for
caused by the physical entry of foreign spouses into maintaining the people of God in the covenant, and

IOQS
Abstracts
135

that they, through the leader hymns, reinterprets and // in which past saving events are recalled
accentuates this corporate elitist responsibility of the DQGUHHFWHGXSRQLQWHUPVRIWKHZLVGRPGRFWULQH
Dead Sea community. RIUHWULEXWLRQDQGQDODFHQWUDOVHFWLRQ'DWXQLW
LQZKLFKWKHKRSHRI=LRQLVUHDIUPHG7KHSVDOP
FRQWDLQV ERWK SURSKHWLF DQG SVDOPRGLF LQXHQFHV
PAUL
H EGER which have been integrated into its structure in such
University of Toronto, Canada a way as to highlight its meaning.
Halakhic
Disputes
between
Rabbis
and


Interpretation ALBERT
L.A.
H OGETERP
My purpose here is to compare, using the model of K.U.Leuven, Netherlands
Umberto Eco, the biblical exegesis embedded in the 

writings of the ancient rabbis with those embedded Document
and
Biblical
Tradition:


in the writings of the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. A
Study
in
Intertextuality
It is worth considering the respective theological This paper examines how the Damascus Document
systems of these groups for a reductive analysis of relates to positions of biblical traditions with regard
their legal and literary approaches, and guideline for to relations to Genitles and what this tells about the
the literary style of their writings. While both engage sectarian communitys world view. The Damascus
missing, vague and inconsistent scriptural com- Document comprises various injunctions which re-
mands, the primary approaches of the two groups to VWUDLQH[SHFWHGGHOHPHQWWKURXJKFRQWDFWZLWK*HQ-
such matters diverge considerably. Qumran adhered tiles (CD-A XI 1415 // 4QDf 5 i 9; CDA XII 8b11
to the precise wording or sensus literalis of the text, // 4QDb 9 iii 4, 4QDf 5 ii 34; 4QDd 8 ii 13 // 4QDe
believing that this best represents Gods very will 3 III 2021 // 4QDf 2 810), including refrainment
intentio auctoris (to use Umberto Ecos terms). The from bloodshed and violence against Gentiles for
plain meaning of the words were not to be altered riches or gain so as not to give cause to blasphemy
in any way for any reason. On the other hand, the (CDA XII 6b8a // 4QDa 9 i 1617, 4QDb 9 iii 13,
rabbis believed that their interpretations, the intentio 4QDf 5 i 21ii 2). The catalogue of transgressors in
lectoris, extending much beyond the simple mean- 4Q270 2 iii mentions the act of divulging the se-
ing of the text was indispensable. They claimed to cret of the people to the nations (4Q270 2 ii 1213).
know the intentio operis, the correct interpretation 4QDa 11 10 refers to nations in a context of repu-
of the text. This paper engaging much of the recent diation of those who despise the Mosaic law. Some
literature will show that the rabbinic strategy accom- references to Gentiles in the Damascus Document
plishes the aims of Ecos triangle more fully than the QGFORVHSDUDOOHOVLQELEOLFDOWUDGLWLRQVVXFKDVWKH
Qumran method does. commandment against making carved images (4QDd
8 ii 13 par.; cf. Exod 20:34), biblical phraseology
in Ps 107:40 and Job 12:24 parallel to 4QDa 11 10,
   and reference to the covenant of Abraham (CD-A
University of Haifa, Israel XII 11). This paper explores interpretive biblical
Structure
and
Allusion
in
the
Apostrophe
to
Zion
backgrounds with a view to differentiation of terms
a  for foreign people (\
ZJ/\ZJ, \PY, UJ) and evalu-
The Apostrophe to Zion (11QPsa XXII 115) is a DWHV WKH FRPSDUDWLYH VLJQLFDQFH RI WKH 'DPDVFXV
Second Temple psalm structured as an alphabetic Document among legal texts on the subject of rela-
acrostic and a tripartite structure at alphabetic units tions to Gentiles.
, ,  with each part enclosed by inclusio
has been observed. In this lecture it is proposed that
the psalm also displays a seven part concentric struc-
 
ture, comprising A//A1 an opening and closing in- Universitt Tbingen, Germany
vocation to praise at units //; an outer circle B// Temple
and
Purification
Rituals
B1units // in which a vision of the glorious ,QFDVHRIVFDOHGLVHDVHDQGJHQLWDOX[HV/HYDQG
future of Zion is recalled; an inner circle C//C1 units SUHVFULEHSXULFDWRU\ULWXDOVZKLFKFRQVLVWRIZD-
136

 

ter rituals sprinklings (Lev 14) and washings (Lev the history of Jewish law and early Jewish biblical
 RQWKHRQHKDQGDQGVDFULFHVRQWKHRWKHU interpretation. Scholarship on biblical interpretation,
&RUSVHGHOHPHQWDFFRUGLQJWR1XPLVUHPRYHG however, has focused almost exclusively on homi-
E\ VSULQNOLQJV ZLWKRXW VDFULFHV EHLQJ RIIHUHG ,Q letical exegesis. There has been little attempt to inte-
11QT partially different rulings are to be found. In grate the study of Jewish law in the Dead Sea Scrolls
FDVH RI VFDOH GLVHDVH D VDFULFH LV REOLJDWRU\ RQO\ with the exegetical basis in Scripture through which
on those wishing to enter the temple whereas to it was regularly formed. Moreover, legal exegesis
those who are in the towns of Israel only sprinklings in the Dead Sea Scrolls exists within a larger con-
seem to be mandatory. In the purity related texts of text. Examination of comparative evidence brings to
4FRUSVHGHOHPHQWDVZHOODVLPSXULW\FDXVHGE\ light the related and sometimes divergent exegetical
VFDOHGLVHDVHDQGJHQLWDOX[HVDUHULWXDOO\GHDOWZLWK techniques in wider segments of ancient Judaism.
in one and the same way that is with washings and My particular focus in this paper is the restriction
VSULQNOLQJV ZLWKRXW VDFULFHV +HUH WRR WKH SODFH on discussion of business on the Sabbath as articu-
where the rituals are performed seem to be the towns lated in the legal texts among the Dead Sea Scrolls
of Israel. However, the rituals require the ashes from (Damascus Document, 4QHalakha B) and related
the red cow which is produced in a temple related Second Temple (Jubilees) and rabbinic literature. In
rite outside the temple. On the basis of these obser- H[DPLQLQJWKHVHWH[WVP\DWWHQWLRQZLOOUVWEHGL-
vations conclusions regarding the understanding of rected to unpacking the legal issues at stake in each
purity in the DSS and the relationship to the temple passage and (when appropriate) identifying the na-
of the groups behind the 4Q-texts will be attempted. ture of the textual and literary relationship between
their overlapping legal content. I then turn to their
exegetical basis in Scripture. The formulation of
  each of these passages is exegetically linked to Isai-
University of Manchester, United Kingdom ah 58:13 (Isaiahs condemnation of pursuing ones
Qumran
Calendars
and
the
Creation:
A
New
affairs on the Sabbath). Comparative analysis of the
 Sabbath restrictions on discussion of business in the
,WLVNQRZQWKDWWKHUVWGD\RIWKH\HDULQWKHFDO- Dead Sea Scrolls and related Second Temple and
endars of the priestly courses is the 4th day of the rabbinic literature demonstrates a shared set of legal
ZHHNUHHFWLQJWKHFUHDWLRQRIWKHOXPLQDULHV7KH and exegetical concerns and similarly closely related
4th day of the week is also referred to in the introduc- DSSURDFKHVWRUHVROYLQJWKHVHGLIFXOWLHVDORQJVLGH
tory lines to the calendrical texts 4Q319 and 4Q320. critical differences.
In the fragmentary, esoteric text 4Q317 (4QcryptA
Lunisolar Calendar), the 4th day of the week and the
1st day of the week are the only days that appear to  
be mentioned. On both of these days, the moon is Methodist Theological School, USA
either full, or in conjunction with the sun. This paper Torah
and
Authority
in
the
Major
Sectarian

will suggest that the language and apparent calendri- Rules
Texts
from
Qumran
cal pattern suggest that the text is interested in these Hindy Najman charted an interesting and impor-
days of creation and, furthermore, that it represents tant course through the complicated issue of how
a different kind of calendar in the diverse calendrical we might understand claims for authority in Second
corpus from cave 4. Temple Judaism. The intent of Deuteronomy, she ar-
gues, was to engage in a type of Mosaic discourse
to re-present Sinai. The authority of the composi-
  WLRQOD\LQWKDWHQGHDYRUDQGVKHLGHQWLHVIRXUIHD-
University of Minnesota, USA tures of this Mosaic discourse. She then goes on
Scripture
and
Law
in
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls:

in a rather convincing manner to argue that Jubilees
The
Restriction
on
Discussion
of
Business
on

and the Temple Scroll possess all four of these ele-
the
Sabbath
in
a
Comparative
Context ments and analyzes the manner in which those two
The Dead Sea Scrolls represent a vast treasure trove compositions go about the task of claiming author-
for scholars interested in the comparative analysis of ity by re-presenting Sinai. Overlapping with this

IOQS
Abstracts
137

work is the volume of Sidnie White Crawford on ten hint to events in the history of the community
rewritten scripture that asks slightly different ques- which are taken as foretold in a biblical text. Other
tions of these same texts as well as additional ones interpretations are formulated in a way which can be
DVVKHLGHQWLHVDOHYLWLFDO(VVHQHWUDGLWLRQRIVFULS- understood as dealing with the present or the future
tural rewriting and analyzes their literary techniques. though several scholars are inclined to understand
This paper builds on those analyses by following the them also as referring to the past actually. But in
Mosaic discourse into the D and S manuscripts, 1QpHab there is at least one passage (III 26) which
with some reference to MMT. Within the remainder indirectly warns against negotiations with the Ro-
of the Qumran corpus, the manuscripts of the D and mans and thus must be taken as a political caution.
S collections contain the most references to the word Also 4Q252 II 47 refers to a certain political situa-
Torah. By concentrating on an analysis of the va- tion given in the Hasmonean era and probably even
riety of usages of this term in these compositions, argues against the forced judaization of Non-Jewish
we will examine the nature of the re-presentation people living in Palestine. Finally, 4Q175 2130 can
which characterizes the continuation of this Mosaic be understood at least as based on a political polemic
discourse in the sectarian compositions. We will ex- against Hyrcanus I. and not just as a later evaluation
amine evidence of consistency and continuity while of his and his sons deeds. Thus, the exegetes took
also identifying changes in the discourse which their ideology seriously that the biblical texts refer
emerge from sectarian compositions. to their own time and consequently used them also
to back up their concrete political opinions or daily
decisions.
 
Leiden University, The Netherlands
  

It is a largely debated question to which organization University of Vienna, Austria
the designation yahad, mainly to be found in 1QS, The
Text(s)
of
the
Book
of
Jeremiah
in


might refer. See, most recently, the works by Alison Light
of
its
Quotations
and
Allusions


6FKRHOG From Qumran to the Yahad (2009), and in
the
Qumran
Library
John J. Collins, Beyond the Qumran Community A new research project at the University of Vienna
(2010), as well as the contributions to be found in entitled the The Meaning of Ancient Jewish Quo-
DSD 16.3 (2009). Does it signify the Qumran com- tations and Allusions for the Textual History of the
munity or movement at large, or not? How does it Hebrew Bible analyzes the textual history of the
relate to the camps? And what about the semantics Hebrew Bible before the destruction of the Jerusa-
of the term? In this paper it will be proposed to ap- lem Temple in 70 C.E. in light of quotations of and
proach the issue of yahad, and related terms (coun- allusions to passages of the Hebrew Bible in Second
cil, the many), from the perspective of political Temple Jewish literature. The quotations and allu-
organizations as described in non-Qumran sources, VLRQV DUH LGHQWLHG E\ ZD\ RI H[LVWLQJ OLVWV DQG ,7
both Jewish and Greek. As to the semantics, it will technology (Accordance). In this lecture, I will pres-
be argued that the term yahad (together) is likely ent our work based on the example of the Book of Jer-
to be understood as conveying the notion of sitting emiah. The Book of Jeremiah was quoted or alluded
together (compare, e.g., 11QT 57:13). to about 150 times in the literature preserved by the
Qumran library. About twenty of these references
quote or allude to pluses found in the (proto)maso-

  retic version of Jeremiah. This evidence is important
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Germany for the textual history of the Book of Jeremiah in
Exegesis
and
Politics
at
Qumran general, and the dating of its protomasoretic version
It is widely accepted that (not only) in Qumran bibli- in particular. That protomasoretic plusses are quoted
cal and especially prophetical texts were interpreted and alluded to in the Book of Ben Sira, in Zech 14,
as relating the time of the Qumranic authors which and in the so-called Prophecy of Joshua provides a
deemed themselves as living in the last days. Thus, terminus ante quem for protoMT-Jeremiah in the 3d
especially in the Pesharim, these interpretations of- c. B.C.E. External evidence corroborates hence the
138

 

dating of protoMT-Jeremiah by Bogaert (cf., e.g., tion of the allustions to Lev 19:1718 in Jubilees.
La datation per souscription dans les rdactions The analysis reveals that only two segments of the
courte (LXX) et longue du livre de Jrmie, in law are alluded to un Jubilees: You shall not hate
Lapport de la Septante aux etudes sur lantiquit: your kinsfolk in your heart (Lev 19:17a) and Love
acts du colloque de Strasbourg, 89 novembre 2002 your fellow as yourself (Lev 19:18b). The author
[eds. J. Joosten and P. Le Moigne; LD 203; Paris: RI -XELOHHV XQGHUVWDQGV WKH UVW RUGLQDQFH WR UHIHU
Cerf, 2005], 13759.) and argues strongly against WR LQWHQWV VSHFLFDOO\ WKH LQWHQWLRQ WR PXUGHU FI
dates in the 2d c. B.C.E. (cf., e.g., A. Schenker, La Jub 35:20; 36:4, 8; 39:24), whereas he interprets the
rdaction longue du livre de Jrmie doit-elle tre statement Love your fellow as yourself as realiza-
date au temps des premiers Hasmonens?, ETL 70 tion, that is, peaceful coexistence (e.g., Jub 7:20, 26;
[1994]: 28193). 20:2; 37:4). This exegesis is consistent throughout
-XELOHHVDVDWWHVWHGE\WKHXVDJHRI[HGWHUPVDQG
idioms in depicting the observance/violation of the
MICHAEL
L ESLEY law across various literary units. The coherence in
Harvard University, USA theme and language thus also demonstrates the unity
 of the composition and suggests that these units at
It has long been acknowledged that the Qumran least were penned by a single author.
scroll 4Q184 (4QWiles) describes a character simi-
lar to the ishah zarah in Proverbs, and that the text
often quotes Proverbs. Only very recently has this BILL
LOADER
text been viewed as an interpretation of the biblical Murdoch University, Australia
text. This paper will explore more deeply the nature Sex
and
Conflict
Development


of this interpretation, arguing that it is a form of re- in
Qumran
Literature
written Bible, connecting itself to the biblical text In the course of my research recently published as
DQG PDNLQJ LW GLIFXOW WR UHDG WKH ELEOLFDO YHUVLRQ the Dead Sea Scrolls on Sexuality (Grand Rapids:
without seeing it through the lens of the interpreta- Eerdmans, 2009) I was confronted a number of times
tion. The Qumran interpretation of the Ishah Zarah by the issue of sequence, in particular with regard
of Proverbs not only alters the notion of what wis- WR FRQLFW EHWZHHQ DXWKRUV RI VHFWDULDQ GRFXPHQWV
dom can and cannot do, but it transforms the Strange and others over interpretation. A number of the main
Woman of Proverbs from a human woman into a FRQLFWVRYHUELEOLFDOLQWHUSUHWDWLRQUHODWHGWRLVVXHV
demonic character. This change has implications for of sexuality. In this paper I will revisit those issues,
the understanding of gender at Qumran and for their looking in particular at the Temple Scroll, 4QMMT,
perspective on relationship between the supernatural the Damascus Document, the so-called Wiles of the
and the human. Wicked Woman, the Community Rule, the Thanks-
giving Hymns, and a number of the Pesharim. Some
UHHFWFRQLFWDWWKHOHYHORIPDOLJQLQJWKHRSSRV-
  LQJJURXSFRPPRQO\DWDVWDJHZKHUHFRQLFWRYHU
University of Haifa, Israel issues has become ad hominem FRQLFW EHWZHHQ
Love
Your
Fellow
As
Yourself:

groups and authorities, sometimes with little or no
 
UHIHUHQFHWRWKHLVVXHVWKDWFDXVHGWKHFRQLFWLQWKH
in
the
Book
of
Jubilees UVW SODFH 2WKHUV FRQWDLQ WKLV WR VRPH GHJUHH EXW
It has long been noted that the commandment Love with a much greater focus on issues about which
your fellow as yourself (Lev 19:18) occurs in vari- there is difference. The paper will not attempt to cre-
ous testamentary texts in Jubilees (e.g., 7:20; 20:2; ate a lineal sequence as though all writings consid-
   SRVVHVVLQJ D VLJQLFDQW SODFH ZLWKLQ ered can be treated as belonging to a single span of
the composition. Up until now, however, no system- development, let alone a single group, but will raise
atic examination of these passages has been con- LVVXHVSRVHGE\WKHQDWXUHRIWKHFRQLFWXDOPDWHULDO
ducted, leaving the interpretation of Lev 19:1718 about the authors and their communities and their
in /Jubilees /undetermined, This paper addresses this likely settings.
GHFLHQF\E\XQGHUWDNLQJDPHWKRGRORJLFDOH[SORUD-

IOQS
Abstracts
139

  


of the Hebrew Bible: as Eugene Ulrich pointed out
McMaster University, USA
[t]he more than two hundred biblical manuscripts
The
Rise
of
Biblical
Commentary
in

GLVFRYHUHGLQWKH-XGDHDQ'HVHUWIW\\HDUVDJRKDYH
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls
and
Late
Second
Temple
revolutionized our understanding of the Bible and the
Judaism:
How
and
Why? text of the Scriptures in antiquity. This paper will
In recent years, a linear transition from pre-sec- analyze a few cases taken from the Qumran evidence
tarian, rewritten Bible type of scriptural exegesis to from the point of view of the so-called lower criti-
a more formalized, sectarian, lemma plus discrete cism of the biblical text and will try to demonstrate
commentary style has been suggested. This is ar- how the Dead Sea manuscripts call our attention to
gued most recently by Sidnie White Crawford, who a re-appraisal of philology as an inescapable means
considers the transition to have occurred around the for the determination of the text of the Bible.
turn of the Common Era. Concurrently, Markus
Bockmuehl has cited the need to explore further the
SRVVLEOH SUHGHFHVVRUV DQG VSHFLF KLVWRULFDO VLWXD- cCREADY
tion that gave rise to the biblical commentary style University of Calgary, Canada
of exegesis, most well-known to scholars of ancient Crossing
Boundaries
and
Dwelling:
Inherited

Judaism from the Qumran pesharim. This paper will Perspectives
for
the
Qumran
Community
seek to advance discussion around these two, related Thomas A. Tweed in Crossing and Dwelling. A
WRSLFV)LUVW,ZLOOVXUYH\EULH\WKHFXUUHQWVWDWHRI Theory of Religion suggests that a theoretical cri-
debate surrounding a transition to lemmatized exe- tique of religions productively includes understand-
gesis, and the previously proposed precursors to such LQJ UHOLJLRQV DV RUJDQLFFXOWXUDO RZV WKDW FURVV
an exegetical strategy (e.g., Homeric or other Greek boundaries and make homes (2006, 54). By fram-
commentary traditions, Mesopotamian or Egyptian ing religions as crossing boundaries and dwelling
dream interpretation, etc.). Second, I will seek to Tweed proposes that such a research strategy pro-
problematize the notion of a transition at Qumran vides insight into three thematic features of religion:
through a discussion of select texts, and then consid- movement, relationships and position. This strat-
er other, genre-related reasons for pesher exegesis at egy of investigation highlights sacrospace that
Qumran. Though focusing on the pesharim and other LV KRZ UHOLJLRQV UHSUHVHQW XLGLW\ DFURVV WLPH DQG
Qumran texts (e.g., 4Q252), I will draw into my dis- space while leaving traces, transforming people, and
cussion potentially relevant texts from other corpora, making places (Tweed, 6162). This paper, with par-
such as Philos Questions and Answers on Genesis WLFXODU DQG VSHFLF IRFXV RQ WKH Community Rule,
and Exodus, and the Gospel of Matthews so-called as well as selected portions of other Qumran texts,
IXOOOPHQWTXRWDWLRQV8OWLPDWHO\,KRSHWRPDNHD will addresses how the Qumran scrolls demonstrate
contribution toward answering the questions of how spatial awareness that is drawn from inherited tex-
and why lemmatized exegesis came into prominence tual authorities (biblical and otherwise). This place
around the turn of the Common Era. based perspective invited Qumranites to construct
spatial and imagined crossing and dwelling that
LQXHQFHGWKHLUUHOLJLRXVYLHZVDQGSUDFWLFHV:RUN-
 ing from place studies research in humanistic geog-
Universit di Torino, Italy raphy (e.g. Yi-Fu Tuan, Edward Relph, Robert Sack,
  Jeff Malpas, David Seamon, Allan Pred, Nigel Thrift,
Qumran
Evidence
on
Biblical
Lower
Criticism Doreen Massey, and Tim Cresswell) the paper will
In Biblical studies we are often faced with a num- propose that place research is a useful directive for
EHURIVWDWHPHQWVVRPHRIWKHPLQXHQWLDODQGDX- understanding certain interpretative perspectives in
thoritative, against the need of a sound and clear-cut turn of the common era Judaism with particular ref-
philological approach to the text of the Bible. It is erence to movement, relationships and position as
QRWE\FKDQFHWKDWRQO\LQWKLVHOGLWLVWREHIRXQG demonstrated in selected Qumran scrolls.
a distinction between a lower and a higher criti-
cism. The Dead Sea Discoveries have been a turning
point in our comprehension of the making of the text
140

 

   
ers combined different genres or rather, different
University of Toronto, Canada
modes of discourse in their scriptural interpreta-

 tion, venturing out into areas such as wisdom and
Developments
in
Biblical
Terminology apocalypticism that are not so easily associated the
:KHQ$DURQ VHHV 0LULDP DILFWHG ZLWK OHSURV\ LQ reception of Leviticus. The focus will be on the ways
Num 12:12 he prays that she not be like a macerated in which the book of Leviticus shaped the life and
fetus emerging from its mothers uterus (rehem). The VHOIXQGHUVWDQGLQJ RI WKH FRPPXQLWLHV UHHFWHG
biblical terminology for uterus remains normative. in the texts and contributed towards creating their
In Second Temple times there was a great polemic unique culture of elitist ritual purity with clearly de-
concerning the interpretation of Num 19:13, 16 con- QHGERXQGDULHVWRZDUGWKHRXWVLGHZRUOG
cerning the impurity associated with dead bodies.
Evidence of this polemic both in terms of content
and in language utilized, exists in the Temple Scroll     
(vol. 1, p. 259) and in later rabbinic sources where Tel-Aviv University, Israel
a woman carrying a dead fetus is likened to a grave 

(qever). While Num 19:13 concerns touching/con- the
Tradition
Concerning
the
Renewal
of


tact with any human corpse, Num 19:16 relates to 

touching/contact with their remains, a human bone The text of 4Q470 is small and fragmented. Its three
RU FRUSVH LQ DQ RSHQ HOG RU RQH ZKR KDV FRQWDFW fragments, of unknown composition, deal with
with a grave. Although the Bible mentions fetuses the eschatological message delivered by the angel
WKDWGLHLQXWHURQRVSHFLFOHJLVODWLRQSHUWDLQV7KH Michael to King Zedekiah concerning the renewal
Temple Scroll, however, relates to such a woman as through him of the eschatological covenant to per-
a walking grave with the ability to cause impurity to form (and cause others to perform) the Law (frg 1).
houses she enters and to utensils she touches. In con- This will occur when Israel will call for help from
tradistinction, rabbinic texts limit her ritual impurity their troubles; at that point God, who saved Israel
by applying a concept of internal or swallowed im- during the Exodus, will save them and renew the
purity, which is incapable of transmitting impurity to Sinai covenant with them (frg. 3). This text, particu-
objects or people until expelled. These texts expand larly its third fragment, which opens with an histori-
the usage of the term qever to a womans uterus but cal survey of the covenantal relations between God
only if there is contact with the dead fetus from an and Israel, seems to refer to the tradition of renewal
external source such as a midwife. This paper shall of this covenant, especially as it appears in the late
trace the evolution of the terminology and the diver- biblical, apocryphal, and some Qumranic texts.
gence of normative practice among the Qumranites The editors of 4Q470 (Eric Larson, Lawrence
and Rabbinites. Schiffman and John Strugnell), rightly dealt with the
issue of the choice of King Zedekiah for the renewal
of the eschatological covenant and the appointment
  of the angel Michael to apprise him of this message.
University of Toronto, Canada But they left open the issue hinted in frg 3 concern-


ing the historical tradition of the covenantal rela-
in
Writings
from
Qumran tions between God and Israel. Indeed, the absence
There are more than twenty non-scriptural works of continuation of such a survey in 4Q470, prevents
found at Qumran that contain quotes from Leviti- us from saying with certainty anything about the
cus, and it comes as no surprise that in the legal continuation of this text and its genre. Nevertheless,
WH[WVIRXQGDW4XPUDQWKHERRNRI/HYLWLFXVJXUHV those motifs from this tradition that are preserved in
prominently. But there are many Scrolls with quotes this text call for dealing with it. Hence, despite the
from Leviticus that fall outside the legal genre, and IUDJPHQWHGQDWXUHRI4WKHFODULFDWLRQRIWKLV
even in legal texts, quotes and allusions of Leviti- tradition in the Second Temple literature may shed
cus are often used to bolster arguments that in fact light on the message of this text. This tradition ap-
fall outside legal discourse. This paper continues pears in Isa. 63:764; Ps 79; Ps 102:1421; Neh 9;
my exploration of the innovative ways Essene writ- 1 Bar 1:153:8; Pr Azar 524; Sir 44:1645:6; Jub

IOQS
Abstracts
141

1; 4QDibHam (4Q504, 4Q506); 4Q381 69; CD II tion ascribes to: Manasseh king of Judah, when
14III 20. I intend to exhibit the main motifs of this the King of Assyria imprisoned him (frg. 33, 8).
WUDGLWLRQLQDFRPSDUDWLYHWDEOHDQGEULH\H[SODLQ This prayer plausibly has some connection with
the development of this tradition in its historical the tradition of Manassehs prayer mentioned in
context. An important motif in 4Q470 is the renewal 2 Chr 33 but exactly how this connection should
of the covenant with Zedekiah to perform and to be seen has been dealt with in different ways. Wil-
cause the performance of all the law (1:4). This is a liam Schniedewind has claimed that the prayer on
central issue, of which the Qumran community was 4Q381 is a pre-exilic composition that the Chroni-
in controversy with the Pharisees, and later became cler used as a source, and Eileen Schuller, the editor
a focus of controversy between Pauline Christianity RI 4 KDV VWDWHG WKDW LW LV GLIFXOW WR VXJJHVW
and Judaism. Thus, even though the preserved con- that the psalm on 4Q381 is directly dependant on
tent of 4Q470 is not sectarian, we may suggest its WKH DFFRXQW RI &KURQLFOHV EXW HTXDOO\ GLIFXOW WR
relevance within the Qumran library. VXJJHVWWKHLQXHQFHJRLQJWKHRWKHUZD\DURXQG
This question deserves a fuller treatment in order to
establish the chronology between the texts and to
  further the understanding of how earlier traditions
University of London, United Kingdom were later used and interpreted. Through analysis



of the connecting details between the texts and tak-
and
the
Versions ing their particular characteristics into account, it
The 4QCommentary on Genesis (4Q252 frg. 6) rep- will be argued that the passage in Chronicles is the
resents a fascinating interpretation of Genesis 49:10 earlier text and has been used as a source by the
in combination with other texts (such as Jeremiah compiler(s) of the prayer in 4Q381.
33:17 and Isaiah 11:110). Study of three words in
the fragment ;E+, \OJU and ;\O+ shows that
the commentator capitalised in distinct semantic DOROTHY
M.
P ETERS
IRUPVRI*HQIRUPVZKLFKDUHUHHFWHGLQWKH Trinity Western University, Canada
MT, LXX and cognate versions. Looking forward to Hospitality
and
Violence
Towards


the treatment of Gen 49:10 by Aquila, Symmachus the
Outsider:
From
Torah
to
Qumran
and the later Targumim reveals variations on this In his brief but provocative essay, The Hatred
LQWHUSUHWLYHWKHPHVHHQIRUWKHUVWWLPHLQWKH4 Through the Love, David Flusser noted a sharp
text. While there is no call for claiming relations of dissonance between Josephus portrayal of the Es-
direct literary dependence between any of these in- senes as a group that loved other people to an ex-
terpretive texts, it can be argued that this manner of traordinary degree and the Qumran sectarians own
interpreting Gen 49:10 was traditional from at least internal documents expressing hatred toward the
the time of 4Q252. Despite interpretive variations, Sons of Darkness as a clear religious command-
key elements of this tradition can be seen to have en- PHQW,QVKRUWZKLOHQGLQJPRWLIVRIQRQYLR-
dured over a considerable period of time, in various lence in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the possibility
contexts. Indeed, assuming no literary dependence, RI SDFLVP DQG XQLYHUVDO ORYH )OXVVHU REVHUYHG
WKHVHFRPPRQDOLWLHVPD\UHHFWUDWKHUWKDQDWUDQV- that the Essenes secretly taught a concealed love
mitted interpretive tradition, an impressive consist- of hatred. Setting aside the obvious problems of
ency in approaches to the Hebrew text over several equating Josephus Essenes with the sectarians at
generations of ancient Jewish exegetes. Qumran, Flssers work is a useful starting point
from which to observe tensions within the Dead
Sea Scrolls concerning group attitudes and actions
   towards the outsider. For example, the ways that
University of Helsinki, Finland interpretative texts variously retell the stories of

the relationships between Israels ancestors and her
 neighbours may reveal a tension within the Dead
In the psalm collection Non-Canonical Psalms Sea Scrolls concerning the groups ideal present
B (4Q381) there is a prayer that the superscrip- and future relationships whether hospitable or
142

 


violent with selected designated outsiders. This
University of Pisa, Italy
paper furthers the conversation in two important
ways. First, interpreters in the Second Temple pe- Saul
and
the
Feast
of
Weeks:


riod who selected portions of the pre-Sinai Torah a
and
Biblical
Tradition
mainly Genesisas an ideological platform for ex- The presence of the term in 4QSama at 1 Sam
egesis were more likely to admit the possibility of LVLQWHUHVWLQJEXWGLIFXOW,QSURIHVVRU5RIp
friendly, albeit conditional, relationships between (Wave Breads for King Saul: 1 Sam 10:4 in 4QSama
Israel and the outsider than were interpreters se- and in the Septuagint, Meghillot 3(2005): 24550)
lecting portions of the Torah more explicitly associ- suggested that the word is a qumranic scribes gloss
ated with Moses such as Deuteronomy. Secondly, to connect this text with the Feast of Weeks. The
texts written in Aramaic betray a more consistently paper will look at text-critical issues (how the LXX
hospitable stance towards certain outsiders translates here and elsewhere; the problem of
than texts written in Hebrew. gender in MT of 10:3), as well as at Rabbinic litera-
ture with respect to Saul and the Feast of Weeks.



Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Gttingen,  


Germany University of North Carolina, USA
Traditions
in
Transmission:
Case
Studies
in
the
Whose
History?
The
Sources
for
Ex
Eventu

Material
Evidence
Found
in
the
Qumran
Scrolls Prophecies
at
Qumran
and
the
Authority
of

Thanks to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, Biblical
Books
scholars today are offered the unique chance to gain Several texts found among the Dead Sea Scrolls
more insight into the history of the formation and contain lengthy ex eventu prophecies. Most of these
growth not only of the Biblical scriptures, but in prophecies narrate histories similar to those found in
some cases also of the so-called sectarian texts. biblical books. For this reason, some have assumed
In the scrolls, it is in some cases possible to actu- that the ex eventu prophecies are dependent on bibli-
ally observe sort of a snapshot of the process of cal texts. In some cases this is undeniable. In other
transmission even by means of material evidence. cases, the situation is more complex. For example, in
But how does this process appear in the light of the 4QPseudo-Danielab ar, Noahs boat comes to rest on
different witnesses? This paper tries to approach Mt. Lubar, not Mt. Ararat. The Lubar tradition is not
WKH TXHVWLRQ IURP WKUHH DQJOHV UVW WKH HYLGHQFH found in Genesis, but it is found in the Book of Ju-
found in the Biblical manuscripts from Qumran bilees and the Genesis Apocryphon. In other words,
in comparison with the Masoretic Text (4QJudga; it may be that Pseudo-Daniels biblical history is
4QSama), second, a wider perspective from the actually derived from Jubilees or the Genesis Apoc-
so-called reworked Pentateuch texts (4Q364; ryphon. In this paper, I subject the histories narrated
44 DQGQDOO\WKLUGWKHHYLGHQFHRI by 4QPseudo-Danielab ar and the Apocryphon of
the sectarian manuscripts (1QS compared to the Jeremiah C to motif-historical analysis. I argue that
4QS material). It appears that the material evidence even in the late Hellenistic Period several sources
FDQQRWRQO\FRQUPWKHSRVWXODWHVRIFODVVLFDOOLW- of Jewish History competed with one another and
erary and redaction criticism in many respects. It that no single tradition claimed an authority that
even virtually proves it to be necessary, if not man- eclipsed all others.
datory, to pose the question of the growth of the
given ancient text, and thus to ask beyond its latest
form or version when trying to perceive it in all    
its theological depth. This holds true for Biblical as University of Denver, Canada
well as for sectarian material, for the Hebrew Bible Re-Placing
Space:
The
Wilderness
as

as well as Qumran. Heterotopia
in
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls
The textual and archaeological remains found near
Qumran illuminate a sect that had a close, yet am-
biguous, relationship to the desert, or wilderness

IOQS
Abstracts
143

(midbar). How exactly did its members interact functions of these two terms in the scrolls, both as
with this physical landscape? In what ways did they verbs and especially as nouns. My main argument is
conceptualize this space as sacred? This paper ex- that in spite of the frequent use of the of the formulas
plores how the desert space for the sectarians is best its pesher concerns and the pesher of the matter
understood as a heterotopia, what Michel Foucault is to present the interpretation of a prophetic vision
describes as no mans land and everymans land in a unique type of compositions found in Qumran,
simultaneously. Heterotopias are places of other- the noun pesher neither designates a genre nor is it
ness, of a mental or physical nature, and constitute used in the scrolls to indicate a composition. Had the
places over which several spaces can be juxtaposed author of Pesher Habakuk been asked to name his
DWWKHVDPHWLPH/LNHDVKLSRDWLQJRQWKHVHDWKH composition he would have probably titled it Mi-
heterotopia is space which is everywhere and no- drash. In the second part of my paper I will explore
where at the same time. Similarly, for the sectarians the various meanings of the verb DRSH and in light
the wilderness held a similar indeterminacy, and in of them will suggest a new explanation to the change
this very quality, lay its power. Most importantly, the of the opening statement of 1QS 5:1 from midrash
liminality of the Judean desert evoked a Sinai-like le-maskil in 4QSd 1:1 to This is the serekh to the
space with its revelatory potential. Yet this desert men of the Yahad in the cave 1 manuscript of the
space was not just symbolic, but constituted embod- Rule of the Community.
ied or lived space for the sectarians (cf. H. Lefeb-
vre). It was primarily through the regimenting of this
VSDFHDWOHDVWDVZHQGLWLQscribed in the sectarian  Y
texts, that the sect re-conceptualized the desert as a Ume University, Sweden
new sacred center and from it fashioned their own 

self-identity. For the authors of the Scrolls, then, the Royal
Ideology
Subverted
and
Adopted
desert became symbolic landscape woven into the There are not many occasions where the books of
fabric of lived place. Chronicles are heard in 1QS. This has been explained
as due to anti Hasmonean attitudes amongst the sec-
tarians, since the Chronicles played an important
   " role in the Hasmonean ideology. There are however
University of Helsinki, Finland VRPHLQVWDQFHVZKHUH&KURQLFOHVFRXOGKDYHLQX-
a,
the
Masoretic
Text,
and
the
enced the phraseology and content of 1QS, all to be
Septuagint:
A
Statistical
Analysis IRXQGLQWKHUVWIRXUDQGWKHODVWWZRFROXPQVRI
7KH DIQLW\ EHWZHHQ WKH 6HSWXDJLQW DQG 46DPa the composition, i.e. in the liturgical material. In this
(4Q51) has been widely recognised. According to paper two such passages will be explored namely I
the editors of the scroll, 4QSama stands in the same 1b2 and XI 1622, the very opening and closing
general tradition as the Hebrew text upon which the SDUWVRIWKHWH[W7KHUVWSDVVDJHRSHQVXSWKHOLWXU-
Old Greek translation was based (DJD XVII, 25). gical part of 1QS and although the section at large
This paper wishes to characterize the textual rela- (I 1II 18) is shaped by the account of the covenant
tionship between 4QSama, the Masoretic text and renewal feast of Deuteronomy (2730), its formula-
the Septuagint more deeply. To achieve this, variant tions lie closer to the ones found in the accounts of
readings between these three texts will be analysed covenant renewal ceremonies in Chronicles. In the
by employing statistical methods. ODVWVHFWLRQRIWKHQDOK\PQ ;,E LWVHHPV
2 Sam 7 / 1 Chron 17 underlies the discourse where
the model sectarian takes on the role of the Davidic
   king but in a transformed way. In both passages to be
Bar-Ilan University, Israel examined it could be a case of subverting ideology
Pesher,
Midrash
and
other
Exegetical
Terms

as well as adopting the royal promises to the own
in
the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls
Revisited group.
Much has been written on the terms midrash and
SHVKHULQWKH'HDG6HD6FUROOV,QWKHUVWSDUWRI
my proposed paper I wish to reexamine the various
144

 

SAMUEL
T HOMAS MATTHIAS
W EIGOLD
California Lutheran University, USA University of Vienna, Austria
Ears
For
Seeing:

as
a
Mode
of
Perception
The
Textual
History
of
Liturgically
Used
Biblical

in
Qumran
Texts Passages
in
the
Second
Temple
Period
in
Light
of

In several biblical passages the curious phrase the
Dead
Sea
Scrolls
 is used to connote a kind of auditory revelation A research project at the University of Vienna is cur-
(2 Sam 7:27 / 1 Chron 17:25; Isa 22:14; 36:10), rently analyzing the textual history of the Jewish
though in one case it is implied that uncovering scriptures in light of quotations and allusions in Jew-
ears comes along with dreams and visions of the ish literature from the Second Temple period. Text-
night (Job 33:16). This paper investigates the use of critical analysis of the quotations of and allusions to
this idiomatic expression in Qumran texts including Jewish scriptures allows us to ask new questions on
1QHa (9:23; 14:7; 21:56; etc.), 4Q299, and 4QIn- the textual history of individual books or even indi-
VWUXFWLRQLQRUGHUWRXQFRYHULWVVSHFLFXVHV7KH vidual references. An example is the question in how
use of this phrase is both continuous with biblical far a texts liturgical use affected its textual history. In
usage and it represents a departure in the direction of a forthcoming study of the text of the Shema Yisrael
sectarian ideology, whereby the contrast between the in light of its ancient Jewish quotations and allusions,
unreproved and the righteous (whose ears have been Armin Lange and I observed a surprising textual sta-
opened) is underscored. bility of the Shemas core (Deut 6:45), while the sub-
sequent instructions (Deut 6:69) exhibit the typical
textual variety of Second Temple times. We argued
 that this textual stability of the Shemas core is best
University of Helsinki, Finland explained by its liturgical use already in late Second
 Temple times. In this paper, I will further explore this
$VLJQLFDQWQXPEHURIFRSLHVRIWKH%RRNRI'DQ- issue. For this purpose, I will ask for the textual variety
iel have been found from the caves of Qumran and and/or stability of other passages which have probably
in addition, many Qumran texts allude to Daniel. been liturgically used in Second Temple Judaism. Ex-
2QHRIWKRVHWH[WVWKDWKDYHGHQLWHOLQNVZLWK'DQ- amples include two passages associated with the reci-
iel is 1QM, the text dealing with the eschatological tation of the Shema in the Mishna (Deut 11:1321 and
war and the preparation for it. In my presentation, Num 15:3741), the Priestly Blessing (Num 6:2426),
I will readdress the question of resemblances be- and the Decalogue (Exod 20:217 par. Deut 5:621).
tween 1QM and Daniel. I will ask whether these I will base my analysis on the evidence of quotations
similarities indicate that the author(s) of 1QM had and allusions in the literature preserved in the Qumran
Daniel in mind when creating the text or did the library, but also include the biblical manuscripts and
elements of the similar kind just tell about the com- WKHWHOOLQDQGPH]X]RWIURPWKH'HDG6HD
mon background of the Second Temple period when
apocalyptic visions were popular. In this respect,
the most important columns of 1QM are 1 and 17.  

There are clear lexical and thematic links to Daniel University of Helsinki, Finland
in these columns. A consequent question is: are the Aligned
or
Non-Aligned?
Textual
Status
of

expressions redolent of Daniel quotations, allusions the
Twelve
in
the
Late
Second
Temple
Period
or echoes or, after all, contemporary vocabulary that The Twelve Minor Prophets is preserved at Qumran
sounded suitable on authors ears? On the basis of in eight manuscripts (4QXIIag; 5QAmos). When
the previous studies, it seems that both columns 1 (PDQXHO7RYVFDWHJRULHVIRUWKHWH[WXDODIOLDWLRQRI
and 17 are or include later interpolations. Thus, I the biblical manuscripts found in the Judaean Desert
will ask whether there was a redactor of 1QM who have been used to classify the Cave 4 manuscripts
wanted to connect the text more closely to a certain of the Twelve, various scholars have ended up with
apocalypse Daniel whereas the former author(s) GLIIHUHQW FODVVLFDWLRQV :KHUHDV DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH
just gained their inspiration from the common apoc- principal editor, Russell Fuller, only one of the Cave
alyptical atmosphere. 4 manuscripts of the Twelve falls into the category of
non-aligned texts, if we follow George Brooke and

IOQS
Abstracts
145

(PDQXHO7RYYHRXWRIVHYHQ&DYHPDQXVFULSWV psalms are of Pharisaic origin. The Dead Sea scrolls,


DUHFODVVLHGDVQRQDOLJQHG3DUWO\WKHGLIFXOWLHV on the other hand, consist of texts of various gen-
LQ WKH FODVVLFDWLRQ DUH GXH WR WKH IUDJPHQWDU\ QD- res, the material is immense and represents different
ture of the material, but it also appears that the textual times and situations. Moreover, it is hardly possible
VWDWXV RI WKH 7ZHOYH LV PRUH FRPSOLFDWHG WKDQ UVW to speak of one distinctive theology in the scrolls.
assumed by Fuller. Discussing examples from manu- 7KHDLPRIWKLVSDSHULVWRIRFXVRQHLJKWVLJQLFDQW
scripts 4QXIIc, 4QXIIe and 4QXIIg, this paper aims aspects of the theology of the PssSol, in order to see
at a better understanding of the textual status of the how this corresponds to or differs from the various
Twelve in the late Second Temple period. theologies in the Dead Sea scrolls. Special attention
has been given to non-biblical psalms and hymns
among the DSS, because this makes the comparison
   less complicated in terms of genre. The eight theo-
Harvard University, USA logical topics that have been studied are 1) theocracy
Expansion,
Interpretation,
and
Emulation

and politics, 2) messianic convictions, 3) under-
  standing of the Torah, 4) piety and ethics, 5) concept
The expansion and reworking of the biblical text and of poverty, 6) predestination and free will, 7) resur-
of biblical prophecies in particular was a prevalent rection and eternal life, and 8) doctrine of retribu-
literary enterprise in Second Temple Judaism. Sev- tion. Some of the convictions and beliefs are shared
eral examples of this practice, attested in Greek, He- between the groups behind the PssSol and the DSS.
EUHZDQG$UDPDLFVRXUFHVKDYHHYHQEHHQLGHQWLHG Nevertheless, there is a major difference on issues
within what would later become the Greek and He- such as theocracy and politics, understanding of the
brew canons of the Old Testament and have occasion- Torah and predestination. A more profound under-
ally been noted for their interest in bringing scriptural standing of the differences in theology can help us
voices to bear on contemporary religious and political to distinguish between Pharisees, Essenes and other
FRQLFWV 2QH RI WKH OHVVHUVWXGLHG IHDWXUHV RI VXFK groups. The relevance of this for New Testament
pseudo-prophecies, however, concerns their rich studies is clear, since Paul and several others among
and complex hermeneutics, especially with regard to WKH UVW &KULVWLDQV ERWK DJUHHG DQG GLVDJUHHG ZLWK
stylistic imitation and the reuse of biblical sources. In Pharisees and other Jews.
this paper, I will analyze the hypertextual strategies
of 4QApocryphon of Jeremiah C. This work, I will
argue, shows a studied engagement with and reuse ARCHIE
T.
W RIGHT
of the book of Jeremiah, employing elements of its Regent University, USA
themes, formal characteristics, and theologoumena in Function
of

from
Job
to
the
New
Testament:

order to frame a Jeremianic perspective on the chal- Working
within
the
Sovereign
Rule
of
YHWH
lenges facing Jews in the second century B.C.E., es- The well known story of in Job 1 and 2 in which
pecially the problems of foreign rule and life among the divine being, the accuser, in the Court of Heav-
IRUHLJQ LQXHQFHV 'HVSLWH LWV LQGHEWHGQHVV WR WKH en has recently returned from roaming the earth; he
biblical tradition, however, 4QApocryphon of Jer- apparently was looking for individuals that he might
emiah C does not belong in the category Rewritten entice to sin and turn away from YHWH (although
Bible. I will show that it belongs to a different type WKLVLVQHYHUVSHFLFDOO\VWDWHG &KULVWLDQWUDGLWLRQ
of hypertextual genre, that of scriptural expansion. suggests that this being is related to the semi-auton-
RPRXV6DWDQJXUHIURP&KULVWLDQLW\KRZHYHUWKH
JXUHSRUWUD\HGLQ-REDQGVXEVHTXHQWO\LQVHYHUDO
   
 4XPUDQWH[WV HJ-XELOHHV VHHPVWRUHSUHVHQWDJ-
Ume University, Sweden ure that operates only by the permission of YHWH
Theology
in
the
Psalms
of
Solomon
in
in whatever action he does amongst humanity. This
Comparison
to
Theologies
in
the
Dead
Sea
PD\VXJJHVWWKDWWKHLQWHUSUHWDWLRQRIWKHVDWDQJ-
Scrolls:
Relevance
for
New
Testament
Studies ure in the NT has been somewhat skewed due to a
The Psalms of Solomon have a distinctive theol- misunderstanding of the early Christians. Several
ogy and there are good reasons to believe that these passages in the NT can in fact be understood along
146

 

the lines of the Job DQGWKHYDULRXVJXUHVWKDW over the nature of Rewritten Scripture, however,
have been connected to satan from the Qumran li- has not meaningfully articulated what precisely is
brary. The question raised here concerns the possible meant by a genre, nor has it, with the partial ex-
taking up by the Qumran texts of my suggested un- ception of Anders K. Petersens 2007 essay, engaged
derstanding of the Job and ultimately by the au- the work of modern genre theorists. In this paper, I
thors of the Jesus Trial and Temptation pericopes will show that contemporary genre theory, especially
LQ WKH 6\QRSWLF *RVSHOV ,V WKH 6DWDQ JXUH LQ WKH DVFRQVWUXHGZLWKLQWKHHOGRIUKHWRULFKDVVRPH-
Synoptic Gospels (Matt 4 and Mark 1) and other NT thing to contribute to the study of Second Temple
passages (e.g. Luke 22:31; 1 Cor 5:5; 1 Tim 1:20; texts that rewrite scripture. Consideration of mod-
3HW WKHVDPHJXUHWKDWLVLGHQWLHGLQ ern approaches to genre will allow us to formulate
Job and the Qumran literature? I would suggest that much more clearly important questions pertaining to
WKHVHUHIHUHQFHVWRWKHVDWDQJXUHLQWKH17FRXOG the function, purpose, and audience of these texts.
be understood in the same vein as the tradition of In particular, the observations in the modern context
at work in the HB and the relevant DSS. that texts can participate in multiple genres simul-
taneously and that genres constitute tools by which
writers communicate with their audience suggest
    that speaking of a distinct genre called Rewritten
Ben Gurion University, Israel 6FULSWXUHPD\LQIDFWEHMXVWLHGDQGPD\KHOSXVWR
Notes
on
the
So-Called

better understand the phenomenon as a whole.


The so-called Vision of Gabriel inscription evoked
scholars interest shedding light on Post-Biblical He- 
brew, epigraphy and various aspects of the religion University of Bonn & University of Siegen,
of the Second Temple period. In this presentation Germany
new readings and interpretations of some legible 
passages of the inscriptions will be suggested. For Some
Lexical
Examples:
The
Substantives
,

example, the reading      ,
,
and

 VHHPV WR W EHWWHU ERWK WKH FRQWH[W DQG WKH The main hypothesis of this paper is based on the re-
existing traces then     sults of the researches that Prof. D. Dimant conduct-
suggested by other scholars. The presentation ed over the past few decades, and consists in consid-
will be accompanied by new digital images of the ering the labels sectarian and non-sectarian as
inscription. formal linguistic (mostly semantic and sociolinguis-
tic) categories referring to two different language-
uses which recurrently apply toand qualifytwo
  distinct groups of writings. This hypothesis enables
University of Kansas, USA the researcher to shed new light on the language of


the sectarian scrolls, which one can analyse ac-
A
Reassessment cording to two perspectives at least. One the one
One of the major questions in the discussion sur- hand one may understand the sectarian language
rounding the phenomenon of Rewritten Scripture as a sociolect, namely as a language aiming at dif-
is whether that term can be or should be used to de- ferentiating the speaker/writer and his/her language
note a literary genre. The notion of Rewritten Scrip- from the others. On the other hand one may under-
ture as a distinct category of texts (the most promi- VWDQGWKHVHFWDULDQODQJXDJHDVDVSHFLFSDWWHUQ
QHQW RI ZKLFK DUH XVXDOO\ LGHQWLHG DV -XELOHHV of lexical organisation, which deliberately conveys
the Temple Scroll, the Genesis Apocryphon, and and lexicalises particular ideological positions (e.g.
Josephuss Antiquities) is represented in the work dualism, purity/impurity, creation of a new covenant
of e.g. Alexander, Bernstein, and Segal. Others (e.g. with God and the like) that constitute a recurrent set
Brooke and Falk) argue that the texts usually consid- of shared beliefs and halakhic convictions (hence a
ered Rewritten Scripture are too different from one religious worldview) peculiar to the grouping(s) au-
another to constitute a discrete genre. This debate thoring part of the DSS. In light of this hypothesis,

IOQS
Abstracts
147

the thesis of the present paper is that the systematic


study of the vocabulary of the DSS can provide val-
id formal criteria to distinguish between sectarian
and non-sectarian writings, thus contributing to
one possible taxonomy of the Qumran writings.
The paper concretely refers to 4 examples which
should in my view validate this thesis, thus arguing
for the high heuristic value of this distinction for our
FRPSUHKHQVLRQRIWKHVFUROOV7KHUVWH[DPSOHGHDOV
with the apparently unimportant substantive ,
which the sectarian texts transform into a keyword
symbolising the theological and physical separation
of the community from the others. The other exam-
ples refer to three lexical items (, , and )
which are semantically close to two main aspects of
the so called sectarian ideology, namely the criticism
of the Temple and the contempt for the possession.

IOMS
Abstracts
149

Abstracts of the IOMS Congress

      


Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil
Division
of
Lists
Into
Verses
in
the
Masoretic
Text Representations
and
References
to
the

The principles according to which the Masoretic Tetragrammaton
in
the
Masoretic
Annotations
Text is divided has been investigated within the This paper approaches the several ways of repre-
borders of the verse. Many descriptions are devoted sentations and references to the Tetragrammaton in
to the way the verse is divided by the accents, but the Masoretic annotations, based on some Masoretic
almost no effort has been made to investigate the codices and also based on manuscripts of the trea-
way the Masoretic Text is divided into verses. In tise Okhlah we-Okhlah. This paper completes Ap-
this paper I intend to deal with one aspect of this pendix 2: Tetragrammaton representations in the
topic: how a sequence of similar items, creating a list Codex L Masorah from the forthcoming Lexicon
which exceeds the borders of the verse, is divided Masoreticum: Lxico de Terminologia Massortica
into verses. Such lists can be divided into verses of Tiberiense (Lexicon Masoreticum: Lexicon of Tibe-
RULWHPV7KHUVWVWHSLVWRGHVFULEHWKHSULQ- rian Masoretic Terminology). This communication
ciples of deciding between these three possibilities. intends to show information about this issue, show-
The main consideration is the length of the items, ing the ways on how the Masoretes represented and
DQGWKLVOHQJWKQHHGVDQGFDQEHH[DFWO\GHQHG7KH made allusions to the Tetragrammaton in their textual
next step is to describe the way the list is divided into annotations about the Hebrew Bible. This can show
verses of 3 and 2 items when the list cannot be even- that several Masoretes groups elaborated their own
ly divided, e.g. when the list needs to be divided into annotations and each group elaborated their own pat-
verses of two but is composed of an odd number of tern of abbreviations, forms and symbols. This brief
items. Finally, there are some factors which interrupt paper emphasizes that the meticulosity and the dili-
the regular division, mainly the presence or absence gence on the preservation and the transmission of the
of waw consecutive in some of the items. Hebrew Bible text by Masoretes can also be seen on
the several ways of representations and references
to the Tetragrammaton in the Masoretic annotations.
 To them, the writing of the sacred denomination was
Tel Aviv University, Israel also an issue of extreme reverence.
The
Formation
of
the
Babylonian




The six supra-linear vowel graphemes of the Baby-     


lonian vocalization system are considered, in part, as Consejo Superior de Investigaciones
fractures of Hebrew letters. This is true for three of &LHQWtFDV6SDLQ
the graphemes derived from the three matres lectioni The
Transmission
of
the
Tradition
aleph, waw, yod. For the origin of the remaining 

three graphemes several explanations were sug- Masora
of
the
Hebrew
Bible
gested by various scholars in modern times. A short It is a very great pleasure for me personally to
medieval document, which has hitherto been misun- present a book which is about to be published and
derstood, becomes, with the right interpretation sug- which has been written by two young colleagues of
gested in this paper, relevant to the problem under mine: E. Martin Contreras from the High Council
discussion. The source seems to express a clear atti- IRU6FLHQWLF5HVHDUFKDQG0*6HLMDVGHORV5tRV
tude as to the origin of the graphemes. The weight of from the Complutensian University of Madrid. The
such an ancient source, chronologically not far from title of the book is The Transmission of the Tradi-
the time when the Babylonian vocalization was actu- tion. The Masora of the Hebrew Bible. One of the
ally practiced, is decisive. major contributions of the book is that after having
150

 

explained the principal characteristics and phenom- explanations and transcriptions. On the other hand, a
ena of the Masora using the codices C, A, L and M1 few recordings of Hebrew texts recited by Crimean
as their source, the authors include at the end of each Karaims have survived and they can be compared
epigraph a section with an essentially pedagogical with the written sources. The most characteristic
aim. The section is called The masorete challenges features of the Crimean tradition consist of the Tur-
you and includes examples for the reader to deci- kic effect upon the pronunciation of consonants, the
pher; the answers are at the end of the book. Other Sephardic vowel system, and the assimilation of
examples are not resolved and are there to maintain the realization of shewa vowels followed by a gut-
an interaction between the authors and the reader tural consonant to the quality of the vowel after the
who is invited to make contact with them in order guttural consonant. Parallel phenomena also occur
WR DQDO\]H WKH QHFHVVDU\ VWHSV WR QG D VROXWLRQ WR in other East European Karaim traditions including
these enigmas. that of Istanbul. The assimilation of shewa before the
guttural consonants is a well-known feature of the
Hebrew pronunciation to which the Tiberian sages
GREGOR
G EIGER adhered in northern Palestine in the period of the
Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Israel Masoretic activities of the 9th12th centuries. Besides
Vocalization
and
Accentuation
of
the
nifal
the Karaims in Eastern Europe, the phenomenon has
Imperfect
Forms
in
the
Masoretic
Text been consistently upheld solely by Yemenite Jews
In the vocalization and accentuation of the nifal im- and less strictly by Aramaic-speaking Jews of west-
perfect forms without endings in the Hebrew of the ern Kurdistan in their reading traditions. The assimi-
massoretic (Tiberian) tradition, there are two groups lation alludes to early connections between these
of irregularities. 1. Most nifal imperfect forms are traditions and Tiberian Hebrew.
identical in the yiqtol and the wayyiqtol tense. How-
ever, in pausal position the wayyiqtol is mostly vo-
calized with a patah in the last syllable, while the (w) LEA
H IMMELFARB
yiqtol is found with a sere. 2. The wayyiqtol forms Bar-Ilan University, Israel
are mostly milra, however some verbs are always Characteristics
of
the
Masora
Magna


milel and some have both accentuations. This paper in
the
Aleppo
Codex
aims to give an explanation for these different ac- The intent of this lecture is to present the characteris-
centuations. In my opinion there is not a phonetic ex- tics of the Masora Magna as it appears in the Aleppo
planation for this. There seems to be a connection to Codex, which is regarded as the most accurate ver-
the meaning: the active verbs prefer the milel accen- VLRQRIWKH+HEUHZ%LEOH:HEDVHRXUQGLQJVRQD
WXDWLRQ2QWKHRWKHUKDQGWKHUHPLJKWEHDQLQX- representative sample of chapters of the Aleppo Co-
ence for the milra forms from other passive forms, dex. Several issues will be discussed, such as: The
especially in hofal. Diachronically there might be a order of the appearance of the Masoretic notes, the
connection to the different vocalization patterns of distribution of the notes, the terms and issues appear-
the accadic N-stem. Some forms might be vestiges ing in the notes, the characteristics of the simanim
of Gt-formations. used to identity the verses, the relationship between
the Masora Parva and thr Masora Magna.

    


University of Helsinki, Finland  A
The
Pronunciation
Tradition
of
Hebrew

&RQVHMR6XSHULRUGH,QYHVWLJDFLRQHV&LHQWtFDV
among
the
Crimean
Karaims Spain
The Karaim reading tradition of Hebrew became ex- Qere
we-La
Ketiv
Notations:


tinct in the Crimea in the middle of the 20th century A
Comparative
Study
when the last students educated in the local Karaim According to the masoretic lists there are ten cases
institutions up till the 1920s passed away. However, in which a word is to be read although it is not writ-
the tradition is retained in a number of Hebrew gram- ten in the consonantal text. The way to point out this
mar books that describe the pronunciation through phenomenon is generally to write in the consonantal

IOMS
Abstracts
151

text the vowels and accentuation signs of the word Miqra Gedola and the initials BMG () in a
in the space where the word is to be read. This is the very intelligent and precise manner. However, the
traditional view about this phenomenon. However, printers of his treatise did not understand his inten-
a carefully examination of the main biblical tiberian tion and changed and disrupted his terms. The new
codices (Cairo, Aleppo and Leningrad) and the Span- edition of Minat Shay, edited by the late Zvi Betzer,
LVKPDQXVFULSW0PRGLHVWKLVJHQHUDOYLHZ7KLV presents Norzis original terms precisely.
paper presents the results of the comparative study
that offers new information refer to the number, the
representation and the formula of this phenomenon.

RACHEL
M ASHIAH
Israel
Syntactic
Aspects
of
Accentuation


in
the
Twenty-One
Prose
Books
It is well known that the biblical text contains similar
punctuational segments that are accentuated differ-
ently. In this lecture, we will look at the punctuation-
DOPRGHOVLQZKLFKWKHV\QWDFWLFYDULDEOHVLQXHQFH
the accentuation. We will see that the selection of the
disjunctive depends on the type of syntactic connec-
tion between the word at the division point and the
following words to the left as well as the syntactic
relationship between the words to the left of the divi-
sion point themselves.

YOSEF
O FER
Bar Ilan University, Israel
The
Terms
Masora
Gedola,
Miqra
Gedola
and
the

Initials
BMGMinh.at
Shay
The meaning of the term Masora Gedola (Masora
Magna) underwent changes in the course of time.
In the time of the Masoretes and in the early Mid-
dle Ages this term was used to indicate the separate
Masora collection, also named by its beginning
Okhla Ve-Okhla. Yaakov ben Hayim Ibn Adoniyah,
the editor of the Miqraot Gedolot Bible Edition
(Venice 15241525), used the term Masora Gedola
for three different meanings: (a) the Masora collec-
tion Okhla Ve-Okhla; (b) the Masora collection that
he himself created and printed at the end of his Bible
Edition; (c) the Masora comments located at the top
and the bottom of the biblical text pages. Ibn Adoni-
yah made some attempts to escape the complexity
that he created, but he didnt formulate a clear termi-
nological system. R. Yedidya Shelomo Norzi (circa
15601630), the author of the Masora treatise Minat
ShayWULHGWRQGDVROXWLRQWRWKHFRPSOLFDWHGWHU-
minology. He used the terms Masora Gedola and

IOTS
Abstracts
153

Abstracts of the IOTS Congress

    
University of Manchester, United Kingdom Cambridge University, United Kingdom
Translation
and
Midrash
Completely
Fused
The
Targumic
Background
of
a
Mystical
Cairo

 

Canticles,
Lamentations
and
Eccleasiastes
The literary treasure discovered in the Cairo Geni-
zah has yielded an Aramaic fragment of which the
 Sitz im Leben has hitherto been shrouded in mys-
University of Manchester, United Kingdom tery. The fragment belongs to the Taylor-Schechter

 Genizah collection and has the class-mark T-S NS
171.7. According to Brodys A Hand-list of Rabbinic
Manuscripts in the Cambridge Genizah Collections,
    this medieval fragment bears a mystical/magical
Pennsylvania State University, USA character with its discussion of the dimensions of
the various heavens and the angels. However, the
The
Figure
of
Boaz
in
Targum
Ruth
catalogue does not provide further information as to
This paper will consider how the Targumist has the fragments background. I managed to disclose
transformed the character of Boaz from that found the content of this fascinating fragment, and in my
in the biblical text. There is no doubt that Boaz is paper I will present both critical text and English
a key player in the book of Ruth; without the male translation of this unpublished fragment which I
redeemer safety and security for Naomi and Ruth traced back to the liturgical and alternative Targu-
could not be ensured. But Boazs engagement is re- mic renderings (Tosefta-Targums) of Ezekiel 1, the
stricted to reacting to Ruths actions and directions. so-called Merkabah chapter. These Tosefta-Targums
There are certain tropes and themes to be expected, contain long segments of unique mystical lore that
Boaz is certainly presented as the pious patriarch, detail the enormous dimensions of the heavens and
KRZHYHULWLVWKHZRPHQDQGPRUHVSHFLFDOO\WKH the bodily size of the angels. It transpires that this re-
foreign woman Ruth, who are in complete control. cently disclosed Genizah fragment preserves Targu-
As a character Boaz has more in common with mic material that together with the Tosefta-Targums
Rachel or Leah than Jacob; he has certain key mo- to Ezekiel 1 sheds light on a relatively dark chapter
ments of dialogue that move the plot, but his primary in the reception history of early Jewish mysticism,
function is to provide offspring. The Targum, as we being closely related to Hekhalot literature, and to
might expect, presents Boaz in a different light. In the Shiur Qomah tradition in particular.
WKH7DUJXPZHQGWKDW%RD]LVDFWXDOO\WKHMXGJH
Ibzan whose piety brings about the conclusion of the
famine and the messianic dynasty. He has even re-  A 
ceived a prophecy from God that kings and prophets Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
would descend from Ruth and is the model of rab- A
New
Complete
Aramaic
Bible
ELQLFSURSULHW\7KLVJXUHZKRLVPDUJLQDOO\FHQWUDO It has been written that there are eight Aramaic Bi-
in the biblical account now becomes the paragon of bles, known as Gigant Bibles, because of its im-
piety and the righteous judge. pressive size. Up to date there are known eight bi-
lingual Bibles, with Hebrew Text and Targum to the
whole Bible. This can be said in general, but when we
check accurately the Aramaic text, it becomes clear
154

 

that there is only one Ms which transmits the com- terpretive traditions hitherto unrecognized. Finally,
plete Targum, it is the Vatican Ms. Hebrew Urbinati some manuscripts are like Pseudo-Jonathan in that
I. This Targum text is now printed in the Vatican they have their roots in the Palestinian Targum tradi-
Library. We have transcribed the complete Targum, tion but that they have moved far beyond it.
and it has been compared with the Sperbers text,
except in the books missing in the Sperbers edition
(TgPss, RgProv, TgJob). In the books missing in the MARGARETHA
F OLMER
Sperbers edition, the comparisons are made with the Leiden University, The Netherlands
Lagardes edition of Codex Reuchlinianus. With the Forms
and
Uses
of
the
Demonstrative
Pronouns

new complete Aramaic Bible we can compare both in
Targum
Onqelos
traditions: Eastern Yemenite tradition (the Sperbers The dialects of Aramaic show a wide variety of de-
edition) and the Western Askhenazic tradition. monstrative pronouns. In this presentation, the dif-
ferent forms of the demonstrative pronouns in Tar-
gum Onqelos (Genesis) as well as their function and
PAUL
F LESHER
syntactic behaviour will be analyzed. In addition
University of Wyoming, USA to well-known forms, such as and the expanded
Identifying
the
Palestinian
Targums:

form , some rarer forms, such as and ,

 DUHIRXQG7KHGHLFWLFV\VWHPDVUHHFWHGLQ7DUJXP
In his 1986 edition of all the then-known Cairo Onqelos will be compared with what can be found
Geniza fragments of Palestinian Targums, Michael in other Aramaic dialects, in particular contempo-
Klein indicated that he and his predecessors had rary dialects of Middle Aramaic. An examination of
LGHQWLHG  GLVWLQFW PDQXVFULSWV$OWKRXJK QR VHW the use of these pronouns in Targum Onqelos also
of manuscript fragments covers more than a few gives insight into the translation strategies followed
chapters of the Pentateuch, the comparatively large by the translator.
number of manuscripts represented indicate that the
Palestinian Targums had an active life within the
Jewish community beyond what the few other repre-  
sentatives of this genre would indicate. But is every Yale University, USA
manuscript published in Kleins work a Palestinian Targum
and
Multilingualism
in
Late
Antique

Targum? This is an important question, for in 1992 Judaism
and
Jewish
Society
Stephen Kaufman demonstrated that Targum Pseu- The present paper will consider the evidence, both
do-Jonathan was not a Palestinian Targum, despite a literary and inscriptional, rabbinic and non-rabbinic,
millennium or more of being considered the epitome for multilingualism as a wide-spread multiform phe-
of that genre. If this well-known manuscript is not a nomenon in Palestine of late antiquity, especially
Palestinian Targum, then we need to be doubly cer- with respect to the interrelation of Hebrew and Ara-
tain of the relatively recently discovered fragments maic. What are the implications of this evidence
from the Cairo Geniza. So what are the criteria for for the bilingual performance of Hebrew reading of
identifying a Palestinian Targum? Kaufmans evalu- Scripture and Aramaic translation of the same, both
ation of Pseudo-Jonathan was based on dialectal and in liturgical and study contexts, private and public?
linguistic criteria. My own work, which has come How do such considerations affect our understand-
to the same conclusion concerning Pseudo-Jonathan, ing of targum as translation in its diverse mani-
is based on source criticism and the view that the festations?
Palestinian Targums are the targums that share the
Proto-PT source of expansions. In this paper, I will
discuss selected representatives of the Cairo Geniza    
manuscripts using these criteria to provide a charac- Bar-Ilan University, Israel
terization of the manuscripts as Palestinian Targums. The
Dating
of
Targum
Onqelos
As in previous studies, most of the manuscripts are In determining the provenance of Onqelos, modern
LGHQWLHG DV EHORQJLQJ WR WKH 3DOHVWLQLDQ 7DUJXP targum study has been largely operating under the
tradition, but some are shown to represent other in- LQXHQFHRI(<.XWVFKHUZKRDVVRFLDWHGWKHODQ-

IOTS
Abstracts
155

guage of Onqelos closely with that of the Genesis HUDOO\XQUHOLDEOH,QWKHUVWSDUWRIWKHSDSHUWKHWZR


Apocryphon, suggesting an early Palestinian prov- main arguments in favor of the common opinion
enance. Although some scholars have suggested namely, inconsistency of the vocalization and its lack
SUREOHPV ZLWK WKLV GHWHUPLQDWLRQ LWV LQXHQFH LV of uniformity are examined, and then challenged
still most central. The linchpin of Kutchers associ- by counter-arguments originating in the relatively
ating the language of Onqelos with that of the Gen- \RXQJUHVHDUFKHOGRI5DEELQLF+HEUHZODQJXDJH
esis Apocryphon is vocabulary. He indicates: As we traditions and vocalization systems. To demonstrate
are going to see, the vocabulary of the scroll seems these counter-arguments a short Targumic passage
to clinch the matter in favour of Nldeke and Dal- from a Western manuscript (MS Casanatense 3088)
man, i.e. in favour of a Palestinian and perhaps even is analyzed, and its vocalization is compared with
Judaean origin for T.O. However, Kutschers re- the Yemenite vocalization in Sperbers edition. It is
view of these similarities is extremely brief and un- claimed that the arguments in favor of the common
developed. The entire text of this investigation is one opinion cannot, by themselves, support the current
short sentence, whose import and bearing are most view regarding the unreliability of the vocalization.
elliptical, almost cryptic. This paper (available in a The second part of the paper discusses a tentative
pre-publishication form) examines this Apocryphon methodology for evaluating the reliability of West-
connection for Onqelos in great detail, and arrives ern manuscripts, based, again, on insights from the
DWLWVRZQFRQFOXVLRQ,WLVWKHUVWSDUWRIDVWXG\ UHVHDUFKHOGRI5DEELQLF+HEUHZ
to be followed by an investigation of the Halakha in
Onqelos in relationship to the Halakhic Midrashim,
and an enquiry into the question of the Masora to   
Onqelos. It is hoped that the three parts together will Protestant Theological University, The Netherlands
DUULYHDWDQHZFODULFDWLRQRQWKLVLVVXH The
Use
of
Paratextual
Elements


in
Targum
Research
Targum manuscripts consist of more than just the
ROBERT
H AYWARD
text, including also diverse paratextual elements to
University of Durham, United Kingdom give the user information on how to read and under-

stand the text. This information can be very useful in
A
New
Typology
of
the
Second
Targum
of
Esther research on interpretation and textual history. How-
The paper will offer a worked example of the ap- HYHU VRPHWLPHV WKH DGGHG LQIRUPDWLRQ LV GLIFXOW
plication of the Inventory as developed by the Man- to interpret because we miss te intructions for use.
FKHVWHU'XUKDP7\SRORJ\3URMHFWWRDVSHFLFWH[W Manuscripts, like for instance the famous Codex Re-
Targum Sheni of Esther. It will consider the self-pres- uchlin, give us much information, however without
entation of this Targum as a text; the distinctive per- the necessary key how to interpret and weigh the
spective of its governing voice; its characteristics as information. In this lecture we will discuss some
a lemmatic treatment of another text, which includes kinds of paratextual information we encounter in our
narrative elements; its intertextual relationships; and present research program on the Western Manuscri-
the various small literary forms which make up the opts of Targum Samuel.
whole text. The paper will take account of current
scholarly genre descriptions of Targum Sheni, and
consider them in light of information supplied by the  ]
Manchester-Durham Inventory. Norwegian School of Theology



A
Case
Study
of
Text-Immanent
Exegesis


     in
the
Targumim
Tel-Aviv University, Israel The paper will focus on Genesis 14, especially verses
 1316, and its targumic rendering. The presentation
Western
Targum-Manuscripts will endeavour to point out the connection between
The paper reexamines the common opinion, that the this text on the one hand, and the Balaam texts, or
vocalization of Western Targum-manuscripts is gen- texts that may be termed balaamic, on the other.
156

 

Further, it will try to show how this text may explain ZDV WKH UVW WR LQYHVWLJDWH 7- LQ WHUPV RI KLVWRULFDO
particular targumic renderings found in these texts, background, textual variations, exegesis, general pe-
or itself may be explained by them. What are the culiarities, interpolated Targum and additions. Some
processes laying behind these targumic renderings? time later, Cathcart and Gordon (1989) introduced
Is it necessary to look to texts outside the Biblical their English translation of TJ with special attention
corpus in order to explain the targumic exegesis? given in the footnotes to variant readings from the
Masoretic Text (MT). The most recent study on TJ
by Houtman and Sysling (2009) focuses on the use
  of variant readings for the study in origin and history
Hebrew Union College, USA of TJ with particular attention given to the book of
Jethro
and
Jewish
Identity

Samuel. Overall it is therefore clear that research on
in
Targumic
Interpretation TJ has been foundational: a good basis has been pro-
Jethro stands out as a biblical personality whose inter- GXFHGIRUVWXGLHVWRQRZIRFXVRQQHUGHWDLOLQ7-
action with the Israelites is generally positive, but also For instance, researchers can begin to explore more
complicated. He is problematic for ancient and clas- V\VWHPDWLFDOO\KRZVSHFLFH[HJHWLFDOUXOHVZHUHDS-
sical Jewish interpreters for several reasons. As priest plied in the various prophetic books of TJ, concur-
of Midian, Jethro is the leader of a non-Israelite ethnic rently taking into account its progressive composition
and religious community; however, Moses agrees to (cf. Churgin 1907, 30). A point in case is to investigate
live with him and marry into his family (Exod 2:21). how and why TJ, on the one hand, deviates from the
In addition, Jethro advises Moses to create a system of 07ZLWKUHJDUGWRVSHFLFSDVVDJHVYHUVHVZKLOHRQ
courts and judges to handle the problems of the Isra- the other hand, rendering other passages/verses lit-
elite community (Exodus 18), which develops into a eral. This investigation may be applied to the book
complex system of jurisprudence comprising judges, RI0DODFKLZKHUHLQPRGHUQVFKRODUVKDYHLGHQWLHG
trials, and ultimately (according to the rabbis) the a number of enigmatic passages / verses in the He-
Sanhedrin. Hence, Jethro becomes a locus of anxiety brew Text of Malachi (e.g. Mal 2:1016; Mal 2:12;
for Jewish interpreters: an apparent idolater, the priest Mal 3:6; Mal 3:11 and Mal 3:13). Among examples of
of a foreign religion, who is nonetheless the inventor VXFKGLIFXOWLHVLVWKHXQGHUVWDQGLQJRI0DODFKL
of the Jewish system of justice and Moses father-in- where the reference to my messenger is not clear.
law. He resists villainization as well as valorization in In other instances there are gaps in the Hebrew text
DZD\WKDWPDNHVKLPDQH[FHOOHQWJXUHIRUDVWXG\ HJ0DO ZKLFKUHTXLUHVRPHOLQNLQJZRUGWROO
concerning identity and Jewish biblical interpreta- the gap. There are therefore several research foci in TJ
tion. This paper explores the hermeneutical strategies Malachi that need to be addressed: for one, where the
and maneuvers utilized by the Targumists to describe focus falls on the rules of interpretation that TJ Mala-
Jethro, his relationship to Moses and the Israelites, chi uses to resolve inherent incongruities in the MT
and his identity as a priest of Midian. Passages will and second, to establish whether patterns for exegeti-
EHGLVFXVVHGIURP7DUJXPV2QTHORV1HRWL3VHXGR cal approaches in TJ Malachi can be found in relation
Jonathan, and the Targum to Chronicles. Each Targum to its stages of composition.
demonstrates a set of hermeneutical principles that Although Cathcart and Gordon (1989) have, in
shapes the exegesis of Jethros character. In addition, their translation of TJ, already provided feasible ar-
each Targum interacts with Talmudic and midrashic guments to explain the manner in which TJ renders
materials in a unique way. MT Malachi, they have not gone so far as to iden-
tify and categorize, systematically, TJ Malachis use
of rules of interpretation. In contrast Churgin (1907,

  78110) points out various underlying principles of


University of Johannesburg, South Africa exegesis in TJ. He also takes into account TJs his-
Translation
Techniques
in
Malachi

torical context (Churgin 1907, 111) and its relation to
according
to
Targum
Jonathan Aggadah and Apocryphal literature (Churgin 1907,
To date two comprehensive studies by Churgin (1907) 111125). However, there are only three references to
as well as Cathcart and Gordon (1989) have ap- 7-0DODFKLVSHFLFLQKLVVWXG\7KLVPHDQVWKDWUXOHV
peared on Targum Jonathan to the prophets. Churgin of interpretation in TJ Malachi have not yet been fully

IOTS
Abstracts
157

LGHQWLHGDQGFODVVLHGLQSDVWUHVHDUFK7KHIRFXVRI Targum in a Christian World: An Encounter, being


this paper is therefore on the use of interpretive rules carried out at the Targum Institute at the Protestant
and on determining patterns for exegetical approaches Theological University of the Netherlands (Kam-
in TJ Malachi. The aim is to shed more light on which pen), which is concerned with the Western text of
VSHFLFH[SRVLWRU\SURFHGXUHVDUHSUHVHQWLQ7- the Targum to Samuel. This paper will present re-
sults from the sub-project dealing with medieval
manuscripts of Italian provenance. The overall aim
 of this project is: 1) to set the extant manuscripts
Evangelical Theological Faculty, Belgium within their historical context; 2) to identify possible
Rome
in
Targum
Jonathan
and
its
European
&KULVWLDQLQXHQFHVRQWKHWH[WDQG WRDVVHVVWKH
Reception value of each of the manuscripts for text-critical pur-
poses. This is to be achieved by examining the his-
It is well known that oracles against Israels enemies, tory of Italian Jewry, the history of codicology in the
including the city of Rome, are found in Targum medieval period, and by identifying variants within
Jonathan. But since the early Middle Ages the text the Italian text-type and explaining how, when, why,
of Targum Jonathan was transmitted in a Christian and where, such variants entered the textual tradi-
world that acknowledged Rome as its spiritual capi- tions. This paper will provide an overview of work
tal. How could these references to Rome have sur- achieved to date and present examples drawn from
YLYHG"$OWHUQDWLYHUHDGLQJVRPLVVLRQVDQGDPSOL- the texts.
cations appear in European manuscripts and printed
editions of Targum Jonathan and its Latin transla-
tions, which may be intended to disguise these ref- ALEX
S AMELY

erences to Rome. What tendencies can be detected University of Manchester, United Kingdom
in the various branches of Medieval manuscripts? The
Targums
within
a
New
Description
of


Among the early printing houses and among famous Jewish
Text
Structures
in
Antiquity
polyglottists, who retained Rome, who omitted it, Since 2007, a team of researchers at Manchester and
and who altered it? Durham Universities have been working on a new
framework for describing the basic literary features
of ancient Jewish literature outside the Hebrew Bi-

  ble, in a comparative and synchronic perspective.
3RQWLFDO%LEOLFDO,QVWLWXWH,WDO\ :HKDYHDOVRSURGXFHGOLWHUDU\SUROHVRIPDQ\LQ-
/G\WYand
the
World
to
Come
in
the
Syriac
dividual texts, that is, short, systematic descriptions
New
Testament
and
Targum
Neophyti of their pervasive or prominent literary features.
7KHVH SUROHV DQG WKH JHQHULF IUDPHZRUN WKDW LQ-
In the Syriac versions of the New Testament, the forms them, provide an empirical basis for raising
Greek word is normally translated with and WKH TXHVWLRQ RI KRZ EHVW WR GHQH JHQUHV LQ DQ-
is normally translated with . But on oc- cient Jewish literature. In my presentation I will ex-
casion is rendered with especially in ref- plain the key features of this AHRC-funded Project,
erence to Jesus destiny. This paper compares this to be completed in 2011, and illustrate the new con-
particular usage of in the Syriac versions of the ceptual framework by indicating how Tagums, and
New Testament with how the Neophyti Targum em- different types of Targums, would be represented
ploys G\WYin order to illuminate the function of this within its points. I shall use Targum Onkelos Gen-
term in these two documents. esis as an illustration. Other members of this Project
will discuss literary features of Targum Canticles,
Targum Esther Sheni and the Genesis Apocryphon in
HECTOR
PATMORE the same session.
Protestant Theological University, The Netherlands
The
Italian
Textual
Tradition
of
Targum
Jonathan
In this paper I will offer some preliminary results
from the ongoing research project entitled A Jewish
158

 

DAVID
S HEPHERD

than not relatively limited: they do not play a pivotal
Queens University Belfast, United Kingdom
role in the hermeneutics of the units in which they
Can
Anything
Targumic
Come
from
Qumran?
occur, not even that of a cog in the machine; rather,
 WKH\UHDIUPDUHVXOWDFKLHYHGE\RWKHUPHDQV DQG
Isaiah sometimes even disturb that result unwittingly). Not
While summarily dismissed by some, Klaus Beyers a few of these citations may have been supplemented
insistence on classifying Aramaic texts of Tobit and by the stammaim. There is also reason to assume that
Isaiah from Qumran Cave 4 as targum in Die Ara- WKHDQRQ\PRXVUVWSHUVRQSOXUDORIDVZHWUDQVODWH
mischen Texte (2004) invites a closer examination belongs to the stamma, that is, the anonymous layer
of the character of these translations in light of more of the Talmud which is now commonly believed to
recent discussion regarding the analysis of transla- have been the work of a separate group of editors
tional approaches amongst the Aramaic versions in (instead of a natural growth of mate- rial), although
general and those found at Qumran in particular. there clearly have been several stages of elaboration
of the talmudic materials which preclude a simple
dichotomy of Amoraic traditions and the anonymous

     layer. Attributions to Rav Yoseph were in some cases
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel undoubtedly of a secondary nature. Secondly, the
Avoiding
Anonymity
in
the
Bible
and
Beyond YDVWPDMRULW\RITXRWDWLRQVUHHFWWKHGHVLUHWRGH-
0DQ\PLQRUDQGLQVLJQLFDQWFKDUDFWHUVZKLFKDS- QH WKH PHDQLQJ RI D FHUWDLQ OH[HPH DV DFFXUDWHO\
pear in the biblical text are left unnamed. A large DVSRVVLEOHZLWKLQWKHFRQQHV GRPDLQDQGVFRSH 
number of these characters are given names in post- of the talmudic discourse. To interpret and identify
biblical literatures second Temple period, targumic realia is one of the essential tasks of the interpreter.
and midrashic. In many cases such an individual $QGQDOO\PDQ\UHOHYDQWEXWXQKHOSIXOWUDQVODWLRQV
ZLOO EH JLYHQ WKH QDPH RI DQRWKHU ELEOLFDO JXUH in the Targums were ignored. The talmudic quota-
sometimes even an important and famous one, but tions were cited for their lexical value and out of a
VRPHWLPHVDQLQVLJQLFDQWDVZHOO7KHWZRFKDUDF- VSHFLFWRSLFDOLQWHUHVWWKHPXFKPRUHQDUUDWLYHDS-
ters are thus often fused into one, enriching the bi- proach of the targu- mists, who took the wider text
ographies of both individuals. Another phenomenon into account in their translational strategies, would
with similar results i.e. the enriching of the biogra- often turn out to be irrelevant to the rabbinic dis-
phies of two characters by fusing them together into course. In a few cases, extant translations may have
a single character is witnessed in some cases in the been adapted, or made for the occasion, to suit the
LGHQWLFDWLRQ ZLWK HDFK RWKHU RI WZR ELEOLFDO FKDU- VSHFLFLQWHUHVWVRIWKHLVVXHDWKDQG
acters who originally bore similar (or even identi-
cal) names, but in other cases of two characters who
bore completely different and unrelated names. Our   
lecture demonstrates that the phenomena described Free University Amsterdam, The Netherlands
above can be found in the Bible itself or in its textual 
variants, enabling us to discern another example of If we look at the Targum manuscripts of Alfonso de
exegetical continuum from internal biblical exegeses Zamora as well as at the Antwerp Polyglot, we can
into that which is exhibited in the post biblical rab- see many Christian traits. They vary from the Latin
binic literature, targumic and midrashic alike. Sitz-im-Leben to the neglect of all the traditionally
Jewish codicological characteristics. I will show the
Christian traits of mss Salamanca M1, Madrid 7542
WILLEM
S MELIK
and the Antwerp Polyglot. The Aramaic text of the
University College London, United Kingdom Antwerp Polyglot is shorter than the usual European
Targum
in
Talmud Targum texts. If it can be proven that the Aramaic
Three characteristics of the citations call for high- text of the Antwerp Polyglot was shortened on pur-
lighting. First, many citations are late(r) supplements pose, the question arises whether this Christian
to the text to underscore a point already made in the Targum text is suitable to incorporate into a general
main body of the discourse. Their scope is more often edition of Targum Jonathan? I will give a proposal.

IOTS
Abstracts
159

 
ted to the parallel verse of the original poem imitat-
National University Ostroh Academy of Ukraine
ing its syntax.
The
Transformation
of
Poetical
Lines

This approach is suggested as a principal one for

the Palestinian Targums since the emulation to the
in
the
Targum
Onqelos Hebrew parallel verse, and its rhythmic structure is
The translation of biblical poetry in the Targums is an integral part of the technique of the poetical trans-
VWLOODQLQVXIFLHQWO\H[SORUHGDUHDRIWKHWDUJXPLF lation in this group of the Targums. However, the
studies. Some researches paying attention to unique translation of the Hebrew poetry in the Palestinian
nature of the targumic poetry show that ancient trans- Targums is more complicated: the carefully rendered
lators followed certain rules in their translation of structure of the original poetical lines combines with
biblical poetry into Aramaic. In this paper the author VXFKVLJQLFDQWDOWHUDWLRQVDVLQVHUWLQJWKHUK\WKPLF
attempts to establish the main patterns of the chang- prose and poetical passages, and even the whole po-
es in the verse structure on the material of the Song ems into the text.
at the See (Ex 15:118, 21) in the Targum Onqelos.
The transformation of biblical poetry in the Targums
has a unique character: on the one hand, it exhibits a
tendency to imitate ancient Hebrew poetry (the par-
allel verse structure, use of chiasm in architecton-
ics, etc.); on the other hand, it possesses elements of
original, distinctive poetical forms which have some
resemblance to other poetic traditions of the period
of Late Antiquity (e.g. Jewish liturgical poems and
early Christian poetry in Syriac). In connection with
WKLVVSHFLFLW\DYHU\LPSRUWDQWTXHVWLRQDULVHVKRZ
the targumic poetic paraphrase differs form its He-
brew original. The paper consists of three sections:
a) The structure of verse in the Song at the Sea; b)
The Targumic transformation of the poetical lines; c)
The main paradigms of structural alterations of verse
in the Targum Onqelos.
In the Conclusion, the main distinctive features
of rendering the poetical lines of the Song at the Sea
in the Targum Onqelos are observed. The most sig-
QLFDQW DOWHUDWLRQV DUH DGGLQJ WKH QHZ ZRUGV DQG
lines and poetical paraphrases of several lines. The
UVW FDWHJRU\ UHVXOWHG LQ LQFUHDVLQJ WKH QXPEHU RI
stressed units (feet) and changes in the structure of
parallel lines; the second one in non-literal trans-
lation of the original text. How do these alterations
change the structure of the original verse? Firstly, the
process of adding the supplementary elements hap-
pened in a balanced manner. As a rule, the number of
additional stressed units in the line does not exceed
one or two. Secondly, in some cases the appearance
of the additional words cannot be explained with
any exegetical reasons but only with a desire of the
meturgeman to add the poetical expressiveness to the
translation of the Song at the Sea. Thirdly, the sup-
plementary lines, as a rule, do not break the parallel
VWUXFWXUHRIWKH+HEUHZYHUVHWKH\DUHVPRRWKO\W-
B,2627B[LQGG6HLWH>)DUEEDONHQIU)RUJD@%ODF.
B,2627B[LQGG6HLWH>)DUEEDONHQIU)RUJD@<HOORZ
B,2627B[LQGG6HLWH>)DUEEDONHQIU)RUJD@0DJHQWD
B,2627B[LQGG6HLWH>)DUEEDONHQIU)RUJD@&\DQ
160

 

nvention
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Barry Dov Walfish, Eric Ziolkowski et al. (Eds.)
       
The Encyclopedia of the Bible and Its Reception (EBR) pursues a twofold task. Firstly, it comprehensively renders
the current state of knowledge on the origins and development of the Bible according to its different canonic forms
in Judaism and Christianity. Secondly, it documents the history of the Bibles reception, not only in the Christian
churches and the Jewish Diaspora, but also in literature, art, music, and film, as well as Islam and other religious tradi-
tions and current religious movements.

 
   
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Houses Full of All Good Things:
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2008, 752 pp.

EUR 45

Timo Veijola was a productive scholar, whose work


was deeply respected among Biblical scholars. Al-
though his academic interests extended to the en-
tire Hebrew Bible and beyond, he was particularly
devoted to the Deuteronomy, Deuteronomism, and
VFULEDOLVP,QWKHVHHOGVKLVSXEOLFDWLRQVZHUHDW
the very center of scholarly discussion.
Timo Veijola fruitfully combined critical exegesis
with Biblical theology, his motivation stemming
from his religious devotion. For him, exegesis was
not only scholarly discussion in an academic set-
ting, but also a matter of personal theology. The
idea of an encounter between God