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What is factor of safety and explain factors affecting the value of factor of safety.
Explain about torsional shear stress, crushing stress and tensile stress.
Explain the difference between crushing stress and compressive stress.
Explain about crushing stress and bearing pressure.
Explain Mohr's circle diagram for principal stresses.
Explain the stress and strain relationship.
Explain various steps of machine design process
The dimensions of an overhang crank are shown in figure 1. The force P acting at
crankpin is 1 kN. The crank is made of steel 30C8 with allowable shear stress 100 MPa.
Using maximum shear stress theory of failure, determine the diameter at section XX.

Cotter & Knuckle Joint

1. Explain the design procedure for cotter joint.

2. Explain the design procedure for knuckle joint.
3. Why taper is provided on cotter? What is its normal value? State its applications.
4. Design a simple cotter joint (rod of a square cross section) to withstand a tensile load of
108 kN. The design stresses for all the parts in tension, shear and crushing are 120 MPa,
70 MPa and 240 MPa respectively.
5. Design and draw a neat sketch of spigot rod for the cotter joint using the following data.
Axial load 30 KN, Tensile stress = 50 N/mm2, Crushing Stress = 90 N/mm2, And Shear
Stress = 35 N/mm2.
6. Design a knuckle joint (rod of a circular section) to withstand a tensile force of 25 kN.
The design stresses for the rod, knuckle, collar and taper pin in tension, shear and
crushing are 60 MPa, 35 MPa and 60 MPa respectively.

1. Why a boss and bush are used at the fulcrum of the levers? Explain with neat sketch.
2. Write the different types of lever and explain about it.
3. For a lever, define: leverage, arm of the ever and mechanical advantage.
4. How is the leverage of compound lever calculated?
5. What is lever? Explain the principle on which it works
6. What is the criterion of design of fulcrum pin in levers?
7. Explain general procedure of design of lever
8. A bell crank lever is to be designed to raise a load of 6 kN at short arm end. The arm
lengths are 160 mm and 550 mm. The permissible stresses for lever and pin materials in
shear and tension are 60 MPa and 90 MPa respectively. The bearing pressure on pin is to
be limited to 13 MPa. Assume lever cross section as t4t and fulcrum pin length as 1.25
times pin diameter.
9. Design a Bell crank lever having load arm 500mm and effort arm of 150mm
respectively. The maximum load to be raise is 4500N. Use the following allowable
stresses for the pin and lever material. Tensile Stress = 75 N/mm2 Shear Stress= 60
N/mm2 & Bearing pressure = 10 N/mm2
10. Design a right angled bell crank lever to raise a load of 6 kN at short arm. The lengths
of short and long arms of a lever are 90 mm and 540 mm respectively. The lever and
the pins are made of steel. The permissible stresses of steel are 80 N/mm2 in tension, 40
N/mm2 in shear and 10 N/mm2 in bearing. Assume the cross section of the lever as
rectangular with depth as three times the thickness.
11. A lever loaded safety valve is 70 mm in diameter and is to be designed for a boiler to
blow-off at pressure of 1 N/mm2 gauge. Design a suitable mild steel lever of rectangular
cross-section. The permissible stresses are: Tensile stress = 70 MPa; Shear stress = 50
MPa; Bearing pressure intensity = 25 MPa. The pin is also made of mild steel. The
distance from fulcrum to weight of lever is 880 mm and distance between fulcrum and pin
connecting valve spindle links to lever is 80 mm.
Design of shaft, keys & coupling

1. Explain Axle, Spindle, Counter shaft and line-shaft with their examples.
2. Design a cast iron protective type flange coupling to transmit 15 kW at 900 r.p.m. from
an electric motor to a compressor. The service factor may be assumed as 1.35. Design
flange coupling for this criteria. The following permissible stresses may be used, Shear
stress for shaft, bolt and key material = 40 MPa, Crushing stress for bolt and key = 80
MPa, Shear stress for cast iron = 8 Mpa
3. A 45 mm diameter shaft is made of steel with a yield strength of 400 Mpa. A parallel key
of size 14 mm wide and 9 mm thick made of steel with a yield strength of 340 Mpa is to
be used. Find the required length of key, if the shaft is loaded to transmit the maximum
permissible torque. Use maximum shear stress theory and assume a factor of safety of 2.
4. Where does coupling is used? How it is differ from clutch? Classify different types of
5. Design a shaft to transmit power from an electric motor to a lathe head stock through a
pulley by means of a belt drive. The pulley weighs 200 N and is located at 300 mm from
the center of the bearing. The diameter of the pulley is 200 mm and the maximum power
transmitted is 1 kW at 120 r.p.m. The angle of lap of the belt is 180 and coefficient of
friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.3. The shock and fatigue factors for bending
and twisting are 1.5 and 2.0 respectively. The allowable shear stress in the shaft may be
taken as 35 Mpa.
6. Compare the weight, strength and stiffness of a hollow shaft of the same external
diameter as that of solid shaft. The inside diameter of the hollow shaft being half the
external diameter. Both the shafts have the same material and length.
7. What is ASME code for shaft design?
8. A 15 kW, 960 r.p.m. motor has a mild steel shaft of 40 mm diameter and the extension
being 75 mm. The permissible shear and crushing stresses for the mild steel key are 56
MPa and 112 Mpa. Design the keyway in the motor shaft extension. Check the shear
strength of the key against the normal strength of the shaft.
9. Design a shaft supported by two bearings placed 1 m apart. A 600 mm diameter pulley is
mounted at a distance of 300 mm to the right of left hand bearing and this drives a pulley
directly below it with the help of belt having maximum tension of 2.25 kN. Another
pulley 400 mm diameter is placed 200 mm to the left of right hand bearing and is driven
with the help of electric motor and belt, which is placed horizontally to the right. The
angle of contact for both the pulleys is 180 and = 0.24. The allowing working stress of
63 MPa in tension and 42 MPa in shear for the material of shaft. Assume that the torque
on one pulley is equal to that on the other pulley.

10. What do you mean by key? Classify different types of keys and when you will use feather
key and Splines?
11. Derive equation for strength of sunk key.

Riveted Joints
1. List the types of riveted joints.
2. Explain failure of rivets.
3. Explain the terms: Pitch, Margin, Diagonal Pitch, Back pitch
4. What is circumferential riveted joint?
5. Explain riveting process. What is a rivet? What is hot riveting and cold riveting.
6. What is caulking process as used in riveted joint?
7. Draw neat sketch of Double riveted zigzag lap joint with all terminology
8. A bracket is attached to a steel channel by means of nine identical rivets as shown in figure
given below. Determine the diameter of rivets, if the permissible shear stress is 60 N/mm2.
9. Design a double riveted zigzag lap joint for 13 mm thick plates. The allowable stresses are:
t = 80 MPa, = 60 MPa and c = 120 MPa. State how the joint will fail and find efficiency
of joint.
10. Find the value of P for joint shown in Figure 1, based on a working shear stress of 100 MPa
for rivets. Each of four rivets is of 20 mm diameter.
11. A bracket is attached to a steel channel by means of nine identical rivets as shown in figure
given below. Determine the diameter of rivets, if the permissible shear stress is 60N/mm2 .


1 Define fit? And what are the types of fits.

2 Defination: tolerance, tolerance zone, zero line, upper deviation, lower deviation, actual
deviation, mean deviation, fundamental deviation
3 Explain: nominal size, basic size, actual size, Allowance.