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Background of the Study

Siahaan (2008) says, Languange is a unique human inheritance that plays the very

important role in humans life, such as in thinking, communicating ideas, and negotiating

with the others. It constitutes a set of principles into which its usage its native speakers are

subject. The language show similarities in their principles. The similarities refer to the set of

the rules that every language possesses, while the differences deals with the deviation of

every language in its rules in its chronological development that is influenced by the different

regions, times, cultures, religions, politics, etc. The similarities of the language can be

identified structurally in the level of their linguistic aspects, such as in the phonemes,

morphemes, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

Stork (1982:9)says, Language, however, is not a natural phenomenon; it is a creation

of mans social needs. Like all other living creatures we depend on the air, water and earth

around us, and in the same way society depends upon language for its very existence.

Huddleston (2000:1) says, The term grammar is used in a number of different senses-the

grammar of a language may be understood to be a full description of the form and meaning of

the sentences of the language or else it may cover oly certain, variously delimited, parts of

such adescription.There are many languages in the world. One of them is English, as

International language. English has a complicated structure or grammar. Grammar describe

the kinds of words in a language and the ways the word are fitted together into meaningful

groups. In other, grammar is description of language.

Description Languange

Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication,

particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a

system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. As an object of linguistic study,

"language" has two primary meanings: an abstract concept, and a specific linguistic system.

When speaking of language as a general concept, definitions can be used which stress

different aspects of the phenomenon.] These definitions also entail different approaches and

understandings of language, and they inform different and often incompatible schools of

linguistic theory . Languages evolve and diversify over time, and the history of their

evolution can be reconstructed by comparing modern languages to determine which traits

their ancestral languages must have had in order for the later developmental stages to occur.

The resurgence of the view that language plays a significant role in the creation and

circulation of concepts, and that the study of philosophy is essentially the study of language,

is associated with what has been called the linguistic turn and philosophers such as

Wittgenstein in 20th-century philosophy. These debates about language in relation to

meaning and reference, cognition and consciousness remain active today.

Traditional grammar

Traditional grammar is prescriptive because it focuses on the distinction between

what some people do with language and what they ought to do with it, according to a pre-

established standard. . . . The chief goal of traditional grammar, therefore, is perpetuating a

historical model of what supposedly constitutes proper language."

(James D. Williams, The Teacher's Grammar Book. Routledge, 2005)

"The first English grammars were translations of Latin grammars that had been

translations of Greek grammars in a tradition that was already some two-thousand years old.

Furthermore, from the seventeenth century through the first half of the nineteenth century,

there were no substantial changes made in the form of English grammar books or in the way

English grammar was taught. When people talk about 'traditional' grammar,' this is the

tradition they mean, or ought to mean.

"Traditional grammar began to be challenged around the middle of the [nineteenth] century,

when the second major development in grammar teaching appeared. There is no very good

name for this second development but we might call it 'sentence grammar.' Whereas

traditional grammar focused primarily on the word (hence its preoccupation with parts of

speech), the 'new' grammar of the 1850s focused on the sentence. It began to emphasize the

grammatical importance of word order and function words. In addition to the few inflexional

endings in English."
Structural grammar

The fundamental trait that these frameworks all share is that they view sentence structure in

terms of the constituency relation. The constituency relation derives from the subject-

predicate division of Latin and Greek grammars that is based on term logic and reaches back

to Aristotle in antiquity. Basic clause structure is understood in terms of a binary division of

the clause into subject (noun phrase NP) and predicate (verb phrase VP).

The binary division of the clause results in a one-to-one-or-more correspondence. For each

element in a sentence, there are one or more nodes in the tree structure that one assumes for

that sentence. A two word sentence such as Luke laughed necessarily implies three (or more)

nodes in the syntactic structure: one for the noun Luke (subject NP), one for the verb laughed

(predicate VP), and one for the entirety Luke laughed (sentence S). The constituency

grammars listed above all view sentence structure in terms of this one-to-one-or-more

correspondence. Structure grammars is thus their adherence to the constituency relation, as

opposed to the dependency relation of dependency grammar

Generative grammar

Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that considers grammar to be a system of

rules that is intended to generate exactly those combinations of words which form

grammatical sentences in a given language. The term was originally used in relation to the

theories of grammar developed by Noam Chomsky, beginning in the late 1950s. Linguists

who follow the generative approach originated by Chomsky have been called generativists.

The generative school has focused on the study of syntax, but has also addressed other

aspects of a language's structure, including morphology and phonology.

Early versions of Chomsky's theory were called transformational grammar, and this is

still used as a general term that includes his subsequent theories, the most recent being the

Minimalist Program. Chomsky has said, however, that the first generative grammar in the

modern sense was Panini's Sanskrit grammar,[1] and he has also acknowledged other

historical antecedents, such as Humboldt's description of language as a system which "makes

infinite use of finite means." Chomsky and other generativists have argued that many of the

properties of a generative grammar arise from a universal grammar which is innate to the

human brain, rather than being learned from the environment (see the poverty of the stimulus

argument). There are a number of competing versions of generative grammar currently

practiced within linguistics. Other theories that have been proposed include dependency

grammar, head-driven phrase structure grammar, lexical functional grammar, categorial

grammar, relational grammar, link grammar, and tree-adjoining grammar..


This stage operates on the basic principle that the English, of, say, Electrical

Enginering constituted a spesific register different from other registers such Biology or of

General English. The aim of the analysis was to identify the grammatical and lexical features

of the registers.

The main motive behind register analyses such as Ewer and latorres was the

pedagogic one of making the ESP course more relevant to learners needs. The aim was to

produce a syllabus which gave high priority to the languange forms students would meet in

their Science studies and in turn would give low priority to forms they would not meet.

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a

particular social setting. For example, when speaking in a formal setting contrary to an

informal setting, an English speaker may be more likely to use features of prescribed

grammarsuch as pronouncing words ending in -ing with a velar nasal instead of an alveolar

nasal (e.g. "walking", not "walkin'"), choosing more formal words (e.g. father vs. dad, child

vs. kid, etc.), and refraining from using words considered nonstandard, such as ain't.

As with other types of language variation, there tends to be a spectrum of registers

rather than a discrete set of obviously distinct varieties numerous registers could be

identified, with no clear boundaries between them. Discourse categorisation is a complex

problem, and even in the general definition of "register" given above (language variation

defined by use not user), there are cases where other kinds of language variation, such as

regional or age dialect, overlap. Consequent to this complexity, scholarly consensus has not

been reached for the definitions of terms including "register", "field" or "tenor"; different

scholars' definitions of these terms are often in direct contradiction of each other. Additional

terms including diatype, genre, text types, style, acrolect, mesolect and basilect, among many
others, may be used to cover the same or similar ground. Some prefer to restrict the domain

of the term "register" to a specific vocabulary (Wardhaugh, 1986) (which one might

commonly call jargon), while others[who?] argue against the use of the term altogether. These

various approaches with their own "register", or set of terms and meanings, fall under

disciplines including sociolinguistics, stylistics, pragmatics or systemic functional grammar.

Functional grammar

Systemic functional grammar (SFG) is a form of grammatical description

originated by Michael Halliday It is part of a social semiotic approach to language called

systemic functional linguistics. In these two terms, systemic refers to the view of language as

"a network of systems, or interrelated sets of options for making meaning" functional refers

to Halliday's view that language is as it is because of what it has evolved to do (see

Metafunction). Thus, what he refers to as the multidimensional architecture of language

"reflects the multidimensional nature of human experience and interpersonal relations.

These grammatical systems play a role in the construal of meanings of different kinds.

This is the basis of Halliday's claim that language is metafunctionally organised. He argues

that the raison d'tre of language is meaning in social life, and for this reason all languages

have three kinds of semantic components. All languages have resources for construing

experience (the ideational component), resources for enacting humans' diverse and complex

social relations (the interpersonal component), and resources for enabling these two kinds of

meanings to come together in coherent text (the textual function). Each of the grammatical

systems proposed by Halliday are related to these metafunctions. For instance, the

grammatical system of 'mood' is considered to be centrally related to the expression of

interpersonal meanings, 'process type' to the expression of experiential meanings, and 'theme'

to the expression of textual meanings.

Discourse Analysis

On the third phase development of ESP, it aimed was to take the existing knowledge

and set it on a more scientific basis, by establishing procedures for relating languange

analysis more closely to learners reasons for learning.

The ESP course design process should proceed by first identifying the target situation and

then carrying out a rigorous analysis of the linguistic features of that situation. The identified

features will form the syllabus of the ESP course.

This stage process is usually known as needs analysis, but according to Chambers (1980)

term of target situation analysis, it is more accurate description of the process concerned.

Effective ESP programs require relevant materials, knowledgeable instructors, and teamwork

with subject matter professionals. This report provides an example of one process used by a

teacherresearcher to increase and expand each of these aspects. The process of data

collection and data analysis, as described here, results in greater knowledge on the part of an

instructor and leads to the development of enhanced course materials. The study was

conducted for an ESP program in a Civil Aviation School in Turkey where students were in

training to become pilots and air traffic controllers. Primary data included tape-recorded

communication between pilots and air traffic controllers, observation in the airport tower, and

questionnaires and interviews with Turkish pilots and air traffic controllers. The results,

which comprised a basis for materials writers, indicate that even in such a restricted and

globally monitored language as Airspeak, local variations exist in the use of greetings, the

pronunciation of numbers.

Esp.language descriptions

Classical or Traditional Grammar .Not all the developments in Linguistics have had

pedagogic applications.We shall give a brief outline of the various ideas about language

that have influenced ESP in some way. Description of English and other languages

Greek Latin Based on an analysis of the role played by each word in the sentence.

Teachers who wish to maintain a balanced view of linguistics should not overlook the fact

that traditional grammar has many useful virtues. The traditional handbooks provided an

array of terms and distinctions which most of us used in learning to talk about our own

language, and which many people continue to find serviceable throughout their lives

Allen and Widdowson

Structural Linguistics Was founded in 1930 th By Leonardo Bloomfield

1. The grammar of the language is described in terms of syntagmatic structures which

carry the fundamental propositions( statement, interrogative, negative, imperative) and

notions ( time, number, gender). By varying words within these structural frameworks,

sentences with different meaning can be generated.

2. With the help of the structural linguistic the structural syllabus was created. In such

syllabus , items are graded so that simpler and more immediately useable structures

precede the more complex ones.Example: ESP syllabus based on structural principals 1.
Simple present active 2. Simple present passive Transformational Generative (TG)

grammar .

John is easy to please. John is eager to please.The City Bank has taken over Acme

Holdings. Acme Holdings has been taken over by the City Bank. In the language there

must be two levels of meaning: A deep level A surface level Communicative competence

consists of : A set of rules for formulating grammatically correct sentences A knowledge

of when to speak, when not, what to talk about, with whom, when where, in what manner

.The ingredients of communication : non-verbal communication ,the medium and channel

of communication .

Role relationships between participan the topic and purpose of communication

require, which is three-quarters of an inch diameter, and this is called a morse-taper

sleeve. A slower speed for a larger drill. Nice even feed should give a reasonable finish to

the hole. Applying coolant periodically. This is mainly for lubrication rather than cooling.

Almost to depth now. Right. Withdrawing the drill. That`s fine. Select required drill.

Mount drill in tailstock. Use taper sleeves as necessary. Set speed and start machine

spindle. Position tailstock to workpiece. Apply firm even pressure to tailstock hand wheel

to feed drill into workpiece. Apply coolant frequently. Drill hole to depth. Withdraw drill.

Stop machine. The Type of ESP The Concept of Language Variation Register Analysis.

Functions Notions Concerned with social behaviour and represent the intention of the

Discourse (Rhetorical) analysis Dialogues example: It is raining Can I go out to play?

Its raining. Have you cut the grass yet? Its raining. I think Ill go out for a walk. Its

raining. profound effect meaning is generated between sentences context is important

language is viewed in terms of the sentence now before Discourse Analysis key ways:

Establishing contact .
Finding out what the person wants. Giving information. Arguing the point .Taking

down details in writing.Text-diagramming type of exercise Example: Generalizing and

Exemplifying Properties, against the material properties Figure 8: Text-diagramming

When suitable Materials are availabl. Complete the following table to summarize the

paragraph The approach establishes patterns, but does not account for how these patterns

create meaning lessons which must be borne in mind. The various developments are not

separate entities. Describing a language for the purposes of linguistic analysis does not

necessarily carry any implications for language learning. Describing a language we must

make a distinction between what a person does (performance) and what enables them to

do (competence).

The approach to ESP teaching at tertiary schools suggested in this monograph is a typical

representation of what Kumaravadivelu named principled pragmatism and eclectic

approaches that, according to him, are best suited to today's stage in the second/foreign

language teaching development (Kumaravadivelu, 2001). Kumaravadivelu characterizes this

stage as the postmethod era (Kumaravadivelu, 2003; 2006). The principled pragmatism and

eclectics of the suggested approach are manifested through the structured combination of

three different approaches in the framework of one: the experiential interactive approach, the

content-based approach, and the blended learning approach. The first of them, the

experiential and interactive learning, in the conditions of teaching ESP to tertiary school

students is a form of learning implemented through a set of specific experiential learning

activities. As already said in the definitions given in the Introduction and Chapter 1, such

activities ensure the acquisition of the target language and communicative skills as by-

products of extra-linguistic activities modeling professional activities of a future specialist. In

this way, students themselves "construct" their target language communication skills through

the experience of direct participation in professional communication. It has also been asserted

in Chapter 1 that experiential learning by its very nature requires students' cooperative

interaction that dominates over individual learning activities but does not exclude them. In

the same manner, it presupposes students' interaction with the professional environment

outside the classroom for using authentic target-language sources of professional information.

The second approach, content-based instruction in its theme-based modification means

structuring learning around professional themes(topics) selected in a specific manner and

logically/consecutively following each other in the teaching/learning process. The theme-

based instruction presupposes including five componential parts of learning content into a

content-based ESP course: communication and language skills, language materials,

sociolinguistic and pragmatic information, speech/communication materials and samples,

themes (topics) and situations for

communication. A five-stage bottom-up selection procedure has been developed, making it

possible to select strictly professionally relevant target language learning content for ESP

students - thus providing the appropriate subject matter for experiential interactive learning

activities in the ESP course.