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# Heriot-Watt University

Group Number 1

## Date of 21st February 2017

Experiment

Demonstrator
1. Derived Result & Discussion:
A) Laminar Flow Regime
Table 1.1
Volume, Time, dt Initial Volumetric Reynolds Friction
V (s) Velocity, u Flow Rate, Q Number, Re Factor, f
( ) (m/s) ( /
)
0.0001 19 0.745 5.263 2234.89 0.0286

The volumetric flow rate, Q (in units ) is calculated by using the formula below,

= (1)

## Hence, using the sample data collected in Table 1.1

=

0.00013
=
19
.

It was given that the internal diameter of the pipeline, D, is 3 mm which is equivalent to
0.003 m and the distance between pressure measurement and fittings, l, is 0.4 m. Using this
information, the area can be calculated to obtain the initial velocity, u.

2
, = ( )
2
0.003 2
= ( )
2
.

Using the flow rate equation, = , we can determine the initial velocity, u (in units
).
=

= (2)

5.263 106
=
7.065 106
.

We can calculate the Reynolds Number, Re, using the formula below with the information
calculated previously.

=

Where the viscosity () of water is 0.001 N sm2 and the density () of water is
1000 3 .

= (3)

0.003 0.745 1000
=
0.001
= . ()

As the Reynolds number is less than 2300, we can conclude that the flow regime is laminar.
Hence, the from the Reynolds number calculated, friction factor, f, can be calculated using
the formula below,

64
=

64
=
2234.89
.

Thus, using the values given, the pressure drop, P can be obtained by substituting the
calculated values (using the sample calculations found previously) into the formula below,

2
= ( ) (4)
2
0.4 1000 0.745
= 0.0286 ( )
0.003 2
.

Table 1.2
Height 1 Height 2 Pressure at Pressure at Pressure Drop
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (P)
(m) (m) (Pa) (Pa) (Pa)
0.265 0.144 2599.65 1412.64 1187.01

Using the sample data in Table 1.2, the pressure for each height obtained can be obtained
with the formula below,

## Where g is the gravitational acceleration which possesses a value of 9.81 2

Using 1 for example,

= .

## The same calculation is done to the second height obtained.

The Pressure drop, P is then calculated by subtracting the pressure obtained using 1 to
the pressure obtained using 2 .
= 1 2
= 2599.65 1412.64
= .

When comparing the pressure loss calculated considering frictional loss and the pressure loss
in manometer, there is a slight difference in which by the frictional loss has a difference of
127.51 Pa more than compared to the pressure loss in the reading in the manometer. This
slight difference may be due to some human errors during obtaining the time taken for the
water to fill up to a particular volume which was 0.0001 m3.

## B) Turbulent Flow Regime

Table 2.1
Volume, Time Initial Volumetric Reynolds Friction Pressure Pressure
V (s) Velocity, Flow Rate, Number, Factor, Drop Drop from
( ) u Q Re f from Manometer
(m/s) ( / Friction (Pa)
) (Pa)
0.0001 3.66 3.87 2.73 11601.90 0.0305 30396.72 30000

To obtain the volumetric flow rate, Q, initial velocity, u, and Reynolds Number, equations
(1), (2) and (3) are used respectively. Hence,

=

0.00013
=
3.66
.

=

2.73 105
=
7.065 106
.

=

0.003 3.67 1000
=
0.001
. ()

The Reynolds number calculated is more than 4000. Therefore, we can confirm that the
flow is turbulent. Due to the flow being Turbulent, the formula to calculate frictional loss is
different from the formula to calculate frictional loss of laminar flow regime. Hence, the
equation used is as shown below,
0.3164
= 1
()4
0.3164
= 1
(11601.90 )4
.

## The P can be calculated using equation (4), thus,

2

= ( )
2
0.4 (1000 3.872 )
= 0.0305 ( )
0.003 2
= .

Comparing pressure loss calculated and the pressure reading using the manometer (which
read 30000 Pa), there is a difference of pressure loss of 396.72 Pa where the pressure in the
frictional loss consist of 396.72 Pa more than of the pressure loss according to reading in the
manometer. This slight difference may also be due to some human errors during obtaining
the time taken for the water to fill up to a particular volume.

C) Appendix

Table 3 shows the results of multiple trials with the derived variables.
Table 3.
No. dt u Q Re f' dp from frictionh1 h2 p1 p2 dp manometer
1 31.35 0.451492238 3.18979E-06 1354.477 0.047251 642.1222944 0.231 0.176 2266.11 1726.56 539.55
2 15.6 0.907325748 6.41026E-06 2721.977 0.023512 1290.418842 0.3 0.116 2943 1137.96 1805.04
3 33.32 0.424798369 3.0012E-06 1274.395 0.05022 604.157681 0.228 0.18 2236.68 1765.8 470.88
4 19 0.744962193 5.26316E-06 2234.887 0.028637 1059.501786 0.265 0.144 2599.65 1412.64 1187.01
5 16.06 0.881337588 6.22665E-06 2644.013 0.024206 1253.457904 0.294 0.119 2884.14 1167.39 1716.75
1 9.51 1.488357694 1.05152E-05 4465.073 0.038706 5716.138021 5000
2 6.66 2.125267518 1.5015E-05 6375.803 0.035408 10662.00079 11000
3 5.47 2.587620049 1.82815E-05 7762.86 0.033708 15046.68365 14000
4 3.66 3.867290074 2.73224E-05 11601.87 0.030486 30396.71922 30000
5 4.01 3.529746052 2.49377E-05 10589.24 0.03119 25906.93045 27000