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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

CDB 3082
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LAB IV

LABORATORY 10

Loss of Containment
-Loss of Containment of Gas-
Group #:
Name Student I.D.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

Laboratory Description
The laboratory is an alternative method in the mode of self-learning, which is assigned for
each group. Students are encouraged to use all resources available to ensure complete
understanding on the projects assigned. Following are the objectives of the laboratory
project, the expected outputs for submission and the laboratory safety aspects.

Objectives of Laboratory
1. To ensure students have hands-on training on an analysis method.
2. To ensure students are able to interpret, analyse, evaluate and give relevant
recommendations for their projects.
3. To encourage students to share the knowledge gained from the doing the
laboratory analysis for others by doing a presentation.
4. To encourage students to ask questions to the presenter in order to enhance
their knowledge.

Laboratory Output
1. A written report to be submitted in one week time. The report should include:
a. Introduction
b. Literature review
c. Methodology
d. Results and discussion
e. Conclusion and recommendation
2. A short report to be submitted in the next day of experiment. The report should
include:
a. Data collection
b. Results calculation
c. Answers of questions

Laboratory Safety
1. NO food and drink.
2. NO sandals or open-toe or heels shoes.
3. Wear jeans or slacks, a long sleeved shirt, and sturdy shoes that give good
traction on possibly wet floors.
4. Guard against electrical hazards by making sure that all equipment is well
grounded using three-wire plugs and other means.
5. Think first of safety in any action you take. If not certain, ask the TA or faculty
member before you act.

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

LOSS OF CONTAINMENT OF GAS

Introduction:

Most accidents in chemical plants result in spills of toxic, flammable and explosive
materials. Accidents begin with an incident, which usually results in the loss of
containment of material from the process. The material has hazardous properties which
might include toxic properties and energy content. Typical incidents might include the
rupture or break of a pipeline, a hole in a tank or pipe, runaway reaction, or fire external
to the vessel. Once the incident is known, source models are selected to describe how
materials are discharged from the process.

Source Model
The source model provides a description of the rate of discharge, the total quantity
discharged (or total time of discharge), and the state of the discharge (that is, solid, liquid,
vapor or a combination). A dispersion model is subsequently used to describe how the
material is transported downwind and dispersed to some concentration levels. For
flammable releases fire and explosion models convert the source model information on
the release into energy hazard potential such as thermal radiation and explosion over
pressure. Effective models convert these incident-specific results into effects on people
(injury or death) and structures. Additional refinement is provided by mitigation factors,
such as water sprays, foam systems, and sheltering or evacuation, which tend to reduce
the magnitude of potential effects in real incidents.

Source models are constructed from fundamental or empirical equations representing


the physicochemical processes occurring during the release of materials. For a reasonably
complex plant many source models are needed to describe the release. Some
development and modification of the original model is normally required to fit the specific
situation. Frequently the results are only estimates because the physical properties of the
materials are not adequately characterized or because the physical processes themselves
are not completely understood. If uncertainty exists, the parameters should be selected
to maximize the release rate and quantity. This ensures that a design is on the safe side.

Release mechanism
Release mechanisms are classified into wide and limited aperture releases. In the wide
aperture case a large hole develops in the process unit, releasing a substantial amount of
material in a short time. An excellent example is the over pressuring and explosion of a
storage tank. For the limited aperture case material is released at a slow enough rate that

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

upstream pressure conditions are not immediately affected; the assumption of constant
upstream pressure is frequently valid.

Objectives:

Using the system you will carry out the following experiments:
1. To determine the effect of pressure head on maximum flow of gas for orifice
having different size but at same level.
2. To determine the effect of pressure head on maximum flow of gas for orifice
having same size but at different levels

Apparatus and Description:

TABLE 1: Loss of Containment of gas apparatus

No. Part Type Description Quantity

1 Valves a) Ball valves On/Off type with 2 inch leverage and 8


inch connection size

b) Solenoid Parker brand, Normally open type 1


valve with 2 inch connection port and 50
mm orifice size. Flow rate is 37.20
m3/hr.
2 Orifice Spray nozzle VeeJet brand, 0 degree spray angel 1
nozzle type

a) Orifice 1 Orifice Flow Rate: 19.7 LPM 1


Connection : 1/4 inch NPT

b) Orifice 2A Orifice Flow Rate:11.5LPM 1


Connection:1/4inch NPT

c) Orifice 3 Orifice Flow Rate:32LPM 1


Connection:1/4inch NPT

d) Orifice 4 Orifice Flow Rate:38LPM 1


Connection:3/8inch NPT

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

e) Orifice 2B Orifice Flow Rate: 11.5LPM 1


Connection:1/4inch NPT

f) Orifice 2C Orifice Flow Rate:11.5LPM 1


Connection:1/4inch NPT
g) Orifice 2D Orifice Flow Rate:11.5LPM 1
Connection:1/4inch NPT
3 Transducer Differential Honeywell brand,0-5 psi with full 1
Pressure span output is 50mv
Transducer
4 Pressure Adjustable Herga brand. Setting Accuracy of 1
Switch Pressure +%10 that withstand a pressure of
Switch 500psi.
Ambient temperature range of 5C to
+70C
Switching-2separate switches, single
pole changeover. Ratings:
250VAC21(8)A
5 Indicator Temperature Oregon Scientific Electronic LCD 1
Indicator thermometer. C/F switch able with
temperature range of 0C to +50C
(Indoor) / 50C to +70C (Outdoor)
6 Fog Smoke Power: AC 120V/60Hz or 230V/50Hz
Machine Heater: 700W.
Warm-up: 4 minutes.
Tank Capacity:0.7 Litre
Weight: 4.5Kg
Dimensions:333x160x130mm

For flowing liquids the kinetic energy changes are frequently negligible and the physical
properties (particularly the density) are constant. For flowing gases and vapors these
assumptions are valid only for small pressure changes (P1/P2<2) and low velocities (<0.3
times the speed of sound in gas). Energy contained within the gas or vapour as a result of
its pressure is converted into kinetic energy as the gas or vapor escapes and expands
through the hole. The density, pressure, and temperature change as the gas or vapour
exits through the leak.

Gas and vapour discharge are classified into throttling and free expansion releases. For
throttling releases the gas issues through a small crack with large frictional losses; little of

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

the energy inherent to the gas pressure is converted to kinetic energy. For free
expeansion releases most of the pressure energy is converted to kinetic energy, the
assumption of isentropic behaviour is usually valid. .Free expansion release source
models require only the diameter of the leak.

The maximum flow is determined by the following equation:

2 (+1)/(1)
= ( )
+ 1

Where:

M is the molecular weight of the escaping vapour or gas


To is the temperature of the source
Rg is the ideal gas constant
is the heat capacity ratio (Cp/Cv)
A is the area of orifice
Co is the discharge coefficient
gc is the gravitational constant
Po is the pressure inside process unit

Experiments:
Experiment A: To determine the effect of pressure head on maximum flow of gas for
orifice having different size but at same level.

1. Ensure all on/off ball valves (ball valve 1, ball valve 2, orifice 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 3 & 4)
are closed.
2. Turn on the compressed air inlet ball valve 1 and pressurize the gas containment tank
to 4 bar.
3. Close the compressed air inlet ball valve 1.
4. Turn on orifice no.1 and note the time for air discharge while looking at pressure
gauge until there is no more air flow out of the orifice.
5. Repeat from step 2 to step 4 for orifice no. 2A, 3 & 4 having different size as of orifice
no.1 but at same level.
6. Repeat the same experiment by adjusting pressure 3, 2, and 1.0 bar.
7. After completing the experiment, turn on the drain ball valve 2 to release the pressure
left in the pressure containment tank.

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

Experiment B: To determine the effect of pressure head on maximum flow of gas for
orifice having same size but at different levels.

1. Ensure all on/off ball valves (ball valve 1, ball valve 2, orifice 1, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 3 & 4)
are closed.
2. Turn on the compressed air inlet ball valve 1 and pressurize the gas containment
tank to 4 bar.
3. Close the compressed air inlet ball valve 1.
4. Turn on orifice no. 2A and note the time for air discharge while looking at pressure
gauge until there is no more air flow out of the orifice.
5. Repeat from step 2 to step 4 for orifice no. 2B, 2C & 2D having same size but at
different levels.
6. Repeat the same experiment by adjusting pressure 3, 2, and 1.0 bar.
7. After completing the experiment, turn on the drain ball valve 2 to release the
pressure left in the pressure containment tank.

Observations:

Observation 1: Orifices having different sizes but at the same level


Pressure= 4bar
Orifice No. Orifice Size Discharge Time Instantaneous mass
(mm) (sec) flow rate
(Qm)
1
2
3
4
Repeat the above experiment with pressure 3 bar.

Observation 2: Orifices having same size but at different level


Pressure= 4bar
Orifice No. Orifice Size Discharge Time Instantaneous mass
(mm) (sec) flow rate
(Qm)
1
2
3
4
Repeat the above experiment with pressure 3 bar.

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CDB 3082 Chemical Engineering Lab IV

Results and Discussion:

1. Plot the pressure head versus maximum flow of gas for different size and position of
orifices.
2. Discuss the effect of pressure head on maximum flow of gas for different size and
position of orifices.
3. Discuss the importance of this experiment in context of handling different gaseous
material materials at the workplace.

References:
Daniel A.Crowl, Joseph F.Louvar Chemical Process Safety , Second Edition , Prentice
Hall Inc, 2002.

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